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The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch[1]) is a work ascribed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah and son of Jared (Genesis 5:18).

This book today is non-canonical and considered pseudepigrapha in most Christian churches, however the Ethiopian Orthodox Church to this day regards it to be canonical.

A short section of 1 Enoch (1En1:9) is quoted in the New Testament (Letter of Jude 1:14-15), and there apparently attributed to "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" (1En60:8).

Other sections of 1 Enoch are also quoted, both positively and negatively, by some of the early Church Fathers.

It is wholly extant only in the Ge'ez language, with Aramaic fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls and a few Greek and Latin fragments. There is no consensus among Western scholars about the original language: some propose Aramaic, others Hebrew, while the probable thesis according to E. Isaac is that 1 Enoch, as Daniel, was composed partially in Aramaic and partially in Hebrew[2]:6. Ethiopian scholars hold that Ge'ez is the language of the original from which the Greek and Aramaic copies were made, pointing out that it is the only language in which the complete text has been found[3].

According to Western scholars its older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) date from about 300 BC and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BC;[4] it is argued that all the writers of the New Testament were familiar with it and were influenced by it in thought and diction.[5]



The first part of Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim. The remainder of the book describes Enoch's visits to Heaven in the form of travels, visions and dreams, and his revelations.

The book consists of five quite distinct major sections (see each section for details):

The shared view[6] is that these five sections were originally independent works (with different dates of composition), themselves a product of much editorial arrangement, and were only later redacted into what we now call 1 Enoch. This view is now opposed only by a few authors who maintain the literary integrity of the Book of Enoch, one of the most recent (1990) being the Ethiopian Wossenie Yifru[3]. Józef Milik has suggested that the Book of Giants found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls should be part of the collection, appearing after the Book of Watchers in place of the Book of Parables, but for various reasons Milik's theory has not been widely accepted.


This article contains Ethiopic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters.

Canonicity in Judaism

Although evidently widely known at the time of the Development of the Jewish Bible canon, 1Enoch was excluded from both the formal canon of the Tanakh and the typical canon of the Septuagint and therefore also the writings known today as the Apocrypha.[7] [8] One possible reason for Jewish rejection of the book might be the textual nature of several early sections of the book which make use of material from the Torah, for example 1En1 is a midrash of Deuteronomy 33. [9][10]. The content, particularly detailed description of fallen angels, would also be a reason for rejection from the Hebrew canon at this period - as illustrated by the comments of Trypho the Jew when debating with Justin Martyr on this subject. Trypho: "The utterances of God are holy, but your expositions are mere contrivances, as is plain from what has been explained by you; nay, even blasphemies, for you assert that angels sinned and revolted from God." (Dialogue 79) [11]

Canonicity in Christianity

The book is referred to, and quoted, in Jude 14-15:

"And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these [men], saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him."

Compare this with Enoch 1:9, translated from the Ethiopic (found also in Qumran scroll 4Q204=4QEnochc ar, col I 16-18[12]:711)

"And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly: And to convict all flesh Of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."

Compare this also with what may be the original source of 1En1:9 in Deuteronomy 33:2 [13][14][15]

"The Lord came from Sinai and dawned from Seir upon us; he shone forth from Mount Paran; he came from the ten thousands of holy ones, with flaming fire at his right hand."

Under the heading of canonicity it is not enough to merely demonstrate that something is quoted (or Paul's quotation of "All Cretans are liars" Titus 1:12 would grant canonicity to the works of Epimenides). It is also necessary to demonstrate the nature of the quotation. [16] In the case of the Jude 14 quotation of 1Enoch 1:9 it is undeniable that a quotation has been made. However there remains a following question as to whether the author of Jude attributed the quotation believing the source to be the historical Enoch before the flood, or whether he did so realising that 1En1 is a midrash of Deut.33:2-3. [17] [18] [19]

It may be significant that the attribution "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" is apparently itself a section heading taken from 1 Enoch (1En 60:8, Jude1:14a) not from Genesis. [20]

In addition Jude indicates that "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" prophesies to the false teachers, and not concerning them as is normal with the verb "prophesy".[21] There is a secondary technical question here is whether it is possible for the Greek verb "prophesy" with dative τούτοις (toutois) to be read as a dativus incommodi (dative of disadvantage) or whether Jude 14 follows the normal use of "prophesy to" as "pure dative use". [22]

Another probable Biblical reference can be found in I Peter 3:19,20 to En. 21:6.

1 Enoch is considered as Scripture in the Epistle of Barnabas (16:4)[23] and by many of the early Church Fathers as Athenagoras[24], Clement of Alexandria[25], Irenaeus[26] and Tertullian[27] who wrote c. 200 that the Book of Enoch had been rejected by the Jews because it contained prophecies pertaining to Christ.[28]

However, later Fathers denied the canonicity of the book and some even considered the letter of Jude uncanonical because it refers to an "apocryphal" work[29]. By the fourth century it was mostly excluded from Christian lists of the Biblical canon, and it was omitted from the canon by most of the Christian church (the Ethiopian Orthodox Church being an exception).

The traditional view of the Ethiopic Orthodox Church, which reckons 1 Enoch as an inspired document, is that the Ethiopic text is the original one, written by Enoch himself. In their view the following opening sentence of Enoch is the first and oldest sentence written in any human language, since Enoch was the first to write letters:

"ቃለ፡ በረከት፡ ዘሄኖክ፡ ዘከመ፡ ባረከ፡ ኅሩያነ፡ ወጻድቃነ፡ እለ፡ ሀለው፡ ይኩኑ"
"በዕለተ፡ ምንዳቤ፡ ለአሰስሎ፡ ኲሉ፡ እኩያን፡ ወረሲዓን።"
"Qāla barakat za-Hēnōk zakama bārraka ḫirūyāna wa-ṣādḳāna 'ila halaw yikūnū baʿilata mindābē la'asaslō kʷilū 'ikūyān wa-rasīʿān"
"Word of blessing of Henok, wherewith he blessed the chosen and righteous who would be alive in the day of tribulation for the removal of all wrongdoers and backsliders."

Manuscript tradition


The most extensive witnesses to the Book of Enoch exist in the Ge'ez language. Robert Henry Charles’ critical edition of 1906 subdivides the Ethiopic manuscripts into two families:

Family α: thought to be more ancient and more similar to the Greek versions:

  • A - ms. orient. 485 of the British Museum, 16th century, with Jubilees
  • B - ms. orient. 491 of the British Museum, 18th century, with other biblical writings
  • C - ms. of Berlin orient. Petermann II Nachtrag 29, 16th century;
  • D - ms. abbadiano 35, 17th century
  • E - ms. abbadiano 55, 16th century
  • F - ms. 9 of the Lago Lair, 15th century

Family β: more recent, apparently edited texts

  • G - ms. 23 of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, 18th century
  • H - ms. orient. 531 of the Bodleian Library of Oxford, 18th century;
  • I - ms. Brace 74 of the Bodleian Library of Oxford, 16th century
  • J - ms. orient. 8822 of the British Museum, 18th century
  • K - ms. property of E. Ullendorff of London, 18th century;
  • L - ms. abbadiano 99, 19th century;
  • M - ms. orient. 492 of the British Museum, 18th century
  • N - ms. Ethiopian 30 of Monaco of Baviera, 18th century;
  • O - ms. orient. 484 of the British Museum, 18th century;
  • P - ms. Ethiopian 71 of the Vatican, 18th century;
  • Q - ms. orient. 486 of the British Museum, 18th century, lacking chapters 1-60


Eleven Aramaic-language fragments of the Book of Enoch were found in cave 4 of Qumran in 1948,[30] and are in the care of the Israel Antiquities Authority. They were translated for and discussed by Józef Milik and Matthew Black in The Books of Enoch[31]. Another translation has been released by Vermes and Garcia-Martinez [32]. Milik described the documents as being white or cream in color, blackened in areas, made of leather which was smooth, thick and stiff. It was also partly damaged with the ink blurred and faint.

  • 4Q201 = 4QEnoch a ar, Enoch 2,1-5,6; 6,4-8,1; 8,3-9,3.6-8
  • 4Q202 = 4QEnoch b ar, Enoch 5,9-6,4; 6,7-8,1; 8,2-9,4; 10,8-12; 14,4-6;
  • 4Q204 = 4QEnoch c ar, Enoch 1,9-5,1; 6,7; 10,13-19; 12,3; 13,6-14,16; 30,1-32,1; 35,; 36,1-4; 106,13-107,2;
  • 4Q205 = 4QEnoch d ar; Enoch 89,29-31; 89,43-44
  • 4Q206 = 4QEnoch e ar; Enoch 22,3-7; 28,3-29,2; 31,2-32,3; 88,3; 89,1-6; 89,26-30; 89,31-37
  • 4Q207 = 4QEnoch f ar
  • 4Q208 = 4QEnastr a ar
  • 4Q209 = 4QEnastr b ar; Enoch 79,3-5; 78,17; 79,2 and large fragments that do not correspond to any part of the Ethiopian text
  • 4Q210 = 4QEnastr c ar; Enoch 76,3-10; 76,13-77,4; 78,6-8
  • 4Q211 = 4QEnastr d ar; large fragments that do not correspond to any part of the Ethiopian text
  • 4Q212 = 4QEn g ar; 91,10; 91,18-19; 92,1-2; 93,2-4; 93,9-10; 91,11-17; 93,11-93,1.

Also at Qumran (cave 1) have been discovered 3 tiny fragments in Hebrew (8,4-9,4; 106).

Chester Beatty XII, Greek manuscript of the Book of Enoch, 4th century

Greek and Latin

The 8th century work Chronographia Universalis by the Byzantine historian George Syncellus preserved some passages of the Book of Enoch in Greek (6,1-9,4; 15,8-16,1). Other Greek fragments known are:

  • Codex Panopolitanus (Cairo Papyrus 10759), named also Codex Gizeh or Akhmim fragements, consists of fragments of two 6th century papyri containing portions of chapters 1-32, recovered by a French archeological team at Akhmim in Egypt, and published five years later in 1892.
  • Vatican Library code Gr. 1809, f. 216v (11th century): including 89,42-49
  • Chester Beatty Papyri XII : including 97,6-107,3 (less chapter 105)
  • Oxyrhynchus Papyri 2069: including only a few letters, that made the identification uncertain, from 77,7-78,1; 78,1-3; 78,8; 85,10-86,2; 87:1-3

It has been claimed that several small additional fragments in Greek have been found at Qumran (7QEnoch: 7Q4, 7Q8, 7Q10-13), dating about 100 BC, ranging from 98:11? to 103:15[33] and written on papyrus with gridlines, but this identification is highly contested.

Of the Latin translation only 1,9 and 106,1-18 are known. The first passage occurs in Pseudo-Cyprian and Pseudo-Vigilius [34]; the second was discovered in 1893 by M. R. James in a 8th century manuscript in the British Museum and published in the same year[35].


Second Temple period

The 1976 publication by Milik[31] of the results of the paleographic dating of the Enochic fragments found in Qumran made a breakthrough. According to this scholar, who studied the original scrolls for many years, the oldest fragments of the Book of Watchers are dated 200-150 BC. Since the Book of Watchers shows evidence of multiple stages of composition, it is probable that this work was extant already in the third century BC[36]. The same can be said about the Astronomical Book.

It was no longer possible to claim that the core of Book of Enoch was composed in the wake of the Maccabean Revolt as a reaction to Hellenization"[37]:93. Scholars thus had to look for the origins of the Qumranic sections of 1 Enoch in the previous historical period, and the comparison with traditional material of such a time showed that these sections do not draw exclusively on categories and ideas prominent in the Hebrew Bible. Some scholars speak even of an "Enochic Judaism" from which the writers of Qumran scrolls were descended[38]. Margaret Barker argues that "Enoch is the writing of a very conservative group whose roots go right back to the time of the First Temple"[39]. The main peculiar aspects of the Enochic Judaism are the following:

  • the idea of the origin of the evil caused by the fallen angels, who came on the earth to unite with human women. These fallen angels are considered ultimately responsible for the spread of evil and impurity on the earth[37]:90;
  • the absence in 1 Enoch of formal parallels to the specific laws and commandment found in the Mosaic Torah and of references to issues like Shabbat observance or the rite of circumcision. The Sinaitic covenant and Torah are not of central importance in the Book of Enoch[40]:50-51;
  • the concept of "End of Days" as the time of final judgment that takes the place of promised earthly rewards[37]:92;
  • the rejection of the Second Temple's sacrifices considered impure: according to Enoch 89:73, the Jews, when returned from the exile, "reared up that tower (the temple) and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure";
  • a solar calendar in opposition to the moon-based calendar used in the Second Temple (a very important aspect for the determination of the dates of religious feasts);
  • an interest in the angelic world that involves life after death[41].

Most Qumran fragments are relatively early, with none written from the last period of the Qumranic experience. Thus it is probable that Qumran community gradually lost interest in the Book of Enoch[42].

The relation between 1 Enoch and the Essenes was noted even before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls[43]. While there is consensus to consider the sections of the Book of Enoch found in Qumran as texts used by the Essenes, the same is not so clear for the Enochic texts not found in Qumran (mainly the Book of Parables): it was proposed[44] to consider these parts as expression of the mainstream, but not-Qumranic, essenic movement. The main peculiar aspects of the not-Qumranic units of 1 Enoch are the following:

  • a Messiah called "Son of Man", with divine attributes, generated before the creation, who will act directly in the final judgment and sit on a throne of glory (1 Enoch 46:1-4, 48:2-7, 69:26-29)[12]:562-563
  • the sinners usually seen as the wealthy ones and the just as the oppressed (a theme we find also in the Psalms of Solomon).

Early Influence

Classical Rabbinic literature is characterized by near silence concerning Enoch. It seems plausible that Rabbinic polemics against Enochic texts and traditions might have led to the loss of these books to Rabbinic Judaism.[45]

The Book of Enoch plays an important role in the history of the Jewish mysticism: the great scholar Gershom Scholem wrote: "the main subjects of the later Merkabah mysticism already occupy a central position in the older esoteric literature, best represented by the Book of Enoch"[46]. Particular attention is paid to the detailed description of the throne of God included in chapter 14 of 1 Enoch.

For the quotation of the Book of Watchers in the Christian Letter of Jude see section: Canonicity.

There is little doubt that 1 Enoch was influential in molding New Testament doctrines about the Messiah, the Son of Man, the messianic kindgom, demonology, the resurrection, and eschatology[2]:10. The limits of the influence of 1Enoch are discussed at length by RH Charles [47], E Isaac [2], GW Nickelsburg [48] in their respective translations and commentaries. It is possible that the earlier sections of 1Enoch had direct textual and content influence on many Biblical apocrypha, as Jubilees, 2 Baruch, 2 Esdras, Apocalypse of Abraham and 2 Enoch, though even in these cases, the connection is typically more branches of a common trunk than direct development.[49]

The Greek text was known to, and quoted, both positively and negatively, by many Church Fathers: references can be found in Justin Martyr, Minucius Felix, Irenaeus, Origen, Cyprian, Hippolytus, Commodianus, Lactantius and Cassian[50]:430, although these references come exclusively from the first five chapters of 1 Enoch. After Cassian (died 435 CE), and before the modern "rediscovery", some excerpts are given in the Byzantine Empire by the 8th century monk George Syncellus in his chronography and in the 9th century it is listed as an apocryphon of the New Testament by Patriarch Nicephorus[51].


Outside of Ethiopia, the text of the Book of Enoch was considered lost until the beginning of the 17th century, when it was confidently asserted that the book was found in an Ethiopic (Ge'ez) language translation there, and Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc bought a book that was claimed to be identical to the one quoted by the Epistle of Jude and the Church Fathers. Hiob Ludolf, the great Ethiopic scholar of the 17th and 18th centuries, soon claimed it to be a forgery produced by Abba Bahaila Michael[52].

Better success was achieved by the famous Scottish traveller James Bruce, who in 1773 returned to Europe from six years in Abyssinia with three copies of a Ge'ez version[53]. One is preserved in the Bodleian Library, another was presented to the royal library of France, while the third was kept by Bruce. The copies remained unused until the 1800s, Silvestre de Sacy, in "Notices sur le livre d'Enoch"[54] included extracts of the books with Latin translations (Enoch chapters 1,2,5-16,22,32). From this a German translation was made by Rink in 1801.

The first English translation of the Bodleian/Ethiopic manuscript was published in 1821 by Richard Laurence, titled The Book of Enoch, the prophet: an apocryphal production, supposed to have been lost for ages; but discovered at the close of the last century in Abyssinia; now first translated from an Ethiopic manuscript in the Bodleian Library. Oxford, 1821. Revised editions appeared in 1833, 1838, and 1842.

Laurence in 1838 also released the first Ethiopic text of 1 Enoch to be published in the West, under the title: Libri Enoch Prophetae Versio Aethiopica. The text, divided into 105 chapters, was soon considered unreliable as it was the transcription of a single Ethiopic manuscript[55].

In 1833 Professor Andreas Gottlieb Hoffmann of the University of Jena released a German translation, based on Laurence's work, called Das Buch Henoch in vollständiger Uebersetzung, mit fortlaufendem Kommentar, ausführlicher Einleitung und erläuternden Excursen. Two other translations came out around the same time one in 1836 called Enoch Restitutus, or an Attempt (Rev Edward Murray) and in 1840 Prophetae veteres Pseudepigraphi, partim ex Abyssinico vel Hebraico sermonibus Latine bersi (A. F. Gfrörer). However both are considered to be poor - the 1836 translation most of all and is discussed in Hoffmann[56].

The first critical edition, based on five manuscripts, appeared in 1851 as Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus, cum variis lectionibus, by August Dillmann. It was followed in 1853 by a German translation of the book by the same author with commentary titled Das Buch Henoch, übersetzt und erklärt. It was considered the standard edition of 1 Enoch until the work of Charles.

The generation of Enoch scholarship from 1890 to the WW1 was dominated by Robert Henry Charles. His 1893 translation and commentary of the Ethiopic text already represented an important advancement as it was based on ten additional manuscripts. In 1906 R.H. Charles published a new critical edition of the Ethiopic text, using 23 Ethiopic manuscripts and all available sources at his time. The English translation of the reconstructed text appeared in 1912 and the same year in his collection of The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.

The publication, in the early 1950s, of the first Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch among the Dead Sea Scrolls profoundly changed the study of the document, as it provided evidence of its antiquity and original text. The official edition of all Enoch fragments appeared in 1976, by Jozef Milik.

In 1978 a new edition of the Ethiopic text was edited by Michael Knibb, with an English translation, while a new commentary appeared in 1985 by Matthew Black. The renewed interest in 1 Enoch spawned a number of other translations: in Hebrew (A. Kahana, 1956), Danish (Hammershaimb, 1956), Italian (Fusella, 1981), Spanish (1982), French (Caquot, 1984) and other modern languages.

In 2001 George W.E. Nickelsburg published the first volume of a comprehensive commentary on 1 Enoch in the Hermeneia series[40]. Since the year 2000, the Enoch seminar has devoted several meetings to the Enoch literature and has become the center of a lively debate concerning the hypothesis that the Enoch literature attests the presence of an autonomous non-Mosaic tradition of dissent in Second Temple Judaism.

The Book of the Watchers

This first section of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim (cf. the bene Elohim, Genesis 6:1-2) and narrates the travels of Enoch in the heavens. This section is said to have been composed in the fourth or third century BC according to Western scholars.[57]

Content of the Book of the Watchers

I-V. Parable of Enoch on the Future Lot of the Wicked and the Righteous.

VI-XI. The Fall of the Angels: the Demoralization of Mankind: the Intercession of the Angels on behalf of Mankind. The Dooms pronounced by God on the Angels of the Messianic Kingdom.

XII-XVI. Dream-Vision of Enoch: his Intercession for Azazel and the fallen angels: and his Announcement of their first and final Doom.

XVII-XXXVI. Enoch's Journeys through the Earth and Sheol:

  • XVII-XIX. The First Journey.
  • XX. Names and Functions of the Seven Archangels.
  • XXI. Preliminary and final Place of Punishment of the fallen Angels (stars).
  • XXII. Sheol or the Underworld.
  • XXIII. The fire that deals with the Luminaries of Heaven.
  • XXIV-XXV. The Seven Mountains in the North-West and the Tree of Life.
  • XXVI. Jerusalem and the Mountains, Ravines, and Streams.
  • XXVII. The Purpose of the Accursed Valley.
  • XXVIII-XXXIII. Further Journey to the East.
  • XXXIV-XXXV. Enoch's Journey to the North.
  • XXXVI. The Journey to the South.

Description of the Book of the Watchers

The introduction to the Book of Enoch tells us that Enoch is "a just man, whose eyes were opened by God so that he saw a vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the sons of God showed to me, and from them I heard everything, and I knew what I saw, but [these things that I saw will] not [come to pass] for this generation, but for a generation that has yet to come."

It discusses God coming to Earth on Mount Sinai with His hosts to pass judgement on mankind. It also tells us about the luminaries rising and setting in the order and in their own time and never change.

"Observe and see how (in the winter) all the trees seem as though they had withered and shed all their leaves, except fourteen trees, which do not lose their foliage but retain the old foliage from two to three years till the new comes."

How all things are ordained by God and take place in his own time. The sinners shall perish and the great and the good shall live on in light, joy and peace.

"And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done."

The first section of the book depicts the interaction of the fallen angels with mankind; Sêmîazâz compels the other 199 fallen angels to take human wives to "beget us children".

"And Semjâzâ, who was their leader, said unto them: 'I fear ye will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.' And they all answered him and said: 'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.'. Then sware they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it."

The names of the leaders are given as "Samyaza (Shemyazaz), their leader, Araqiel, Râmêêl, Kokabiel, Tamiel, Ramiel, Dânêl, Chazaqiel, Baraqiel, Asael, Armaros, Batariel, Bezaliel, Ananiel, Zaqiel, Shamsiel, Satariel, Turiel, Yomiel, Sariel."

This results in the creation of the Nephilim (Genesis) or Anakim/Anak (Giants) as they are described in the book:

"And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells[58]: Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood."

It also discusses the teaching of humans by the fallen angels chiefly Azâzêl:

"And Azâzêl taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjâzâ taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, Armârôs the resolving of enchantments, Barâqîjâl, taught astrology, Kôkabêl the constellations, Ezêqêêl the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiêl the signs of the earth, Shamsiêl the signs of the sun, and Sariêl the course of the moon."

Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel appeal to God to judge the inhabitants of the world and the fallen angels. Uriel is then sent by God to tell Noah of the coming apocalypse and what he needs to do.

"Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spoke, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech, and said to him: Go to Noah and tell him in my name "Hide thyself!" and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world."

God commands Raphael to imprison Azâzêl:

"the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azâzêl hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dûdâêl (Gods Kettle/Crucible/Cauldron), and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azâzêl: to him ascribe all sin."

God gave Gabriel instructions concerning the Nephilim and the imprisonment of the fallen angels:

"And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the biters and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle"

Some, including R.H. Charles, suggest that 'biters' should read 'bastards' but the name is so unusual that some believe that the implication that's made by the reading of 'biters' is more or less correct.

The Lord commands Michael to bind the fallen angels.

"And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjâzâ and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves with them in all their uncleanness. 12. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is for ever and ever is consummated. 13. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: (and) to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations."

Book of Parables

Dated: presumed by western scholars to be written during 1st century BC or very beginning of 1st century CE.[59]

No fragments of chapters 37-71 (Book of Parables) were found at Qumran. This led J.T. Milik in 1976[31], in line with many scholars of the 19th century as Lucke (1832), Hofman (1852), Wiesse (1856) and Phillippe (1868), to believe that those chapters were written in later Christian times by a Jewish Christian to enhance Christian beliefs with Enoch's authoritative name.

However, J.H. Charlesworth summarized[60] the current scholarly consensus, saying: "It became obvious that Milik had not proved his position, as Fitzmyer pointed out as soon as The Book of Enoch had been published. Repeatedly the specialists on I Enoch have come out in favor of the Jewish nature and its first century CE origin, and probable pre-70 date. The list of specialists on I Enoch arguing for this position has become overwhelmingly impressive: Isaac, Nickelsburg, Stone, Knibb, Anderson, Black, VanderKam, Greenfield and Sutter. The consensus communis is unparalleled in almost any other area of research; no specialists now argue that I Enoch 37-71 is a Christian and postdates the first century." .

The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presents a later development of the idea of final judgement and eschatology, concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also of the evil kings of the earth. The Book of Parables uses the expression "Son of Man" for the eschatological protagonist, who is also called “Righteous One,” “Chosen One,” and “Messiah”, and narrates his pre-existence and his sitting on the throne of glory in the final judgment. See also Article Son of Man.

Content of the Book of Parables

XXXVIII-XLIV. The First Parable.

  • VIII. The Coming Judgement of the Wicked.
  • IX. The Abode of the Righteous and the Elect One: the Praises of the Blessed.
  • XL-XLI. 2. The Four Archangels.
  • XLI. 3-9. Astronomical Secrets.
  • XLII. The Dwelling-places of Wisdom and of Unrighteousness.
  • XLIII-XLIV. Astronomical Secrets.

XLV-LVII. The Second Parable.

  • XLV. The Lot of the Apostates: the New Heaven and the New Earth.
  • XLVI. The Head of Days and the Son of Man.
  • XLVII. The Prayer of the Righteous for Vengeance and their Joy at its coming.
  • XLVIII. The Fount of Righteousness: the Son of Man -the Stay of the Righteous: Judgement of the Kings and the Mighty.
  • XLIX. The Power and Wisdom of the Elect One.
  • L. The Glorification and Victory of the Righteous: the Repentance of the Gentiles.
  • LI. The Resurrection of the Dead, and the Separation by the Judge of the Righteous and the Wicked.
  • LII. The Six Metal Mountains and the Elect One.
  • LIII-LIV. The Valley of Judgement: the Angels of Punishment: the Communities of the Elect One.
  • LIV.7.-LV.2. Noachic Fragment on the first World Judgement.
  • LV.3.-LVI.4. Final Judgement of Azazel, the Watchers and their children.
  • LVI.5-8. Last Struggle of the Heathen Powers against Israel.
  • LVII. The Return from the Dispersion.

LVIII-LXXI. The Third Parable.

  • LVIII. The Blessedness of the Saints.
  • LIX. The Lights and the Thunder.
  • [Book Of Noah fragments]
  • LX. Quaking of the Heaven: Behemoth and Leviathan: the Elements.
  • LXI. Angels go off to measure Paradise: the Judgement of the Righteous by the Elect One: the Praise of the Elect One and of God.
  • LXII. Judgement of the Kings and the Mighty: Blessedness of the Righteous.
  • LXIII. The unavailing Repentance of the Kings and the Mighty.
  • LXIV. Vision of the Fallen Angels in the Place of Punishment.
  • LXV. Enoch foretells to Noah the Deluge and his own Preservation.
  • LXVI. The Angels of the Waters bidden to hold them in Check.
  • LXVII. God's Promise to Noah: Places of Punishment of the Angels and of the Kings.
  • LXVIII. Michael and Raphael astonished at the Severity of the Judgement.
  • LXIX. The Names and Functions of the (fallen Angels and) Satans: the secret Oath.
  • LXX. The Final Translation of Enoch.
  • LXXI. Two earlier Visions of Enoch.

The Astronomical Book

Dated: written in the fourth/third century BC according to theory of western scholars.

This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament (as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven), and describe a Solar calendar that was later described also in the Book of Jubilees and that was used by the Dead Sea sect. The use of this calendar made impossible to celebrate the feasts in the same days of the Temple of Jerusalem.

The year was of 364 days, divided in 4 equal seasons of 91 days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of 30 days plus an extra day at the end of the third month. The whole year was thus composed of exactly 52 weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week. Each year and each season started always on Wednesday (the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis, the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created). It is not known exactly how they used to reconcile this calendar with the astronomical year (of about 365.24 days). Probably they used to add a intercalary week every few years, in order to have the year always to start on Wednesday.

Content of the Astronomical Book

  • LXXII. The Sun.
  • LXXIII. The Moon and its Phases.
  • LXXIV. The Lunar Year.
  • LXXVI. The Twelve Winds and their Portals.
  • LXXVII. The Four Quarters of the World: the Seven Mountains, the Seven Rivers, Seven Great Islands.
  • LXXVIII. The Sun and Moon: the Waxing and Waning of the Moon.
  • LXXIX-LXXX.1. Recapitulation of several of the Laws.
  • LXXX.2-8. Perversion of Nature and the heavenly Bodies due to the Sin of Men.
  • LXXXI. The Heavenly Tablets and the Mission of Enoch.
  • LXXXII. Charge given to Enoch: the four Intercalary days: the Stars which lead the Seasons and the Months.

The Dream Visions

The Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the Maccabean Revolt, is dated by most to Maccabean times (about 163-142 BC). It was written before the Flood according to the Ethiopian Christian Church.

Content of the Dream Visions

LXXXIII-LXXXIV. First Dream-Vision on the Deluge. LXXXV-XC. Second Dream-Vision of Enoch: the History of the World to the Founding of the Messianic Kingdom.

  • LXXXVI. The Fall of the Angels and the Demoralization of Mankind.
  • LXXXVII. The Advent of the Seven Archangels.
  • LXXXVIII. The Punishment of the Fallen Angels by the Archangels.
  • LXXXIX.1-9. The Deluge and the Deliverance of Noah.
  • LXXXIX.10-27. From the Death of Noah to the Exodus.
  • LXXXIX.28-40. Israel in the Desert, the Giving of the Law, the Entrance into Canaan.
  • LXXXIX.41-50. From the Time of the Judges to the Building of the Temple.
  • LXXXIX.51-67. The Two Kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the Destruction of Jerusalem.
  • LXXXIX.68-71. First Period of the Angelic Rulers -from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Return from Captivity.
  • LXXXIX.72-77. Second Period -from the Time of Cyrus to that of Alexander the Great.
  • XC.1-5. Third Period -from Alexander the Great to the Graeco-Syrian Domination.
  • XC.6-12. Fourth Period Graeco-Syrian Domination to the Maccabean Revolt (debated).
  • XC.13-19. The last Assault of the Gentiles on the Jews (where vv. 13-15 and 16-18 are doublets).
  • XC.20-27. Judgement of the Fallen Angels, the Shepherds, and the Apostates.
  • XC.28-42. The New Jerusalem, the Conversion of the surviving Gentiles, the Resurrection of the Righteous, the Messiah. Enoch awakes and weeps.

Animals in the second Dream-Vision

The second Dream-Vision in this section of the Book of Enoch is an allegorical account of the history of Israel, that uses animals to represent human beings and human beings to represent angels.

One of several hypothetical reconstructions of the meanings in the dream is as follows based on the works of R. H. Charles and G. H. Schodde:

  • White color for moral purity; Black color for sin and contamination of the fallen angels; Red the color for blood reference to his martydom
  • White bull is Adam; Female heifer is Eve; Red calf is Abel; * Black calf is Cain; White calf is Seth;
  • White bull / man is Noah; White bull is Shem; Red bull is Japheth; Black bull is Ham; Lord of the sheep is God; Fallen star is either Samyaza or Azazel; Elephants are Giants; Camels are Nephilim; Asses are Elioud;
  • Sheep are the faithful; Rams are leaders; Herds are the tribes of Israel; Wild Asses are Ishmael, and his descendants including the Midianites; Wild Boars are Esau and his descendants, Edom and Amalek; Bears (Hyenas/Wolves in Ethiopic) are the Egyptians; Dogs are Philistines; Tigers are Arimathea; Hyenas are Assyrians; Ravens (Crows) are Seleucids (Syrians); Kites are Ptolemies; Eagles are possibly Macedonians; Foxes are Ammonites and Moabites;

Description of the Dream Visions

There are a great many links between the first book and this one, including the outline of the story and the imprisonment of the leaders and destruction of the Nephilim. The dream includes sections relating to the book of Watchers:

"And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep." - The fall of the evil ones
"And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns. And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them." - The creation of the Nephilim et al.

86:4, 87:3, 88:2, and 89:6 all describe the types of Nephilim that are created during the times described in The Book of Watchers, though this doesn't mean that the authors of both books are the same. Similar references exist in Jubilees 7:21-22.

The book describes their release from the Ark along with three bulls white, red and black which are Shem, Japheth, and Ham in 90:9. It also covers the death of Noah described as the white bull and the creation of many nations:

"And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens" 90:10

It then describes the story of Moses and Aaron (90:13-15) including the miracle of the river splitting in two for them to pass, and the creation of the stone commandments. Eventually arriving at a "pleasant and glorious land" (90:40) where attacked by dogs (Philistines), foxes (Ammonites, Moabites) and wild boars (Esau).

"And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it †forsook its glory† and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself unseemly. 45. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that ram which had †forsaken its glory†." - David replacing Saul as leader of Israel

The creation of Solomon's temple it also describes the house which may be the tabernacle "And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him". This interpretation is accepted by Dillmann p 262, Vernes p 89, and Schodde p. 107. It also describes the escape of Elijah the prophet, In 1 Kings 17:2-24 he is fed by 'ravens' so if Kings uses a similar analogy he may have been fed by the Seleucids.

"saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place."

This describes the various tribes of Israel 'inviting' in other nations 'betraying his place' i.e. the land promised to their ancestors by God.

This part of the book can be taken to be the kingdom splitting into the northern and southern tribes. That is Israel and Judah eventually leading to Israel falling to the Assyrians in 721 BC and Judah falling to the Babylonians a little over a century later 587 BC.

"And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep." - God abandons Israel for they have abandoned him.

There is also mention in fifty nine of seventy shepherds with their own seasons; there seems to be some debate on the meaning of this section some suggesting that it's a reference to the 70 appointed times in 25:11, 9:2, 1:12. Another interpretation is the seventy weeks in Daniel 9:24. However the general interpretation is that these are simply Angels. This section of the book and later near the end describes the appointment by God of the 70 angels to protect the Israelites from enduring too much harm from the 'beasts and birds'. The later section (110:14) describes how the 70 angels are judged for causing more harm to Israel than he desired finding them guilty and are "cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full of pillars of fire."

"And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that tower and demolished that house." The sacking of Solomon's temple and the tabernacle in Jerusalem by the Babylonians as they take Judah in 587 BC/586 BC exiling the remaining Jews.
"And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that house;"
"Cyrus allowed Sheshbazzar, a prince from the tribe of Judah, to bring the Jews from Babylon back to Jerusalem. Jews were allowed to return with the Temple vessels that the Babylonians had taken. Construction of the Second Temple began." - History of ancient Israel and Judah the temple is finished being built in 515 BC.

The first part of this next section of the book seem to clearly describe the Maccabean revolt of 167 BC against the Seleucids. The following two quotes have been altered from their original form to make the meanings of the animal names clear.

"And I saw in the vision how the (Seleucids) flew upon those (faithful) and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the (Seleucids) cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those (faithful), and their eyes were opened. And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those (Macedonians) and vultures and (Seleucids) and (Ptolemies) still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: still the sheep remained silent, but the rams lamented and cried out. And those (Seleucids) fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it." 109:8-12
"All the (Macedonians) and vultures and (Seleucids) and (Ptolemies) were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram." 110:16

According to this theory, the first sentence is most likely the death of High Priest Onias III who is murdered which is described in 1 Maccabees 3:33-35 (dies aprox 171 BC). The 'great horn' clearly isn't Mattathias the initiator of the rebellion as he dies a natural death as described in 1 Maccabees 2:49. It's also not Alexander the Great as the great horn is described as a warrior who has fought the Macedonians, Seleucids and Ptolemies. Judas Maccabeus (167 BC-160 BC) has fought all three of these, with a large number of winning battles against the Seleucids over a large period of time "they had no power over it". He is also described as "one great horn among six others on the head of a lamb" possibly pertaining to his five brothers and Mattathias. If you take this in context of the history from Maccabeus time Dillman Chrest Aethiop says verse 13 can find its explanation in 1 Maccabees iii 7; vi. 52; v.; 2 Maccabees vi. 8 sqq., 13, 14; 1 Maccabees vii 41, 42 and 2 Maccabees x v, 8 sqq. The evidence does seem to suggest that this is in fact the life and times of Judas Maccabeus. He is eventually killed by the Seleucids at the Battle of Elasa where he faced "twenty thousand foot soldiers and two thousand cavalry". At one time it was believed this passage possibly belonged to John Hyrcanus; the only reason for this was the time between Alexander the Great and John Maccabeus was too short. However it has been asserted that evidence shows this section does indeed discuss Maccabeus.

It then describes:

"And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face."

This might be simply the "power of God", God was with them to avenge the death. It may also be perhaps Jonathan Apphus taking over command of the rebels to battle on after Judas death. Other possible appearances are John Hyrcanus (Hyrcanus I) (Hasmonean dynasty) "And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to His house." Possibly describing John's reign a time of great peace and prosperity. Certain scholars also claim Alexander Jannaeus of Judaea is alluded to in this book.

The end of the book describes the new Jerusalem, culminating in the birth of a Messiah:

"And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns and all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him and made petition to him all the time. 38. And I saw till all their generations were transformed, and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over it and over all the oxen."

Still another interpretation, which has just as much as credibility, is that the last chapters of this section simply refer to infamous battle of Armageddon, where all of the nations of the world march against Israel; this interpretation is supported by the War Scroll, which describes what this epic battle may be like, according to the group(s) that existed at Qumran.

The Epistle of Enoch

Dated: some scholars propose a date somewhere between the 170 BC and the 1st century BC.

This section can be studied as formed by five sub-sections[61], mixed by the final redactor:

  • Apocalypse of Weeks (93:1-10 91:11-17): this sub-section, dated usually the first half of 2nd century BC, narrates the history of the world using a ten periods (said "weeks") scheme, of which seven regard the past and three the future events (the final judgment). The climax is in the seventh part of the tenth week where new heaven shall appear and there will be many weeks without number for ever, and all shall be in goodness and righteousness.
  • Exhortation (91:1-10 91:18-19) this short list of exhortations to follow the righteousness said by Enoch to his son Methuselah looks like to be a bridge to next sub-section.
  • Epistle (92:1-5 93:11-105:2): the first part of the epistle sketches the wisdom of the Lord, final reward of the justs and the punishment of the evils, and the two separated paths of righteousness and unrighteousness. Then we have six oracles against the sinners, the witness of the whole creation against them and the assurance of the fate after death. According Boccaccini[44]:131-138 the epistle is composed by two layers: a "proto-epistle", with a theology near the deterministic viewpoint of the Qumran group, and a slightly later part (94:4-104:6) that points out the personal responsibility of the single, describing often the sinners as the wealthy ones and the justs as the oppressed (a theme we find also in the Book of Parables).
  • Birth of Noah (106-107): this part appears in Qumran fragments separated from the previous text by a blank line, thus looking like an appendix. It narrates of the deluge and of Noah who is born already with the appearance of an angel. Probably this text derives, as other small portions of 1 Enoch, from an originally separated book (see Book of Noah), but was arranged by the redactor as direct speech of Enoch himself.
  • Conclusion (108): this second appendix was not found in Qumram and is considered to be work of the final redactor. It highlights the "generation of light" in opposition to the sinners destined to the darkness.

Content of the Epistle of Enoch

XCII, XCI.1-10, 18-19. Enoch's Book of Admonition for his Children.

  • XCI.1-10, 18-19. Enoch's Admonition to his Children.
  • XCIII, XCI.12-17. The Apocalypse of Weeks.
  • XCI.12-17. The Last Three Weeks.
  • XCIV.1-5. Admonitions to the Righteous.
  • XCIV.6-11. Woes for the Sinners.
  • XCV. Enoch's Grief: fresh Woes against the Sinners.
  • XCVI. Grounds of Hopefulness for the Righteous: Woes for the Wicked.
  • XCVII. The Evils in Store for Sinners and the Possessors of Unrighteous Wealth.
  • XCVIII. Self-indulgence of Sinners: Sin originated by Man: all Sin recorded in Heaven: Woes for the Sinners.
  • XCIX. Woes pronounced on the Godless, the Lawbreakers: evil Plight of Sinners in The Last Days: further Woes.
  • C. The Sinners destroy each other: Judgement of the Fallen Angels: the Safety of the Righteous: further Woes for the Sinners.
  • CI. Exhortation to the fear of God: all Nature fears Him but not the Sinners.
  • CII. Terrors of the Day of Judgement: the adverse Fortunes of the Righteous on the Earth.
  • CIII. Different Destinies of the Righteous and the Sinners: fresh Objections of the Sinners.
  • CIV. Assurances given to the Righteous: Admonitions to Sinners and the Falsifiers of the Words of Uprightness.
  • CV. God and the Messiah to dwell with Man.
  • CVI-CVII. (first appendix) Birth of Noah.
  • CVIII. (second appendix) Conclusion.

Names of the fallen angels

Some of the fallen angels that are given in 1 Enoch have other names such as Rameel ('morning of God'), who becomes Azazel and is also called Gadriel ('wall of God') in Chapter 69. Another example is that Araqiel ('Earth of God') becomes Aretstikapha ('world of distortion') in Chapter 69.

"Azaz" as in Azazel means strength, so the name Azazel can refer to strength of God. But the sense in which it is used most-probably means impudent (showing strength towards) which comes out as arrogant to God. This is also a key point to his being Satan in modern thought.

The suffix of the names 'el' means 'God' (List of names referring to El) which is used in the names of high ranking angels. The Archangels all include this such as Uriel (Flame of God) or Michael "who is like God?". Another is given as Gadrel, who is said to have tempted Eve.


  1. ^ There are two other books named "Enoch": 2 Enoch, surviving only in Old Slavonic (Eng. trans. by R. H. Charles 1896) and 3 Enoch (surviving in Hebrew, c. 5th to 6th century CE).
  2. ^ a b c E. Isaac 1 Enoch, a new Translation and Introduction in ed. James Charlesworth The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Vol 1 ISBN 0385096305 (1983)
  3. ^ a b Wossenie Yifru, 1990 Henok Metsiet, Vol. I, Ethiopian Research Council
  4. ^ Fahlbusch E., Bromiley G.W. The Encyclopedia of Christianity: P-Sh pag 411, ISBN 0802824161 (2004)
  5. ^ "Apocalyptic Literature" (column 220), Encyclopedia Biblica
  6. ^ Vanderkam, JC. (2004). 1 Enoch: A New Translation. Minneapolis:Fortress. pp. 1ff (ie. preface summary).  ; Nickelsburg, GW. (2004). 1 Enoch: A Commentary. Minneapolis:Fortress. pp. 7–8.  
  7. ^ Emanuel Tov and Craig Evans, Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective, Acadia 2008
  8. ^ Philip R. Davies, Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures London: SPCK, 1998
  9. ^ E Isaac, in Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed. Charlesworth, Doubleday, 1983
  10. ^ "1 Enoch contains three [geographical] name midrashim [on] Mt. Hermon, Dan, and Abel Beit-Maacah" Esther and Hanan Eshel, George W.E. Nickelsburg in perspective: an ongoing dialogue of learning p459. Also in Esther and Hanan Eshel, Toponymic Midrash in 1 Enoch and in Other Second Temple Jewish Literature, Historical and Philological Studies on Judaism 2002 Vol24 pp. 115-130
  11. ^ transl. P. Schaff Early Christian Fathers
  12. ^ a b Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh", Cornerstone Publications, 2008,ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
  13. ^ "1.9 In 'He comes with ten thousands of His holy ones the text reproduces the Massoretic of Deut.33,2 in reading ATAH = erchetai, wheras the three Targums, the Syriac and Vulgate read ATIH, = met'autou. Here the LXX diverges wholly. The reading ATAH is recognised as original. The writer of 1-5 therefore used the Hebrew text and presumably wrote in Hebrew." R.H.Charles, Book of Enoch: Together with a Reprint of the Greek Fragments London 1912, p.lviii
  14. ^ "We may note especially that 1:1, 3-4, 9 allude unmistakably to Deuteronomy 33:1-2 (along with other passages in the Hebrew Bible), implying that the author, like some other Jewish writers, read Deuteronomy 33-34, the last words of Moses in the Torah, as prophecy of the future history of Israel, and 33:2 as referring to the eschatological theophany of God as judge." Richard Bauckham, The Jewish world around the New Testament: collected essays. 1999 p276
  15. ^ "The introduction.. picks up various biblical passages and re-interprets them, applying them to Enoch. Two passages are central to it The first is Deuteronomy 33:1 .. the second is Numbers 24:3-4 Michael E. Stone Selected studies in pseudepigrapha and apocrypha with special reference to the Armenian Tradition (Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha No 9) p.422.
  16. ^ John Barton, The Old Testament: Canon, Literature and Theology Society for Old Testament Study 2007
  17. ^ Nickelsburg, op.cit. see index re. Jude
  18. ^ Bauckham, R. 2 Peter, Jude Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 50, 1983
  19. ^ Jerome H. Neyrey 2 Peter, Jude, The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries 1994
  20. ^ Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch, Fortress, 2001
  21. ^ see usage of dative with verb under;query=entry%3D%2390679;layout=;loc=profh%2Fteuma
  22. ^ D. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond The Basics, p140,142, Grand Rapids 1996
  23. ^ "Apocalyptic Literature", Encyclopedia Biblica
  24. ^ Athenagoras of Athens, in Embassy for the Christians 24
  25. ^ Clement of Alexandria, in Eclogae prophetice II
  26. ^ Ireneaus, in Adversus haereses IV,16,2
  27. ^ Tertullian, in De cultu foeminarum I,3 and in De Idolatria XV
  28. ^ The Ante-Nicene Fathers (ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson; vol 4.16: On the Apparel of Women (De cultu foeminarum) I.3: "Concerning the Genuineness of 'The Prophecy of Enoch'")
  29. ^ Cf. Gerome, Catal. Script. Eccles. 4.
  30. ^ The Online Critical Pseudepigrapha
  31. ^ a b c Josef T. Milik (with Matthew Black). The Books of Enoch, Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1976)
  32. ^ Vermes 513-515; Garcia-Martinez 246-259
  33. ^ P. Flint The Greek fragments of Enoch from Qumran cave 7 in ed.Boccaccini Enoch and Qumran Origins 2005 ISBN 0802828787, pag 224-233
  34. ^ see Beer, Kautzsch, Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen, l.c. p. 237
  35. ^ M.R. James, Apocrypha Anecdota T&S 2.3 Cambridge 1893 pp. 146-150
  36. ^ John Joseph Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (1998) ISBN 0802843719, pag. 44
  37. ^ a b c Gabriele Boccaccini, Roots of Rabbinic Judaism: An Intellectual History, from Ezekiel to Daniel, (2002) ISBN 0802843611
  38. ^ John W. Rogerson, Judith Lieu, The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies Oxford University Press: 2006 ISBN 0199254257, pag 106
  39. ^ Margaret Barker, The Lost Prophet: The Book of Enoch and Its Influence on Christianity 1998 reprint 2005, ISBN 1905048181, pag 19
  40. ^ a b George W. E. Nickelsburg 1 Enoch: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Fortress: 2001 ISBN 0800660749
  41. ^ John J. Collins in ed. Boccaccini Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection 2005 ISBN 0802828787, pag 346
  42. ^ James C. VanderKam, Peter Flint, Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls 2005 ISBN 056708468X, pag 196
  43. ^ see the page "Essenes" in the 1906 JewishEncyclopedia
  44. ^ a b Gabriele Boccaccini Beyond the Essene Hypothesis (1998) ISBN 0802843603
  45. ^ Annette Yoshiko Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity, 2005 ISBN 0521853788, pag 234
  46. ^ Gershom Scholem Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1995) ISBN 0805210423, pag 43
  47. ^ RH Charles, 1 Enoch SPCK London 1916
  48. ^ Nickelsburg 1 Enoch, Fortress, 2001
  49. ^ see Nickelsburg, op.cit.
  50. ^ P. Sacchi, Apocrifi dell'Antico Testamento 1, ISBN 9788802076065
  51. ^ Cf. Nicephorus (ed. Dindorf), I. 787
  52. ^ Ludolf, Commentarius in Hist. Aethip., p. 347
  53. ^ Bruce, Travels, vol 2, page 422
  54. ^ Silvestre de Sacy in Notices sur le livre d'Enoch in the Magazine Encyclopédique, an vi. tome I, p. 382
  55. ^ see the judgement on Laurence by Dillmann, Das Buch Henoch, p lvii
  56. ^ Hoffmann, Zweiter Excurs, pages 917-965
  57. ^ The Origins of Enochic Judaism (ed. Gabriele Boccaccini; Turin: Zamorani, 2002)
  58. ^ the Ethiopian text gives 300 cubits (135 m), which is probably a corruption of 30 cubits (13.5 m)
  59. ^ Enoch and the Messiah Son of Man: Revisiting the Book of Parables (ed. Gabriele Boccaccini; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007); Sabino Chiala', Libro delle Parabole di Enoch (Brescia: Paideia, 19977)
  60. ^ James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, ISBN 0521301904 (1985) page 89
  61. ^ Loren T. Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2008) ISBN 3110191199

See also


Editions, Translations, Commentaries

  • George W.E. Nickelsburg and James C. VanderKam. 1 Enoch: A New Translation (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2004) ISBN 0800636945
  • Daniel C. Olson. Enoch: A New Translation (North Richland Hills, TX: Bibal, 2004) ISBN 0941037894
  • George W.E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch: A Commentary (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2001) ISBN 0800660749
  • Sabino Chiala'. Libro delle Parabole di Enoc (Brescia: Paideia, 1997) ISBN 8839407391
  • Matthew Black (with James C. VanderKam). The Book of Enoch; or, 1 Enoch (Leiden: Brill, 1985) ISBN 9004071008
  • Ephraim Isaac, 1(Ethiopic Apocalypse of) Enoch, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed. James H. Charlesworth (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983-85) ISBN 0385096305
  • Michael A. Knibb. The Ethiopic Book Of Enoch., 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1978; repr. 1982)
  • Josef T. Milik (with Matthew Black). The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1976).
  • Robert Henry Charles. The Book of Enoch; or, 1 Enoch (Oxford: Clarendon, 1912)
  • Robert Henry Charles. The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch (Oxford: Clarendon, 1906)
  • Robert Henry Charles. The Book of Enoch (Oxforf: Clarendon, 1893)
  • George Henry Schodde. The Book of Enoch translated from the Ethiopic with Introduction and notes (Andover: Draper, 1882)
  • August Dillmann. Das Buch Henoch (Leipzig: Vogel 1853)
  • August Dillmann. Liber Henoch aethiopice (Leipzig: Vogel, 1851)
  • Richard Laurence. Libri Enoch prophetae versio aethiopica (Oxford: Parker, 1838)
  • Andreas Gottlieb Hoffmann. Das Buch Henoch, 2 vols. (Jena: Croecker, 1833-39)
  • Richard Laurence. The Book of Enoch (Oxford: Parker, 1821)


  • Gabriele Boccaccini and John J. Collins (eds.). The Early Enoch Literature (Leiden: Brill, 2007) ISBN 9004161546
  • Annette Yoshiko Reed. Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) ISBN 0521853788
  • Andrei A. Orlov. The Enoch-Metatron Tradition (Tuebingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005) ISBN 3161485440
  • Gabriele Boccaccini. Beyond the Essene Hypothesis: The Parting of the Ways between Qumran and Enochic Judaism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998) ISBN 0802843603
  • James H. Charlesworth. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament (CUP Archive: 1985) ISBN 1563382571
  • Paolo Sacchi, William J. Short. Jewish Apocalyptic and Its History (Sheffield: Academic 1996) ISBN 185075585X
  • James C. VanderKam. Enoch: A Man for All Generations (Columbia, SC; University of South Carolina, 1995) ISBN 157003060X
  • Florentino Garcia Martinez. Qumran & Apocalyptic: Studies on the Aramaic Texts from Qumran (Leiden: Brill, 1992) ISBN 9004095861
  • Helge S. Kvanvig. Roots of Apocalyptic: The Mesopotamian Background of the Enoch Figure and of the Son of Man (Neikirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1988) ISBN 3788712481
  • John J. Collins. The Apocalyptic Imagination (New York: Crossroads, 1984; 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eermans 1998) ISBN 0802843719
  • James C. VanderKam. Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition (Washington: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1984) ISBN 0915170159

External links


Introductions and others:

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Book of Enoch , translated by R. H. Charles
The Book of Enoch is a title given to several works that attribute themselves to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah; that is, Enoch son of Jared (Genesis 5:18). (There are also three other characters named Enoch in the Bible: the son of Cain (Gen. 4:17), the son of Midian (Gen. 25:4), and the son of Reuben (Gen. 46:9; Ex. 6:14). The last two are transcribed "Hanoch" in the modern translations). Most commonly, the phrase Book of Enoch refers to 1 Enoch, which is wholly extant only in the Ethiopic language. There are also 2 other books called Enoch, 2 Enoch (surviving only in Old Slavonic, c. 1st century; Eng. trans. by R. H. Charles (1896)) and 3 Enoch (surviving in Hebrew, c. 5th-6th century) The numbering of these texts has been applied by scholars to distinguish the texts from one another.Excerpted from Book of Enoch on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

/Title Page

/Editors' Preface
/Abbreviations, Brackets and Symbols Specially Used in the Translation of 1 Enoch

The Book of Enoch

/Chapter 01
/Chapter 02
/Chapter 03
/Chapter 04
/Chapter 05
/Chapter 06
/Chapter 07
/Chapter 08
/Chapter 09
/Chapter 10
/Chapter 11
/Chapter 12
/Chapter 13
/Chapter 14
/Chapter 15
/Chapter 16

Enoch's Journeys through the Earth and Sheol

/Chapter 17
/Chapter 18
/Chapter 19
/Chapter 20
/Chapter 21
/Chapter 22
/Chapter 23
/Chapter 24
/Chapter 25
/Chapter 26
/Chapter 27
/Chapter 28
/Chapter 29
/Chapter 30
/Chapter 31
/Chapter 32
/Chapter 33
/Chapter 34
/Chapter 35
/Chapter 36

The Parables

/Chapter 37

The First Parable

/Chapter 38
/Chapter 39
/Chapter 40
/Chapter 41
/Chapter 42
/Chapter 43
/Chapter 44

The Second Parable

/Chapter 45
/Chapter 46
/Chapter 47
/Chapter 48
/Chapter 49
/Chapter 50
/Chapter 51
/Chapter 52
/Chapter 53
/Chapter 54
/Chapter 55
/Chapter 56
/Chapter 57

The Third Parable

/Chapter 58
/Chapter 59

Book of Noah—a Fragment

/Chapter 60
/Chapter 61
/Chapter 62
/Chapter 63
/Chapter 64
/Chapter 65
/Chapter 66
/Chapter 67
/Chapter 68
/Chapter 69

/Chapter 70
/Chapter 71

The Book of the Courses of the Heavenly Luminaries

/Chapter 72
/Chapter 73
/Chapter 74
/Chapter 75
/Chapter 76
/Chapter 77
/Chapter 78
/Chapter 79
/Chapter 80
/Chapter 81
/Chapter 82

The Dream-Vision

/Chapter 83
/Chapter 84
/Chapter 85
/Chapter 86
/Chapter 87
/Chapter 88
/Chapter 89
/Chapter 90

The Concluding Section of the Book

/Chapter 91
/Chapter 92
/Chapter 93
/Chapter 94
/Chapter 95
/Chapter 96
/Chapter 97
/Chapter 98
/Chapter 99
/Chapter 100
/Chapter 101
/Chapter 102
/Chapter 103
/Chapter 104
/Chapter 105
/Chapter 106

Fragment of the Book of Noah

/Chapter 107
/Chapter 108

An Appendix to the Book of Enoch

/Chapter 109

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki



The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, because God took him". This walking with God was naturally understood to refer to special revelations made to the patriarch, and this, together with the mystery surrounding his departure from the world, made Henoch's name an apt one for the purposes of apocalyptic writers. In consequence there arose a literature attributed to him.

It influenced not only later Jewish apocrypha, but has left its imprint on the New Testament and the works of the early Fathers. The canonical Epistle of St. Jude, in verses Jude 1:14 and Jude 1:15, explicitly quotes from the Book of Henoch; the citation is found in the Ethiopic version in verses 9 and 4 of the first chapter. There are probable traces of the Henoch literature in other portions of the New Testament.

Passing to the patristic writers, the Book of Henoch enjoyed a high esteem among them, mainly owing to the quotation in Jude. The so-called Epistle of Barnabas twice cites Henoch as Scripture. Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and even St. Augustine suppose the work to be a genuine one of the patriarch. But in the fourth century the Henoch writings lost credit and ceased to be quoted. After an allusion by an author of the beginning of the ninth century, they disappear from view.

So great was the oblivion into which they fell that only scanty fragments of Greek and Latin versions were preserved in the West. The complete text was thought to have perished when it was discovered in two Ethiopic manuscripts in Abyssinia, by the traveler Bruce in 1773. Since, several more copies in the same language have been brought to light. Recently a large Greek fragment comprising chapters i-xxxii was unearthed at Akhmîn in Egypt.

Scholars agree that the Book of Henoch was originally composed either in Hebrew or Aramaic, and that the Ethiopic version was derived from a Greek one. A comparison of the Ethiopic text with the Akhmîn Greek fragment proves that the former is in general a trustworthy translation. The work is a compilation, and its component parts were written in Palestine by Jews of the orthodox Hasidic or Pharisaic schools. Its composite character appears clearly from the palpable differences in eschatology, in the views of the origin of sin and of the character and importance of the Messias found in portions otherwise marked off from each other by diversities of subject. Critics agree that the oldest portions are those included in chapters i-xxxvi and (broadly speaking) lxxi-civ.

It will be seen that the work is a voluminous one. But the most recent research, led by the Rev. R.H. Charles, an English specialist, breaks up this part into at least two distinct constituents. Charles's analysis and dating are: i-xxxvi, the oldest part, composed before 170 B.C.; xxxvii-lxx, lxxxiii-xc, written between 166-161 B.C.; chapters xci-civ between the years 134-95 B.C.; the Book of Parables between 94-64 B.C.; the Book of Celestial Physics, lxxii-lxxviii, lxxxii, lxxix, date undetermined. Criticism recognizes, scattered here and there, interpolations from a lost apocalypse, the Book of Noah. Expert opinion is not united on the date of the composite older portion, i.e. i-xxxvi, lxxi-civ. The preponderant authority represented by Charles and Schürer assigns it to the latter part of the second century before Christ, but Baldensperger would bring it down to a half century before our Era.


In the following outline of contents, Charles's analysis, which is supported by cogent reasons, has been adopted. The various elements are taken up in their chronological sequence.

Book I, chapters i-xxxvi

Its body contains an account of the fall of the angelic "Watchers", their punishment, and the patriarch's intervention in their history. It is based upon Gen 6:2: "The sons of God seeing the daughters of men, that they were fair, took to themselves wives of all they chose." The narrative is intended to explain the origin of sin and evil in the world and in this connection lays very little stress on the disobedience of our First Parents. This portion is remarkable for the entire absence of a Messias.

Book II, lxxxiii-xc

This book contains two visions. In the first, lxxxiii-lxxxiv, is portrayed the dreadful visitation of the flood, about to fall upon the earth. Henoch supplicates God not to annihilate the human race. The remaining section, under the symbolism of cattle, beasts, and birds, sketches the entire history of Israel down to the Messianic reign.

Book III, xci-civ, cviii

It professes to give a prophetic vision of the events of the world-weeks, centering about Israel. This part is distinguished by insistence upon a sharp conflict between the righteous of the nation and their wicked opponents both within and without Israel. They triumph and slay their oppressors in a Messianic kingdom without a personal Messias. At its close occurs the final judgment, which inaugurates a blessed immortality in heaven for the righteous. For this purpose all the departed just will rise from a mysterious abode, though apparently not in the body (ciii, 3, 4). The wicked will go into the Sheol of darkness and fire and dwell there forever. This is one of the earliest mentions of Sheol as a hell of torment, preceding portions of the book having described the place of retribution for the wicked as Tartarus and Geennom.

Book IV, xxxvii-lxx

This book consists of three "Parables". The first describes the secrets of heaven, giving prominence to the angelic hosts and their princes. The second parable (xliv-lvii) deals with the Messias, and is the most striking of this remarkable book. The influence of Daniel is easily traceable here, but the figure of the Messias is sketched much more fully, and the idea developed to a degree unparalleled in pre-Christian literature. The Elect One, or Son of Man, existed before the sun and stars were created, and is to execute justice upon all sinners who oppress the good. For this end there will be a resurrection of all Israel and a judgment in which the Son of Man will render to everyone according to his deeds. Iniquity will be banished from the earth and the reign of the Messias will be everlasting. The third parable (lviii-lxx) describes again the happiness reserved for the just, the great Judgment and the secrets of nature. Here and there throughout the Book of Parables the author gives piecemeal his theory of the origin of sin. Going a step further back than the fault of the Watchers of the first book, he attributes their fall to certain mysterious Satans.

Book V, lxxii-lxxviii, lxxxix, lxxix (transposed)

This book may be called the Book of Celestial Physics, or Astronomy. It presents a bewildering mass of revelations concerning the movements of the heavenly bodies, given to Henoch by the angel Uriel. The final chapters of the entire work, cv-cvii, are drawn from the lost Book of Noah.

Portions of this entry are taken from The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907.


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