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Bolivian Socialist Falange
Falange Socialista Boliviana
Leader Óscar Únzaga de la Vega
1937-1959
Mario Gutiérrez
1959-1980
Founded 1937 (1937), in Santiago, Chile
Headquarters La Paz, Pedro Domingo Murillo Province, La Paz Department, Bolivia.
Ideology Falangism
(National Syndicalism,
Fascism, Nationalism,
Roman Catholicism, Anti-communism)
International affiliation Falangist Movement,
Falangism in Latin America
Bolivia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Bolivia



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The Bolivian Socialist Falange (Spanish: Falange Socialista Boliviana) was a Bolivian party established in the year 1937. A right-wing party drawing inspiration from fascism, it was the country's second-largest party between approximately 1954 and 1974. After that, its followers have tended to graviate toward the officialist military candidacy of General Juan Pereda (1978) and, especially, toward the ADN party of former dictator Hugo Banzer.

Contents

Foundation and early development

Founded in Chile by a group of exiles (chief among which was Oscar Unzaga de la Vega), the FSB initially drew its inspiration from Spanish falangism. Indeed, in those early years it came close to espousing a Fascist agenda, in the style of Spain's Francisco Franco and Italy's Benito Mussolini. It was reformist, however, in that it advocated major transformations to the existing (largely oligarchic) social and political order. This brought it more into the sphere of other "revolutionary" movements such as the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement of Víctor Paz Estenssoro, which would come to power after unleashing the 1952 Revolution. In fact, FSB was at first brought into the MNR coalition at the outbreak of that massive revolt, but backed out at the last moment. A rather minor movement during the 1940s, the "Falange" began to attract major support from former landowners and other members of the Bolivian elite after the triumph of the 1952 Revolution, becoming the ruling MNR's main opposition party. FSB's growing popularity coincided, in particular, with a period of high inflation in the country under the Siles Zuazo presidency (1952-56), and included many well-to-do university students. The movement was based on a cell system and so became stronger in some specific areas, notably in La Paz and Santa Cruz, although attempts to win over the peasantry in Cochabamba proved fruitless and damaged the party's growth.

Ideology

Ideologically, the party's stance evolved from an adherence to Spanish falangism to a more moderate form of statism. Perhaps inspired by the efforts of the ruling MNR at perpetuating itself in power in the manner of Mexico's PRI party, FSB, too, sought the creation of a strong single-party state, with the Army and the Church held up as the two great pillars of Bolivian society. In the 1950s, the Falange adopted a strong anti-communist stance, with its leaders being particularly critical of Cuba's Fidel Castro following his emergence. Alongside this, however, FSB portrayed itself as being nationalist and anti-imperialist.

Electoral performance

The party supported the candidacy of the war hero General Bernardino Bilbao Rioja in the 1951 Presidential elections. Bilbao secured a respectable 11% of the vote, and he would later return as a candidate. Oscar Unzaga, however, remained the party's undisputed leader, and it was he who led FSB's 1956 presidential ticket. He garnered 15% of the vote in an election that many considered suspect due to massive state support for the officialist candidate, Hernán Siles Zuazo. FSB lost momentum after the 1959 assassination of its maximum leader and founder, Oscar Unzaga, at the hands of the state's security apparatus. FSB was at this point strongly suppressed politically, and new parties began to appeal to similar sections of society. The party's vote share fell to 8% in the 1960 elections partly as a result, although no one can be sure that this is indeed the percentage that they obtained.

Later development

Following the death of Unzaga, the mainstream of the FSB came under the leadership of Mario Gutiérrez. the party's candidate in the 1960 elections. Following the return of the military to power in the aftermath of the 1964 coup d'état, it was the MNR's turn to be repressed, and FSB's fortunes seemed to be on the rise again. This was an illusion, however, as the ruling military establishment was not about to be displaced. Presenting once again the venerable Gen. Bilbao Rioja as its candidate in the 1966 elections, FSB was soundly defeated by yet another officialist candidate: the popular General Barrientos, who had led the 1964 anti-MNR revolt. Bolivia did not have another election until the late 1970s. With its leadership back in the hands of Mario Gutiérrez, FSB supported (as did the MNR) the 1971 military coup that brought to power General Hugo Banzer. Indeed, Gutiérrez served banzer as his Minister of Foreign Relations for many years. At this point FSB shifted its position somewhat, becoming more of a pro-military conservative party. Its ranks were further diluted when various factions split off from it in the aftermath of the Banzer dictatorship and the electoral upheavals of the 1978-80 period. Ultimately the main body of the FSB was absorbed into the conservative Nationalist Democratic Action (founded by Banzer himself), with a minor group continuing as the Falange Neounzaguista.

See also

References

  • Bernard, Jean-Pierre, "Bolivia", in J-P Bernard, S Cerqueira, H Neira, H Graillot, L F Manigat & P Gilhodès. 1973. Guide to the Political Parties of South America
  • Laqueur, Walter. 1976. Fascism: A Reader's Guide
  • Luke Valetri. 2007. Fascism? : a hard look into it, http://unionjc.narod.ru/
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