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Bolesław I Chrobry
King of Poland
Chrobry1.jpg
Portrait by Jan Matejko.
Reign Duke: 992 – April 18, 1025
King: April 18 – June 17, 1025
Coronation April 18, 1025
Gniezno Cathedral, Poland.
Born 967
Birthplace Poznań
Died June 17, 1025 [aged 58]
Place of death Kraków?
Buried Cathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, Poznań
Predecessor Mieszko I
Successor Mieszko II Lambert
Wives Hunilda (?), daughter of Rikdag
Judith of Hungary
Emnilda of Lusatia
Oda of Meissen
Offspring With Hunilda:
A daughter, Princess of Pomerania

With Judith:
Bezprym

With Enmilda:
A daughter, nun
Regelinda, Margravine of Meissen
Mieszko II Lambert
A daughter, Grand Princess of Kiev
Otto

With Oda:
Matilda
Dynasty Piast dynasty
Father Mieszko I
Mother Dobrawa of Bohemia

Bolesław I the Brave or the Valiant (Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry, Czech: Boleslav I (IV) Chrabrý; b. 967 - d. 17 June 1025), in the past also known as Bolesław I the Great (Wielki), was a Duke of Poland from 992-1025 and the first King of Poland since 19 April 1025 until his death. He also ruled as Boleslav IV, Duke of Bohemia during 1002-1003.

He was the firstborn son of Mieszko I by his first wife, Dobrawa, daughter of Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia.[1][2] He was named after his maternal grandfather.

Bolesław I was a remarkable politician, strategist and statesman. He was able to turn Poland into one of the largest and most powerful monarchies in eastern Europe. Boleslaw conducted successful military campaigns to the west, south and east. He consolidated the Polish lands and conquered territories outside of modern borders of Poland such as Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen and Lusatia as well as Bohemia. He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs.

He was an ally of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III who may have crowned him rex, although opinions vary on that point. Following the death of Otto III in 1002, Bolesław I conducted a series of successful wars against the Empire and Otto III's cousin and heir Henry II ending with the Peace of Bautzen in 1018. In the summer of 1018, in one of his most famous expeditions, Bolesław I captured Kiev, where, according to legend, he notched his sword when hitting Kiev's Golden Gate. Later, a sword known as szczerbiec, meaning notched sword, would become the ceremonial sword used in the coronation ceremony of Polish kings.

Bolesław I also managed to establish a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno, independent of German Archbishopric of Magdeburg, which laid claims to the Polish area. During the famous Congress of Gniezno he was able to officially free himself of tribute to Germany and finally, in his most momentous act, he had himself crowned King, the first Polish ruler to do so.

He was an able administrator, establishing the so-called “prince’s law”, building numerous forts, churches, monasteries and bridges. Bolesław I established the first Polish monetary system, of grzywna divided into 240 denarii,[1] and minted his own coin. He is widely considered one of the most talented and accomplished of the Piast rulers.

Contents

Life

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Youth

Boleslaw I Chrobry as imagined by Jan Matejko

Bolesław I was born in Poznań as the first child of Mieszko I, Duke of Poland and his wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa. At age six he may have been sent to the Imperial court in Germany as a hostage, according to the agreements of the Imperial Diet of Quedlinburg (although this fact is now disputed among the historians). Another theory stated that Bolesław I spent some time during the 980's at the court of his maternal uncle, Duke Boleslav II the Pious of Bohemia.

In 984 and at the instigation of his father, the eighteen-year-old Bolesław I married the daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen, probably named Hunilda or Oda. It is believed that following the wedding he became the ruler of Lesser Poland with his capital at Kraków. The death of Margrave Rikdag in 985 left the marriage devoid of any political value, and shortly thereafter the union was dissolved and Hunilda was repudiated.

At the end of 985, probably at the instigation of Boleslav II the Pious, Bolesław I married an unknown Hungarian princess with whom he had a son, Bezprym.[3] In older literature, the princess was identified as Judith, daughter of Géza, Grand Duke of Hungary.[4] Though opinions vary about the identity of Bolesław I 's second wife, there is a number of researchers who still support the hypothesis of her being the daughter of Géza.[5] However, this union also came to a quick end, probably because of the deterioration in political relations between Poland and Hungary, and around 987 the union was dissolved.

By 989,and perhaps as early as 987, Bolesław I married Emnilda, daughter of Dobromir, a Slavic prince of Lusatia. Through this marriage he had a daughter Regelinda, a son, the future king Mieszko II, another daughter and a son Otton. At this time Bolesław I’s rule in Lesser Poland may have been at Bohemian conferment. Presuming that it was, he added this province to Poland only after Duke Boleslav II the Pious' death in 999. However assuming that Mieszko I took control of Lesser Poland in 990 (which is likely), than Bolesław I was bestowed the rule in Lesser Poland by his father but without its territory being included in the Polish realm. Bolesław I wasn't included in the document Dagome Iudex, and as such it may be supposed that Lesser Poland was already known as Bolesław I’s inheritance, while his two surviving half-brothers Mieszko and Lambert, sons of Mieszko I by his second wife Oda, were to divide the rest of the realm between each other. Another theory is that Bolesław I's absence from the document might be explained by an old Slavic custom whereby children received their inheritance as soon as they reached the age of majority. Thus Bolesław I might have received Kraków as his part of his father's legacy before the Dagome iudex had been written.[6]

Accession

Boleslaw I being crowned, oil on canvas, by Jan Matejko

The circumstances in which Bolesław I took control of the country following the passing of his father, Mieszko I, forecasted what would later become a prevalent practice among the Piast dynasty. It consisted of struggle for domination, usually a military one, among the offspring of nearly every deceased monarch of the Piast dynasty. Bolesław I was no different, and shortly after the death of Mieszko I (25 May 992), he banished his stepmother Oda and his two half-brothers, as they had to be considered competitors to the throne, especially in light of the Dagome Iudex. The exact circumstances of Bolesław I’s ascension to the Ducal throne are unknown, but it is known that by June, he was the unquestioned ruler of Poland - as Otto III asked for his military aid in the summer of 992. Also immediately after gaining the full control over Poland, Bolesław I quelled the opposition of the Barons by blinding two of their leaders, the magnates Odylen and Przybywoj.[7] As cruel a sentence as this was, it proved most effective as it triggered such obedience of his subjects that from that point on there was no mention of any challenge of his position whatsoever.

Extent of his domains

Poland at the beginning of the reign of Boleslaw I
Statue of Boleslaw I Chrobry at Wroclaw

Bolesław I inherited from his father a realm that was close in dimensions to modern-day Poland. It centered on the core of Polanian country, the later Greater Poland (Polish: Wielkopolska). Greater Poland encompassed the valley of river Warta, stretched to the north to the Notec river and to the south it encompassed Kalisz. Outside of this core the nascent Poland included the surrounding areas subdued by Bolesław I's father, Mieszko I which included: parts of Pomerania to the north, including Kolobrzeg in the west and Gdansk in the east, Mazovia with its capital at Plock to the east and Silesia to the south-west. It is disputed whether Lesser Poland, centered around Kraków, was incorporated into the Polish realm by Mieszko I before 992 or whether it was added by Bolesław I in 999. Either way by the year 1000 Bolesław I was the lord of a domain larger than contemporary England, Denmark, León or Burgundy.

Duke of Poland

First years (992-1000)

It appears, from the lack of any record of international activity, that Bolesław I spent the first years as ruler more concerned about gaining the throne and remaining on it than trying to increase the size of his dominion. It is during this period of consolidation of power that he allied himself with Otto III, the Emperor of Germany, when in 995 he aided the Holy Roman Emperor in his expedition against the Lusatians.

Endeavoring to extend his influence to the territory of the Prussians, Bolesław I encouraged Christianizing missions in the Prussian lands. Most famous of those was the mission of Vojtěch from the Bohemian princely Slavník clan, former bishop of Prague. Known as Adalbert of Prague upon the death of Adalbert of Magdeburg in 981, Adalbert's mission took place in 997 and ended in the missionary’s martyrdom at the hands of the pagan Prussians, which occurred in April 997 on the Baltic Sea coast in the vicinity of Truso (a medieval emporia near modern city of Elbląg). The remains of the missionary were held for ransom by the Prussians and Bohemian Přemyslid rulers refused to pay for Adalbert's (Vojtech) body, consequently it was purchased by Duke Bolesław I for its weight in gold, and buried in Gniezno. In 999 Bishop Adalbert was canonized as Saint Adalbert by Pope Sylvester II. He was later made the patron saint of Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, and Prussia. Canonization of Vojtěch increased the prestige of the Polish church in Europe and the prestige of Polish state on the international arena.

Congress of Gniezno and alliance with the Holy Roman Empire (1000-1002)

Bolesław I as depicted on Gniezno Doors, mid. 12th century

By the year 1000, Bolesław I had consolidated his position as Duke (Dux) of Poland. Not only did he not meet any internal opposition, but he furthermore had gained the respect of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III (980-1002).[8] Consequently in the year 1000, Otto III visited Poland under the pretext of a pilgrimage to the grave of his friend, the recently canonized Bishop Adalbert (Vojtěch). In addition to the religious motivation, Otto III’s voyage also carried a strong political agenda: he had intentions to renew the Holy Roman Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum".[9] Within the federal framework, Polish and Hungarian duchies were to be upgraded to eastern federati of the empire.[9]

The Emperor needed to assess Poland’s strength and establish its status within the Holy Roman Empire. The ensuing Congress of Gniezno, where Bolesław I entertained his distinguished guest, is one of the most famous episodes of medieval Polish history. During the time the emperor spent in Poland, Bolesław I did not hide the wealth of his country, in fact he showed off its affluence at every step as he tried to dazzle the emperor. Among other gifts the Polish ruler presented to Otto III were 300 armored knights, while the Emperor responded with a gift of a copy of the lance of Saint Maurice.Evidently Otto III was impressed with what he saw and he decided that Poland should be treated as a kingdom on par with Germany and Italy, not merely as a tributary duchy like Bohemia[10]. Since Otto III had intentions to renew the Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum”, and within that federal framework, Polish and Hungarian duchies were to be upgraded to eastern federati of the empire it was towards this end that the Emperor placed his Imperial crown on Bolesław I’s brow and invested him with the titles frater et cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire") and populi Romani amicus et socius.[9] He also raised Bolesław I to the dignity of patricius or "elder of the Roman nation".[11] This episode has long been a subject of hot debate among historians. Some historians see this as an act of favor between an Emperor and his vassal, others as a gesture of friendship between equals. Could placing of the Imperial crown on Bolesław’s head mean that the Emperor crowned the Polish Duke? . Most modern historians agree that it could not. Though it was undoubtedly a sign of Otto’s respect for the Polish ruler, it could not truly mean Bolesław I was King as only the Pope had the authority to invest a prince with the crown and elevate his realm to a status of a kingdom.[8] According to one source afterwards Bolesław I traveled with the Emperor to Aix-la-Chapelle where Otto III had the tomb of Charlemagne opened. From there Otto III is reputed to have removed the Imperial throne itself and presented it to the Polish Duke.[10]

Other political talks took place as well. Otto III decided that Poland will no longer be required to pay tribute to the Empire. Gniezno was confirmed as an Archbishopric and a Metropolitan See for the Polish area. Three new Bishoprics were created and confirmed with papal consent. They were placed at Krakow, Wroclaw and Kolobrzeg. The Poznań missionary Bishopric was confirmed as subject directly to the Vatican. Bolesław I and his heirs gained the right of investiture of bishops. The future marriage of Bolesław I’s son Mieszko to Richeza (Polish: Rycheza), niece of Otto III, was also probably agreed upon at this point.[12]

The untimely death of Otto III at age 22 in 1002 upset the ambitious renovatio plans, which were never fully implemented. Henry II, Otto III's less idealistic successor, and an opponent of Otto's policies, reversed the course of Imperial policy towards the east.[13]

Occupation of Meissen, Lusatia, Bautzen and the intervention in Bohemia (1002-1003)

statue of Bolesław I and Mieszko I in the Golden Chapel, Poznan

The excellent relations of Poland and Germany enjoyed during the Reign of Otto III, quickly deteriorated following his death. Bolesław I supported Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen, for the German throne. When Eckard was assassinated in April, Bolesław I lent his support to Henry IV, Duke of Bavaria, and helped him ascend to the German throne as Henry II. Bolesław I took advantage of internal strife following the Emperor's death and occupied important areas to the west of the Oder: Margraviate of Meissen and March of Lusatia, including strongholds Budziszyn and Strzala. Bolesław I claimed an hereditary right to Meissen as a relative of its former ruler Margrave Rikdag (only through marriage; he was the former husband of his daughter). Henry II accepted Bolesław I’s gains and he allowed the Polish Duke to keep Lusatia as a fief. The one exception was Meissen, which Bolesław I was not allowed to keep. Though at this point Polish–German relations were normalized, soon thereafter Henry II organized a failed assassination attempt on Bolesław I's life and relations between the two countries were severed.[14]

In the same year (1003) Bolesław I became entangled in Bohemian affairs when the Duke Vladivoj died earlier in that year. Following this Bolesław I aided a pretender, Boleslav III the Red, in gaining the throne. Later Boleslav III undermined his own position by ordering a massacre of his leading nobles, the Vršovci, at Vyšehrad. Those nobles who survived the massacre secretly sent messengers to Bolesław I and entreated him to come to their aid. The Polish Duke willingly agreed, and invited Boleslav III to visit him at his castle in Kraków. There, Boleslav III was trapped, blinded and imprisoned, probably dying in captivity some thirty years later. Bolesław I, claiming the Ducal throne for himself, invaded Bohemia in 1003 and took Prague without any serious opposition, ruling as Boleslav IV for a little over a year. It is also likely that Polish forces took control of Moravia and Slovakia in 1003 as well.

Polish-German War (1002-1018)

Statue of Boleslaw I Chrobry at Gniezno, by Jerzy Sobocinski

Once the relations with Henry II soured, Bolesław I expected Germany to revert to the policy of constant invasions into Polish territory. Being conscious of the western threat the Polish prince took a preemptive action and took control of marches of Lusatia, Sorbian Meissen, and the cities of Budziszyn (Bautzen) and Meissen in 1002, and refused to pay the tribute to the Empire from the conquered territories.

Henry II answered with an offensive a year later. Though the first attack wasn't successful, already in the autumn of 1004 the German forces deposed Bolesław I from the Bohemian throne. Bolesław I did manage to keep Moravia and Slovakia, however, over which he exercised control until 1018. During the next part of the offensive Henry II retook Meissen and in 1005 his army advanced as far into Poland as the city of Poznan where a peace treaty was signed.[15] According to the peace treaty Bolesław I lost Lusatia and Meissen and likely gave up his claim to the Bohemian throne. Also in 1005, a pagan rebellion in Pomerania overturned Boleslaw's rule and resulted in the destruction of the just implemented local bishopric.[16]

In 1007 Henry II denounced the Peace of Poznań, resulting in Bolesław I’s attack on the Archbishopric of Magdeburg as well as re-occupation of marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen including the city of Bautzen. The German counter-offensive began three years later, in 1010. It was of no significant consequence, beyond some pillaging in Silesia. In 1012 a five year peace was signed.

Bolesław I broke the peace however, and once again invaded Lusatia. Bolesław I’s forces pillaged and burned the city of Lubusz (Lebus).[15] In 1013 a peace accord was signed at Merseburg. As part of peace Bolesław I payed homage to Henry II, in exchange for which he received the March of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as fiefs. Also, was performed the marriage of his son Mieszko with Richeza of Lotharingia, daughter of the Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia and granddaughter of Emperor Otto II.

In 1014 Bolesław I sent his son Mieszko to Bohemia in order to form an alliance with duke Oldrich against Emperor Henry II. Bolesław I also refused to aid the Emperor militarily in his Italian expedition. This led to imperial intervention in Poland and so in 1015 a war erupted once again. The war started out well for the Emperor as he was able to defeat the Polish forces at Ciani. Once the imperial forces crossed the river Oder, Bolesław I sent a detachment of Moravian knights in a diversionary attack against the Eastern March of the empire. Soon thereafter the German army retreated from Poland without making any permanent gains. Following this Bolesław I’s forces took the initiative. The Margrave of Meissen, Gero II, was defeated and killed during a clash with the Polish forces late in 1015.

Later that year, Bolesław I’s son Mieszko was sent to plunder Meissen. His attempt at conquering the city however, failed.[15] In 1017 Bolesław I defeated Margrave Henry V of Bavaria. In 1017 with Czech and Wendish support Henry II once again invaded Poland, however, once again to very little effect. He did besiege cities of Glogow and Niemcza, but was unable to take them. Taking advantage of Czech troops’ involvement, Bolesław I ordered his son to invade Bohemia, where Mieszko met very little resistance. On 30 January 1018 the Peace of Bautzen (which made Bolesław I a clear winner), was signed. The Polish ruler was able to keep the contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen not as fiefs, but as part of Polish territory, and also received military aid in his expedition against Kievan Rus. Also, Bolesław I (then a widower) reforced his dynastic bonds with the German nobility through his marriage with Oda, daughter of Margrave Eckard I of Meissen. The wedding took place four days later, on 3 February in the castle (German: Burg) of Cziczani (also Sciciani, at the site of either modern Groß-Seitschen[17] or Zützen[18]).

Intervention in the Kievan Succession (1015-1019)

Boleslaw I Chrobry entering conquered Kiev. Painting by Jan Matejko

Bolesław I organized his first expedition against his eastern neighbor in 1015, but the decisive engagements were to take place in 1018 after the peace of Budziszyn was already signed. At the request of his son-in-law Sviatopolk I of Kiev, the Polish duke invaded Kievan Rus with an army of between 2,000–5,000 Polish warriors, in addition to Thietmar's reported 1,000 Pechenegs, 300 German knights, and 500 Hungarian mercenaries[19]. After collecting his forces during June, Boleslaw led his troops to the border in July and on 23 July at the banks of the Western Bug River, near Wielen, he defeated the forces of Yaroslav the Wise prince of Kiev, in what became known as the Battle at Bug river. All primary sources agree that the Polish prince was victorious in battle.[20][21] Yaroslav retreated north to Novgorod, rather than to Kiev. The victory opened the road to Kiev, already under harassment from Boleslaw’s Pecheneg allies. The city, which suffered from fires caused by the Pecheneg siege, surrendered upon seeing the main Polish force on 14 August. The entering army, led by Bolesław I, was ceremonially welcomed by the local archbishop and the family of Vladimir I of Kiev. Bolesław I may have deployed his troops in the capital of Rus for no more than six months (see Kiev Expedition of 1018) but had to recall them eventually due to popular uprising against the Poles. According to popular legend Bolesław I notched his sword (Szczerbiec) hitting the Golden Gate of Kiev. During this campaign Poland re-annexed the Red Strongholds, later called Red Ruthenia, lost by Bolesław I's father in 981.

In 1015 Bolesław I sent a detachment of Polish horsemen to aid his nephew Canute the Great, son of his sister Swietoslawa, in his conquest of England.[11]

Coronation and Death (1025)

Poland at the end of the reign of Boleslaw I.

After Henry's death in 1024, Bolesław I took advantage of the interregnum in Germany and crowned himself king in 1025, thus raising Poland to the rank of a kingdom before its neighbor Bohemia. He was the first Polish king (rex), his predecessors having been unable to attain the honor, they were therefore considered dukes (dux) by the Holy Roman Empire as well as the papacy, the usual arbiters in these matters. The exact place and date of the coronation are unknown. Bolesław I died not long after the coronation, due most likely to an illness.

The whereabouts of Boleslaw's burial are uncertain. It is believed that recently discovered remains of a double tomb in Poznan cathedral may be the burial places of the first two Polish Rulers: Boleslaw I and his father Mieszko. Bolesław I's son, Mieszko II, crowned himself king immediately after his father died in Poznań.

Bolesław I's Legacy

Military

Bolesław I the Brave, Painting by Aleksander Lesser.

At the time of his death Bolesław I left Poland larger than he inherited her, adding to its domains the long contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as well as Red Ruthenia and possibly Lesser Poland. Militarily, at the time, Poland was unquestioningly a considerable power as Bolesław I was able to fight successful campaigns against both Holy Roman Empire and the Kievan Rus. On the other hand it must be highlighted that his long-term involvement in the war against Germany allowed Western Pomerania to gain independence from the Polish aegis. Another negative side of Bolesław I’s drawn out military campaigns was a damaging influence on the economy of his kingdom. With the passing of each year, Bolesław I needed an ever increasing amounts to finance his wars, especially when fought on two fronts; in Germany and Kiev. Unceasing war had placed ever increasing fiscal obligations on the shoulders of his subjects, which in turn caused negative sentiment, sentiment that was to increase throughout his reign, and that would erupt into popular revolt soon after his death.

Economy

Denar of Boleslaw I.

Bolesław I was a gifted and organized administrator. He was largely responsible for fully implementing the “Prince’s Law” throughout the Polish lands. The Prince's Law created a sort of nationalized economy, controlled by the state, whose sole duty it was to finance the prince's spending needs. These needs were considerable, as the Duke was responsible for all manner of building projects. The foundation of the “Prince's Law” lay in a network of fortified towns called grody, but the ruler also commissioned the building of churches, monasteries, roads, bridges etc, in short the development of an infrastructure. The building projects were financed by collecting taxes in money or goods. Also peasants were required to house the monarch or provide the prince with different manner of goods and services which included communications, hunting, military or others. To produce necessary goods Bolesław I organized a network of service settlements that specialized each in manufacturing about 30 different goods, such as: barrels, arches, metal wares, spears, as well as settlements responsible for animal husbandry, i.e., swine, horses or cattle. Hundreds of villages were thus specialized and named to reflect their particular job. To this day one may find scores of settlements in Poland with names left over from that era, such as: Szewce, Kuchary or Kobylniki. This quite impressive system functioned well enough to support Bolesław I throughout his 33 year reign.

Political

The Piast White Eagle, circa 13th century.

‎‎

Increasing both the internal and external strength of the realm was of paramount importance to Bolesław I, especially in the face of increasing pressure from the magnates. The magnates demanded a larger share in the administration of the country while Bolesław I sought to strengthen the central authority of the ruler. Bolesław I’s coronation, sometime in 1025, was aimed precisely to reinforce his leading position. In general an overall integration of the country took place during his reign.

Bolesław I was able to establish an independent Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno, with papal and imperial sanction. His work laid a foundation for the use of designation “Poland” that was to unite all regions of the realm, as well as for the use of one symbol to represent the supreme authority of the prince. The symbol was a sign of Gniezno’s knightly class: the white eagle.

Marriages and Issue

First marriage: 984 - 985

An unknown daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen, probably named Hunilda or Oda. After Rikdag's death in 985, she was repudiated by her husband and sent away.

Issue:

  1. A daughter (b. ca. 985 - d. aft. 997), married ca. 996/97 to an undentified Prince of Pomerania.[22]

Second marriage: 986 - 987/89

An unknown Hungarian princess formerly believed to be Judith, daughter of Géza, Grand Duke of Hungary. Around 987, as a consequence of the deterioration in the political relations between Poland and Hungary, she was repudiated.

Issue:

  1. Bezprym (b. ca. 986 - d. 1032).

Third marriage: 987/89 - 1013

Emnilda, daughter of Dobromir, prince of Lusatia.

Issue:

  1. A daughter (b. 988 - d. aft 1013), a nun.
  2. Regelinda (b. 989 - d. 21 March aft. 1014), married by 30 April 1002 to Herman I, Margrave of Meissen.
  3. Mieszko II Lambert (b. 990 - d. 10/11 May 1034).
  4. A daughter (b. ca. 991 - d. aft. 14 August 1018), married bef. 15 July 1015 to Sviatopolk I, Grand Prince of Kiev.
  5. Otto (b. 1000 - d. 1033).

Fourth marriage: 1018 - 1025

Oda (b. ca. 996 - d. aft. 1025), daughter of Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen.

Issue:

  1. Matilda (b. aft. 1018 - d. aft. 1036), betrothed (or married) on 18 May 1035 to Otto of Schweinfurt, since 1048 Duke Otto III of Swabia.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b A. Czubinski, J. Topolski, Historia Polski, Ossolineum 1989
  2. ^ L. Bielski, M.Traba, Poczet Krolow i Ksazat Polskich. Pp.18-28
  3. ^ Kazimierz Jasiński: Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, Warsaw 1993
  4. ^ Oswald Balzer: Genealogia Piastów, Kraków 1895, pp. 39-41
  5. ^ S. A. Sroka, Historia Węgier do 1526 roku w zarysie, p. 19.
  6. ^ A.Chwalba, Kalendarium dziejów Polski: od prahistorii do 1998,Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kraków 1999
  7. ^ L. Bielski, M.Trąba, Poczet Krolów i Książąt Polskich. Pp.24
  8. ^ a b L. Bielski, M.Trąba, Poczet Królów I Książąt Polskich. 2005
  9. ^ a b c Andreas Lawaty, Hubert Orłowski, Deutsche und Polen: Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, 2003, p.24, ISBN 3406494366, 9783406494369
  10. ^ a b A.Zamoyski, The Polish Way, 1987
  11. ^ a b N.Davies, God's Playground, a History of Poland, 1982
  12. ^ J.Strzelczyk, Bolesław Chrobry, 2003
  13. ^ S.Rosik, Bolesław Chrobry i jego czasy, 2001
  14. ^ K .Jasiński, Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, 1992
  15. ^ a b c Thietmar of Merseburg, Thietmari merseburgiensis episcopi chronicon, 1018
  16. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.32, ISBN 839061848
  17. ^ Digitales historisches Ortsverzeichnis von Sachsen
  18. ^ Elke Mehnert, Sandra Kersten, Manfred Frank Schenke, Spiegelungen: Entwürfe zu Identität und Alterität ; Festschrift für Elke Mehnert, Frank & Timme GmbH, 2005, p.481, ISBN 3865960154
  19. ^ R.Jaworski,Wyprawa Kijowska Chrobrego, 2006
  20. ^ Cross, Samuel Hazzard; Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Olgerd, eds. The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text, 1953
  21. ^ Anonymous Gaul,Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum
  22. ^ According to one theory, they were probably parents of Zemuzil, Duke of Pomerania.
Bolesław I Chrobry
Piast Dynasty
Born: 966 or 967 Died: 17 June 1025
Preceded by
Mieszko I
Duke of the Polans
May 25, 992– June 17, 1025
King of Poland (since April 18, 1025)
Succeeded by
King
Mieszko II Lambert
Preceded by
Vladivoj
Duke of Bohemia
1003–1004
Succeeded by
Jaromir

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