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Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding environmental pressure. Thus, a liquid may also boil when the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere is sufficiently reduced, such as the use of a vacuum pump or at high altitudes. Boiling occurs in three characteristic stages, which are nucleate, transition and film boiling. These stages generally take place from low to high surface temperatures, respectively.

Contents

Nucleate boiling

Nucleate boiling is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated surface, which rise from discrete points on a surface, whose temperature is only slightly above the liquid’s. In general, the number of nucleation sites are increased by an increasing surface temperature.

An irregular surface of the boiling vessel (i.e. increased surface roughness) can create additional nucleation sites, while an exceptionally smooth surface, such as glass, lends itself to superheating. Under these conditions, a heated liquid may show boiling delay and the temperature may go somewhat above the boiling point and never boil

Transition boiling

Transition boiling may be defined as the unstable boiling, which occurs at surface temperatures between the maximum attainable in nucleate and the minimum attainable in film boiling.

The formation of bubbles in a heated liquid is a complex physical process which often involves cavitation and acoustic effects, such as the broad-spectrum hiss one hears in a kettle not yet heated to the point where bubbles boil to the surface.

Film boiling

If a surface heating the liquid is significantly hotter than the liquid then film boiling will occur, where a thin layer of vapor, which has low thermal conductivity insulates the surface. This condition of a vapor film insulating the surface from the liquid characterizes film boiling.

Applications

Distillation

In distillation, boiling is used to separate mixtures. This is possible because the vapor rising from a boiling fluid generally has a ratio of components different from that in the liquid.

Boiling for water purification

Boiling is used as a method of water purification. Boiling is commonly advocated as an emergency water treatment method, or as a method of portable water purification in rural or wilderness settings without access to a potable water infrastructure.

Boiling in cookery

Boiling water

In cookery, boiling is the method of cooking food in boiling water, or other water-based liquid such as stock or milk. Simmering is gentle boiling, while in poaching the cooking liquid moves but scarcely bubbles.

Boiling is a very harsh technique of cooking. Delicate foods such as fish cannot be cooked in this fashion because the bubbles can damage the food. Foods such as red meat, chicken, and root vegetables can be cooked with this technique because of their tough texture.[citation needed]

The open-air boiling point of water is typically considered to be 100 °C or 212 °F. Pressure and a change in composition of the liquid may alter the boiling point of the liquid. For this reason, high elevation cooking generally takes longer since boiling point is a function of atmospheric pressure. In Denver, Colorado, which is at an elevation of about one mile, water boils at approximately 95 °C.[1] Depending on the type of food and the elevation, the boiling water may not be hot enough to cook the food properly. Similarly, increasing the pressure as in a pressure cooker raises the temperature of the contents above the open air boiling point.

Adding a water soluble substance, such as salt or sugar also increases the boiling point. This is called boiling-point elevation. However, the effect is very small, and the boiling point will be increased by an insignificant amount. Due to variations in composition and pressure, the boiling point of water is almost never exactly 100 °C, but rather close enough for cooking.

In places where the available water supply is contaminated with disease-causing bacteria, boiling water and allowing it to cool before drinking it is practiced as a valuable health measure. Boiling water for a few minutes kills most bacteria, amoeba, and other microbial pathogens. It thus can help prevent cholera, dysentery, and other diseases caused by microorganisms.

Foods suitable for boiling include vegetables, starchy foods such as rice, noodles and potatoes, eggs, meats, sauces, stocks and soups.

Boiling has several advantages. It is safe and simple, and it is appropriate for large-scale cookery. Older, tougher, cheaper cuts of meat and poultry can be made digestible. Nutritious, well flavoured stock is produced. Also, maximum color and nutritive value is retained when cooking green vegetables, provided boiling time is kept to the minimum.

On the other hand, there are several disadvantages. There is a loss of soluble vitamins from foods to the water (if the water is discarded), and some boiled foods can look unattractive. Boiling can also be a slow method of cooking food.

Boiling can be done in several ways: The food can be placed into already rapidly boiling water and left to cook, the heat can be turned down and the food can be simmered; or the food can also be placed into the pot, and cold water may be added to the pot. This may then be boiled until the food is satisfactory.

Water on the outside of a pot, i.e. a wet pot, increases the time it takes the pot of water to boil. The pot will heat at a normal rate once all excess water on the outside of the pot evaporates.

Levels of boiling

In Chinese cuisine, particularly tea brewing, one distinguishes five stages of boiling:[2] "shrimp eyes, the first tiny bubbles that start to appear on the surface of the kettle water, crab eyes, the secondary, larger bubbles, then fish eyes, followed by rope of pearls, and finally raging torrent [rolling boil]".

In detail:[3]

shrimp eyes
about 70-80°C (155–175°F) – separate bubbles, rising to top
crab eyes
about 80°C (175°F) – streams of bubbles
fish eyes
about 80-90°C (175–195°F) – larger bubbles
rope of pearls
about 90-95°C (195–205°F) – steady streams of large bubbles
raging torrent
rolling boil, swirling and roiling

See also

References

  1. ^ IAPWS. "What is the effect of pressure on the boiling of water? Why does water boil at a lower temperature at high altitudes?". FAQs About Water and Steam. http://www.iapws.org/faq1/boil.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  2. ^ James Norwood Pratt, The New Tea Lover's Treasury
  3. ^ Boiling Water for Tea: Bubbles and Steam, by Bliss Dake, October 13th, 2009, Mighty Leaf Tea blog







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