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Mumbai (मुंबई)
Bombay
Skyscrapers lit up at night. A clock tower with a square base and an octagonal top. A wide building with central and surrounding domes. Wide skyscrapers at night. A brown arch with boats nearby.
Clockwise from top: Skyline at Cuffe Parade, the Rajabai Clock Tower, the Taj Mahal Hotel, Nariman Point and Gateway of India
Mumbai is on the west coast of India, about one third of the way down to the southern tip. <a name=.It is in the northwest of the Maharashtra province, which covers roughly the second quarter of the west coast (counting from the north), and heads inland roughly twice as far as its coastline."^ Mumbai is located on the west coast of Maharashtra .

^ Offshore Islands India's offshore islands, constituting roughly one-quarter of 1 percent of the nation's territory, lie in two groups located off the east and west coasts.
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Mumbai (मुंबई)
Location of Mumbai (मुंबई)
in Maharashtra and India
Coordinates 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.975°N 72.82583°E / 18.975; 72.82583
Country  India
State Maharashtra
District(s) Mumbai City
Mumbai Suburban
Municipal commissioner Swadhin Kshatriya
Mayor Shraddha Jadhav
Population
Density
Metro
13,830,884[1] (1st) (2010)
22,922 /km2 (59,368 /sq mi)
21,900,967[2] (1st) (2010)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area
Elevation
603.4 km2 (233 sq mi)
14 m (46 ft)
Website www.mcgm.gov.in
Quartered shield. Upper left in red has a gateway. Upper right in black has a factory in a cog wheel. Lower left in black has three ships. Lower right in red has a building. The base of the shield reads "यतो धर्मस्ततो जय". Below the shield is a blooming lotus; above is a lion.
Seal of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai
.Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई, Mumbaī, IPA:Mumbai_pronunciation.ogg [ˈmʊm.bəi] ), formerly called Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra.^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ The source of the Godavari is northeast of Bombay (Mumbai in the local Marathi language) in the state of Maharashtra, and the river follows a southeasterly course for 1,400 kilometers to its mouth on the Andhra Pradesh coast.
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^ Following a successful protests in which 105 people were killed by police firing, Maharashtra state was formed with Mumbai as its capital on May 1 , 1960 .

.Mumbai, the most populous city in India, is the second most populous city in the world, with a population of approximately 14 million.^ Million plus cities in India .

^ By 1991 India had twenty-four cities with populations of at least 1 million.
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^ Football is the second most popular sport with the city clubs playing during the monsoons , when other outdoor sports cannot be played.

[1] .Along with the neighbouring urban areas, which includes cities of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world.^ Mumbai is also one of the rare cities to accommodate a national park , the Sanjay Gandhi National Park , within its city limits.

^ Area of this national park is 104 sq km, one-fourth of the area of Mumbai which is about 450 sq km.

^ With its unique topography, Mumbai has one of the best natural harbours in the world, handling 50% of the country's passenger traffic, and much of India's cargo.

[3] .Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour.^ Mumbai is located on the west coast of Maharashtra .

^ With its unique topography, Mumbai has one of the best natural harbours in the world, handling 50% of the country's passenger traffic, and much of India's cargo.

^ The city has a deep natural harbour and the port handles over half of India's passenger traffic and a significant amount of cargo.

.As of 2009, Mumbai was named an Alpha world city.^ By that year, among cities of the world, Bombay (or Mumbai, in Marathi), in Maharashtra, ranked seventh in the world at 12.6 million, and Calcutta, in West Bengal, ranked eighth at almost 11 million.
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[4] Mumbai is also the richest city in India.[5]
.The seven islands that came to constitute Bombay were home to communities of fishing colonies.^ The original clusters of fishing villages (Madras and Calcutta) or series of islands (Bombay) became headquarters of the British administrative zones, or presidencies as they generally came to be known.
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.For centuries, the islands came under the control of successive kingdoms and indigenous empires before being ceded to Portuguese settlers and subsequently to the British East India Company.^ The Portuguese came first and left last, but at no time had they extensive dominions such as the Indian kingdoms and empires or the lands of the British in India.
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^ Beginning with the Mayor's Court, established in 1727 for civil litigation in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras, justice in the interior came under the company's jurisdiction.
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^ The British Parliament enacted a series of laws, among which the Regulating Act of 1773 stood first, to curb the company traders' unrestrained commercial activities and to bring about some order in territories under company control.
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.During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the British with large-scale civil engineering projects, aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass[6], and emerged as a significant trading town.^ From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass.

^ Electronics and Motor Vehicles The engineering sector is large and varied and provides around 12 percent of India's exports in the mid-1990s.
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^ A third group of Jews immigrated to India, beginning at the end of the eighteenth century, following the trade contacts established by the British Empire.
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.Economic and educational development characterised the city during the 19th century.^ A pidgin Assamese developed while educated tribal members learned Hindi and, in the late twentieth century, English.
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^ The council had authority over economic development programs, education, and culture.
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^ There also has been dissention between Christian and non-Christian tribal people because of differences in level of education and economic development.
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.It became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the early 20th century.^ Communists participated in the independence struggle and, as members of the Congress Socialist Party, became a formidable presence on the socialist wing of the Indian National Congress.
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^ Although both were formerly part of the British Indian Empire, India and Pakistan became separate countries in 1947 and East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh in 1971.
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^ The National Conference, based in Jammu and Kashmir, is a regional party, which, despite its overwhelmingly Muslim following, refused to support the All-India Muslim League (Muslim League--see Glossary) during the independence movement; instead it allied itself with the Indian National Congress.
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.When India became independent in 1947, the city was incorporated into Bombay State.^ After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay State .

^ Before independence in 1947, the Congress was committed to redrawing state boundaries to correspond with linguistics.
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^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

.In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.^ After 1955, when the State of Bombay was being reorganised along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, there was a demand that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state.

^ After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay State .

^ The source of the Godavari is northeast of Bombay (Mumbai in the local Marathi language) in the state of Maharashtra, and the river follows a southeasterly course for 1,400 kilometers to its mouth on the Andhra Pradesh coast.
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It was renamed Mumbai in 1995.[7]
.Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment centre of India, generating 5% of India's GDP,[8] and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 40% of maritime trade, and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy.^ India resisted United States pressure to adopt a less protectionist stance in the Uruguay Round of negotiations to renew the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
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^ Main article: Economy of Mumbai The Bombay Stock Exchange index reflects investor confidence in the economy of India .

^ The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood , is also located in Mumbai, along with its largest studios and movie production houses.

[9] .Mumbai is home to important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.^ The Oil and Natural Gas Commission was established in 1954 as a department of the Geological Survey of India, but a 1959 act of Parliament made it, in effect, the country's national oil company.
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^ India chaired the five-member Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission while the Indian Custodian Force supervised the process of interviews and repatriation that followed.
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^ "Rating Soils of India," Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India [New Delhi], 26, Part A, Supplement 1, December 1960, 260-89.
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.The city also houses India's Hindi film and television industry, known as Bollywood.^ The city is home to India's Hindi film and television industry , known as Bollywood .

^ The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood , is also located in Mumbai, along with its largest studios and movie production houses.

^ Most of India's major television and satellite networks are headquartered in Mumbai, as well as its major publishing houses.

.Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India and, in turn, make the city a potpourri of many communities and cultures.^ Mumbai has attracted migrants from all over India because of the immense business opportunities, and the relatively high standard of living , making the city a potpourri of various communities and cultures .

^ There are nine radio stations in Mumbai, with six broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.

^ The late 1970s witnessed a construction boom and a significant influx of migrants, which saw Bombay overtake Calcutta as India’s most populous city.

Contents

Toponymy

.The name Mumbai is an eponym, etymologically derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba—the name of the Koli goddess Mumbadevi—and Aai, "mother" in Marathi.^ Mumbai is one of the most modern and cosmopolitan cities in India Image:Marine Drive Night.jpg Marine Drive in Mumbai The appellation Mumbai is an eponym , etymologically derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba — the name of the Hindu goddess Mumbadevi , and Aai — mother in Marathi .

[10] .The former name Bombay had its origins in the 16th century when the Portuguese arrived in the area and called it by various names, which finally took the written form Bombaim, still common in current Portuguese use.^ In the 16th century, the Portuguese named the area Bom Baia (Good Bay), later corrupted to Bomaím or Bombaim , by which it is still known in Portuguese.

^ Call of the wild The Sanjay Gandhi National Park is an outdoor museum that preserves and nurtures the varied flora and fauna of the area.

^ Various forms of private schooling are common; many schools are strictly private, whereas others enjoy government grants-in-aid but are run privately.
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[11] .After the British gained possession of the city in the 17th century, it was believed to be anglicised to Bombay from the Portuguese Bombaim.^ After the British gained possession, it was anglicised to Bombay , although it was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi and Gujarati-speakers, and as Bambai in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian.

^ In the 16th century, the Portuguese named the area Bom Baia (Good Bay), later corrupted to Bomaím or Bombaim , by which it is still known in Portuguese.

[12] .The city was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi speakers, and as Bambai in Hindi, Persian, and Urdu.^ After the British gained possession, it was anglicised to Bombay , although it was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi and Gujarati-speakers, and as Bambai in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian.

^ However, speakers of Hindi, Urdu, and Punjabi can often understand each other, yet they are regarded as speakers of different languages.
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^ DD-Sahyadri, Zee_Marathi and ETV-Marathi along with other Hindi channels are popular in Mumbai.

It is sometimes still referred to by its older names, such as Kakamuchee and Galajunkja.[13][14] .The name was officially changed to its Marathi pronunciation of Mumbai in November 1995.[15] This came at the insistence of the Hindu nationalist Shiv Sena party, that had just won the Maharashtra state elections and mirrored similar name changes across the country.^ The name was officially changed to Mumbai in 1995.

^ In the spring of 1995, the BJP won state elections in Gujarat and became the junior partner of a coalition with Shiv Sena (Army of Shivaji--Shivaji Bhonsle was a seventeenth-century Maratha guerrilla leader who kept Mughal armies at bay) in Maharashtra (see The Marathas, ch.
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^ But the city's improved new state of readiness is evidence on its face that the administration was not just unprepared in 1995, but, given its reaction to the crisis, stubbornly unprepared and willfully unwilling to face reality.

.However, the city is still commonly referred to as Bombay by many of its residents and Indians from other regions as well.^ Instead, we get many others’ stories as well.

^ The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City [10] .

^ It is possible, however, to follow only one of these explanations, such as believing in a single personal god while rejecting all others, and still claim to be following the Vedas.
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[16]
The temple of local Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, after which the city of Mumbai derives its name
.A widespread explanation of the origin of the traditional English name Bombay holds that it was derived from a Portuguese name meaning "good bay". This is based on the fact that bom (masc.^ In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat , naming them Bom Baia , Portuguese for "good bay".

^ They hold, too, that widespread knowledge of English is necessary for technological and economic progress and that reducing its role would leave India a backwater in world affairs.
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^ In the 16th century, the Portuguese named the area Bom Baia (Good Bay), later corrupted to Bomaím or Bombaim , by which it is still known in Portuguese.

) is .Portuguese for "good" whereas the English word "bay" is similar to the Portuguese baía (fem., bahia in old spelling).^ In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat , naming them Bom Baia , Portuguese for "good bay".

^ In the 16th century, the Portuguese named the area Bom Baia (Good Bay), later corrupted to Bomaím or Bombaim , by which it is still known in Portuguese.

.The normal Portuguese rendering of "good bay" would have been boa bahia rather than the grammatically incorrect bom bahia.^ In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat , naming them Bom Baia , Portuguese for "good bay".

^ When I bought this rather fat book (it’s an omnibus of three novels, Fifth Element , The Manticore , and World of Wonders ), I hoped that it would be as good as Davies’s Cornish Trilogy .

^ I would rather have a medieval doctor perform a bloodletting on me than watch that show.

However, it is possible to find the form baim (masc.) for "little bay" in 16th-century Portuguese.[17] .Portuguese scholar José Pedro Machado in his Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa (Portuguese Dictionary of Onomastics and Etymology), seems to reject the "Bom Bahia" hypothesis, asserting that Portuguese records mentioning the presence of a bay at the place led the English to assume that the noun (bahia, "bay") was an integral part of the Portuguese toponym, hence the English version Bombay, adapted from Portuguese.^ In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat , naming them Bom Baia , Portuguese for "good bay".

^ In the 16th century, the Portuguese named the area Bom Baia (Good Bay), later corrupted to Bomaím or Bombaim , by which it is still known in Portuguese.

[18]
Mirat-i-Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai in 1507.[19] The earliest Portuguese writer to refer to the city as Bombaim was Gaspar Correia in 1508, as recorded in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India").[20][21] .Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa mentions a reference to the city in a complex form, as Tana-Maiambu or Benamajambu in 1516.Tana appears to refer to the name of the adjoining town of Thane, and Maiambu seems to refer to Mumba-Devi, the Hindu goddess after which the place is named in Marathi.^ An urban agglomeration forms a continuous urban spread and consists of a city or town and its urban outgrowth outside the statutory limits.
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^ Mumbai is one of the most modern and cosmopolitan cities in India Image:Marine Drive Night.jpg Marine Drive in Mumbai The appellation Mumbai is an eponym , etymologically derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba — the name of the Hindu goddess Mumbadevi , and Aai — mother in Marathi .

^ Or, an urban agglomerate may be two or more adjoining cities or towns and their outgrowths.
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[22] .Other variations of the name recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries are, Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), and Boon Bay (1690).^ In the 16th century, the Portuguese named the area Bom Baia (Good Bay), later corrupted to Bomaím or Bombaim , by which it is still known in Portuguese.

[11][23]

History

A white Buddhist stupa
Kanheri Caves served as a centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient times
.Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba).^ It’s set in modern Bombay (also known as Mumbai, a fact that has some significance in the course of the novel), and follows the fortunes of an extended family of seven individuals: an old man, his three children, the husband of one of the daughters, and their two children.

^ Dean of Bombay Veterinary College Parel) map st.sebastian church,mahim east.

^ Hanging Gardens in Mumbai Image:Mumbai Hanging Gardens.jpeg Nighttime view of the city from the hanging Gardens Present-day Mumbai was originally an archipelago of seven islands .

[24] .Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai by archaeologist Todd in 1939 suggest that these islands were inhabited since the Stone Age.^ Artefacts found near Kandivali , in northern Mumbai indicate that these islands had been inhabited since the Stone Age .

^ Image:Knesset Eliyahoo.jpg Knesset Eliyahoo, a 150 year old Jewish Synagogue in Fort, Mumbai Hiranandani Complex in Powai is an upmarket area in the northern suburbs.

^ These spirits operate at the village, household, ancestor, and subclan level, along with evil spirits that cause disease, and can inhabit village boundaries, mountains, water, tigers, and the forest.
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[25] .It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited.^ Artefacts found near Kandivali , in northern Mumbai indicate that these islands had been inhabited since the Stone Age .

.Perhaps at the beginning of the Common era (2000 years ago), or even possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.^ It was in this period that European intellectuals came out of their shells and felt that they were once more part of a wider community.

^ Sypha_69, Yes, B&N and I are not close, although they flirted with me once years ago.

^ The last time they met was 24 years ago during battle.
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[26] .In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha.^ In the 3rd century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Aşoka .

^ The Deccan and the South During the Kushana Dynasty, an indigenous power, the Satavahana Kingdom (first century B.C.-third century A.D.), rose in the Deccan in southern India.
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^ After the disintegration of the Mauryan Empire in the second century B.C., South Asia became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries.
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[27] .The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated in the mid-third century BCE,[28] and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient times.^ A combination of Western commercial contacts and English-language education during the colonial period made the Parsis arguably the most cosmopolitan community in India.
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^ Sikhism, which started in Punjab in the sixteenth century, has spread throughout India and the world since the mid-nineteenth century.
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^ The Deccan and the South During the Kushana Dynasty, an indigenous power, the Satavahana Kingdom (first century B.C.-third century A.D.), rose in the Deccan in southern India.
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[29] The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE.[30]
.Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Kshatrapas, Abhiras, Vakatakas, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas,[31] before being ruled by the Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260.[32] Some of the oldest edifice in the city built during this period are, Jogeshwari Caves (520 to 525),[33] Elephanta Caves (sixth to seventh century),[34] Walkeshwar Temple (10th century),[35] and Banganga Tank (twelfth century).^ Some of the oldest edifices of the archipelago – the Elephanta Caves and the Walkeshwar temple complex date from this era.

^ Silhara dynasty • Bombay Presidency • Seven islands of Bombay • Elephanta Caves • Kanheri Caves • Banganga Tank • Old Bombay • Worli Fort • 1992-93 Mumbai Riots • 1993 Mumbai Bombings • 2006 Mumbai train bombings • Tanks • Growth of Mumbai • Timeline .

^ Football is the second most popular sport with the city clubs playing during the monsoons , when other outdoor sports cannot be played.

[36] .King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the 12th or 13th century, and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim).^ The Mughal Empire experienced dramatic reverses as regional governors broke away and founded independent kingdoms.
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^ Founded in 1336, the empire of Vijayanagar (named for its capital Vijayanagar, "City of Victory," in present-day Karnataka) expanded rapidly toward Madurai in the south and Goa in the west and exerted intermittent control over the east coast and the extreme southwest.
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[37] The Pathare Prabhus, one of the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat by Bhimdev.[38] .The Muslim rulers of Gujarat annexed the islands in 1348.[39] They were later governed by the Gujarat Sultanate from 1391 to 1534. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431.[40] From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan.^ The Hindu rulers of the Silhara Dynasty later governed the islands until 1343, when the kingdom of Gujarat annexed them.

^ In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat , naming them Bom Baia , Portuguese for "good bay".

^ Administrative controls and other aspects of government policy have discouraged many private investors from constructing housing units.
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[41][42] In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahamani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands, but was defeated.[43]
A white building with one minaret on an island seen at sunset
The Haji Ali Dargarh was built in 1431, when Mumbai was under the Gujarat Sultanate
.The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century.^ In fact, from the mid-seventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries, regionalism was the dominant theme of political or dynastic history of South Asia.
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^ The Deccan and the South During the Kushana Dynasty, an indigenous power, the Satavahana Kingdom (first century B.C.-third century A.D.), rose in the Deccan in southern India.
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^ This book is an interesting historical investigation into the life and career of a man who found himself on the periphery of Elizabethan power at the end of the 16th century, and embroiled in a variety of plots and conspiracies.

[44] .Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with Portuguese settlers on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the seven islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese.^ In 1534, the Portuguese appropriated the islands from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat , naming them Bom Baia , Portuguese for "good bay".

^ In 1717 a Mughal emissary signed a treaty with the Marathas confirming their claims to rule in the Deccan in return for acknowledging the fictional Mughal suzerainty and remission of annual taxes.
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^ In August 1971, India signed its Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation with the Soviet Union, and the United States and China sided with Pakistan in its December 1971 war with India.
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The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535.[45] The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay.[46] Some of the oldest Catholic churches in the city such as the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534),[47] St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579),[48] St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580),[49] and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632),[50] date from the Portuguese era. .On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the British Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles.^ They were ceded to Charles II of England in 1661, as dowry for Catherine de Braganza .

^ Although both were formerly part of the British Indian Empire, India and Pakistan became separate countries in 1947 and East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh in 1971.
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^ Foreign banks, mainly British and including some from such other parts of the empire as Hong Kong, provided banking and other services.
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[51] However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the British managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.[52]
.These islands were in turn leased to the British East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum by the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668.^ These islands, were in turn leased to the British East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £ 10 per annum .

^ The Navy The origins of the modern Indian navy are traced to a maritime force established by the East India Company in the seventeenth century.
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^ Although both were formerly part of the British Indian Empire, India and Pakistan became separate countries in 1947 and East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh in 1971.
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[53] .The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675.[54] The islands were subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan, the Siddi admiral of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672,[55] Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on 20 February 1673,[56] and Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673.[55] In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay.^ The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675; In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay.

^ Chinese forces attacked India on October 20, 1962.
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^ Unable to reach political accommodation on disputed territory along the 3,225-kilometer-long Himalayan border, the Chinese attacked India on October 20, 1962.
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.The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency.^ The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency .

^ The original clusters of fishing villages (Madras and Calcutta) or series of islands (Bombay) became headquarters of the British administrative zones, or presidencies as they generally came to be known.
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[57] .Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's establishments in India.^ The Oil and Natural Gas Commission was established in 1954 as a department of the Geological Survey of India, but a 1959 act of Parliament made it, in effect, the country's national oil company.
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^ Beginning with the Mayor's Court, established in 1727 for civil litigation in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras, justice in the interior came under the company's jurisdiction.
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^ If you're looking for The Bombay Company locations in your area you've come to the right place.
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[58] .Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90.[59] The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739.[60] By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India.^ After a year in office, Rao began again to centralize authority, and by the end of 1994, the Office of the Prime Minister had grown to be as powerful as it ever was under Rao's predecessors.
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^ Although most African-origin Indians are descendants of the large influx of slaves brought to western India in the seventeenth century, the first Africans reportedly arrived on the Konkani Coast in the first century A.D. as a result of the Arab slave trade, and there was an important African presence, including several short-term rulers, in Bengal in the fifteenth century.
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^ England did not follow France and Spain into despotic monarchy, and laid the foundations for its powerful position in the 18th and 19th centuries.

[61] .Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. With the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War.^ From approximately December 1978 until September 1999, Indonesia was in sufficient actual control of the territory to be considered an occupying power.
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^ In August 1971, India signed its Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation with the Soviet Union, and the United States and China sided with Pakistan in its December 1971 war with India.
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^ Controls over prices, production, and the use of foreign exchange, which were imposed by the British during World War II, were reinstated soon after independence.
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[62] .The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas through the Treaty of Purandar (1776),[63] and later through the Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.^ In 1717 a Mughal emissary signed a treaty with the Marathas confirming their claims to rule in the Deccan in return for acknowledging the fictional Mughal suzerainty and remission of annual taxes.
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^ In August 1971, India signed its Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation with the Soviet Union, and the United States and China sided with Pakistan in its December 1971 war with India.
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^ These warlike people first began to move into Afghanistan and Iran and later into India through the northwest.
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[64]
Ships in Bombay Harbour (c. 1731). Bombay emerged as a significant trading town during the mid-18th century
.From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass.^ From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass.

^ From 2006 onwards, Timor-Leste has had its own civil procedure code, which was largely adapted from the legal systems of countries such as Portugal and Brazil.
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^ Hanging Gardens in Mumbai Image:Mumbai Hanging Gardens.jpeg Nighttime view of the city from the hanging Gardens Present-day Mumbai was originally an archipelago of seven islands .

.This project, known as the Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1784.[6] In 1817, the British East India Company under Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in the Battle of Kirkee.^ This project, known as the Hornby Vellard , was completed by 1845, and resulted in the total area swelling to 438 km² .In 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the town of Thane .

^ By 1981 the government had purchased all of the Burmah Oil Company's assets in India and completely owned Oil India Limited.
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^ Under British company and crown rule (1757-1947), official education policies reinforced the preexisting elitist tendencies of South Asian education.
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[65] .Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came under British suzerainty, and were incorporated in Bombay Presidency.^ Beginning with the Mayor's Court, established in 1727 for civil litigation in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras, justice in the interior came under the company's jurisdiction.
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^ And to answer the follow up questions: Yes, I have been almost my whole 33 years; No, the Super Bowl was not fixed.

^ The Muslims came in response to a British-initiated colonization plan to bring under cultivation land left fallow by the Assamese.
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The success of the British campaign in the Deccan witnessed the freedom of Bombay from all attacks by native powers.[66] .By 1845, the seven islands were coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project.^ From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass.

^ This project, known as the Hornby Vellard , was completed by 1845, and resulted in the total area swelling to 438 km² .In 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the town of Thane .

[67] .On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thane.^ In 1851 the first electric telegraph line was laid in Bengal and soon linked Agra, Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, Varanasi, and other cities.
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^ In 1953, based on the recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission, Telugu-speaking areas were separated from the former Madras States to form Andhra, India's first state established along linguistic lines.
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^ Bombay, India's largest city, for example, had some 3,000 buses running on 339 routes and carrying 1.6 billion passengers per year in FY 1992.
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[68] .During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.^ During the American Civil War (1861-1865), the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy and subsequently enhancing the city's stature.

^ I guess Walsh would also have no problem with a Holocaust disbeliever teaching a survey course in World War II or a supporter of slavery teaching a Civil War class?

^ This is another novel mainly set on a Mediterranean island during World War II. Its tone is completely different from Captain Corelli’s mandolin though.

[69] .The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea.^ The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea .

^ The Narmada and the Tapti are the only major rivers that flow into the Arabian Sea.
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^ In February 1994, contracts were awarded for three offshore fields in the Arabian Sea to an Indian-United States consortium and one in the Bay of Bengal to an Indian-Australian-Japanese consortium.
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[70] .In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week.^ By the mid-1990s, the estimated birth rate had fallen to twenty-eight per 1,000, and the estimated death rate had fallen to ten per 1,000.
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^ The under-five mortality rate is 130 per 1,000 live births; maternal mortality is estimated at somewhere between 660 and 880 deaths per 100,000 live births.
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^ In 1993, about 169 million people were estimated to have watched Indian television each week, and, by 1994, it was reported that there were some 47 million households with televisions.
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[71] .About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected.^ However, industrial development brought about further influx of outsiders, and local people considered that they were not being hired in sufficient numbers.
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^ By 1990 there were more than 100,000 people employed by 3,000 companies in the electronics industry alone.
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^ More than 100,000 people fled their homes and settled in camps across East Timor when violence erupted in 2006.
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[72] .As the capital of the Bombay Presidency, it witnessed the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement in 1942 and the The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.^ After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay State .

^ As capital of the Bombay Presidency , it was a major base for the Indian independence movement , with the Quit India Movement called by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942 being its most rubric event.

^ Despite increases in energy costs and other pressures from the world economy, for most of the period since independence India has not experienced severe inflation.
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[73][74] .After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State.^ State and Union Territory capitals of India .

^ The president also can dismiss state and territory governments.
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^ After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay State .

.The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into Bombay State.^ Nehru's state visit to the Soviet Union in June 1955 was the first of its kind for an Indian prime minister.
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^ The khaki uniforms of the Indian Police Service officers are similar in all states, but headgear varies widely, especially among metropolitan areas.
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^ From the 1950s until 1991, India also had close trade links with the Soviet Union, but the breakup of that nation into fifteen independent states led to a decline of trade with the region.
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.Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State.^ After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay State .

^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ After 1955, when the State of Bombay was being reorganised along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, there was a demand that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state.

[75] .On April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District and Bombay City to form Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ An urban agglomeration forms a continuous urban spread and consists of a city or town and its urban outgrowth outside the statutory limits.
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^ Main article: Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai .

[76] .The geographical limits of revenue district of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of city of Greater Bombay.^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

.On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form 2 revenue districts namely, Mumbai City & Mumbai Suburban, though they are administered by same Municipal Administration.^ The appropriations and disbursements under their budgets are subject to the same form of parliamentary and audit control as other government revenues and expenditures.
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^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway , is composed of three separate networks running the length of the city, in a north-south direction.

[77]
A stone statue of torch-bearers as seen at night. A fountain with a white base is in the background
.
The Hutatma Chowk memorial, built to honour the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement.
^ However, the Samyukta Maharashtra movement opposed this, and insisted that Mumbai be declared the capital of Maharashtra.

(Flora Fountain is on its left in the background)
.In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state.^ The day after the collapse of the National Front government, Chandra Shekhar informed the president that by gaining the backing of the Congress (I) and its electoral allies he enjoyed the support of 280 members of the Lok Sabha, and he demanded the right to constitute a new government.
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^ As leader of the Justice Party, in 1944 Ramaswamy renamed the party the Dravida Kazhagam (DK--Dravidian Federation) and demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravidasthan.
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^ The city elects six members to the Lok Sabha and thirty-four members to the Maharashtra State Assembly .

[78] .In 1956, the States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for MaharashtraGujarat with Bombay as its capital.^ Following a successful protests in which 105 people were killed by police firing, Maharashtra state was formed with Mumbai as its capital on May 1 , 1960 .

^ They are found in Gujarat, Daman and Diu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and other states and union territories, where they are designated as Scheduled Tribe members.
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^ After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay State .

Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group comprising of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status.[79] .In the 1957 elections, the Samyukta Maharashtra movement opposed these proposals, and insisted that Bombay be declared the capital of Maharashtra.^ However, the Samyukta Maharashtra movement opposed this, and insisted that Mumbai be declared the capital of Maharashtra.

^ Bombay , is the capital of the state of Maharashtra , and the most populous city of India , with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006) [1] .

^ As capital of the Bombay Presidency , it was a major base for the Indian independence movement , with the Quit India Movement called by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942 being its most rubric event.

[80] .Following protests by the movement in which 105 people were killed by police at Flora Fountain, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960.[81] Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat.^ Following a successful protests in which 105 people were killed by police firing, Maharashtra state was formed with Mumbai as its capital on May 1 , 1960 .

^ After 1955, when the State of Bombay was being reorganised along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, there was a demand that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state.

^ About 20 percent of the total area is under cultivation, mostly in Haryana and Gujarat states, and comparatively little in Rajasthan.
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[82] .Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them.^ On the other hand, adjacent Himachal Pradesh, which consists of Himalayan districts formerly in Punjab or in associated princely states, became a state in 1948.
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^ The central and state budgets consist of a budget for current expenditures, known as the budget on revenue account, and a capital budget for economic and social development expenditures.
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^ The empire was divided into provinces, districts, and villages governed by a host of centrally appointed local officials, who replicated the functions of the central administration.
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[83] .As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square), and a memorial was erected.^ However, the Samyukta Maharashtra movement opposed this, and insisted that Mumbai be declared the capital of Maharashtra.

[84]
The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. .In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed.^ By the late 1960s, many policy makers believed that the high rate of population growth was the greatest obstacle to economic development.
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[85] .The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was set up on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region.^ The modernization of the telephone system has been underway since 1986 when Mahanagar Telephone Nigam, a government corporation, was established to operate systems in Bombay and New Delhi, and Videsh Sanchar Nigam, also government owned, was set up as the overseas carrier.
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^ The Agricultural Prices Commission--in 1993 called the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices--was set up to advise the government on agricultural prices, keeping in view the interests of both the consumer and the producer.
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^ Government was assigned an important role in this process, and since 1951 a series of plans have guided the country's economic development.
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[86] .In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population.^ It was believed that public ownership of basic industry was necessary to ensure development in the interest of the whole population.
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^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ The late 1970s witnessed a construction boom and a significant influx of migrants, which saw Bombay overtake Calcutta as India’s most populous city.

[87] .The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55–60% of India's containerized cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city.^ The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675; In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay.

^ With its unique topography, Mumbai has one of the best natural harbours in the world, handling 50% of the country's passenger traffic, and much of India's cargo.

^ Nehru's Legacy Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), India's first prime minister, was the chief architect of domestic and foreign policies between 1947 and 1964.
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[88]
.The past two decades have seen an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city.^ In the past decade, arms enabled and exacerbated communal violence, particularly in 1999 and 2006.
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^ In fact, this year's increase nationwide was the largest in two decades.

^ In the past decade, usage of interstates rose by more than 30%, according to the Department of Transportation, while additions of routes and added lanes increased capacity by only 4%.

.Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed.^ The per-hectare yield increased more than 262 percent between 1950 and 1992.
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^ For example, Japan, had nearly seventy-five per 10,000, South Korea had more than thirty-seven per 10,000, and China had 5.6 per 10,000.
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^ Voluntary organizations also have thrived on foreign donations, which in 1991-92 contributed more than US$400 million to some 15,000 organizations.
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[89] .On 12 March 1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries.^ A few months later, on March 12 , simultaneous bombings at several city landmarks by the Mumbai underworld killed around three hundred people.

^ The 14-year-old girl was repeatedly raped, then shot to death in her home March 12.

^ In March 1993, the Bombay Stock Exchange and other prominent places in the city were shaken, and some 200 people were killed by bombs that the central government alleges were placed by members of India's criminal underworld at the behest of Pakistan's intelligence service.
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[90] .In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains.^ A few months later, on March 12 , simultaneous bombings at several city landmarks by the Mumbai underworld killed around three hundred people.

^ During the following week, riots spread throughout the countryside, killing some 1,700 people.
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^ Eight bombs exploded in first-class compartments of packed Bombay commuter trains Tuesday, killing 190 people and wounding hundreds in a well-coordinated terror attack on the heart of a city that embodies India's global ambitions.

[91] .In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to a couple of heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels.^ In addition, seventy-nine police firings resulted in twenty-three deaths according to official figures, the education system was shut down, and examinations were cancelled.
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^ Lusa Oct 2008 East Timor: Arms and ammunition are destroyed this week - Nearly ten thousand illegal weapons and ammunition will be destroyed next Friday at three different locations, the prime minister of East Timor, Xanana Gusmão announced yesterday .
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^ The news of Indira Gandhi's assassination plunged New Delhi and other parts of India into anti-Sikh riots for three days; several thousand Sikhs were killed.
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[92] .Today, Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub.^ With the onset of economic reform, India's banks were experiencing major financial losses as the result of low productivity, bad loans, and poor capitalization.
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[93] .For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment.^ Some steam servicing facilities remain at Marceline, Walt Disney's home town and supposedly the prototype for the Main Street portion of Disney theme parks.

^ Caste has long existed in India, but in the modern period it has been severely criticized by both Indian and foreign observers.
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^ Foreign Economic Relations Aid Since independence India has had to draw on foreign investments to finance part of its economic development.
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[94] .From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia's largest city and home of the world's most prolific film industry.^ The ancient culture of South Asia, going back at least 4,500 years, has come down to India primarily in the form of religious texts.
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^ Although the prestige stemmed from India's nonaligned stance, the nation was unable to prevent Cold War politics from becoming intertwined with interstate relations in South Asia.
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^ A combination of Western commercial contacts and English-language education during the colonial period made the Parsis arguably the most cosmopolitan community in India.
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[95]

Geography

Mumbai is on a narrow peninsula on the southwest of Salsette Island, which lies between the Arabian Sea to the west, Thane Creek to the east, and Vasai Creek to the north. Mumbai's suburban district occupies most of the island. <a name=.Navi Mumbai is east of Thane Creek, and the Thane District is north of Vasai Creek."^ Public buses run by the BEST (an autonomous body under the BMC) cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai and Thane .

^ Nagpur • Amravati • Chandrapur • Thane • Mumbai • Navi Mumbai • Pune • Ahmednagar • Aurangabad • Kolhapur • Solapur • Jalgaon • .

^ Flora and fauna of Mumbai • Powai Lake • Vihar Lake • Tulsi Lake • Thane Creek • River Ulhas • Gilbert Hill • Malabar Hill • Salsette Island • Mumbai Harbour • Middle Ground • Weather • Beaches • South Mumbai • Navi Mumbai • CIDCO .

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Map of Mumbai
.Mumbai is located at 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.9750°N 72.8258°E / 18.9750; 72.8258 in the Indian state of Maharashtra.^ Following a successful protests in which 105 people were killed by police firing, Maharashtra state was formed with Mumbai as its capital on May 1 , 1960 .

^ Mumbai is located on the west coast of Maharashtra .

^ Those with the smallest rural populations proportionately were the states of Gujarat (65.5 percent), Maharashtra (61.3 percent), Goa (58.9 percent), and Mizoram (53.9 percent).
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[96] .Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban District, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra.^ It consists of two distinct regions — the city and the suburbs, which also form two separate districts of Maharashtra.

^ By that year, among cities of the world, Bombay (or Mumbai, in Marathi), in Maharashtra, ranked seventh in the world at 12.6 million, and Calcutta, in West Bengal, ranked eighth at almost 11 million.
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^ The central government decided to ignore the recommendation to establish a separate Telangana state and, instead, merged the two regions into a unified Andhra Pradesh.
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[97] .The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City.^ The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City [10] .

^ These groups--commonly referred to as Naxalites--sparked new uprisings in the Srikakulam region of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, and other parts of West Bengal.
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[98] The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi),[99] , with the area of 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi), the Island City spanning 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi) and the suburban district spanning 370 km2 (143 sq mi), coming under the administration of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation(BMC) while remaining area belongs to Defence, Mumbai Port Trust, Atomic Energy Commision and Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the BMC.[100]
.Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan.^ Mumbai is located on Shasti Island , which lies at the mouth of Ulhas River off the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan .

^ In some regions, particularly among the high-ranking Rajputs of western India, clans are hierarchically ordered.
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^ The source of the Godavari is northeast of Bombay (Mumbai in the local Marathi language) in the state of Maharashtra, and the river follows a southeasterly course for 1,400 kilometers to its mouth on the Andhra Pradesh coast.
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It sits on Salsette Island, partially shared with the Thane district.[101] Mumbai is surrounded by the Arabian Sea to the west.[102] .Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft);[103] the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft).^ Much of Mumbai is at sea level , and the average elevation ranges from 10 to 15 metres .

^ For just in excess of $10 including sales tax, I found one with somewhat more robust legs (the parts of the old one that went first.

^ The Outer or Southern Himalayas, averaging 900 to 1,200 meters in elevation, lie between the Lesser Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
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[104] .Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly,[105] and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai-Kanheri ranges.^ The northern part of Mumbai is hilly, and the highest point of the city is at 450 metres (1,450 feet ) [8] .

^ Image:Knesset Eliyahoo.jpg Knesset Eliyahoo, a 150 year old Jewish Synagogue in Fort, Mumbai Hiranandani Complex in Powai is an upmarket area in the northern suburbs.

^ Hotel city Point Searched by Harshal Chinchore map Ismail Begmohammad High School - Mohd Ali Road, Mumbai.

[106] .Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivili National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).^ Area of this national park is 104 sq km, one-fourth of the area of Mumbai which is about 450 sq km.

^ The last resort The Sanjay Gandhi National Park is situated between the Eastern and Western Express Highways and can be accessed from Thane, Mulund, Borivili and other places, though its headquarters are on the Borivili side.

^ The Sanjay Gandhi National Park is the city's last surviving sanctuary of hope.

[107]
.Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai.^ The Tulsi and Vihar lakes situated within the park are major sources of water supply to Mumbai and Thane.

^ Palaces for each of Akbar's senior queens, a huge artificial lake, and sumptuous water-filled courtyards were built there.
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^ The remnants of two major cities--Mohenjo-daro and Harappa--reveal remarkable engineering feats of uniform urban planning and carefully executed layout, water supply, and drainage.
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[108] .Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city's limits.^ Three lakes are located within the metropolitan limits — the Tulsi Lake , Vihar Lake and Powai Lake .

^ Mumbai also has three small rivers within the city limits originating in the National Park.

^ The Sanjay Gandhi National Park is the city's last surviving sanctuary of hope.

[109] .The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes.^ The Tulsi and Vihar lakes situated within the park are major sources of water supply to Mumbai and Thane.

^ Three lakes are located within the metropolitan limits — the Tulsi Lake , Vihar Lake and Powai Lake .

^ Electric Power The electric power industry is both a supplier and a consumer of primary energy, depending on the kind of energy used to turn the generators.
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[110] .Three small rivers, the Dahisar River, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes.^ The Tulsi and Vihar lakes situated within the park are major sources of water supply to Mumbai and Thane.

^ Three lakes are located within the metropolitan limits — the Tulsi Lake , Vihar Lake and Powai Lake .

^ Mumbai also has three small rivers within the city limits originating in the National Park.

[111] .The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from Thane creek on the eastern to Madh Marve on the western front.^ The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays .

^ The Western Naval Command is headquartered in Bombay on the Arabian Sea; the Southern Naval Command in Kochi (Cochin), in Kerala, also on the Arabian Sea; and the Eastern Naval Command in Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, on the Bay of Bengal.
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[112] .The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.^ The Eastern Ghats receive less rainfall than the western coast.
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[113]
.Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea.^ Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea.

^ The Western Railway runs along the western region of the city, while the Central Railway covers most of the central and northeast parts of the metropolis.

^ However, the region also has many farming areas that are covered by thin, light-textured soils that suffer quickly from drought.
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.In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy.^ In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy .

[114] .The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras.^ The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acid and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras .

^ Major regional languages have stylized literary forms, often with an extensive body of literature, which may date back from a few centuries to two millennia ago.
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^ Incidentally, the code for the CDs I’m listening to is Archiv 463 725-2, all the recordings feature The English Concert with Trevor Pinnock and date back to the early 80s.

[115] .Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity.^ Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone [9] owing to the presence of three fault lines in the vicinity.

[116] .The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region,[117] which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.^ The area is classified as a Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter scale may be expected.

^ In May 1987, after the Sri Lankan government attempted to regain control of the Jaffna region, in the extreme northern area of the island, by means of an economic blockade and military action, India supplied food and medicine by air and sea to the region.
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[118]

Climate

The average temperature ranges between 23°C in January to 30°C in May. <a name=.Rainfall is at or near zero from November through May, then quickly rises to a peak of about 600 mm in July, falling back more gradually."^ May 2005 June 2005 July 2005 August 2005 September 2005 October 2005 November 2005 December 2005 January 2006 February 2006 March 2006 April 2006 May 2006 June 2006 July 2006 August 2006 September 2006 October 2006 November 2006 .

^ All may yet change as I’m only about half-way through.

^ Two or more tokens may rest on the same space at the same time, though the richer player has the option of forcing the the poorer player to move back one neighborhood.

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Average temperature and precipitation in Mumbai
.Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July.^ Main article: Weather of Mumbai The climate of the city, being in the tropical zone , and near the Arabian Sea , may be broadly classified into two main seasons — the humid season, and the dry season.

[119] .The cold season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June.^ May 2005 June 2005 July 2005 August 2005 September 2005 October 2005 November 2005 December 2005 January 2006 February 2006 March 2006 April 2006 May 2006 June 2006 July 2006 August 2006 September 2006 October 2006 November 2006 .

^ Four seasons: relatively dry, cool winter December to February; dry, hot summer March to May; southwest monsoon June to September when predominating southwest maritime winds bring rains to most of country; and northeast, or retreating, monsoon October and November.
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^ The Indian Meteorological Service divides the year into four seasons: the relatively dry, cool winter from December through February; the dry, hot summer from March through May; the southwest monsoon from June through September when the predominating southwest maritime winds bring rains to most of the country; and the northeast, or retreating, monsoon of October and November.
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.The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.^ Four seasons: relatively dry, cool winter December to February; dry, hot summer March to May; southwest monsoon June to September when predominating southwest maritime winds bring rains to most of country; and northeast, or retreating, monsoon October and November.
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^ The Indian Meteorological Service divides the year into four seasons: the relatively dry, cool winter from December through February; the dry, hot summer from March through May; the southwest monsoon from June through September when the predominating southwest maritime winds bring rains to most of the country; and the northeast, or retreating, monsoon of October and November.
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^ The southwest monsoon usually breaks on the west coast early in June and reaches most of South Asia by the first week in July (see fig.
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[120] .Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city.^ The monsoon rains lash the city between June and September, and supply most of the city's annual rainfall of 2,200 mm (85 in ).

^ Rainfall: The south west monsoon bursts about mid June and continues with great gusto till September.

^ The southwest monsoon usually breaks on the west coast early in June and reaches most of South Asia by the first week in July (see fig.
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Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. .Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November.^ By November 18, the Chinese had penetrated close to the outskirts of Tezpur, Assam, a major frontier town nearly fifty kilometers from the Assam-North-East Frontier Agency border.
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^ Labels: east timor security update october - november 2008 .
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^ Peninsular India The east and west coasts, the coastal plains, and the deltaic tracts that extend inland for some 100 to 200 kilometers in Peninsular India benefit from both the June-to-September southwest monsoon and the October-to-November northeast monsoon.
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.The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 millimetres (135.9 in) in 1954.[121] The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 millimetres (37.17 in) on 26 July 2005.[122] The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 millimetres (84.51 in) in the Island City, and 2,457 millimetres (96.73 in) in the suburbs.^ The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37.16 in) on 2005-07-26 .

^ The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (135.89 in) in 1954 [11] .

^ From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass.

[121]
.The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81.0 °F), and the average annual precipitation is 216.7 centimetres (85.31 in).^ Temperature : The mean annual temperature is 27'C with a range of 15'C-35'C over the period.

[123] In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88.2 °F), while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (74.7 °F). .In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) to 33.3 °C (91.9 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) to 26.2 °C (79.2 °F).^ The rest, the "districts", is a country of mountain ranges for which the Neolithic is the daily life, far from the acceptable human minimum.
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^ Temperature : The mean annual temperature is 27'C with a range of 15'C-35'C over the period.

[121] The record high is 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) on 28 March 1982,[124] and the record low is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F) on 27 January 1962.[125]

Economy

.
A skyscraper with curved walls and glass panes.</span><span class=^ Main article: Economy of Mumbai The Bombay Stock Exchange index reflects investor confidence in the economy of India .

^ Main article: Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai .

^ Main article: Mumbai culture Mumbai is always in a state of flux as depicted here outside the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus station.

A round building and a tree seen on its right side" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/2/1/4/6542923281637499.jpg" width="170" height="227" class="thumbimage" />
The Bombay Stock Exchange is the oldest stock exchange in Asia
.Mumbai is India's largest city and is considered the financial capital of the country as it generates 5% of the total GDP.^ Mumbai also plays Rugby, one of the few cities to do so in the country.

^ The largest tribes are found in central India, although the tribal population there accounts for only around 10 percent of the region's total population.
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^ With the onset of economic reform, India's banks were experiencing major financial losses as the result of low productivity, bad loans, and poor capitalization.
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[8][93] .It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and Rs. 40 billion (US$ 880 million) in corporate taxes.^ Mumbai contributes 10% of India's factory employment, 40% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of foreign trade and Rupees 40 billion ( US$ 9 billion) in corporate taxes [13] .

^ There was a highly centralized and hierarchical government with a large staff, which regulated tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial arts, mining, vital statistics, welfare of foreigners, maintenance of public places including markets and temples, and prostitutes.
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^ In FY 1990, the balance of trade deficit reached a record level in rupees (Rs106.5 billion) and in dollars (US$6 billion).
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[127] .Mumbai's GDP is Rs 200,483 crore (US$ 43.91 billion),[128] and its per-capita income is Rs. 128,000 (US$ 2,800)[5], which is almost three times the national average.^ Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes [16] is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and Deonar in the east.

^ The national average was Rs16.50 per hectare.
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^ The CEG is a three-year US$ 700,000 initiative of the Women Parliamentarians' Caucus, or the Grupo das Mulheres Parlamentares de Timor-Leste (GMPTL), a women's lobby within the National Parliament.
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[67] .Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen and Toubro, Reserve Bank of India, State Bank of India, LIC, Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance),[93] and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai.^ Many of the most highly regarded works have been published in both India and the United States.
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^ The Reserve Bank of India was formed in 1935 as a private bank, but it also carried out some central bank functions.
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^ Pages 122-43 in Ross Babbage and Sandy Gordon, eds., India's Strategic Future: Regional State or Global Power?
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[129] .Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have branches in this area,[93] with the World Trade Centre being the most prominent one.^ Many bank branches were opened in rural areas.
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^ You also probably know that the monster's attitude to life is initially not a hostile one, and you know he suffers from being misunderstood by the world around him.

^ One doesn't have to knock down the repeater towers, a side effect of the World Trade Center attack, to disrupt the network.

[130] .Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology.^ Up until the 1980s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include financial services , engineering , diamond polishing, healthcare and information technology .

^ Ruia Signal map PK's House map Imax Adlabs Multiplex map Dept.Of Educational Technology map Morarjee Textile Mills map Cams ISC Mumbai map Gadgil''s Residence map .

^ Deficient in funds and authority, the panchayats in most states were largely inactive until the late 1970s.
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[131] .As of 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities.^ New Delhi ranks among the ten most polluted cities in the world, according to the World Health Organization.
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^ By that year, among cities of the world, Bombay (or Mumbai, in Marathi), in Maharashtra, ranked seventh in the world at 12.6 million, and Calcutta, in West Bengal, ranked eighth at almost 11 million.
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[132]
.
India's 300 million strong middle-class population is growing at an annual rate of 5%.
^ Increasingly conspicuous in India's cities are the growing ranks of the middle class.
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^ Society Population: 936,545,814 estimated in July 1995, with 1.8 percent annual growth rate.
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^ The total number of Christians in India according to the 1991 census was 19.6 million, or 2.3 percent of the population.
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[133] Shown here is an upmarket residential area of Mumbai.
.State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce.^ Mumbai’s status as the state capital means that state and federal government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce.

^ The structure of state governments is similar to that of the central government.
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^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

.Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions.^ Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions.

^ Many in the urban unorganized sector are self-employed laborers, street vendors, petty traders, and other services providers who receive little income.
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^ In 1981 there were 195.1 million rural workers: 55.4 million were agricultural laborers who depended primarily on casual farm work for a livelihood.
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.The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India.^ Mumbai is well connected by the Indian Railways to most parts of India .

^ Dine at one of the most well known eateries of Mumbai.

^ The late 1970s witnessed a construction boom and a significant influx of migrants, which saw Bombay overtake Calcutta as India’s most populous city.

[134] .In Dharavi, in central Mumbai, there is an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.^ There is no single set of criteria defining the middle class, and estimates of its numbers vary widely.
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^ Because if Wal-Mart is just going to build on the other side of the street, can't city residents simply walk across the street to work there?"

^ (On the other hand, we may have more precise estimating methods as part of the quest for theoretically pure data that yields the right results.

[135]
.Most of India's major television and satellite networks, as well as its major publishing houses, are headquartered in Mumbai.^ Mumbai is well connected by the Indian Railways to most parts of India .

^ Most of India's major television and satellite networks are headquartered in Mumbai, as well as its major publishing houses.

^ Most television sets are produced in India.
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.The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood, is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest in the world.^ The city is home to India's Hindi film and television industry , known as Bollywood .

^ The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood , is also located in Mumbai, along with its largest studios and movie production houses.

^ High levels of textile production--making India the world's leading producer and exporter of textiles before 1800--were the result of refinements in spinning technology.
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[136][137] .Along with the rest of India, Mumbai, its commercial capital, has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in 2000s.^ However, one optimistic sign, noted by India's minister of finance in March 1995, was that exports had come to finance 90 percent of India's imports, compared with only 60 percent in the mid-1980s.
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^ Electronics and Motor Vehicles The engineering sector is large and varied and provides around 12 percent of India's exports in the mid-1990s.
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^ The late 1970s witnessed a construction boom and a significant influx of migrants, which saw Bombay overtake Calcutta as India’s most populous city.

[138] .Mumbai has been ranked 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008.[139] In April 2008, Mumbai was ranked seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes magazine,[140] and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth.^ Milwaukee ranked 48th among the nation's 50 biggest cities in a University of Kansas index that rates each city's economic prospects according to its volume of research grants, venture capital and stock offerings in new companies.

^ In fact, I think I'll do a 'top ten things that traumatized me' list in the next few days, so start pondering yours, but save them for Trauma Day.

^ New Delhi ranks among the ten most polluted cities in the world, according to the World Health Organization.
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[141]

Civic administration

A brown building with a central tower and sloping roofs surrounded by trees. A grassy ground and a coconut tree are in front of it.
The Bombay High Court exercises jurisdiction over Maharashtra, Goa, Daman and Diu, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli
.In the context of the Indian Constitution, local government bodies are the subject of the State List and are thereby governed by State Statutes.^ Article 42 of the constitution, an amendment added in 1976, transferred education from the state list of responsibilities to the central government.
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^ Appointments are subject to political jockeying, and state governments have control over grants and other forms of recognition.
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^ Constitution allows central control of state government (President's Rule) during time of emergency on recommendation of governor.
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.Mumbai, extending from Colaba in the south to Mulund, Mankhurd, and Dahisar in the north, is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation)[102].^ By the 1770s, Sikh hegemony extended from the Indus in the west to the Yamuna in the east, from Multan in the south to Jammu in the north.
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.The BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis.^ The BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis.

[142] the .Mayor in the Municipal Corporation is usually chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years.^ The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the twenty four municipal wards [14] , five nominated Councillors, and a titular Mayor .

^ Elections are staggered so that one-third of the members are elected every two years.
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^ Members of the council are selected through a combination of direct election, indirect election, and nomination.
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.The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation.^ The state governor appoints a commissioner who acts as the chief executive of the municipal corporation.
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^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ The Research and Analysis Wing includes officers from the armed services and also has a chief military intelligence adviser.
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.All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government.^ State governments have extensive powers over almost all of their internal affairs.
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^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ The state governor appoints a commissioner who acts as the chief executive of the municipal corporation.
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.Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies.^ The state governor appoints a commissioner who acts as the chief executive of the municipal corporation.
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^ The 26 percent of the population living in urban areas are governed by municipal corporations and municipal councils.
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^ As in the British parliamentary model, the leadership of the executive is drawn from and responsible to the legislative body.
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.The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute.^ The state governor appoints a commissioner who acts as the chief executive of the municipal corporation.
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.The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

[143]
.The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector.^ The metropolitan area forms two districts of Maharashtra, with each district under the jurisdiction of a District Collector .

^ In essence, the former revenue collectors of the Mughal period (1526-1858) became landlords under the British.
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^ The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry.

[144] .The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.^ Starting in the late 1980s, the central government began a salt iodinization program for all edible salt, and by 1991 record production--2.5 million tons--of iodized salt had been achieved.
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^ Only during the governments of the Janata Party (1977-79) and the National Front (1989-90) have they participated in forming the central government.
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^ Cities as Centers Cosmopolitan cities are the great hubs of commerce and government upon which the nation's functioning depends.
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[145]
.The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an IPS officer.^ The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner , who is an IPS officer.

^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ The group also reportedly punched Benny Santoso Pandiangan, a police officer who happened to be on site and tried to stop the group from chasing Sugeng earlier.
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.The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry.^ The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry.

^ The Home Guards are a voluntary force raised by state and territory governments under the guidance of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
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^ The directorate also works closely with states to provide agricultural marketing services that constitutionally come under state purview.
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[146] .The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones,[100] each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police.^ "He has no problem with the $100-a-head event for a man convicted last month of rigging city hiring to benefit pro-Daley armies of political workers.

^ Under the inspector general are a number of police "ranges" composed of three to six districts, headed by deputy inspectors general.
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^ Contingents of armed police are divided into two groups, the district armed police and the Provincial Armed Constabulary.
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[147] The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. .The Mumbai Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers.^ The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner , who is an IPS officer.

^ Sumedh Pundkar map Bandra Fire Brigade Mumbai map ......

^ Another son of Shiva and Parvati is Ganesh, or Ganapati, the Lord of the Ganas (the hosts of Shiva), who has a male human's body with four arms and the head of an elephant.
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[100]
.Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.^ Some high courts serve more than one state or union territory.
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^ State and Union Territory capitals of India .

^ Each high court is a court of record exercising original and appellate jurisdiction within its respective state or territory.
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[148] .Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.^ Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.

^ A sessions judge presides over criminal cases.
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^ Lesser criminal cases are entrusted to the courts of subordinate magistrates functioning under the supervisory authority of a district magistrate.
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[149] .Mumbai also has a special TADA (Terrorist and Disruptive Activities) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.^ The National Security Act of 1980, the National Security Amendment Act of 1984, the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act of 1985 (which was renewed in 1987 and suspended in 1995), and the Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act of 1990 are the most significant laws in force.
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^ In the state of Tripura, tribal peoples organized under the leadership of the Tripura National Front were also responsible for terrorist activity.
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^ By June 30, 1994, more than 76,000 persons throughout India had been arrested under the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act.
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[150]

Politics

Men in traditional Indian dresses posing for a photograph
First session of the Indian National Congress in Bombay (28–31 December 1885)
.Mumbai has been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party.^ Generally, Brahmans supported the phenomenon known as Sanskritization, or the inclusion of local or regional traditions within Sanskrit literary models and pan-Indian cultural motifs.
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^ Entrance to the Sanjay Gandhi National park was earlier known as Borivli National Park in Mumbai (formerly Bombay).

^ The internal party democracy and the Congress's subsequent electoral success ultimately reinforced the local power of these traditional elites and enabled the party to adjust to changes in local balances of power.
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[151] .The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885.[152] The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century.^ The National Conference, based in Jammu and Kashmir, is a regional party, which, despite its overwhelmingly Muslim following, refused to support the All-India Muslim League (Muslim League--see Glossary) during the independence movement; instead it allied itself with the Indian National Congress.
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^ In the last years before his assassination in 1948, Gandhi's idiosyncratic program fell out of step with the modernization paradigm of Nehru and the leadership of an independent India, and his ideas became a background theme within Indian political economy.
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^ Football is the second most popular sport with the city clubs playing during the monsoons , when other outdoor sports cannot be played.

[153] .The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Maharashtra.^ This gave rise to unrest in Marathi speaking people in Mumbai and consequently Shiv Sena , a political outfit safeguarding the rights of 'sons of soil' was formed in 1966.The city's secular fabric was torn apart in 1992, after large scale sectarian violence caused extensive loss of life and property.

^ If you happen to be feeling a bit nostalgic about your home-town, what better cure than to check out this selection of Wellington web-cams ?

^ All that he remembers is that he was born in 1966, and only found out later the month of his birth because he learnt that in his family three children born about the same time.
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[154] .The party headed a campaign to expel South Indian and North Indian migrants by force.^ Political Mercenaries and Citizen Soldiers: A Profile of North Indian Party Activities.
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[155] .The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay municipal corporation elections.^ The Congress dominated Indian politics from independence until 1967.
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^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ Yet, as political scientist Myron Weiner observed, "The Congress party that won in 1980 was not the Congress party that had governed India in the 1950s and 1960s, or even the early 1970s.
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[156] .In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly elections.^ In state elections held in 1987, Farooq's political party, the National Conference, forged an alliance with Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I), which won a majority in the state elections.
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^ The Bharatiya Janata Party and the Rise of Hindu Nationalism The BJP is unique among India's political parties in that neither it nor its political predecessors were ever associated with the Congress.
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^ Anti-incumbent sentiment is just as strong at the state level, where the ruling parties of all political persuasions in India's major states lost eleven of thirteen legislative assembly elections held from 1991 through spring 1995.
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.In 1999, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) separated from the Congress, but later allied with the Congress, to form a joint venture known as the Democratic Front.^ Although the Congress (I) remained the largest party in Parliament with 197 seats, it was unable to form a government.
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^ Instead, the Ja-nata Dal, which had 143 seats, united with its National Front allies to form a minority government precariously dependent on the support of the BJP (eighty-five seats) and the communist parties (forty-five seats).
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^ In Kerala the CPI (M) in coalition with other parties wrested control from the Congress and its allies (frequently including the CPI) in 1967, in 1980, and in 1987.
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[157] .Currently, other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city.^ In the general elections of 1991, the BJP expanded its support more than did any other party.
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^ Almost all the state political parties field candidates in the elections for Councillors.

^ In the November 1993 Uttar Pradesh state elections, Ram's BSP achieved the best showing of any Dalit-based party by winning sixty-seven seats.
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[158]
.In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: Mumbai North, Mumbai North West, Mumbai North East, Mumbai North Central, Mumbai South Central, and Mumbai South.^ India chaired the five-member Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission while the Indian Custodian Force supervised the process of interviews and repatriation that followed.
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^ After two years of fighting and the loss of at least 200 lives, the government of West Bengal and the central government finally agreed on an autonomous hill district.
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^ Stonehouse spent her holiday in Los Angeles, a trip she makes five or six times a year.

[159] .A Member of Parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies.^ Sanjay Gandhi was elected to the Lok Sabha.
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^ Constitution of 1950 in force but much amended; power concentrated in Parliament with upper house--Rajya Sabha (Council of States)--appointed by president and elected by state and territory assemblies and lower house--Lok Sabha (House of the People)--popularly elected.
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^ This procedure favors the Lok Sabha because it has more than twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha.
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.In the 2009 national elections, out of the six parliamentary constituencies, five were won by the Congress, and one by the NCP.[160] In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.^ He denied nominations to one-third of the incumbent members of Parliament during the 1984 Lok Sabha campaign, and he refused to nominate two of every five incumbents in the state legislative assembly elections held in March 1985.
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^ Regional parties, such as the Telugu Desam Party (Telugu National Party), the DMK, and the Asom Gana Pa-rishad (AGP--Assam People's Assembly), together formed the National Front, led by Janata Dal, which defeated Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) in the 1989 parliamentary elections.
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^ It is cited that it could take up to five years to transform the national psychology from when anti-corruption initiatives are launched.
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[161][162] .A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies.^ The city elects six members to the Lok Sabha and thirty-four members to the Maharashtra State Assembly .

^ He denied nominations to one-third of the incumbent members of Parliament during the 1984 Lok Sabha campaign, and he refused to nominate two of every five incumbents in the state legislative assembly elections held in March 1985.
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^ Members of the assembly serve five-year terms after being chosen by direct elections from local constituencies.
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.In the 2009 state assembly elections, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 17 were won by the Congress, 6 by the MNS, 5 by the BJP, 4 by the Shiv Sena, and 1 by SP.[163] Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the BMC.[164] The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a Mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial.^ Every year she used to put out flowers for me in the ceremony for the dead.
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^ He denied nominations to one-third of the incumbent members of Parliament during the 1984 Lok Sabha campaign, and he refused to nominate two of every five incumbents in the state legislative assembly elections held in March 1985.
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^ Semi-presidentialism is an increasingly popular constitutional model which combines a directly elected president with significant powers as well as a prime minister chosen by the legislature.
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[165][166][167] .In the 2007 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 111 seats, holding power in the BMC, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 85 seats.^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the twenty four municipal wards [14] , five nominated Councillors, and a titular Mayor .

^ The process culminated in April 1992 at the All-India Congress (I) Committee at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, where elections were held for the ten vacant seats in the Congress Working Committee.
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[168] .The tenure of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.^ You know, I lived in Holland for two and a half years, so it’s a special pleasure.

^ The security issue: JH: Do you think that East Timor is today an area more secure and stable than it was years ago and a half or two years?
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^ Mayor • Police Commissioner • Municipal Commissioner • Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation • Mumbai Police • Wards • Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport • Demographics • Water sources • Bombay High Court .

[169]

Transport

Public Transport

.Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries.^ Main article: Public transport in Mumbai BEST buses form an integral part of the city's transport system.

^ More than 80 percent of the supplies of grain to the Public Distribution System is provided by Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh.
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^ Food grains supplied through the Public Distribution System amounted to 7.8 million tons in FY 1971, 13.0 million tons in FY 1981, and 17.0 million tons in FY 1991.
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.Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008.[170] Black and yellow metered taxis traverse most of the metropolis.^ Black and yellow-metered taxis, accommodating up to four passengers, cover most of the metropolis.

^ The group was seen moving around the residence of the police officer, about 100 meters with the taxis whose lights were off.
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^ There are also unregulated bus services in some cities as well as extensive suburban and interurban and rural bus services.
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.Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai.^ Auto rickshaws , allowed to operate only in the suburban areas, are the main form of hired transport here.

^ The islands, only ten of which are inhabited, are spread throughout an area of approximately 77,000 square kilometers.
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^ BEST • Mumbai Suburban Railway • Central Railway • Western Railway • Harbour Line • Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport • Juhu Aerodrome • Auto rickshaw .

[171] .Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on Compressed Natural Gas,[172] and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.^ The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway , is composed of three separate networks running the length of the city, in a north-south direction.

^ The law requires that gas at the pump be at least 9.18% above the price at the terminal.

^ Mark Green of Green Bay, who is running against Doyle, said Green would support changing the markup law if doing so would lower gas prices.

[171] .Mumbai had about 1.53 million vehicles in 2008,[173] 56,459 black and yellow taxis, and 1,02,224 auto rickshaws, as of 2005.[174] Navi Mumbai's NMMT also operate its Volvo buses in Mumbai.^ The population of Mumbai is about 13 million, with a density of about 29,000 persons per square kilometre .

^ Auto rickshaws , allowed to operate only in the suburban areas, are the main form of hired transport here.

^ What you need to know about riding a Mumbai taxi so you are not "taken for a ride".

.The buses operate from Navi Mumbai to Bandra, Dindoshi & Borivali.^ Public buses run by the BEST (an autonomous body under the BMC) cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai and Thane .

[175]

Road

A red bus on a road. Blue letters are seen on its side
A Modern BEST bus (Starbus). BEST buses carry a total of 4.5 million passengers daily
.Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4 and National Highway 8 of India's National Highways system.^ A more critical account of India's education system has been compiled by UNESCO's Asia-Pacific Program of Education for All and published in National Studies: India .
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^ The Ministry of State for Surface Transport administers the national highway system, and state highways and other state roads are maintained by state public works departments.
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^ As Mr Staley notes, This highway system served the needs of the mid-20th century city well when most people still worked and lived in the central city.

[176] .The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India,[177] while the Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway is under construction.^ Mumbai is classified as a metropolis of India, under the jurisdiction of the BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation .

^ India's first hydroelectric station was constructed in 1897 in Darjiling (then Darjeeling).
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[178] .Recently, the Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge was opened, which along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs.^ Invaders from central and western Asia are considered by some historians to have been the "destroyers" of Harappan cities, but this view is open to reinterpretation.
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^ Mary's School, ICSE (Mazagaon) map Saifee Hospital map Road Side Diamond Market map Sterling Cinema map Victoria Church and High School map Bombay Scotish Scool map Hinduja hospital OPD and MRI centre, mumbai map Mahim Railway Station map Bandra-Worli Sea Link Bridge (Under Construction) map .

^ (Mahimcha Raja) map Mahim Sion Link Bridge map Usha Building map Chembur English High School map Sushrut Hospital map .

[179] .The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane,the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Borivali.^ Dariya Mahal A map 'unis' map M/s Global Enterprise map Western Express Highway map Shiv Tapi Apts.

^ The last resort The Sanjay Gandhi National Park is situated between the Eastern and Western Express Highways and can be accessed from Thane, Mulund, Borivili and other places, though its headquarters are on the Borivili side.

^ Western Express Highway map Avon Apts - map peace park map Dharavi map Rb1, Railway quarters map Rajaram Estate - Shukti Sarwade map .

[180]
.Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008.[170] Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane.^ Public buses run by the BEST (an autonomous body under the BMC) cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai and Thane .

^ Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes [16] is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and Deonar in the east.

^ The rest of the steel production, 4.7 million tons, came from 180 small plants, almost all of which were in the private sector.
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[181] .Buses are generally favored for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.^ Buses are used for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for long distance commutes.

^ You might want tires a bit more robust than those on a commuter bike and you'd probably have trouble training for a triathlon on it.

[182] .The BEST operates a total of 4,013 buses[183] with CCTV Camera installed[184], ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily[170] over 390 routes.^ Calcutta had 1,200 buses and 202 routes and carried 308 million passengers per year in FY 1992.
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[185] .Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant Compressed Natural Gas powered buses.^ The BEST fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker and air-conditioned.

^ In the early 1990s, the fishing fleet consisted of 180,000 traditional craft powered by sails or oars, 26,000 motorized traditional craft, and some 34,000 mechanized boats.
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^ Energy: India importer of petroleum and natural gas but has abundant coal, hydroelectric power (especially in parts of North India), and burgeoning nuclear power industry.
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[183] .Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) buses provide intercity transport and connect Mumbai with other major cities of Maharashtra and India.^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ A credit guarantee corporation covered loans by commercial banks to small traders, transport operators, self-employed persons, and other borrowers not otherwise effectively covered by major institutions.
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^ Farmers and other rural residents make up the large majority of India's poor.
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[186][187] The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai.[188] .Mumbai BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai, with buses running on seven routes as of March 2009.[189] Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion.^ Full metro system in Calcutta, rapid transit system in Madras, and major system planned for New Delhi; Bombay served by suburban rail network.
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^ In particular, the Plan For Transformation is causing a resegregation of former public housing residents in both poor city and poor suburban neighborhoods.

^ The Ministry of State for Surface Transport administers the national highway system, and state highways and other state roads are maintained by state public works departments.
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[190] .Mumbai's transport system has been categorized as one of the most congested in the world.^ Transportation and Telecommunications Railroads: Track route length 62,458 in mid-1990s, fourth most heavily used system in world, both for passengers and freight; all government-owned and operated by Indian Railways.
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^ It has one of the world's most stable political structures, but that structure is constantly in crisis.
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^ The party has played an important role in establishing the foundations of perhaps the most durable democratic political system in the developing world.
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[191]
.Due to further aggravation of congestion on roads due to hawkers and parked vehicles, MMRDA has initiated the Mumbai Skywalks project to provide quick and safe pedestrian dispersal from highly congested areas such as Mumbai Suburban Railway stations to heavily targeted destinations.^ Large dams and long canals are costly and also highly visible indicators of progress; the political pressure to launch such projects was frequently irresistible.
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^ The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway , is composed of three separate networks running the length of the city, in a north-south direction.

^ Wadala bridge (Nana Phadanvis Pul) map Wadala Road Railway Station map Guru Nanak Khalsa College, Matunga.

[192]

Rail

A brown building with clock towers, domes and pyramidal tops. A wide street in front of it
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus, is the headquarters of the Central Railway and a UNESCO World Heritage Site
.Mumbai is the headquarters of two of Indian Railways' zones: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate.^ The city is the headquarters of two rail divisions – the Central Railway (CR) (headquartered at Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus , formerly known as Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR), headquartered near Churchgate ).

^ The railroad system is divided into nine zones: central, eastern, northern, northeastern, northeast frontier, southern, south-central, southeastern, and western.
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^ The zones are further subdivided into district headquarters, one each for the eight maritime states on the mainland and two in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
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[193] .The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, consists of three separate rail networks: Central, Western, and Harbour Line, running the length of the city, in the north-south direction.^ The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway , is composed of three separate networks running the length of the city, in a north-south direction.

^ The Harbour Line is a sub-division of the Central Railway , covering a distance of 54 km along the south-eastern section of the city, near the docks, and extending into Navi Mumbai (New Bombay).

^ Running right next to the Mayo Clinic campus in Rochester is a rail line.

[194] .Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007,[195] which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily carrying capacity.^ Air India is the international carrier; it carried more than 2.2 million passengers in FY 1992.
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^ Every day, half a million clothes are sent here for laundry.

^ For example, during FY 1988 nearly 3.5 million tons, representing more than 33 percent of total fertilizer (less cow dung), were distributed through a network of 76,000 cooperative retail outlets.
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.Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actualy carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours.^ First, 500 people on the train need not be the equivalent of 500 cars on the highway, allowing for families traveling together.

^ Security was tightened in cities around the world from New Delhi to New York after the eight blasts, which struck seven trains within minutes of each other during the early evening rush hour.

^ Because some two-thirds of the nation's freight is carried by train, there is a serious freight car shortage.
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[196]
.Mumbai Metro is an underground and elevated rapid transit system currently under construction.^ Full metro system in Calcutta, rapid transit system in Madras, and major system planned for New Delhi; Bombay served by suburban rail network.
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^ Rapid transit systems are also in operation or being planned for Madras and New Delhi.
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^ Rapid Transit India also has two rapid-rail systems and a third in the planning stage.
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[197] .The Mumbai Monorail, currently under construction, will eventually run from Jacob Circle to Wadala.^ Public buses run by the BEST (an autonomous body under the BMC) cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai and Thane .

[198]
.Mumbai is well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways.^ Mumbai is well connected by the Indian Railways to most parts of India .

^ For the most part, because of the widespread domestic support for India's foreign policy, Parliament has endorsed government actions or sought information.
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^ Dine at one of the most well known eateries of Mumbai.

.Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Dadar Station, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central Station, Bandra Terminus and Andheri.^ Main article: Mumbai culture Mumbai is always in a state of flux as depicted here outside the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus station.

^ This marks the second year that the contest includes 43 Amtrak trains nationwide along corridor and long distance routes.

^ Most fishery training is provided by the Central Institute for Fishery Education in Bombay (or Mumbai in Marathi), which has ancillary institutions in Barrackpore, Agra (Uttar Pradesh), and Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh).
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[199]

Air

A hall with curved ceiling inside an airport. Indicators, blue screens and counters on the left side
.
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport is India's busiest airport.
^ Mumbai's Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly, Sahar International Airport) is the busiest airport in India, and caters to cargo and international flights while Santacruz Airport caters to domestic flights.

^ There are major international airports at Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, and Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), under the management of the International Airport Authority of India.
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^ BEST • Mumbai Suburban Railway • Central Railway • Western Railway • Harbour Line • Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport • Juhu Aerodrome • Auto rickshaw .

[200]
.The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the busiest airport in India.^ Mumbai's Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly, Sahar International Airport) is the busiest airport in India, and caters to cargo and international flights while Santacruz Airport caters to domestic flights.

^ Main article: Mumbai culture Mumbai is always in a state of flux as depicted here outside the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus station.

^ There are major international airports at Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, and Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), under the management of the International Airport Authority of India.
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[200] In 2007, it catered to over 25 million passengers. .An upgrade plan initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually by 2010, is expected to be completed on time.^ Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, a region of roughly 25 million people with an annual revenue of 40 million rupees (for current value of the rupee--see Glossary).
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^ The Eighth Five-Year Plan estimated an annual increase of 6 to 7 percent in visitor arrivals; tourists from Europe and North America were targeted.
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^ The overall plan is to increase nuclear-generation capacity to 10,000 megawatts by FY 2000, but work has been slowed because of financial shortages.
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[201]
.The Juhu aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport.^ The nearby Juhu aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport .

^ BEST • Mumbai Suburban Railway • Central Railway • Western Railway • Harbour Line • Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport • Juhu Aerodrome • Auto rickshaw .

[202]
.The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.^ Mumbai's Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly, Sahar International Airport) is the busiest airport in India, and caters to cargo and international flights while Santacruz Airport caters to domestic flights.

^ Improved communications, roads with motorized traffic, and more frequent government intervention figured in the increased contact that tribal peoples had with outsiders.
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^ Scheduled Areas Article 244 of the Indian constitution allows the government to compile a schedule (list) of areas of the country occupied by Scheduled Tribes (q.v.
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[203]

Sea

.Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust.^ The port at Nhava Sheva, located across the harbor from Bombay Port, was established in 1982 under the administration of the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust as a separate port rather than an adjunct to Bombay.
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^ In 2006 , Mumbai was also the site of a major terrorist incident in which over two hundred people were killed when several bombs exploded almost simultaneously on the Mumbai Suburban Railway .

[204] .Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities.^ The more prosperous states have better facilities and attempt rehabilitation programs; the poorer ones can afford only the most bare and primitive accommodations.
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^ The Football World Cup is one of the most widely watched television events in Mumbai.

^ With its unique topography, Mumbai has one of the best natural harbours in the world, handling 50% of the country's passenger traffic, and much of India's cargo.

[205] .Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India.^ Post-Rebellion Developments The civil war was a major turning point in the history of modern India.
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^ However, India remains one of the world's most tightly regulated major economies.
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^ Although to the non-Indian these rules may seem irrational and bizarre, to most of the people of India they are a ubiquitous and accepted part of life.
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[206] .It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerized cargo.^ With its unique topography, Mumbai has one of the best natural harbours in the world, handling 50% of the country's passenger traffic, and much of India's cargo.

[207]
.Mumbai is the headquarters of the Western Naval Command, and also an important base for the Indian Navy.^ It is also an important base for the Indian Navy .

^ Western education and techniques of scientific inquiry were added to the already established Indian base, making way for later developments.
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^ Additionally, the navy has important bases in Calcutta and Goa.
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[102]
Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.[208]

Utility services

.
A brown building with three domes and a triangular facade.</span><span class=^ See also: Mumbai's water sources .

^ They provide a physical screen within which the monsoon system operates and are the source of the great river systems that water the alluvial plains below (see Climate, this ch.
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^ The Tulsi and Vihar lakes situated within the park are major sources of water supply to Mumbai and Thane.

A tree and a bus on either side of it" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/06/2/7/0/32543581410883844.jpg" width="170" height="254" class="thumbimage" />
BMC headquarters
.Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai.^ See also: Mumbai's water sources .

^ The Tulsi and Vihar lakes situated within the park are major sources of water supply to Mumbai and Thane.

^ Not only that, but under what conditions does the Sun-Times grant sources anonymity?

Many localities have been named after them. .The BMC supplies potable water to the city from six lakes,[209][210] most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes.^ The BMC supplies potable water to the city, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes, as well as a few lakes further north.

^ The Tulsi and Vihar lakes situated within the park are major sources of water supply to Mumbai and Thane.

^ Three lakes are located within the metropolitan limits — the Tulsi Lake , Vihar Lake and Powai Lake .

[109] .The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway.^ The proportion of land under cultivation ranges from about 50 percent along the coastal plain and in the western part of Andhra Pradesh to about 25 percent in eastern Madhya Pradesh.
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[211] The water is filtered at Bhandup,[211] which is Asia's largest water filtration plant.[212] India's first underground water tunnel is being built in Mumbai.[213] .About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai.^ The population of Mumbai is about 13 million, with a density of about 29,000 persons per square kilometre .

^ Supply Side Economics Cook County has a novel approach to its budget woes: It's going to hire its way out of its deficit !

^ The Tulsi and Vihar lakes situated within the park are major sources of water supply to Mumbai and Thane.

[214] .Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste,[215] is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and Deonar in the east.^ Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes [16] is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and Deonar in the east.

^ Public buses run by the BEST (an autonomous body under the BMC) cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai and Thane .

[216] .Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli and Bandra, and disposed off by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.^ Sewage treatment is carried out in Worli and Bandra .

^ As a soldier, I had to carry out my responsibility for the military as well as my country but personally, there was no hate or revenge.
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^ The coast guard is also responsible for the prevention of poaching and smuggling, the control of marine pollution, and carrying out search-and-rescue missions.
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[217]
.Electricity is distributed by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co.^ Electricity is provided by the BEST in the city, and by Reliance Energy and Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co.

^ The city is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation), with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner , who is an IAS officer appointed by the state government .

^ The city elects six members to the Lok Sabha and thirty-four members to the Maharashtra State Assembly .

Ltd) in the suburbs.[218] Consumption of electricity is growing faster than production capacity.[219] .The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.^ The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL , which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.

^ The states (but not Delhi or the union territories) have independent services within their own jurisdictions that are regulated by local laws and public service commissions.
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^ States provide public services and health education.
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[220] .Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, BPL group, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom.^ Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Hutch , Airtel , BPL group , Reliance Infocomm and Tata Indicom .

^ Fretilin states that “The Government now only has money to provide some community services and pay some civil servants until the budget for 2009 is approved”.
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^ The extensive role of the Indian state in providing services and promoting economic development has always created the opportunity for using public resources for private benefit.
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.Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city.^ Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city.

[221] .MTNL and Airtel also provide broadband internet service.^ Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Hutch , Airtel , BPL group , Reliance Infocomm and Tata Indicom .

^ The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL , which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.

^ Broadband internet penetration is increasing in the city, with MTNL TRIBAND and Tata , also Known as VSNL being the leading service providers.

[222][223]

Demographics

.According to the 2001 census, the population of Mumbai was 11,914,398,[225] According to extrapolations carried out by the World Gazetteer in 2008, Mumbai has a population of 13,662,885[226] and the Mumbai Metropolitan Area has a population of 21,347,412.[227] The population density is estimated to be about 22,000 persons per square kilometre.^ The population of Mumbai is about 13 million, with a density of about 29,000 persons per square kilometre .

^ About 74 percent in rural areas in 1991; high population density--284 persons per square kilometer national average, major states more than 700 persons per square kilometer; 100 persons or fewer per square kilometer in some border states and insular territories.
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^ Most villages are small; nearly 80 percent have fewer than 1,000 inhabitants, according to the 1991 census.
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.Per 2001 census, Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of BMC, has literacy rate of 77.45%,[228] higher than the national average of 64.8%.^ The overall literacy rate of the city is above 86%, which is higher than the national average.

^ About 74 percent in rural areas in 1991; high population density--284 persons per square kilometer national average, major states more than 700 persons per square kilometer; 100 persons or fewer per square kilometer in some border states and insular territories.
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^ Most of the growth in aggregate crop output was the result of an increase in yields, rather than an increase in the area under crops.
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[229] .The sex ratio was 774 (females per 1,000 males) in the island city, 826 in the suburbs, and 811 as a whole in Greater Mumbai,[228] all numbers lower than the national average of 933 females per 1,000 males.^ Suburbs are included in Greater Mumbai.

^ From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the islands in the archipelago into a single amalgamated mass.

^ There are 811 females to every 1,000 males – which is lower than the national average, because many working males come from rural areas, where they leave behind their families.

[230] .The low sex ratio is due to a large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.^ The 1991 census revealed that the national sex ratio had declined from 934 females to 1,000 males in 1981 to 927 to 1,000 in 1991.
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^ Farmers also can sell to traders who come to the work site.
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^ The sex ratio is even more imbalanced in urban areas (894 per 1,000 in 1991) than in rural areas (938 per 1,000 in 1991), partially because a large number of village men go to work in cities, leaving their wives and children behind in their rural homes (see Structure and Dynamics, ch.
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[231] .In 2008 crime rate increased by 5.4 per cent.^ Since 2005, its budget has increased 450 per cent to $US800 million, mostly in the name of peacemaking.
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^ Most Timorese do not pay for what they use: water, electricity (which is why consumption increases 25 per cent per year, a rate than it impossible to accompany by any infrastructural investment), houses, lands, credit and rice.
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.Mumbai has registered the poorest conviction rate in the country during 2008. More frequent crimes included murder, attempt to murder, culpable homicide, dowry deaths, abduction, kidnapping, rape, arson, riots, dacoity and robbery.^ Its exit was accompanied by an Indonesian military campaign of state-sponsored terror and crimes of universal jurisdiction including systematic and mass murder, destruction, rape, enslavement, forced deportations and other inhumane acts.
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^ The other non-fiction essay is by a barrister who successfully appealed a death sentence for a convicted murderer in Trinidad.

^ It was the flashpoint for a wave of arson and murder across the nation that left dozens dead and more than 100,000 homeless and from which the nation still has not fully recovered.
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[232]
View of downtown Mumbai at night
.The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (67.39%), Muslims (18.56%), Buddhists (5.22%), Jains (3.99%), Christians (3.72%), Sikhs (0.58%), with Parsis and Jews making up the rest of the population.^ Islamic Traditions in South Asia Muslims practice a series of life-cycle rituals that differ from those of Hindus, Jains, or Buddhists.
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^ Huntington, Susan L. The Arts of Ancient India: Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain.
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^ The remainder are Parsis , Jains , Sikhs , Jews , Atheists and Free Thinkers [18] .

[233] .The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (39%), Gujaratis (22%), North Indians (25%) and South Indians making up the rest.^ The violence that broke out in the state of Assam in the early 1980s reflected the complexities of linguistic and ethnic politics in South Asia (see Political Issues, ch.
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^ In this way, there has been a steady spread of North Indian cultural and linguistic forms throughout the country.
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^ The Ganga River basin, India's largest, includes approximately 25 percent of the nation's area; it is bounded by the Himalayas in the north and the Vindhya Range to the south.
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[234] .The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Khojas, and Konkani Muslims.^ The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (68% of the population), Muslims (17% of the population), and Buddhist (4%).

[235] .Native Christians include East Indian Catholics who were converted by the Portuguese, during the 16th century.^ The leadership of the Muslim community has pursued various directions in the evolution of Indian Islam during the twentieth century.
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^ During the next three days, the mercenaries involved in the attempted coup were rounded up by Indian troops who had parachuted in.
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^ They are descended from Indians in the former Portuguese colony who assimilated to Portuguese culture and in many cases are the descendants of Indo-Portuguese marriages, which the Portuguese civil and religious authorities encouraged.
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[236] .The city also has a small native Bene Israeli Jewish community, who migrated from the Persian Gulf or Yemen, probably 1600 years ago.^ (Hey, if this occurred to me , people who do this stuff for a living ought to have thought of it years ago!

^ Judaism Trade contacts between the Mediterranean region and the west coast of India probably led to the presence of small Jewish settlements in India as long ago as the early first millennium B.C. In Kerala a community of Jews tracing its origin to the fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 has remained associated with the cities of Cranganore and Kochi (formerly known as Cochin) for at least 1,000 years.
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^ I never saw him again, but, as people who know my work well have probably guessed, years later he became the inspiration for the character 'David' in Closer.

[237] Parsis migrated to India from Persia. .Today, there are about 80,000 Parsis in Mumbai.^ The researchers established that there were approximately 319,000 graves in the sample, of which about half had complete name and date information.
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^ In total, there were nineteen archbishops, 103 bishops, and about 15,000 priests in India in 1995.
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^ There are 473,000 Methodists, 425,000 Baptists, and about 1.3 million Lutherans.
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[238]
.Residents of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar, Mumbaite or Bombayite.^ Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Bombay Image:Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum.jpg Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum (Formerly Prince of Wales Museum) A resident of Mumbai is called a Mumbaikar , or Bombayite .

.Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any other metropolitan city of India.^ Metropolitan cities of India .

^ Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions.

^ Like other large cities in the developing world, Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries — widespread poverty and poor public health , employment , civic and educational standards for a large section of the population.

.Sixteen major languages of India are spoken in Mumbai, the most common being Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati and English.^ After the British gained possession, it was anglicised to Bombay , although it was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi and Gujarati-speakers, and as Bambai in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian.

^ But the most common language spoken on the city streets is a colloquial form of Hindi , known as Bambaiya – a blend of Hindi, Marathi , Indian English and some invented colloquial words.

^ Mumbai is well connected by the Indian Railways to most parts of India .

[239] .English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce.^ English is extensively spoken, and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce.

^ There is an extensive English-language literature on India's foreign relations.
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^ Besides catering to cinephiles, the city has a thriving theatrical tradition both in the regional languages and in English.

.A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya—a blend of Marathi, Hindi, Indian English and some invented words—is spoken on the streets.^ But the most common language spoken on the city streets is a colloquial form of Hindi , known as Bambaiya – a blend of Hindi, Marathi , Indian English and some invented colloquial words.

^ After the British gained possession, it was anglicised to Bombay , although it was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi and Gujarati-speakers, and as Bambai in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian.

^ An Assamese who also knew Bengali, or someone from a Marathi-speaking family living in Delhi who attended a Hindi-medium school, might give Bengali or Hindi as his or her second language but also know English from formal school instruction or picking it up on the street.
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[240]
People walking on a narrow street. Shops and a stall are seen nearby.
A street in Dharavi, one of the largest slums in Asia
.Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population.^ Like other large cities in the developing world, Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries — widespread poverty and poor public health , employment , civic and educational standards for a large section of the population.

^ A significant minority of the population in the 1990s live below the Indian definition of the poverty line, surviving at subsistence level, unemployed or underemployed, with little education or opportunity for training, and suffering from a variety of curable health problems.
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^ Cardiovascular diseases are a major health problem; men and women suffer from them in almost equal numbers (14 million versus 13 million in FY 1990).
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.With available space at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways.^ With available space at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways.

^ The well was not too far away, but the house was tall and the buckets of water had to be carried up a long flight of stairs.
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^ The young husband usually remains resident with his natal family, surrounded by well-known relatives and neighbors.
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.Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district.^ North Shore residents are sometimes able to get from their well-off suburban homes to the security screening at Mitchell Field, including parking and waiting for the train, in the time it takes them to drive to Mannheim Road near O'Hare.

^ As part of this, he spends quite a time discussing the very many rapes committed by the Russian troops, claiming that this aspect of the war hasn't been much discussed until now.

^ Some travel to the Districts required Responsibilities/tasks The main task of the Project Assistant is to provide support to the implementation of the Facility Projects and liaison with the Facility Office in Pilot district under Component 2.
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[241] .About 60% of Mumbai's population lives in slums.^ The population of Mumbai is about 13 million, with a density of about 29,000 persons per square kilometre .

^ The report indicates that about half of the Timorese population lives below the poverty threshold and that one-third live below the minimum threshold of poverty, ie in extreme poverty.
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^ According to the Business Week , around 45-48% of the population lives in shantytowns and slums .

[242] .Dharavi, Asia's second largest slum[243] is located in central Mumbai and houses 800,000 people.^ Indian Railways is Asia's largest railroad system and the second largest state-owned system under a single management in the world.
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^ The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood , is also located in Mumbai, along with its largest studios and movie production houses.

^ Doctorates are awarded each year to about 3,000 people in science, between 500 and 600 in engineering, around 800 in agricultural sciences, and close to 6,000 in medicine.
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[244] .The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.^ Food grains supplied through the Public Distribution System amounted to 7.8 million tons in FY 1971, 13.0 million tons in FY 1981, and 17.0 million tons in FY 1991.
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^ Islam Islam is India's largest minority religion, with Muslims officially comprising 12.1 percent of the country's population, or 101.6 million people as of the 1991 census.
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^ The population of Mumbai is about 13 million, with a density of about 29,000 persons per square kilometre .

[245] .In 2007, the crime rate (crimes booked under Indian Penal Code) in Mumbai was 186.2 per 100,000 people, which was slightly higher than the national average of 175.1, but much lower than the average crime rate of 312.3 in cities with more than one million people in the country.^ Mumbai also plays Rugby, one of the few cities to do so in the country.

^ More than 1 million Indian soldiers were sent abroad, and more than 100,000 were either killed or wounded.
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^ The overall literacy rate of the city is above 86%, which is higher than the national average.

[246] .The city's main and oldest jail is the Arthur Road Jail.^ The city's main jail is the Arthur Road Jail [19] .

[247]

Culture

A white building with a triangular facade and wide stairs
Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city
.Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music, and theatres.^ Plays in mumbai this weekend 5th 6th Sept 2009 Places to Visit around Ratnagiri Motley Theatre Festival at NCPA and at BN Vaidya A...

.The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals.^ Commissioned officers and other designated ranks contribute to the Armed Forces Provident Fund, a form of life insurance.
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^ This rich and diverse forest is home to more than 1000 species of plants, 40 species of mammals, 251 species of birds - migratory, and and water birds, 38 species of reptiles, 9 species of amphibians besides a large variety of fish, insects and other life forms.

^ But it's still a more entertaining story than anything TV offered up last night.

.Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions and cuisines coexisting in the city.^ Over the next thirty years, the city grew into a major urban centre, spurred by an improvement in infrastructure and the construction of many of the city's institutions.

^ Mumbai households receive over a hundred television channels via cable, and a majority of them are produced to cater to the city's polyglot populace.

^ The advent of Christian missions in the region in 1845 led to major cultural changes, which were later to be important in the Jharkhand movement.
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.This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period.^ Since the 1980s, India has experienced a rapid proliferation of television broadcasting that has helped shape popular culture and the course of politics.
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^ A substantial number of skilled people have left India to work abroad; the country has suffered a brain drain since independence.
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^ Family and Kinship Family Ideals In India, people learn the essential themes of cultural life within the bosom of a family.
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[248]
.Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema[249]Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century.^ Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema , with the oldest film broadcast here in the early 20th century.

^ By the end of the tenth century, dramatic changes took place when the Central Asian Turkic tribes accepted both the message and mission of Islam.
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^ For whatever reason, Russia was often a violent, scary place during the 20th century, and this is reflected here.

[250] .Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies.^ Mumbai also boasts of large number of cinemas, including one of Asia 's largest IMAX dome theatre, which feature mainstream Bollywood and Hollywood films.

^ The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood , is also located in Mumbai, along with its largest studios and movie production houses.

^ Mumbai has a large polyglot population and Marathi is widely spoken, as Marathi is the official language of the state of Maharashtra .

.The world's largest IMAX dome theatre is in the Wadala neighbourhood.^ Don Bosco, Matunga, Provincial House map Valencia, Bhakti Park, Wadala map Cosmic Heights, Bhakti Park map Bhakti Park Club House map IMAX Dome Theatre mumbai map Shri Dattaguru Society Deonar map Viju & Pratik's Resi.

^ Mumbai also boasts of large number of cinemas, including one of Asia 's largest IMAX dome theatre, which feature mainstream Bollywood and Hollywood films.

[251] .The Mumbai International Film Festival[252] and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai.^ Mumbai's Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly, Sahar International Airport) is the busiest airport in India, and caters to cargo and international flights while Santacruz Airport caters to domestic flights.

^ For their 2002 International Festival of Digital Art, Lovebytes solicited short experimental films from around the world.

^ The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood , is also located in Mumbai, along with its largest studios and movie production houses.

[253] .Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.^ Language: Official language Hindi; English also has official status.
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^ British colonialism allowed for the development of a tradition of freedom of the press, and many of India's great English-language newspapers and some of its Indian-language press were begun during the nineteenth century.
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^ Since at least the seventh century A.D., the devotional path has spread from the south throughout India through the literary and musical activities of saints who have been some of the most important representatives of regional languages and traditions.
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[254][255]
.Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries.^ Contemporary art is well represented in both government funded art spaces and private commercial galleries.

^ The government funded art galleries include The Jehangir Art Gallery and The National Gallery of Modern Art .

^ These programs are administered, financed, and run by the central government and by the state governments, and both levels encourage private-sector development through direct or indirect programs.
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.The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art.^ The government funded art galleries include The Jehangir Art Gallery and The National Gallery of Modern Art .

^ In August this year the government drew wide criticism when it increased the budget by 126% to $788 million - based on funds derived from the nation's petroleum fund.
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^ Instead, India has concentrated on government-sponsored specialized institutes and provided minimal funding to university research programs.
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.Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city.^ Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is the oldest public library in the city.

^ While that image captures one side of life in the city, Bombay is also crowded and largely poor.

[256] .The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.^ Main article: Mumbai culture Mumbai is always in a state of flux as depicted here outside the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus station.

^ Shri Krishna Udipi - an authentic South Indian restaurant in Mumbai.

^ Samruta Building map Tare House map lakhani's flat map ashok kumar towers map Bombay VT (Now Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) map .

[257] Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden.[258] .The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga.^ You don’t want to collect a big author like Graham Greene, as Baxter did, but you could, for example, collect first editions of Booker Prize winners.

.Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters.^ A buffer stock of seeds is maintained by the National Seeds Corporation for the northeastern states and by the State Farm Corporations of India for the other states against such unforeseen contingencies as floods, droughts, and diseases.
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^ After independence the navy was the most neglected of the three services because the national leadership perceived that the bulk of the threats to India were land-based.
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^ Such a development was a major technological advance for Indian science and gave India the potential to move into the company of the other space-exploring nations.
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[259]
A brownish stone three-headed statue carved with ornaments
The Elephanta Caves, UNESCO World Heritage Site, feature rock-cut Shaivistic statues.
.The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles.^ A two-way cultural fusion between several Indo-Greek elements--especially in art, architecture, and coinage--occurred in the next several hundred years.
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[260] .Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style.^ Christianity offers a non-Hindu mode of acculturation during a period when the state and modern economy have been radically transforming the life-styles of the hill peoples.
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^ A combination of Western commercial contacts and English-language education during the colonial period made the Parsis arguably the most cosmopolitan community in India.
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^ During the colonial period, these and other hill stations were used by the British as summer retreats to escape the intense heat of the plains.
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[261] .Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features.^ Modern institutions, such as universities, and technologies, such as railroads and mass communication, broke with Indian intellectual traditions and served British, rather than Indian, economic interests.
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^ Furthermore, Indian-Egyptian ties came at the expense of cultivating relations with such countries as Saudi Arabia and Jordan and thus limited India's influence in the region.
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^ Buddhism and Jainism, ancient monastic traditions, have had a major influence on Indian art, philosophy, and society and remain important minority religions in the late twentieth century.
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[262] .There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India.^ There are few temples in India dedicated to him; instead, his image may stand in niches on the walls of temples built for other deities.
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^ There are large disparities among India's states and territories in agricultural performance, only some of which can be attributed to differences in climate or initial endowments of infrastructure such as irrigation.
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[263] Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan.[264] .Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami.^ Indian Railways is Asia's largest railroad system and the second largest state-owned system under a single management in the world.
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^ Regionally, India was the predominant power because of its size, its population (the world's second-largest after China), and its growing military strength.
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^ Although India had the second largest irrigated area in the world, the area under assured irrigation or with at least minimal drainage is inadequate.
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[260] In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. .Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009.[265] The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures.^ In accordance with this Decree-Law, it is now necessary to verify the property and rental documentation, it is also necessary to verify the land titles of tourist establishments, specially those that occupy the beach areas.
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^ To improve road transportation, significant efforts were begun in the 1980s to build roads to link major highways, to widen existing roads from single to double lanes, and to construct major bridges.
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^ Private studies of India's total number of hospitals in the early 1990s were more conservative than official Indian data, estimating that in 1992 there were 7,300 hospitals.
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[260] .Mumbai has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Elephanta Caves.^ Main article: Mumbai culture Mumbai is always in a state of flux as depicted here outside the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus station.

^ BEST • Mumbai Suburban Railway • Central Railway • Western Railway • Harbour Line • Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport • Juhu Aerodrome • Auto rickshaw .

^ Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Bombay Image:Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum.jpg Chhatrapati Shivaji Museum (Formerly Prince of Wales Museum) A resident of Mumbai is called a Mumbaikar , or Bombayite .

[266] .Popular tourist attractions in the city are Nariman Point, Girgaum Chowpatti, Juhu Beach, and Marine Drive.^ Image:Marine day big.jpg A Panoramic shot of Marine Drive in Mumbai See also: List of Mumbai beaches .

.Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach,[267] and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.^ The water is filtered at Bhandup , which is also Asia's largest water filtration plant.

^ Indian Railways is Asia's largest railroad system and the second largest state-owned system under a single management in the world.
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^ The Tulsi and Vihar lakes situated within the park are major sources of water supply to Mumbai and Thane.

[268]
A sitting elephant-headed, man statue with garlands and gold ornaments.
Ganesh Chaturthi, a popular festival in Mumbai involves worship of idols of Ganesha.
.Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals.^ Bombay residents celebrate festivals with great fanfare.

^ Though the Indian conduct of the land war on the western front was somewhat timid, the role of the Indian air force was both extensive and daring.
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^ The cosmopolitan residents have unique tastes in cuisine, music , film and literature, both Indian and international.

.Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city.^ Ganesh Chaturthi is the most popular festival of Mumbai followed closely by Navratri .

^ Neighborhood solidarity is expressed at such annual Hindu festivals as Ganesh's Birthday (Ganesh Chaturthi) in Bombay and Durga Puja in Calcutta, when neighborhood associations create elaborate images of the deities and take them out in grand processions.
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^ Hindu festivals such as Holi, Dipavali (Diwali), and Durga Puja bring villagers together (see Public Worship, ch.3).
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.The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theater, and films.^ For their 2002 International Festival of Digital Art, Lovebytes solicited short experimental films from around the world.

^ Given that his work has been a staple of the European art world since 1981 and that it occupied an entire pavilion at the 1995 Venice Biennale, Henson's invisibility is bizarre enough.

^ Art this superb doesn't get to be a relatively private treasure trove for long, but for now Walsh is something of an artist's artist, his work sneaking through the world on the whispers of his smitten admirers, say me and a number of you out there.

[269] .A week long fair known as Bandra Fair is celebrated by people of all faiths.^ If anything, I'm constantly floored and excited by how consistently great and interesting you all are, the long timers, the new people ...

^ This is officially a one-day holiday, but in reality it becomes a week-long event when many people take vacations.
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^ Ok, sure I thought Mongolian Week was a little excessive, what with the people in Ghengis Khan gear and all the tiny huts.

[270] .The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai.^ In January 1992, ASEAN accepted India's proposal to become a "sectoral dialogue partner" in the areas of trade, technical and labor development, technology, and tourism.
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^ It'll be held over two days starting tomorrow.

^ In 1995, the city was renamed Mumbai by the Shiv Sena party government of Maharashtra, in keeping with their policy of renaming colonial institutions after historic local appellations.

[271] .The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the Elephanta Islands—is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country.^ In the early 1990s, expanding Indian exports and attracting investment from developed countries became a major priority in India's bilateral relations.
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^ The visual arts, music, classical dancing, poetry, and literature all flourish in the urban setting.
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[272] Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on May 1, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960.[273][274]

Sister cities

Mumbai has sister city agreements with the following cities:[142]

Media

Bollywood is based in Mumbai
.Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations.^ See also: List of Mumbai radio stations .

^ Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications and television and radio stations – English newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include Times of India , Mid-day , Indian Express , The Asian Age, DNA, The Free Press Journal, Mumbai Mirror and Hindustan Times .

^ There are nine radio stations in Mumbai, with six broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.

.Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include the Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times, DNA, and Indian Express.^ Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications and television and radio stations – English newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include Times of India , Mid-day , Indian Express , The Asian Age, DNA, The Free Press Journal, Mumbai Mirror and Hindustan Times .

^ A combination of Western commercial contacts and English-language education during the colonial period made the Parsis arguably the most cosmopolitan community in India.
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^ By 1990 the number of daily newspapers had grown to 2,856, with 209 in English and 2,647 in indigenous languages.
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.Popular Marathi language newspapers are Navakal, Maharashtra Times, Loksatta, Lokmat and Sakaal.^ Popular Marathi newspapers include Loksatta , Maharashtra Times , Sakal , Lokmat and Saamana .

^ Whether or not one thinks Konkani--spoken in Goa, Karnataka, and the Konkan region of Maharashtra--is a distinct language or a dialect of Marathi has tended to be linked with whether or not one thinks Goa ought to be merged with Maharashtra.
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^ Mumbai has a large polyglot population and Marathi is widely spoken, as Marathi is the official language of the state of Maharashtra .

.Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages.^ In addition to these papers, newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages.

^ Those who read Indian classical and vernacular languages will find publications available in those languages in the Library of Congress and other major research libraries.
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^ In 1950 there were 214 daily newspapers, with forty-four in English and the rest in Indian languages.
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[279] Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822.[280] Bombay Durpan the first Marathi newspaper was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.[281]
.Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider.^ The legal profession provided numerous opportunities for educated and talented Indians who were unable to secure positions in the company, and, as a result, Indian lawyers later dominated nationalist politics and reform movements.
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^ The Football World Cup is one of the most widely watched television events in Mumbai.

^ International cricket is widely watched, and the city almost comes to a virtual standstill on days when the Indian cricket team plays important matches.

.The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence.^ The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence.

^ New Delhi: Print Media, 1994.
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^ The perception that one's religion is in danger receives periodic reinforcement from the phenomenon of public mass religious conversion that receives coverage from the news media.
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.The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels,[282] while three main cable networks serve most households.^ The national television broadcaster Doordarshan provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.

^ Broadcast Media The national television (Doordarshan) and radio (All India Radio, or Akashwani) networks are state-owned and managed by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
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^ Broadcasting is a central government monopoly under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, but the only network system, Doordarshan, also known as TV1, accepts advertisements for some programs.
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[283] .The wide range of cable channels available includes ESPN, Star Sports, Zee Marathi, ETV Marathi, DD Sahyadri, Mee Marathi, Zee Talkies, Zee TV,ETV Urdu, STAR Plus and news channels such as Star Majha.^ So as ESPN becomes the sports version of MTV, we look to a new era in mindless television.

^ That’s another to add to the list that already includes astronaut, conductor, and TV sports director (that last one might require further explanation later).

^ Yeah, the cable news channels really went to town on that one.

News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai. .Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs.^ Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs.

[284] Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV and Tata Sky.[285] .There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.^ There are nine radio stations in Mumbai, with six broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.

^ See also: List of Mumbai radio stations .

^ There are three kinds of colleges in India.
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[286] Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as WorldSpace, Sirius and XM.[287] .The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.^ Most of the 100,000 refugees forced from their homes amid the 2006 violence have taken the Government's money and gone on spending sprees.
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^ In this competitive bid, the request for technology to help with the investigations included the following: -- Document Management System specifically for the management of judicial/investigative records.
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^ Recruits appointed by the Union Public Service Commission are university graduates selected through a rigorous system of written and oral examinations.
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[288]
.Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year.^ Although there are major cinema industries in several other languages, the Hindi cinema (centered in Bombay, also known as Mumbai in the Marathi language) dominates the Indian motion picture market, and Hindi films (the songs tend to be in Urdu) are shown around the country without subtitles or dubbing (see The Media, ch.
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^ Image:Knesset Eliyahoo.jpg Knesset Eliyahoo, a 150 year old Jewish Synagogue in Fort, Mumbai Hiranandani Complex in Powai is an upmarket area in the northern suburbs.

^ India's universities, university-level institutions, and colleges have produced more than 200,000 science and technology graduates per year since 1985.
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[289] The name Bollywood is a portmanteau of Bombay and Hollywood.[290] The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas. .This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation.^ I hadn’t expected a romance to play such a pivotal rôle in the story, but it works very well.

^ Such a story wouldn’t have the moral and dramatic oomph of Wilde’s novel, but done well, would surely be mentally stimulating.

^ Anderson suggests that this could well be a temporary problem, and that if the major parties continue to move to the extremes and the quality of debate continues to deteriorate, the Internet could well enable a new party or parties, to arise.

[291] .Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets.^ Prestigious Jain schools are located in most major cities.
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^ Recent movies like Cecil B. Demented and Pecker are easily his most daring and impressive films to date.

[292] The Marathi film industry is also based in Mumbai.[293]

Education

.Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (mostly one-teacher schools run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government.^ Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts and individuals).

^ This financial allotment averaged Rs2,200 for each government-run primary school.
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^ During the evening rush, Metra runs some limited-stop trains, including one that calls only at Wheaton, Winfield, Geneva, and Elburn.

[294] .The schools are affiliated either with the Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE), the all-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) boards.^ Education for All by 2000: Indian Perspective.
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^ All private schools are affiliated either to the Maharashtra State SSC board, or the all-India Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards.

^ The National Policy on Education of 1986 sought to institutionalize universal primary education by setting 1990 as a target date for the education of all children up to eleven years of age.
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[295] .Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction.^ English as a prestige language and the tongue of first choice continues to serve as the medium of instruction in elite schools at every level without apology.
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^ An Assamese who also knew Bengali, or someone from a Marathi-speaking family living in Delhi who attended a Hindi-medium school, might give Bengali or Hindi as his or her second language but also know English from formal school instruction or picking it up on the street.
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^ But the most common language spoken on the city streets is a colloquial form of Hindi , known as Bambaiya – a blend of Hindi, Marathi , Indian English and some invented colloquial words.

[296] .The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.^ Few Schools now follow the international curriculum if CIE or IB. The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.

^ The more prosperous states have better facilities and attempt rehabilitation programs; the poorer ones can afford only the most bare and primitive accommodations.
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^ Telecommunications: National system controlled by government, with public corporations running service in New Delhi and Bombay; some basic telephone services opened to private-sector competition in 1994; telephone line density only 0.7 per 100 persons in 1994, among lowest of major nations of Asia.
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[297]
.Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll for two years in Junior College, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science.^ Under the [[10+2+3 plan]], students complete ten years of schooling, and then enroll for two years in Junior College , where they choose from one of three streams: Arts , Commerce or Science .

^ Children attend for the first three to four years of primary school and gain a smattering of knowledge, only to lapse into illiteracy later.
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^ Middle school pupils aged eleven through fourteen are organized into classes six through eight, and high school students ages fourteen through seventeen are enrolled in classes nine through twelve.
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[298] .This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine.^ This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law , engineering , medicine etc.

^ Declare the illegality, with the force of general compliance, the following provision: The provision 3 of article 1 of Law No.
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^ Students encounter greater difficulties in gaining admission to professional colleges in such fields as architecture, business, medicine, and dentistry.
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[299] .Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.^ The largest number are teaching universities that maintain and run a large number of colleges.
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^ Most professional colleges in Mumbai are affiliated to the University of Mumbai , one of the largest universities in the world in terms of graduation rate.

^ Mumbai also plays Rugby, one of the few cities to do so in the country.

[300] .The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay),[301] Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI),[302], University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT)[303] and K. J. Somaiya Institute Of Engineering & Information Technology(KJSIEIT) which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, and SNDT Women's University are the other autonomous universities in Mumbai.^ The Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai , one of India's premier engineering schools, and the SNDT Women's University are the other universities in Mumbai.

^ Up until the 1980s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include financial services , engineering , diamond polishing, healthcare and information technology .

^ Nehru and other Indian nationalists saw the military as an institution strongly wedded to the colonial past.
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[304] .Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research,Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS) and several other management schools.^ Siddhartha Nagar, Prem Nagar map K P M G House map Paral map Worli Sea Face map Essar House map Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai, India map Bombay Presidency Golf Club map Manasi's Home map Siddhivinayak Annexe map Rand Bazar (Big Bazar) map Khan Majid's Residence map Adish Bldng map Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar' residence.

^ However, because of limited job prospects at home, many of the brightest physicians, scientists, and engineers have been attracted by opportunities abroad, particularly in Western nations.
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^ A.K. Bag's Science and Civilization in India , Abdur Rahman's Science and Technology in Indian Culture , and the Directory of Scientific Research Institutions in India , published by the Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre, are useful.
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[305] .Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai.^ Constitutional Law and History of Government of India, Government of India Act, 1935, and the Constitution of India.
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^ Sharma, B.N. Medium of Instruction in India: A Backgrounder Based on Official Documents of the Government of India.
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[306][307] .The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution.^ Mehta Cottage map HSBC India map Sir J.J. Institute applied art map IMSC & WNC CLUB map L. S. Raheja School of Arts, St Martins Road map shilp tower map Lintas Media Group, Lower Parel, Mumbai map Glaxo Pharmaceuticals map TV Industrial Estate map C.G.House map .

^ The Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai , one of India's premier engineering schools, and the SNDT Women's University are the other universities in Mumbai.

^ INS Konda (hi) map Bse ( Bombay Stock Exchange) map Sir JJ schools Arts and Crafts building.

[308]
.Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).^ When the atomic energy program began in 1948, the Tata Institute provided trained staff, and in 1955, because of the important role it played in nuclear energy research, the institute was recognized as the National Centre of the Government of India for Advanced Study and Fundamental Research in Nuclear Science and Mathematics.
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^ In 1945, with financial assistance from the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust, Bhabha established the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Bombay (see Major Research Organizations, this ch.
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^ In the 1990s, a considerable amount of discussion and experimentation is occurring in the area of technology transfer from fundamental research institutes to the marketplace.
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[309] .The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.^ In this capacity, the institute became a world-class nuclear research facility, recognized for its discoveries in the field of strange particles.
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[310]

Sports

A grassy ground with skyscrapers behind it
Brabourne Stadium, one of the oldest cricket stadiums in the country.
.Cricket is the most popular sport in the city (and the country).^ Football is the second most popular sport with the city clubs playing during the monsoons , when other outdoor sports cannot be played.

^ Image:Brabourne stadium.jpg The Brabourne Stadium is one of the elite sports clubs in the city.Estd 1937 Cricket is the most popular sport in the city, and is usually played in the maidans (grounds) around the city.

.Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as galli cricket) are played everywhere.^ Gully cricket , a modified form of cricket, is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city, especially on Sundays.

.Mumbai is also home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).^ Mumbai has produced several famous international cricketers , and is home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).

[311] .The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 39 titles, the most by any team.^ International cricket is widely watched, and the city almost comes to a virtual standstill on days when the Indian cricket team plays important matches.

^ The local Mumbai cricket team is among the strongest competitors in the Ranji Trophy , the nation's top domestic cricketing circuit.

[312] .The city is also represented by the Mumbai Indians in the Indian Premier League and by the Mumbai Champs in the Indian Cricket League.^ International cricket is widely watched, and the city almost comes to a virtual standstill on days when the Indian cricket team plays important matches.

^ Mumbai has six sister cities (the maximum permitted by the Indian government).

^ The Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai , one of India's premier engineering schools, and the SNDT Women's University are the other universities in Mumbai.

.The city has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium.^ The city has two international cricket stadiums, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium .

^ International cricket is widely watched, and the city almost comes to a virtual standstill on days when the Indian cricket team plays important matches.

^ Image:Brabourne stadium.jpg The Brabourne Stadium is one of the elite sports clubs in the city.Estd 1937 Cricket is the most popular sport in the city, and is usually played in the maidans (grounds) around the city.

[313] .The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far was the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy final which was played at the Brabourne Stadium.^ The city has two international cricket stadiums, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium .

^ Gully cricket , a modified form of cricket, is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city, especially on Sundays.

^ International cricket is widely watched, and the city almost comes to a virtual standstill on days when the Indian cricket team plays important matches.

[314] .Eminent cricketers from Mumbai include Sachin Tendulkar[315] and Sunil Gavaskar.^ Exact Mutty location of Yohann 'the mutt' Perera - Venus G Block map Prabhunam Society map The Pitch where Sachin Tendulkar learned Cricket.

^ The Pitch where Sunil Gavaskar & Dilip Vengsarkar learned Cricket.

[316]
.Football (soccer) is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely.^ Football is the second most popular sport with the city clubs playing during the monsoons , when other outdoor sports cannot be played.

^ The Football World Cup is one of the most widely watched television events in Mumbai.

^ Therefore, following Tyler Cowen, we are justified in being extraordinarily skeptical of empirical findings that are inconsistent with widely accepted theoretical foundations.

[317] .In the I-League, Mumbai is represented by three teams, Mumbai FC,[318] Mahindra United[319] and Air-India.^ There are nine radio stations in Mumbai, with six broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.

^ In April 1991, the Office of the United States Trade Representative placed India on Washington's watch list over intellectual property rights issues.
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^ The Muslim League disputed the claim by the Congress to represent all people of India, while the Congress disputed the Muslim League's claim to voice the aspirations of all Muslims.
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[320] .Field hockey has declined in popularity, due to the rise of cricket.^ India's national sport, field hockey , has gone into a sharp decline in the recent years, losing out in terms of popularity to cricket, though many Mumbai players play in the national team.

Mumbai is home to the Maratha Warriors, the only team from Maharashtra competing in the Premier Hockey League (PHL).[321] .Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse.^ Every February, Mumbai holds the Derby races in the Mahalaxmi Racecourse .

.Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf club in Mumbai.^ Every February, Mumbai holds the Derby races in the Mahalaxmi Racecourse .

[322] .Interest in Formula One racing has been rising in recent years,[323] and in 2008, the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in Mumbai.^ In recent times Formula 1 racing has also caught the public's attention.

^ India's national sport, field hockey , has gone into a sharp decline in the recent years, losing out in terms of popularity to cricket, though many Mumbai players play in the national team.

^ Pricey Propaganda One of the more interesting factoids to come out of the Sun-Times report on recent Cook County hiring is that taxpayers are paying Chinta Strausberg $109,233 a year to spin them.

[324] In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship.[325] In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established in a bid to bring the sports discipline to the Indian public.[326] Mumbai has also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.[327]

Citations

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    ^ In 1851 the first electric telegraph line was laid in Bengal and soon linked Agra, Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, Varanasi, and other cities.
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    ^ The National Capital Territory of Delhi, where a series of seven cities was built over centuries, is the site of the capital--New Delhi--and political nerve center of the world's largest democracy.
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