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Emblem of the Russian Border Guard Service
Russian Border Guard Ensign

Border Guard Service of Russia (Russian: Пограничная служба России),also known as Пограничные войска России, Pogranichnyie Voiska Rossii,is a branch of Federal Security Service of Russia tasked with patrol of the Russian border. Border Troops were a centralized force including the maritime border guard units (i.e., a coast guard).

Contents

History

Imperial Russia

Border Guards were created in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, however, the origin of the Russian border service can be traced to Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky and his Great Abatis Border in the 16th century. In 1782 Catherine II of Russia created Border Customs Guards originally manned by Russian Cossacks as well as low-ranking cavalry troops. General Mikhail Barklay de Tolly organized in 1810 numerous border posts consisted of 11 regiments of Don and Bug Cossacks along all Western Russian border. Within two years Russian Border Guards were first to fight the Napoleon's invasion of Russia. In 1832 Cossacks and cavalry were replaced by armed customs officials subordinate to the ministry of finance in peacetime (in wartime the border guards were automatically transferred to the army). In the same year the coast guard was created, originally to observe Black sea and Azov sea coasts. In 1893 Count Sergei Witte Russian minister of finance in the Alexander III's government reformed the service into Separate Corpus of Border Guards a para-military rather than civilian organization headed by an army general. In 1906 about 40 000 soldiers and officers served in the Separate Corpus of Border Guards responsible for the defence of the vast Imperial border.

Soviet period

NKVD border guards watching the frontier

Soviet Border Troops, (Russian: Пограничные войска СССР, Pogranichnyie Voiska SSSR) were the militarized border guard of the Soviet Union, subordinated to its subsequently reorganized state security agency: first to Cheka/OGPU, then to NKVD/MGB and, finally, to KGB. Accordingly, they were known as NKVD Border Troops and KGB Border Troops (with Russian abbreviations - НКВД СССР/- КГБ СССР added on the end of official names). Unlike border guards of many other countries, Soviet Border Troops were a centralized force including also the maritime border guard units (i.e., a coast guard).

Modern period

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Federal Border Guard Service of Russia was created on December 30, 1993 and given a status of separate ministry. This organization retained some old traditions, most notably the green-colored uniform and "Border Guarder's Day" (an official holiday commemorated by celebrations of ex-servicemen). First minister of FPS (Federal Border Service) was Andrei Nikolayev, young and outspoken general who later became deputy of the State Duma. Russian Border Guards were also stationed outside of Russia most notably in southern Tajikistan, in order to guard the border with Afghanistan, until summer 2005. On Afghan-Tajik border on many occasions they were engaged in heavy fighting with drug-traffickers and Islamic extremists. Armenia's border with Turkey and Iran is also still guarded by the Russians. On March 11, 2003 Russian president Vladimir Putin changed the status of Border Guard Service from a separate ministry into a branch of Russian Federal Security Service. The current head of Border Guard Service of Russia is General Vladimir Pronichev. Border Guard Service of Russia is still tasked with a defence of the longest national border in the world.

Mission

Russian Border Guard (coast guard) vessel #183

Responsibilities of Border Guard Service of Russia include:

  • defence of the Russian national border, prevention of illegal crossing of the land and sea border by people and goods (smuggling).
  • protection of economic interests of the Russian Federation and its natural resources within land and sea border areas, territorial waters and internal seas, including prevention of poaching and illegal fishing.

Organization

Command

  • The head of the Border Service - Army General Vladimir Pronichev (Deputy Director of Russia's FSB)
  • First Deputy Head of the Border Service - Lieutenant-General Vladimir Rozhkov
  • First Deputy Head of the Border Service - the head of the Organizational Department, Colonel-General Mansur Valiev
  • Deputy head of Russia's FSB Border Service - the chief international treaty management Lieutenant-General Alexander Manilov
  • Deputy Chief of the Border Service - Lieutenant-General Victor Trufanov
  • Deputy Chief of the Border Service - Maj. Gen. Alexander Mizon
  • Deputy Chief of the Border Service - Maj. Gen. Nikolai Rybalkin
  • Deputy Chief of the Border Service - Lieutenant General Gennady Simuhin

Structure

1990s emblem

FS Russia is headed by a single centralized system, which includes:

  • border control;
  • foreign intelligence corps;
  • operational entities engaged in intelligence, counter, operational investigative activities, to ensure its own security system FPS Russia;
  • border guards and other organs of the Border Service, provided by federal law;
  • border troops FPS Russia;
  • military educational institutions, vocational education,
  • enterprises, institutions and organizations in Russia under the FPS (hereinafter referred to authorities and troops FPS Russia), according to federal law

Lineup

Changes in the regional structure of the Border Service, instead of ten regional border (see the old structures FPS) for the new scheme includes regional offices of the border (in the federal districts) and 30 border offices. Includes the Maritime Border Guard.

Regional border districts:

  • Regional Border Directorate of the Central Federal District
  • Regional Border Management for the Southern Federal District
  • Regional Border Directorate of the Ural Federal District
  • Regional Border Directorate of the Volga Federal District
  • Regional Border Directorate for the Siberian Federal District
  • North West Regional Border Management
  • Arctic regional border management on
  • Regional Border Directorate for the Far Eastern Federal District

The military educational institutions, vocational education:


As adopted by presidential decree dated 23 April 2001, № 457

  • Border Academy of Russia's FSB;
  • Military Medical Institute, the Border Service of Russia's FSB in the Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy;
  • Golitsynsky Military Institute of the Border Service;
  • Kaliningrad Military Institute of the Border Service;
  • Kurgan Military Institute of the Border Service;
  • Moscow Military Institute of the Border Service;
  • Khabarovsk Military Institute, the Border Service;
  • The First Cadet Corps of the Border Service.

Enterprises, institutions and organizations which are subordinate to the Border Service:

  • medical and health institutions of the Border Service;
  • Repair Plant;
  • parts logistics, technical and other support.

Maritime Border Guard

  • Maritime Guard of the Border Service is part of Federal Security Service. This unit performs the role of a coastguard[1].and has a significant combat capability: The strength is listed below:

Equipment

Aircraft

References

  • Приложение N 2 к Указу Президента Российской Федерации от 19 июля 1997 г. N 732 Annex 2 to N decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 19 Jul, 1997 N 732

Index rename and time-frame structural units of the Border Service

  • Пограничные и внутренние войска (охрана) ВЧК-ОГПУ-НКВД-МВД СССР The border and internal troops (Guard) VCHK-OGPU-NKVD-USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • С 29 сентября 1918 г. - Штаб корпуса войск (внутренней охраны) ВЧК From 29 September 1918 - The headquarters of the hull forces (internal security) VCHK
  • С 1 апреля 1921 г. - Управление войск ВЧК-ОГПУ From 1 April 1921 - The Office of troops VCHK-OGPU
  • С 1 декабря 1922 г. - Штаб войск ОГПУ In December 1, 1922 - The headquarters of the troops OGPU
  • С 3 октября 1923 г. - Инспекция войск ГПУ - ОГПУ 3 October 1923 - Inspektsiya troops GPU - OGPU
  • С 6 ноября 1926 г. - Главное управление пограничной охраны и войск ОГПУ 6 November 1926 - The Directorate of Border Guard Troops and OGPU
  • С 10 июля 1934 г. - Главное управление пограничной и внутренней охраны (ГУПВО) НКВД СССР 10 July 1934 - General Directorate of Border and internal security (GUPVO) Soviet NKVD
  • С 29 сентября 1938 г. - Главное управление пограничных и внутренних войск (ГУПВВ) НКВД СССР With 29 Sept., 1938 - General Directorate of Border and Interior Troops (GUPVV) Soviet NKVD

From 1938 to 1957:

  • Главное управление пограничных войск (ГУПВ) The Directorate of Border Troops (GUPV)
  • Главное управление войск по охране железнодорожных сооружений The Directorate of troops for the protection of railway facilities
  • Главное управление войск по охране особо важных предприятий промышленности The Directorate of troops for the protection of critical business industry
  • Главное управление конвойных войск (ГУКВ) The Directorate escort troops (GUKV)
  • Главное управление военного снабжения (ГУВС) General Directorate of Military Supplies (GUVS)
  • Главное военно-строительное управление The main military construction management
  • С 9 июня 1956 г. - ГУПВВ МВД СССР 9 June 1956 - GUPVV USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • Со 2 апреля 1957 г. - ГУПВВ МВД СССР было расформировано в связи с передачей погранвойск из ведения МВД СССР в ведение КГБ при СМ СССР From 2 April 1957 - GUPVV USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs was disbanded in connection with the transfer of border troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the Soviet KGB when the Soviet Union SM

The border troops (Guard):

  • С 28 мая 1918 г. - пограничная охрана при Наркомате финансов (позднее - в военном ведомстве и Наркомате внешней торговли) May 28 1918 - Border Guard when Narkomate Finance (later - in the military and Narkomate Foreign Trade)
  • С 24 ноября 1920 г. - функции в ОО ВЧК-ГПУ, затем в КРО ГПУ и в штабе отдельного пограничного корпуса (пограничный отдел) Штаба войск ОГПУ 24 November 1920 - features in the GS VCHK-GPU, then to the CGB GPU and the headquarters of a frontier corps (Border Division) headquarters troops OGPU
  • С 28 июля 1923 г. - Отдел пограничной охраны ГПУ-ОГПУ 28 July 1923 - Department of Border Guard GPU, OGPU
  • С 6 ноября 1926 г. - Главное управление пограничной охраны и войск ОГПУ 6 November 1926 - The Directorate of Border Guard Troops and OGPU
  • С 10 июля 1934 г. - ГУПВО НКВД СССР 10 July 1934 - Soviet NKVD GUPVO
  • С 29 сентября 1938 г. - ГУПВВ НКВД СССР With 29 Sept., 1938 - Soviet NKVD GUPVV
  • С 8 марта 1939 г. - ГУПВ НКВД СССР Since 8 March 1939 - Soviet NKVD GUPV
  • С 17 октября 1949 г. - ГУПВ МГБ СССР With 17 Oct., 1949 - GUPV MGB USSR
  • С 14 марта 1953 г. - ГУПВ МВД СССР With 14 March, 1953 - GUPV USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • 9 июня 1956 г. - на базе ГУПВ, ГУВКО и ВСУ МВД СССР было организовано ГУПВВ МВД СССР 9 Jun, 1956 - based GUPV, GUVKO and MAT USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs was organized by the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs GUPVV
  • Со 2 апреля 1957 г. - ГУПВ КГБ при СМ СССР From 2 April 1957 - GUPV KGB when the Soviet Union SM
  • С 5 июля 1978 г. - ГУПВ КГБ СССР On 5 July 1978 - GUPV KGB
  • From December 1991 - after the reorganization of KGB, the General Directorate of Border Troops were abolished and formed the Committee for the Protection of the State border of the Soviet Union with the Joint Command of the border forces led by was assigned to the post of chairman of the Committee - Chief of Soviet border troops.
  • В 1992 г. - созданы Пограничные войска Российской Федерации, которые были подчинены Министерству безопасности. In 1992 - a Border troops of the Russian Federation, which have been subordinated to the Ministry of Security.
  • В 1993 г. - образована Федеральная пограничная служба - Главное командование Пограничных войск Российской Федерации со статусом федерального министерства. In 1993 - Federal Border Service - General Command of Border Troops of Russian Federation with the status of federal ministries.
  • С 1994 года - переименована в Федеральную пограничную службу (ФПС России). Since 1994 - renamed the Federal Border Service (FPS Russia).
  • С 4 мая 2002 г. Since May 4th, 2002 - ФПС России переименована в Пограничную службу Российской Федерации, которая состоит из специально уполномоченного федерального органа исполнительной власти по пограничной службе (ФПС России), войск, органов и других организаций. - FPS Russia renamed the Border Service of the Russian Federation, which consists of specially authorized federal executive body for the Border Service (FPS Russia), troops and other organizations.
  • 11 марта 2003 года - Владимир Путин упразднил передал функции ФПС в ведение ФСБ. ФПС России переименована в ПС ФСБ России 11 Mar., 2003 - Vladimir Putin abolished the function of FPS conveyed to the FSB. FPS Russia renamed PS Russia's FSB

References

Source

Лубянка. Lubyanka. Органы ВЧК-ОГПУ-НКВД-НКГБ-МГБ-МВД-КГБ 1917-1991. Справочник, документы (Международный фонд Демократия, Москва 2003) - Authorities VCHK-OGPU-NKVD-NKGB-MGB-MVD-KGB 1917-1991. Reference documents (International Fund for Democracy, Moscow 2003)

See also

External links








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