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Bolad Chyangsang or Bolad chingsang (traditional Chinese: 孛羅丞相pinyin: Bóluó chéngxiàng, "Chancellor Bolad", d. 1313), was a Mongol minister of the Empire of the Great Khan, and later served in the Ilkhanate as a ambassador of the Great Khan. He was also a historian who provided valuable information to Rashid al-Din to write about the Mongols.


Bolad was born in common Mongol family and his father, who was an officer of imperial guards, served Genghis Khan. He studied Chinese quickly thanks to prince Kublai's effort.[1] Bolad was appointment as a Chancellor (chingsang) of Kublai's Yuan Dynasty, and judged cases of Ariq Boke and Ahmad Fanakati. He was sent to the Ilkhanate in Persia soon after Arghun enthroned in 1285. He gave imperial seal, yarlik (зарлиг) and crown to the Ilkhan. Bolad could not return to the Yuan Dynasty due to the conflicts between Kublai and the Chagatai Khanate under Kaidu. Arghun appointed him a commander in Khurasan.

Bolad suggested Gaykhatu, who was extravagant, to issue paper money Chao in 1294. But the Ilkhan's efforts faded away as people were devouted to Muslim custom. Bolad was called as Bolad agha (Bolad the elder brother) at the time. He became a cultural advisor of the Mongol court in Persia.

Ghazan became new Ilkhan in 1295. He respected Bolad and made him a general of a tumen which was consisted of Mongol-Tatar slave boys. It is claimed that Bolad helped Rashid al-Din to write Universal History because he knew Mongolian history very well. Oljeitu consulted with Chupan, Kutlushah and Bolad closely after his accession. He commanded one division of the Ilkhanid army during the Gilan campaign in 1307. In 1311 Bolad was awarded the title of the Duke of State of Tse by the Khagan Ayurbarwada. Bolad died in 1313. Even today Chinese people remember him as a cultural bridge between East and West, however, he was a Mongol.


  1. ^ Christopher P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire; see: Bolad chinsang

Further reading

  • A COMPENDIUM OF CHRONICLES: Rashid al-Din's Illustrated History of the World (The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, VOL XXVII) ISBN 019727627X
  • Rene Grousset - The Empire of Steppes: A History Central Asia, ISBN 0813513049 Rutgers University Press (January 1988)


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