Borderline Personality Disorder: Wikis


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Borderline personality disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 (F60.3)
ICD-9 301.83
MeSH D001883
.Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder defined in DSM-IV and described as a prolonged disturbance of personality function in a person (generally over the age of eighteen years, although it is also found in adolescents), characterized by depth and variability of moods.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am checking on my borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[1] .The disorder typically involves unusual levels of instability in mood; black and white thinking, or splitting; chaotic and unstable interpersonal relationships, self-image, identity, and behavior; as well as a disturbance in the individual's sense of self.^ Interpersonal relationships in BPD are particularly unstable.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Votes:0 Borderline Personality Disorder BPD is characterized by impulsivity & by instability in mood, self-image, & personal relationships.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ People with this disorder have unstable relationships, highly reactive and intense moods, and impulsive behavior.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

.In extreme cases, this disturbance in the sense of self can lead to periods of dissociation.^ In extreme cases, this disturbance in the sense of self can lead to periods of dissociation.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | ePsychology.us 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epsychology.us [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In extreme cases, this disturbance in the sense of self can lead to periods of dissociation .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In extreme cases, this disturbance in the sense of self can lead to periods of dissociation.Borderline personality disorder - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) American Psychiatric Association (2000) .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[2]
.These disturbances can have a pervasive negative impact on many or all of the psychosocial facets of life.^ These disturbances can have a pervasive negative impact on many or all of the psychosocial facets of life.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ These disturbances have a pervasive negative impact on many or all of the psychosocial facets of life.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disturbances experienced by those diagnosed as exhibiting the symptom profile for Borderline personality disorder have a wide-ranging and pervasive negative impact on many facets of the person's life, including employment, relationships at work, family life, and other social relationships.
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

.This includes difficulties maintaining relationships in work, home, and social settings.^ This includes the inability to maintain relationships in work, home, and social settings.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This includes difficulties maintaining relationships in work, home and social settings.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The keys to successful management include making an accurate diagnosis, maintaining a supportive relationship with the patient and establishing limited goals.
  • Borderline personality disorder -- Paris 172 (12): 1579 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Self-harming is a marked symptom and even acts of attempted (or complete) suicide are possible, especially without proper care and effective therapy.^ Suicidality and completed suicide are possible outcomes without proper care and effective therapy.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | ePsychology.us 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epsychology.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Attempted suicide and completed suicide are possible outcomes, especially without proper care and effective therapy.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not possible without medication and suitable therapy .
  • AAPEL - Borderline personality disorder synthesis - BPD 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aapel.org [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.There is an ongoing debate among clinicians and patients worldwide about terminology and the use of the word borderline,[4] and some have suggested that this disorder should be renamed.^ Because the term lacks specificity, there is an ongoing debate concerning whether this disorder should be renamed.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Learning about borderline personality disorder: .
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is an ongoing debate about terminology and the use of the word borderline and some have suggested that this disorder should be renamed.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[5] .The ICD-10 manual has an alternative definition and terminology to this disorder, called Emotionally unstable personality disorder.^ Emotionally unstable personality disorder Classification and external resources .
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Personality Disorders - Top 10 Myths .
  • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Someone has Borderline Personality Disorder & it's definitely not me.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.There is related concern that the diagnosis of BPD stigmatizes people, usually women, and supports pejorative and discriminatory practices.^ There is related concern that the diagnosis stigmatizes people, usually women, and supports pejorative and discriminatory practices.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Are there support groups for people like me?
  • Borderline Personality Disorder Awareness Month: Discussing, Understanding & Publicizing an Under-Recognized Epidemic 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.systemsthinker.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a look all too familiar to families of people with BPD who feel foolish and embarrassed when authorities arrive to assist with a problem that now seems not to be there.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .It is common for those suffering from borderline personality disorder and their families to feel compounded by a lack of clear diagnoses, effective treatments, and accurate information.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Posttraumatic stress disorder among children clinically diagnosed as borderline personality disorder.
  • An Equifinality Model of Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aaets.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is true especially because of evidence that this disorder originates in the families of those who suffer from it[7] and has a lot to do with Axis IV factors, rather than belonging strictly in Axis II.^ Axis II disorders tend to get a lot less respect.
  • Borderline personality disorder - NeuroTalk Communities 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC neurotalk.psychcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: Findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is very common among males who derived their sense of self-worth and empowerment by taking on a mediating, fixing or rescuing role within their family of origin.
  • GettinBetter.com's BORDERLINE PERSONALITY FORUM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC gettinbetter.com [Source type: General]

.Conceptual, as well as therapeutic relief may be obtained through evidence that BPD is closely related to traumatic events during childhood and to Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), about which much more is known[8].^ There are also scales for alcoholism, post-traumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, yes, many BPD patients do fit the diagnostic criteria for PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) as well.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes depression as one of its major symptoms.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

.In early 2008, at the request of mental health professionals, individuals diagnosed with BPD, and their families, the United States House of Representatives unanimously declared the month of May as Borderline Personality Disorder Awareness Month.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Posttraumatic stress disorder among children clinically diagnosed as borderline personality disorder.
  • An Equifinality Model of Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aaets.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

[9][10]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

.Borderline personality disorder is a diagnosis about which many articles and books have been written, yet about which very little is known based on empirical research.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borderline Personality Disorder is experienced in individuals in many different ways.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.Studies suggest that individuals with BPD tend to experience frequent, strong and long-lasting states of aversive tension, often triggered by perceived rejection, being alone or perceived failure.^ I don't handle rejection well, nor do I handle being left alone for too long.

^ Studies suggest that individuals with BPD tend to experience frequent, strong and long-lasting states of aversive tension, often triggered by perceived rejection, being alone, or perceived failure.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies suggest that individuals with BPD tend to experience frequent, strong and long-lasting states of aversive tension, often triggered by perceived rejection, being alone, or perceived failure .

[12] .Individuals with BPD may show lability (changeability) between anger and anxiety or between depression and anxiety[13] and temperamental sensitivity to emotive stimuli.^ Individuals with BPD may show lability (changeability) between anger and anxiety or between depression and anxiety and temperamental sensitivity to emotive stimuli.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with BPD may show lability (changeability) between anger and anxiety or between depression and anxiety [20] and temperamental sensitivity to emotive stimuli.
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

^ Some findings suggest that BPD may lie on a bipolar spectrum , with a number of points of phenomenological and biological overlap between the affective lability criterion of borderline personality disorder and the extremely rapid cycling bipolar disorders.
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.The negative emotional states specific to BPD may be grouped into four categories: destructive or self-destructive feelings; extreme feelings in general; feelings of fragmentation or lack of identity; and feelings of victimization.^ The negative emotional states particularly associated with BPD have been grouped into four categories: extreme feelings in general; feelings of destructiveness or self-destructiveness; feelings of fragmentation or lack of identity ; and feelings of victimization .

^ The negative emotional states particularly associated with BPD have been grouped into four categories: extreme feelings in general; feelings of destructiveness or self-destructiveness; feelings of fragmentation or lack of identity; and feelings of victimization.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ BPD patients may also be uncertain about their identity or self-image.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[15]
.Individuals with BPD can be very sensitive to the way others treat them, reacting strongly to perceived criticism or hurtfulness.^ Individuals with BPD can be very sensitive to the way others treat them, reacting strongly to perceived criticism or hurtfulness.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with BPD can be very sensitive to the way others treat them, reacting strongly to perceived criticism or hurtfulness .

^ BPD's are very sensitive to slight.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder on the Behavioral Unit - Nursing for Nurses 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC allnurses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their feelings about others often shift from positive to negative, generally after a disappointment or perceived threat of losing someone.^ Their feelings about others often shift from positive to negative, generally after a disappointment or perceived threat of losing someone.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of this, they often project onto others, feeling they are misunderstood, mistreated or treated unfairly, and they feel all these things to excess and great emotional distress.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You may idealize someone one moment and then abruptly and dramatically shift to fury and hate over perceived slights or even minor misunderstandings.
  • Borderline personality disorder - Valley Health System 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Self-image can also change rapidly from extremely positive to extremely negative.^ That is, your self-image or sense of self often rapidly changes.
  • Borderline personality disorder - Valley Health System 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Self-image can also change rapidly from extremely positive to extremely negative.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ An unstable self-image often leads to frequent changes in jobs, friendships, goals, values and gender identity.
  • Borderline personality disorder - Valley Health System 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Impulsive behaviors are common, including alcohol or drug abuse, unsafe sex, gambling and recklessness in general.^ Impulsive behaviors are common, including alcohol or drug abuse, unsafe sex, gambling and recklessness in general.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common early characteristics are impulsive and reckless behavior.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common early signs are impulsive and reckless behavior.
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Attachment studies suggest individuals with BPD, while being high in intimacy- or novelty-seeking, can be hyper-alert[11] to signs of rejection or not being valued and tend toward insecure, avoidant or ambivalent, or fearfully preoccupied patterns in relationships.^ Attachment studies suggest individuals with BPD, while being high in intimacy- or novelty-seeking, can be hyper-alert to signs of rejection or not being valued and tend towards insecure, ambivalent, preoccupied or fearful attitudes towards relationships .

^ Attachment studies suggest individuals with BPD, while being high in intimacy- or novelty-seeking, can be hyper-alert to signs of rejection or not being valued and tend toward insecure, avoidant or ambivalent, or fearfully preoccupied patterns in relationships.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Attachment studies suggest individuals with BPD, while being high in intimacy- or novelty-seeking, can be hyper-alert [18] to signs of rejection or not being valued and tend towards insecure, ambivalent, preoccupied or fearful attitudes towards relationships.
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

[17] .They tend to view the world generally as dangerous and malevolent, and tend to view themselves as powerless, vulnerable, unacceptable and unsure in self-identity.^ They tend to view the world generally as dangerous and malevolent, and themselves as powerless, vulnerable, unacceptable and unsure in self-identity.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While generally their daily experience is such that "all is not well," they tend to be deeply committed to their own beliefs and patterns.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, people with borderline personality disorder also tend to lash out at themselves when they’re feeling angry and overwhelmed.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

[11]
.Individuals with BPD are often described, including by some mental health professionals (and in the DSM-IV),[18] as deliberately manipulative or difficult, but analysis and findings generally trace behaviors to inner pain and turmoil, powerlessness and defensive reactions, or limited coping and communication skills.^ Individuals with BPD are often described, including by some mental health professionals (and in the DSM-IV), as deliberately manipulative or difficult, but analyses and findings generally trace behaviors to inner pain and turmoil, powerlessness and defensive reactions , or limited coping and communication skills.

^ Individuals with BPD are often described, including by some mental health professionals (and in the DSM-IV), as deliberately manipulative or difficult, but analyses and findings generally trace behaviors to inner pain and turmoil, powerlessness and defensive reactions, or limited coping and communication skills.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with BPD are often described, including by some mental health professionals (and in the DSM-IV), [25] as deliberately manipulative or difficult, but analyses and findings generally trace behaviors to inner pain and turmoil, powerlessness and defensive reactions, or limited coping and communication skills.
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

[19][20][21] .There has been limited research on family members' understanding of borderline personality disorder and the extent of burden or negative emotion experienced or expressed by family members.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borderline Personality Disorder is experienced in individuals in many different ways.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.Parents of individuals with BPD have been reported to show co-existing extremes of over-involvement and under-involvement.^ Parents of individuals with BPD have been reported to show co-existing extremes of over-involvement and under-involvement.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ There has been limited research on family members' understanding of borderline personality disorder and the extent of burden or negative emotion experienced or expressed by family members.Parents of individuals with BPD have been reported to show co-existing extremes of over-involvement and under-involvement BPD has been linked to somewhat increased levels of chronic stress and conflict in romantic relationships, decreased satisfaction of romantic partners , abuse, and unwanted pregnancy; these links may largely be general to personality disorder and subsyndromal problems, but such issues are commonly raised in support groups and published literature for partners of individuals with BPD. .

^ Particular difficulties have been observed in the relationship between care providers and individuals diagnosed with BPD. A majority of psychiatric staff report finding individuals with BPD moderately to extremely difficult to work with, and more difficult than other client groups.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

[7] .BPD has been linked to increased levels of chronic stress and conflict in romantic relationships, decreased satisfaction of romantic partners, abuse and unwanted pregnancy; these links may be general to personality disorder and subsyndromal problems.^ BPD ( aka Borderline Personality Disorder ) .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms People with a borderline personality disorder have problems maintaining a relationship.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ Substance abuse in borderline personality disorder.
  • An Equifinality Model of Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aaets.org [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.Suicidal or self-harming behavior is one of the core diagnostic criteria in DSM IV-TR, and management of and recovery from this can be complex and challenging.^ Suicidal or self-harming behaviour is one of the core diagnostic criteria in DSM IV-TR, and management of this can be a complex and challenging issue.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suicidal or self-harming behavior is one of the core diagnostic criteria in DSM IV-TR, and management of and recovery from this can be complex and challenging.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A narrative of the DSM-IV-TR criteria follows.
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

[24] .The suicide rate is approximately 8 to 10 percent.^ The suicide rate is approximately eight to ten percent.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The suicide rate is approximately 8 to 10 percent.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The suicide rate is approximately 8-10%.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[25] .Self-injury attempts are highly common among patients and may or may not be carried out with suicidal intent.^ Self-injury attempts are highly common among patients and may or may not be carried out with suicidal intent.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lack of impulse control is joined with self-destructive and self-defeating behaviors, such as suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, gestures, or threats, and self-mutilation or self-injury.

^ Recurring suicidal threats or self-injurious behavior.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

[26][27] .BPD is often characterized by multiple low-lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high-lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression, with interpersonal stressors appearing to be particularly common triggers.^ Interpersonal relationships in BPD are particularly unstable.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BPD is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression , with interpersonal stressors appearing to be particularly common triggers.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ BPD is often characterized by multiple low-lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high-lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression, with interpersonal stressors appearing to be particularly common triggers.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

[28] .Ongoing family interactions and associated vulnerabilities can lead to self-destructive behavior.^ Ongoing family interactions and associated vulnerabilities can lead to self-destructive behavior.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lack of impulse control is joined with self-destructive and self-defeating behaviors, such as suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, gestures, or threats, and self-mutilation or self-injury.

^ People with borderline personality disorder are typically unstable, exhibit wild mood swings, and have self-destructive behavior.

[7] .Stressful life events related to sexual abuse have been found to be a particular trigger for suicide attempts by adolescents with a BPD diagnosis.^ Stressful life events related to sexual abuse have been found to be a particular trigger for suicide attempts by adolescents with a BPD diagnosis.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms *Five of the nine criteria must be met for diagnosis.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder Article 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, although child abuse is clearly a risk factor, it is not specific to BPD. 13 In general, adverse life events are not consistently pathogenic by themselves but, rather, produce sequelae in vulnerable populations.
  • Borderline personality disorder -- Paris 172 (12): 1579 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]

[29]

Diagnosis

.Diagnosis is based on a clinical assessment by a qualified mental health professional.^ What is a mental health assessment?
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diagnosis is based on a clinical assessment by a qualified mental health professional.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ I also respect those mental health practitioners who are clinically competent, mentally healthy, and who have integrity, who stay in their profession despite the behaviour and personalities of their disordered colleagues.
  • The Last Psychiatrist: The Diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder: What Does It Really Mean? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC thelastpsychiatrist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The assessment incorporates the patient's self-reported experiences as well as the clinician's observations.^ The assessment incorporates the patient's self-reported experiences as well as the clinician's observations.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, the patient suffering from borderline personality disorder must also learn self-regulation skills as well as skills at better influencing her environment.
  • Skills Training Manual for Treating Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.vakkur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first 6 months, DBT patients had fewer suicidal acts, lower anger scores and better self-reported social adjustment than TAU patients.
  • Personality disorders 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.csoinc.org [Source type: Academic]

.The resulting profile may be supported or corroborated by long-term patterns of behavior as reported by family members, friends or co-workers.^ Friends and family members can be sign up, too.
  • Community Notes - West Roxbury, MA - Wicked Local West Roxbury 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.wickedlocal.com [Source type: General]

^ BPD is results in a long term pattern of impulsive behaviour, changeable...
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The resulting profile may be supported or corroborated by long-term patterns of behavior as reported by family members, friends or co-workers.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

.The list of criteria that must be met for diagnosis is outlined in the DSM-IV-TR.^ A narrative of the DSM-IV-TR criteria follows.
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

^ The list of criteria that must be met for diagnosis is outlined in the DSM-IV-TR. .
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ DSM-IV-TR criteria .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Borderline personality disorder was once classified as a subset of schizophrenia (describing patients with borderline schizophrenic tendencies).^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am checking on my borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Today BPD is used more generally to describe individuals who display emotional dysregulation and instability, with paranoid schizophrenic ideation or delusions being only one criterion (criterion #9) of a total of 9 criteria, of which 5, or more, must be present for this diagnosis.^ Only one of the individuals I encountered openly acknowledged the diagnosis.
  • Borderline personality disorder - NeuroTalk Communities 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC neurotalk.psychcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today BPD is considered a relatively stable personality disorder and is used more generally to describe non-psychotic individuals who display emotional dysregulation, splitting and an unstable self-image.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ I used to work with women who had BPD ...
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

.Individuals with BPD are at high risk of developing other psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression.^ Individuals with BPD are at high risk of developing other psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Standardized criteria were developed to distinguish BPD from affective disorders and other Axis I disorders, and BPD became a personality disorder diagnosis in 1980 with the publication of DSM-III. The diagnosis was formulated predominantly in terms of mood and behavior, distinguished from sub-syndromal schizophrenia which was termed "Schizotypal personality disorder."
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Among BPD sufferers, there is a high rate of comorbidity with seizure disorders.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder Awareness Month: Discussing, Understanding & Publicizing an Under-Recognized Epidemic 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.systemsthinker.com [Source type: General]

.Other symptoms of BPD, such as dissociation, are frequently linked to severely traumatic childhood experiences, which some put forth as one of the many root causes of the borderline personality.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms -Individuals with BPD have several of the following symptoms: 1.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ Childhood experiences of borderline patients.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.BPD has many similar characteristics to emotionally unstable personality disorder, subtype borderline; and complex post-traumatic stress disorder.^ There are also scales for alcoholism, post-traumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Emotionally unstable personality disorder Classification and external resources .
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Adolescence

.Onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood.^ Onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, which persist for about a decade; while this period can be trying on the patient, their support system and their therapists, the majority of cases lessen in severity over time.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers believe that BPD results from a combination of individual genetic vulnerability and environmental stress, neglect or abuse as young children, and maturational events that trigger the onset of the disorder during adolescence or adulthood.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Symptoms may persist for several years, but the majority of symptoms lessen in severity over time,[3] with some individuals fully recovering.^ Symptoms -Individuals with BPD have several of the following symptoms: 1.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms may persist for several years, but the majority of symptoms lessen in severity over time, with some individuals fully recovering.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of BPD patients continue to use outpatient treatment in a sustained manner for several years, but the number using the more restrictive and costly forms of treatment, such as inpatient admission, declines with time.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

.The mainstay of treatment is various forms of psychotherapy, although medication and other approaches may also improve symptoms.^ Other symptoms may include: .
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mainstay of treatment is various forms of psychotherapy, although medication and other approaches may also improve symptoms.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The mainstay of treatment are various forms of psychotherapy.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While borderline personality disorder can manifest itself in children and teenagers, therapists are discouraged from diagnosing anyone before the age of 18, due to adolescence and a still-developing personality.^ Posttraumatic stress disorder among children clinically diagnosed as borderline personality disorder.
  • An Equifinality Model of Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aaets.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What causes borderline personality disorder?
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are some instances when BPD can be evident and diagnosed before the age of 18. The DSM-IV states: "To diagnose a personality disorder in an individual under 18 years, the features must have been present for at least 1 year."^ Additionally, they must have evidenced a Conduct Disorder before the age of 15 years, and must be at least 18 years old to receive this diagnosis.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BPD ( aka Borderline Personality Disorder ) .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ At least eighteen years in age.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other words, it is possible to diagnose the disorder in children and adolescents, but a more conservative approach should be taken.^ Borderline Personality Disorder and Adolescents of more...
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcohol use-related disorders or other psychiatric diagnoses were not associated with outcome.

^ Posttraumatic stress disorder among children clinically diagnosed as borderline personality disorder.
  • An Equifinality Model of Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aaets.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is some evidence that BPD diagnosed in adolescence is predictive of the disease continuing into adulthood.^ There is some evidence that BPD diagnosed in adolescence is consistent in adulthood.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms of ADHD are now known to persist into adulthood in many people, and to require continued treatment.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heredity The tendency to develop depression may be inherited; there is some evidence that this disorder may run in families.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is possible that the diagnosis, if applicable, would be helpful in creating a more effective treatment plan for the child or teen.^ Identifying this diagnosis is important for treatment planning.
  • Borderline personality disorder -- Paris 172 (12): 1579 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ It is possible that the diagnosis, if applicable, would be helpful in creating a more effective treatment plan for the child or teen.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, in most cases, effective treatment plans are more complex than can be accomplished by a single type of treatment.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][30]

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition, DSM IV-TR, a widely used manual for diagnosing mental disorders, defines borderline personality disorder (in Axis II Cluster B) as:[2][18]
A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects, as well as marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:
    .
  1. Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.^ Make frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
    • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment .
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The nine features (reproduced in brief) are as follows: 1 Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Note: Do not include suicidal or self-injuring behavior covered in Criterion 5
  2. A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation.
  3. Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self.
  4. Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., promiscuous sex, eating disorders, binge eating, substance abuse, reckless driving).^ [Not including suicidal or self-mutilating behavior covered in Criterion 5] 2.
    • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Interpersonal relationships in BPD are particularly unstable.
    • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Do you engage in self-destructive behaviors such as drug abuse or eating disorders?
    • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

    Note: Do not include suicidal or self-injuring behavior covered in Criterion 5
  5. Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats or self-injuring behavior such as cutting, interfering with the healing of scars (excoriation) or picking at oneself.
  6. Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days).
  7. Chronic feelings of emptiness
  8. Inappropriate anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights).
  9. Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation, delusions or severe dissociative symptoms
.It is a requirement of DSM-IV that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.^ Mnemonics for DSM-IV personality disorders.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DSM-IV-TR criteria .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DSM-IV defines ten categories of personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

International Classification of Disease

.The World Health Organization's ICD-10 defines a conceptually similar disorder to borderline personality disorder called (F60.3) Emotionally unstable personality disorder.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Emotionally unstable personality disorder Classification and external resources .
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

It has two subtypes described below.[31]
F60.30 Impulsive type
At least three of the following must be present, one of which must be (2):
  1. marked tendency to act unexpectedly and without consideration of the consequences;
  2. marked tendency to quarrelsome behaviour and to conflicts with others, especially when impulsive acts are thwarted or criticized;
  3. liability to outbursts of anger or violence, with inability to control the resulting behavioural explosions;
  4. difficulty in maintaining any course of action that offers no immediate reward;
  5. unstable and capricious mood.
.It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.^ Personality Disorders - Top 10 Myths .
  • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diagnostic criteria* for borderline personality disorder 1.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder Article 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Personality disorders affect about 10% of the general population.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

F60.31 Borderline type
At least three of the symptoms mentioned in F60.30 Impulsive type must be present [see above], with at least two of the following in addition:
  1. disturbances in and uncertainty about self-image, aims, and internal preferences (including sexual);
  2. liability to become involved in intense and unstable relationships, often leading to emotional crisis;
  3. excessive efforts to avoid abandonment;
  4. recurrent threats or acts of self-harm;
  5. chronic feelings of emptiness.
.It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.^ Personality Disorders - Top 10 Myths .
  • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diagnostic criteria* for borderline personality disorder 1.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder Article 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Personality disorders affect about 10% of the general population.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder - Education Resource - StudySphere 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

Chinese Society of Psychiatry

.The Chinese Society of Psychiatry's CCMD has a comparable diagnosis of Impulsive Personality Disorder (IPD).^ However, other disorders associated with impulsivity, such as antisocial personality and substance abuse, also tend to burn out around the same age.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The construct has been described as a hybrid of the impulsive and borderline subtypes of the ICD's Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder, and also incorporates six of the nine DSM BPD criteria.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His focus tends to be on the differential diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder, and Cauwels gives Gunderson's criteria in order of their importance: .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A patient diagnosed as having IPD must display "affective outbursts" and "marked impulsive behavior," plus at least three out of eight other symptoms.^ A patient diagnosed as having IPD must display "affective outbursts" and "marked impulsive behavior," plus at least three out of eight other symptoms.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A patient diagnosed as having IPD must display "affective outbursts" and "marked impulsive behavior", plus at least three out of eight other symptoms.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with borderline personality disorder displaying this dimension exhibit impulsive aggression, self-mutilation , or self-damaging behavior (e.g., promiscuous sex, substance abuse, reckless spending).
  • AAPEL - borderline personality disorder and medication 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.aapel.org [Source type: Academic]

.The construct has been described as a hybrid of the impulsive and borderline subtypes of the ICD-10's Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder, and also incorporates six of the nine DSM BPD criteria.^ The construct has been described as a hybrid of the impulsive and borderline subtypes of the ICD-10's Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder, and also incorporates six of the nine DSM BPD criteria.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Emotionally unstable personality disorder Classification and external resources .
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The construct has been described as a hybrid of the impulsive and borderline subtypes of the ICD's Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder, and also incorporates six of the nine DSM BPD criteria.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Borderline personality disorder - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]

Millon's subtypes

Theodore Millon identified four subtypes of borderline [33][34]. Any individual borderline may exhibit none, or one or more of the following:

Differential diagnosis

.Common comorbid (co-occurring) conditions are mental disorders such as substance abuse, depression and other mood, and personality disorders.^ It is easy to confuse this disorder with other mental illnesses such as antisocial personality disorder .
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also seen more often in families who have other mental health conditions such as antisocial personality disorder , substance abuse problems, and mood disorders like depression .
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with this disorder often have other problems such as depression , eating disorders , or substance abuse .
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Borderline personality disorder and mood disorders often appear concurrently.^ And often people with borderline personality disorder have difficult relationships with their doctors.
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What causes borderline personality disorder?
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What Borderline Personality Disorder feels like...
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[3] .Some features of borderline personality disorder may overlap with those of mood disorders, complicating the differential diagnostic assessment.^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What causes borderline personality disorder?
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What Borderline Personality Disorder feels like...
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[35][36][37]
.Both diagnoses involve symptoms commonly known as "mood swings."^ Both diagnoses involve symptoms commonly known as "mood swings".
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When other mood stabilizers do not effectively manage symptoms and signs, they are increasingly utilized for both those with bipolar disorder (BP) and with borderline personality disorder (BPD).
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drugs that enhance brain serotonin function may improve emotional symptoms in BPD. Likewise, mood-stabilizing drug s that are known to enhance the activity of GABA , the brain's major inhibitory neurotransmitter , may help people who experience BPD-like mood swings.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

.In borderline personality disorder, the term refers to the marked lability and reactivity of mood defined as emotional dysregulation.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ I am checking on my borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ In bipolar disorder, the term refers to the marked lability and reactivity of mood defined as emotional dysregulation .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

.June 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The behavior is typically in response to external psychosocial and intrapsychic stressors, and may arise or subside, or both, suddenly and dramatically and last for seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks or months .^ From one minute to the next or hour or day or weeks or months.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder --Doctors Lounge(TM) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The behavior is typically in response to external psychosocial and intrapsychic stressors, and may arise and/or subside suddenly and dramatically and last for seconds, minutes, hours or days.

^ The behavior is typically in response to external psychosocial and intrapsychic stressors, and may arise or subside, or both, suddenly and dramatically and last for seconds, minutes, hours or days.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Bipolar depression is generally more pervasive with sleep and appetite disturbances, as well as a marked nonreactivity of mood, whereas mood with respect to borderline personality and co-occurring dysthymia remains markedly reactive and sleep disturbance not acute.^ Bipolar depression is generally more pervasive with sleep and appetite disturbances, as well as a marked nonreactivity of mood, whereas mood with respect to borderline personality and co-occurring dysthymia remains markedly reactive and sleep disturbance not acute.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Borderline Personality Disorder and Adolescents of more...
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Even more than bipolar disorder , individuals with borderline personality disorder ...
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[38]
.The relationship between bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder has been debated.^ And often people with borderline personality disorder have difficult relationships with their doctors.
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some hold that the latter represents a subthreshold form of affective disorder,[39][40] while others maintain the distinctness between the disorders, noting they often co-occur.^ Some hold that the latter represents a subthreshold form of affective disorder, while others maintain the distinctness between the disorders, noting they often co-occur.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Borderline personality disorder often co-occurs with mood disorders.

^ Some hold that the latter represents a subthreshold form of affective disorder, [34] [35] while others maintain the distinctness between the disorders, noting they often co-occur.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[41][42]
.Some findings suggest that BPD may lie on a bipolar spectrum, with a number of points of phenomenological and biological overlap between the affective lability criterion of borderline personality disorder and the extremely rapid cycling bipolar disorders.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am checking on my borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[43][44] Some findings suggest that the DSM-IV BPD diagnosis mixes up two sets of unrelated items—an affective instability dimension related to Bipolar-II, and an impulsivity dimension not related to Bipolar-II.[45]
.It is important to emphasize that medical conditions which cause organic behavioral function may result in a clinical picture that mimics to some degree BPD. Hormonal dysfunction over a long period, or brain dysfunction (e.g.^ Indeed, UK's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has reiterated in their 2009 BPD treatment guidelines that medication is not appropriate for treating the condition itself, but for comorbid conditions only.
  • Sociopathic.net - Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sociopathic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Although experts know that people with borderline personality disorder have impaired function in parts of the brain, it is still not clear whether the problems are caused by—or are a consequence of—the disorder.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BPD is a long-term, pervasive pattern of impulsive behavior, instability and changeable mood.
  • Relationship Between Borderline Personality Disorder And Bipolar Disorder, Long-Term Study 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: Academic]

the encephalopathy caused by lyme disease) can result in identity disturbance and mood lability, as can many other chronic medical conditions such as lupus. .These conditions may isolate the patient socially and emotionally, and/or cause limbic damage to the brain.^ While depressed, the person may damage themselves socially (e.g.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors caution that misdiagnosing a borderline patient as bipolar may have the damaging effect of encouraging patients and their families to have unrealistic expectations about what medications can do.
  • Borderline personality disorder - NeuroTalk Communities 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC neurotalk.psychcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inflexibility and pervasiveness of these behavioral patterns often cause serious personal and social difficulties, as well as a general functional impairment.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, this is not borderline personality disorder which results, but rather a reaction to the isolating circumstances caused by a medical condition and the possibly coincident struggles of the patient to control his or her mood given damage to the brain's limbic system.^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am checking on my borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Heavy alcohol usage over a long period itself can cause an encephalopathy which may cause limbic damage.^ She seldom seems to realise or really grasp the mess her life is in, the damage that has been done by all this "history" which follows and haunts her, and may well do for such a long time.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder --Doctors Lounge(TM) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The real potential damage this series can cause is that it may cause women to set impossible standards for men, because no man (that I've ever met!
  • Feminism, Twilight and the End of the World — The Wesleyan Argus 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC wesleyanargus.com [Source type: General]

.Various frontal lobe syndromes can result in disinhibition and impulsive behavior.^ Episodes of anger outbursts, moodiness, and unreasonable, impulsive, and erratic behaviors, which often appear unprovoked, can result in considerable harm to these important relationships.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients’ self-harm appears to be associated with guilt resulting from impulsive behaviors.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder Article 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Comorbid (co-occurring) conditions in BPD are common.^ Co-morbid (co-occurring) conditions in BPD are common.

^ Comorbid (co-occurring) conditions in BPD are common.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What otherproblems co-occur with BPD? Overviews what we currently know about BPD makeup the first section of the book.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

When comparing individuals diagnosed with BPD to those diagnosed with other personality disorders, the former showed a higher rate of also meeting criteria for:[46]
.
.Substance abuse is a common problem in BPD, whether due to impulsivity or as a coping mechanism, and 50 percent to 70 percent of psychiatric inpatients with BPD have been found to meet criteria for a substance use disorder, especially alcohol dependence or abuse which is often combined with the abuse of other drugs.^ People with this disorder often have other problems such as depression , eating disorders , or substance abuse .
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BPD often occurs together with other psychiatric problems, particularly: .
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DSM-IV-TR Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: There are two types of substance use disorders, substance dependence and substance abuse.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]

Causes

.As with other mental disorders, the causes of BPD are complex and unknown.^ As with other mental disorders, the causes of BPD are complex.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As with other mental disorders, the causes of BPD are complex and unknown.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meaning, the book begins, as does every other BPD book, with describing the disorder, explaining the DSM criteria and giving useful information about the condition.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

[5] .One finding is a history of childhood trauma, abuse or neglect,[48] although researchers have suggested diverse possible causes, such as a genetic predisposition, neurobiological factors, environmental factors, or brain abnormalities.^ One finding in the search for causation in the disorder is a history of childhood trauma (possibly child sexual abuse), although other researchers have suggested diverse possible causes, such as a genetic predisposition, neurobiological factors, environmental factors or brain abnormalities.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Childhood abuse, trauma or neglect .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most consistent finding in the search for causation in the disorder is a history of childhood trauma (possibly child sexual abuse ), [5] although some researchers have suggested other possible causes, such as a genetic predisposition, environmental factors or brain abnormalities.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.There is evidence that suggests that BPD and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are closely related[8].^ There are also scales for alcoholism, post-traumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes depression as one of its major symptoms.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I was told I had a personality disorder which I bordered on Bipolar and PTSD (Post traumatic stress disorder.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

.Evidence further suggests that BPD might result from a combination that can involve a traumatic childhood, a vulnerable temperament and stressful maturational events during adolescence or adulthood.^ Researchers believe that BPD results from a combination of individual genetic vulnerability and environmental stress, neglect or abuse as young children, and maturational events that trigger the onset of the disorder during adolescence or adulthood.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers commonly believe that BPD results from a combination that can involve a traumatic childhood, a vulnerable temperament, and stressful maturational events during adolescence or adulthood.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers believe that BPD results from a combination of individual vulnerability, say inherited low serotonergic neurotransmission, and environmental stress, neglect or abuse as young children which has also been shown to lower serotonergic neurotransmission, and maturational events that trigger the onset of the disorder during adolescence or adulthood.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

[49]

Childhood abuse

.Numerous studies have shown a strong correlation between child abuse, especially child sexual abuse, and development of BPD.[48][50][51][52][53] Many individuals with BPD report to have had a history of abuse and neglect as young children.^ Numerous studies have shown a strong correlation between childhood abuse and development of BPD. [10] [11] .
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies show that many (but not all) individuals with BPD report a history of abuse, neglect, or separation as young children.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Numerous studies have shown a strong correlation between child abuse , especially child sexual abuse , and development of BPD. [5] [51] [52] [53] [54] Many individuals with BPD report having had a history of abuse, neglect, or separation as young children.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[54] .Patients with BPD have been found to be significantly more likely to report having been verbally, emotionally, physically or sexually abused by caregivers of either gender.^ Forty to 71 percent of BPD patients report having been sexually abused, usually by a non-caregiver.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with BPD have been found to be significantly more likely to report having been verbally, emotionally, physically, and sexually abused by caregivers of either gender .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was found that borderline patients were significantly more likely to report having been verbally, emotionally, and physically abused, and sexually abused by caretakers of both sexes.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.There has also been a high incidence of incest and loss of caregivers in early childhood for people with Borderline Personality Disorder.^ Completed suicide in borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.newharbinger.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What Borderline Personality Disorder feels like...
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ BPD ( aka Borderline Personality Disorder ) .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.They were also much more likely to report having caregivers (of both genders) deny the validity of their thoughts and feelings.^ They were also much more likely to report having caregivers (of both genders) deny the validity of their thoughts and feelings.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They were also much more likely to report having caretakers (of both sexes) deny the validity (failure to mirror) of their thoughts and feelings.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They were also much more likely to report having caretakers (of both genders) deny the validity of their thoughts and feelings.

.They were also reported to have failed to provide needed protection, and neglected their child's physical care.^ They also failed to provide needed protection, and neglected their child's physical care.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They were also reported to have failed to provide needed protection, and neglected their child's physical care.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Take Care of Yourself If you take the time to meet your own needs, when your help is needed most, you will be best able to provide it.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parents (of both sexes) were typically reported to have withdrawn from the child emotionally, and to have treated the child inconsistently.^ Parents (of both sexes) were typically reported to have withdrawn from the child emotionally, and to have treated the child inconsistently.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parents (of both sexes) were typically seen to withdraw from the child emotionally, and to treat child inconsistently.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The idea is to give the patient tools he/she never acquired as a child, typically to control and deal with his/her emotions.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, women with BPD who reported a previous history of neglect by a female caregiver and abuse by a male caregiver were consequently at significantly higher risk for being sexually abused by a noncaregiver (not a parent).^ Additionally, female borderlines who reported a previous history of neglect by a female caretaker and abuse by a male caretaker were consequently at significantly higher risk for being sexually abused by a noncaretaker (not a parent).
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, women with BPD who reported a previous history of neglect by a female caregiver and abuse by a male caregiver were consequently at significantly higher risk for being sexually abused by a noncaregiver (not a parent).
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, women with BPD who reported a previous history of neglect by a female caretaker and abuse by a male caretaker were consequently at significantly higher risk for being sexually abused by a noncaretaker (not a parent).

[55] .It has been suggested that children who experience chronic early maltreatment and attachment difficulties may go on to develop borderline personality disorder.^ What causes borderline personality disorder?
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What Borderline Personality Disorder feels like...
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ BPD ( aka Borderline Personality Disorder ) .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[56]

Other developmental factors

.Some studies suggest that BPD may not necessarily be a trauma-spectrum disorder and that it is biologically distinct from the post-traumatic stress disorder that could be a precursor.^ There are also scales for alcoholism, post-traumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies suggest that BPD may not necessarily be a trauma-spectrum disorder and that it is biologically distinct from the post-traumatic stress disorder that could be a precursor.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some findings suggest that BPD may lie on a bipolar spectrum , with a number of points of phenomenological and biological overlap between the affective lability criterion of borderline personality disorder and the extremely rapid cycling bipolar disorders.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

.The personality symptom clusters seem to be related to specific abuses, but they may be related to more persistent aspects of interpersonal and family environments in childhood.^ The personality symptom clusters seem to be related to specific abuses, but they may be related to more persistent aspects of interpersonal and family environments in childhood .

^ Governments won’t, through dedicated health funding, fund something that just seems to be a disparate cluster of unrelated symptoms.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Getting some action at a National level - the lament of a tired campaigner - Merinda Epstein 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.takver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Symptoms of borderline personality disorder are not caused by another medical condition or by medicines, and they are not a result of long-term substance abuse problems.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Otto Kernberg formulated the theory of Borderline Personality based on a premise of failure to develop in childhood.^ Otto Kernberg formulated the theory of Borderline Personality based on a premise of failure to develop in childhood.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kernberg O: Borderline personality organization.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder Ontogeny Of A Diagnosis 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ "Pathways to the development of borderline personality disorder".
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

.Writing in the psychoanalytic tradition, Kernberg argued that failure to achieve the developmental task of psychic clarification of self and other can result in an increased risk to develop varieties of psychosis, while failure to overcome splitting results in an increased risk to develop a borderline personality.^ If you have a parent or sibling with borderline personality disorder, you are at increased risk for developing the condition.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your risk for developing borderline personality disorder increases if you: .
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kernberg O: Borderline personality organization.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder Ontogeny Of A Diagnosis 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

[57]

Genetics

.An overview of the existing literature suggested that traits related to BPD are influenced by genes.^ This suggests that the same genes influence BPD features at different ages.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An overview of the existing literature suggested that traits related to BPD are influenced by genes, and since personality is generally quite heritable then BPD should also be, but studies have had methodological problems and the links are not yet clear.

^ An overview of the existing literature suggested that traits related to BPD are influenced by genes , and if personality is indeed heritable, then BPD may very well be as well, but studies have had methodological problems and the links are not yet clear.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[58] .A major twin study found that if one identical twin met criteria for BPD, the other also met criteria in 35 percent of cases.^ A major twin study found that if one identical twin met criteria for BPD, the other also met criteria in 35 percent of cases.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One is BPD and the other is antisocial behaviour disorder.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A longitudinal study found that, six years after being diagnosed with BPD, 56% showed good psychosocial functioning, compared to 26% at baseline.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

.People that have BPD influenced by genes usually have a close relative with the disorder.^ There are no controlled studies on the relative effectiveness of different antidepressants for the treatment for depression in people with borderline disorder.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Course of BPD Borderline personality disorder is an illness of young people, and usually begins in adolescence or youth.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a few issues that influence our capacity to get issues for people labelled as having BPD up as important aspects of the consumer political agenda.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Getting some action at a National level - the lament of a tired campaigner - Merinda Epstein 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.takver.com [Source type: Original source]

[59]
.Twin, sibling and other family studies indicate a partially heritable basis for impulsive aggression, but studies of serotonin-related genes to date have suggested only modest contributions to behavior.^ Twin, sibling and other family studies indicate a partially heritable basis for impulsive aggression, but studies of serotonin-related genes to date have suggested only modest contributions to behavior.

^ Twin, sibling and other family studies do indicate a partially heritable basis for impulsive aggression, but studies of serotonin-related genes to date have suggested only modest contributions to behavior.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Twin, sibling and other family studies indicate a partially heritable basis for impulsive aggression, but studies of serotonin -related genes to date have suggested only modest contributions to behavior.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[60]

Neurofunction

.Neurotransmitters implicated in BPD include serotonin, norepinephrine and acetylcholine (related to various emotions and moods); GABA, the brain's major inhibitory neurotransmitter (which can stabilize mood change); and glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter.^ Neurotransmitters implicated in BPD include serotonin, norepinephrine and acetylcholine (related to various emotions and moods); GABA , the brain's major inhibitory neurotransmitter (which can stabilize mood change); and glutamate , an excitatory neurotransmitter.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurotransmitters implicated in BPD include serotonin , norepinephrine and acetylcholine (related to various emotions and moods); GABA , the brain's major inhibitory neurotransmitter (which can stabilize mood change); and glutamate , an excitatory neurotransmitter.

^ Borderline personality disorder ( BPD ) is a personality disorder described as a prolonged disturbance of personality function in a person over the age of eighteen years, characterized by depth and variability of moods.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Enhanced amygdala activation in BPD has been identified by some researchers as reflecting the intense and slowly subsiding emotions commonly observed in BPD in response to even low-level stressors.^ It is interesting to note that many researchers have identified serotonergic dysfunction in the brains of BPDs.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even thinking is recruited by the intense (that is, underregulated) emotionality so that the world is perceived primitively, in intense black and white terms.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even thinking is recruited by the intense (or underregulated) emotionality so that the world is perceived primitively in intense black-and-white terms.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[61] .It is thought by some researchers the activation of both the amygdala and prefrontal cortical areas can reflect attempts to control intensive emotions during the recall of unresolved life events.^ The activation of both the amygdala and prefrontal cortical areas can reflect attempts to control intensive emotions during the recall of unresolved life events.

^ He wanted to be in control of everything and when things weren't as he thought they should be or if he felt he wasn't in control, then he would do some bullying."
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Recent brain imaging studies show that individual differences in the ability to activate regions of the prefrontal cerebral cortex thought to be involved in inhibitory activity predict the ability to suppress negative emotion.
  • User:Cricket's Courage/draft-Borderline Personality Disorder - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

[62] .Impulsivity or aggression, as sometimes seen in BPD, has been linked to alterations in serotonin function and specific brain regions in the cingulate and the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex by some researchers.^ Impulsivity or aggression, as sometimes seen in BPD, has been linked to alterations in serotonin function and specific brain regions in the cingulate and the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Institute of Mental Health -funded neuroscience research is revealing brain mechanisms underlying the impulsively, mood instability, aggression, anger, and negative emotion seen in BPD. Studies suggest that people predisposed to impulsive aggression have impaired regulation of the neural circuits that modulate emotion.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dietary supplements of 5-HTP , a chemical the body forms from tryptophan and uses to make serotonin, have shown some promising research results but need further study.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

[60]

Mediators and moderators

.While research has examined variables that predict the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), researchers have only recently begun to examine the variables that mediate and moderate the relationships between these variables and the development of the disorder.^ And often people with borderline personality disorder have difficult relationships with their doctors.
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Childhood borderline personality disorder in limelight .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ I am checking on my borderline personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

A mediator is a variable that effects how the relationship occurs. .Mediation is said to be present when both the predictor variable and the mediating variable are significantly correlated with the dependent variable, and when the relationship between the predictor variable and the outcome variable is significantly reduced when controlling for the mediating variable.^ Many OCPD relationships involve a clear distinction between the domineering and controlling spouse and the passive-dependent spouse.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research indicates that a relationship exists between poor treatment outcomes and premature termination from treatment for individuals with Cluster B personality disorders.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment of depression can significantly reduce the incidence of this damage, including reducing the likelihood of suicide which is otherwise a common outcome.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

[63] A moderating variable by contrast specifies the conditions under which a given outcome will occur. .Moderation is said to occur when there is an interaction effect between the predicting variable and the moderating variable on the dependent variable.^ Because there are potenially fatal interactions between this class of medication and certain foods and drugs, they are rarely prescribed anymore.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Under assortative mating, there is an increase in the genetic variance, which will increase the resemblance between parents and offspring as well as between siblings, i.e.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance).
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[63] .More specifically, the effect of the predicting variable is different depending on the level of the moderating variable.^ The more similar MZ twins are relative to DZ twins, the more variability in a trait is caused by genetic effects.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It will also pinpoint specific environmental factors and personality traits that predict a more favorable outcome.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Psychopathy is a general construct that differs from the specific diagnoses of antisocial, psychopathic, dissocial, and sociopathic personality disorders, the various diagnostic classifications for psychopathy.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Research has found statistically significant relationships between BPD symptoms and both sexual and physical abuse.^ Between 40% and 70% of BPD patients report having been sexually abused, often by a non-care giver.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Kernberg O. 1975) 2 A history of 'invalidating environments' (Linehan M. 1993 2) 3 Sexual or physical abuse - particularly before age 15 (Herman et al 1989).
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several studies demonstrated that traumatic life events such as sexual and physical abuse, parental divorce or illness or parental psychopathology are important risk factors for the development of BPD [54] – [57] .
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other factors including family environment variables also contribute to the development of the disorder.^ This behavior may not all be related to BPD ~ Borderline Personality Disorder, there can be other factors involved, like OBSESSION!.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Heredity The tendency to develop depression may be inherited; there is some evidence that this disorder may run in families.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Others argue that it needs to be placed within a spectrum of conditions that could be called ‘Trauma Spectrum Disorders’ (including Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Getting some action at a National level - the lament of a tired campaigner - Merinda Epstein 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.takver.com [Source type: Original source]

[64] Bradley et al.[64] found that both child sexual abuse .(CSA) and childhood physical abuse and BPD symptoms were significantly related, and both CSA and childhood physical abuse were significantly related to family environment.^ Brain pathology is the foundation building block for both psychiatrists and psychologists in relation to their understanding of consumer ‘symptoms’ and ‘diagnosis’.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Getting some action at a National level - the lament of a tired campaigner - Merinda Epstein 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.takver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Kernberg O. 1975) 2 A history of 'invalidating environments' (Linehan M. 1993 2) 3 Sexual or physical abuse - particularly before age 15 (Herman et al 1989).
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some borderline patients describe highly traumatic experiences in their childhood, such as physical or sexual abuse.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When family environment and childhood physical abuse were entered simultaneously into a regression equation, family environment was related to BPD symptoms and childhood physical abuse was related to BPD symptoms, although the relationship between BPD symptoms and childhood physical abuse was reduced.^ The personality symptom clusters seem to be related to specific abuses, but they may be related to more persistent aspects of interpersonal and family environments in childhood.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors divide this workbook into chapters relating to each specific DSM diagnostic criterion for BPD. This is commendable and initially appealing and inviting.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Severe symptoms such as self-destructive and suicidal behavior, irrational thinking, and emotional problems related to relationships may improve as you begin treatment.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Borderline Personality Disorder, SVCMC; New York NY 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, CSA and childhood physical abuse both directly influence the development of BPD symptoms directly and are mediated by family environment.^ (Kernberg O. 1975) 2 A history of 'invalidating environments' (Linehan M. 1993 2) 3 Sexual or physical abuse - particularly before age 15 (Herman et al 1989).
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several studies demonstrated that traumatic life events such as sexual and physical abuse, parental divorce or illness or parental psychopathology are important risk factors for the development of BPD [54] – [57] .
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some borderline patients describe highly traumatic experiences in their childhood, such as physical or sexual abuse.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]
.Other research has examined the relationship between negative affectivity, thought suppression and BPD symptoms.^ Particular difficulties have been observed in the relationship between care providers and individuals diagnosed with BPD. A majority of psychiatric staff report finding individuals with BPD moderately to extremely difficult to "deal" with, and more difficult than other client groups.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms Relationships with others are intense but stormy and unstable with marked shifts of feelings and difficulties in maintaining intimate, close connections.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am not sure about how much this goes on, but I definitely believe that the relationship between the patient and others CAN be improved.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

.The results of the mediational models in this study found that thought suppression mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and BPD symptoms.^ A longitudinal study found that, six years after being diagnosed with BPD, 56% showed good psychosocial functioning, compared to 26% at baseline.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent brain imaging studies show that individual differences in the ability to activate regions of the prefrontal cerebral cortex thought to be involved in inhibitory activity predict the ability to suppress negative emotion.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in the thousands of studies done on the effects of Omega-3 in human biology, none of these negative findings have been found to be scientifically conclusive.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

[65] .While negative affectivity significantly predicted BPD symptoms after controlling for CSA, this relationship was greatly reduced when thought suppression was introduced into the model.^ Recent brain imaging studies show that individual differences in the ability to activate regions of the prefrontal cerebral cortex thought to be involved in inhibitory activity predict the ability to suppress negative emotion.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, everyone who exhibits the symptoms described do not necessarily have BPD. There are some individuals who are CONTROLLERS. And, they do so, because they have been doing so for so long.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) , which focuses on changing certain thoughts and behavior patterns to control the symptoms of a condition.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the relationship of negative affectivity to BPD symptoms is mediated by thought suppression.^ Marital Therapy can be helpful in stabilizing the marital relationship and in reducing marital conflict and stress that can worsen BPD symptoms.

^ Marital therapy can be helpful in stabilizing the marital relationship and in reducing marital conflict and stress that can worsen BPD symptoms.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

Ayduk et al. .(2008)[66] found an interaction between rejection sensitivity and executive control in the prediction of BPD symptoms.^ However, everyone who exhibits the symptoms described do not necessarily have BPD. There are some individuals who are CONTROLLERS. And, they do so, because they have been doing so for so long.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Individuals with BPD may show lability (changeability) between anger and anxiety or between depression and anxiety and temperamental sensitivity to emotive stimuli.

^ The interaction, however, between the influences of genes and environment on the development of BPD has not been studied.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.This study found that BPD features were positively associated with rejection sensitivity (RS) and neuroticism and negatively associated with emotional control (EC).^ Patients with BPD have been found to be significantly more likely to report having been verbally, emotionally, physically, and sexually abused by caretakers of either gender.

^ A longitudinal study found that, six years after being diagnosed with BPD, 56% showed good psychosocial functioning, compared to 26% at baseline.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A major twin study found that if one identical twin met criteria for BPD, the other also met criteria in around a third (35%) of cases.

.Their statistical analysis indicated that among those low in EC, RS was positively related to BPD features and among those high in RS, EC was negatively associated with BPD. By contrast, among those high in EC, RS was not significantly related to BP features, and among those low in RS, EC was not related to BPD features.^ Low-Functioning & High Functioning - A Low-Functioning Personality-Disordered Individual is one who is unable to conceal their dysfunctional behavior from public view or maintain a positive public or professional profile.
  • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abnormally high or low counts may indicate the presence of many forms of disease, and hence blood counts are amongst the most commonly performed blood test s in medicine.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Genotype-environment covariance ( as * sa /total variance) was estimated to be negative, resulting in a negative contribution of 6.4% of the variance in BPD features.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.In Study 2, BPD features were positively correlated to RS and negatively correlated with executive control.^ In this study, we examine the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in BPD features using an extended twin-family design.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Incidentally, despite the psychotic features already outlined there is no correlation between BPD and schizophrenia.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several studies have supported the reliability and the validity of PAI-BOR scores in indexing the degree to which BPD features are present [36] , [38] – [41] .
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, the authors found that delay gratification times at age 4 had no significant relationship with BPD features at the time of the current study.^ The BOOK STUDY can be found on the first page of our Group in the "FEATURED ARTICLES" section.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ A DSM diagnosis of BPD requires any five out of nine listed criteria to be present for a significant period of time.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]
  • imnotdamagedgoods’ blog - Vox 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC imnotdamagedgoods.vox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Again, as in Study 1, the RS x EC interaction was significant. .Among those low in EC, RS was positively related to BPD features, while among those high in EC, the effect of RS was reduced to marginal significance.^ Low-Functioning & High Functioning - A Low-Functioning Personality-Disordered Individual is one who is unable to conceal their dysfunctional behavior from public view or maintain a positive public or professional profile.
  • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, I’m sure that those who readily acknowledge that there may be a problem as significant as BPD and desire to seek assistance are few and far between.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | The Psycho Ex Wife 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thepsychoexwife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In model II (dominance model without cultural transmission), additive genetic effects explained 21.3% (1.1% due to assortment) and dominant genetic effects explained 23.9% of the variance in BPD features.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Moreover, among those high in RS, EC was negatively associated with BPD features, but among those low in RS, EC was unrelated to BPD features.^ Genotype-environment covariance ( as * sa /total variance) was estimated to be negative, resulting in a negative contribution of 6.4% of the variance in BPD features.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And many of them were disappointedly irresponsible, being quite negative and insisting that the prognosis was always dire and/or perpetuating the huge myth that those diagnosed with BPD are basically manipulative.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

.Parker, Boldero and Bell (2006)[67] indicated that both AI and AO self-discrepancy magnitudes were strongly correlated to each other and to BPD features.^ The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My BPD self, my core self, and the ME that exists as a combination of both.

^ Incidentally, despite the psychotic features already outlined there is no correlation between BPD and schizophrenia.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Self-complexity was not significantly related to any of the other factors.^ This behavior may not all be related to BPD ~ Borderline Personality Disorder, there can be other factors involved, like OBSESSION!.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ The instable pattern of interacting with others has persisted for years and is usually closely related to the person’s self-image and early social interactions.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This pattern of interacting with others has persisted for years and is usually closely related to the person’s self image and early social interactions.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among those high in self-complexity, the relationship between AI self-discrepancy magnitudes and BPD features was lower than among those with less self-complexity.^ Particular difficulties have been observed in the relationship between care providers and individuals diagnosed with BPD. A majority of psychiatric staff report finding individuals with BPD moderately to extremely difficult to "deal" with, and more difficult than other client groups.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there is no reason to assume that a complex organ such as the brain is less susceptible to diseases that affect behavior than are other .
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Actual-ought self-discrepancy relationship with BPD features was not significantly moderated by self-complexity.^ The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a long pattern of instability in their relationships with others, and in their own self-image and emotions.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.BPD is complex, and several factors have an impact on whether clinical features of BPD are present.^ Most likely, BPD develops when all these risk factors are present.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several studies have supported the reliability and the validity of PAI-BOR scores in indexing the degree to which BPD features are present [36] , [38] – [41] .
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPD is usually chronic, and severe problems often continue to be present for many years.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.None of the prediction factors above are sufficient to be the key factor in the development of BPD features.^ Most likely, BPD develops when all these risk factors are present.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the variation in BPD features was estimated.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What Causes BPD? We are only beginning to understand the causes of BPD. As in most mental disorders, no single factor explains its development.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Increased knowledge of the development of the disorder may help prevent symptom aggravation and identify new treatment strategies.^ Mood stabilizers (lithium or certain antiepileptic drugs) may be helpful for explosive anger or if there is an admixture of bipolar disorder.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been found that court-ordered psychotherapy for psychopaths actually increases their recidivism rate; apparently treatment teaches psychopaths new ways to exploit other people.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, current guidelines for antidepressant use recommend 4 to 6 months of continuing treatment following symptom resolution to prevent relapse of depression.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

.Future research should integrate the knowledge gained from these areas and study these variables simultaneously.^ These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features.
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Future research should focus on possible sources of unique environmental effects and gene-environment interaction to develop a comprehensive model of the development of BPD. .
  • PLoS ONE: Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An interesting area of research relating to BPD is the study of the effects of the disorder on other family members and significant others in the lives of those with traits of borderline personality disorder.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

.Studies in which these variables are simultaneously examined would provide greater specificity in the relationships between the variables.^ Many studies have supported the health benefits of increasing Omega-3 fatty acids in diets deficient in this nutrient; these studies have also provided information as to the detrimental effects of an omega-3 deficient diet.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ My question is, how much work is needed for me, and what specific areas would you recommend I change, as to why I'm attracted to these women?
  • GettinBetter.com's BORDERLINE PERSONALITY FORUM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC gettinbetter.com [Source type: General]

.These articles taken together not only increase our knowledge of what factors and variables lead to the development of BPD features and BPD itself but also, when taken together, indicate future lines of research yet to be studied.^ A number of studies have been performed to determine the prevalence of personality disorders and BPD. Prevalence results indicate that BPD affects anywhere between 0.5 and 5.9% of adults.
  • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most likely, BPD develops when all these risk factors are present.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given our current level of knowledge about borderline disorder, it is likely that such professionals will give you the best help available, now and in the future.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Management

Psychotherapy

.There has traditionally been skepticism about the psychological treatment of personality disorders, but several specific types of psychotherapy for BPD have developed in recent years.^ BPD ( aka Borderline Personality Disorder ) .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Treatments for BPD have improved in recent years.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Learning about borderline personality disorder: .
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.The limited studies to date do not allow confident claims of effectiveness but do suggest that people with BPD can benefit on at least some outcome measures.^ It is very hard to help people with BPD, especially within the limited scope of treatment allowed by most managed care programs.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ There are no controlled studies on the relative effectiveness of different antidepressants for the treatment for depression in people with borderline disorder.
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^ I deal with people a lot and it seems almost everyone has Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) to some degree.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

[68] .Supportive therapy alone may enhance self-esteem and mobilize the existing strengths of individuals with BPD.[69] Specific psychotherapies may involve sessions over several months or, as is particularly common for personality disorders, several years.^ BPD ( aka Borderline Personality Disorder ) .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Borderline personality disorder is the most common personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Psychodynamic therapy HPD, like other personality disorders, may require several years of therapy and may affect individuals throughout their lives.
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.Psychotherapy can often be conducted either with individuals or with groups.^ Psychotherapy can often be conducted either with individuals or with groups.
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^ Inpatient treatment often takes the form of medication in conjunction with psychotherapy sessions in groups or .
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^ Payment Information: Finally, you should obtain their fee schedule and method of payment for different services, for example medication checks, and individual and group psychotherapy sessions.
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.Group therapy can aid the learning and practice of interpersonal skills and self-awareness by individuals with BPD,[70] though drop-out rates may be problematic.^ Group therapy can aid the learning and practice of interpersonal skills and self-awareness by individuals with BPD [70] although drop-out rates may be problematic.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DBT incorporates an intense program of weekly individual therapy sessions and weekly group therapy sessions.
  • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although they usually have a self-image that is based on being bad or evil, individuals with borderline personality disorder may at times have feelings that they do not exist at all.
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[71] .A new study has attempted to devise a method for reducing drop-out rates, as well as maintaining the motivation of the therapist, pointing out that treatment of this "difficult group" of people with BPD (especially with suicidal tendencies) can be difficult on the therapist and can contribute to treatment failures and drop-out rates.^ In addition, professionals treating the BPD patient, as well as the patient's family members and close friends are taught methods of reinforcing and supporting the new emotional and behavioral regulation skills, reducing the likelihood that the patient will practice "splitting" with those in their social support system.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There are no controlled studies on the relative effectiveness of different antidepressants for the treatment for depression in people with borderline disorder.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been found that court-ordered psychotherapy for psychopaths actually increases their recidivism rate; apparently treatment teaches psychopaths new ways to exploit other people.
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.The devised method has been named Dialectical behavior therapy.^ Combined dialectical behavior therapy and fluoxetine ".
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dialectical behavioral therapy .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What is dialectical behavior therapy?
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Medication

.The UK's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in 2009 recommends against the use of medication for treating borderline personality disorder and that they should only be considered for comorbid conditions.^ Borderline personality disorder Mayo Clinic Borderline Personality Disorder - Topic Overview Healthwise Borderline personality disorder .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They were scared of inundation if they were ‘nice’ to people with personality disorders; .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Getting some action at a National level - the lament of a tired campaigner - Merinda Epstein 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.takver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other conditions that commonly occur with borderline personality disorder .
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[72] A Cochrane review from 2006 arrived at the same conclusion.[73] .Antidepressants, Antipsychotics and Mood stabilisers (such as lithium) are regularly used to treat co-morbid symptoms such as depression.^ Medicines to treat such symptoms include: 2 .
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^ Sometimes mood stabilizers are used in combination, such as lithium with one of the anticonvulsants.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An antidepressant is a medication designed to treat or alleviate the symptoms of clinical depression .
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

Services and recovery

.Individuals with BPD sometimes use mental health services extensively.^ Mental health services and recovery .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with BPD sometimes need extensive mental health services and have been found to account for around 20% of psychiatric hospitalizations.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Once it appeared in the mental health lexicon, its use spread rapidly and was subject to variable interpretation.” 19 .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Getting some action at a National level - the lament of a tired campaigner - Merinda Epstein 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.takver.com [Source type: Original source]

.People with this diagnosis accounted for about 20 percent of psychiatric hospitalizations in one survey.^ Figures from surveys of the prevalence of diagnosable BPD in the general population vary, ranging from approximately one percent to two percent.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients often need extensive mental health services, and they account for 20 percent of psychiatric hospitalizations.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In emergency situations with suicidal persons, psychiatric hospitalization is used simply to keep suicidal people safe until they cease to be dangers to themselves.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

[74] .The majority of BPD patients continue to use outpatient treatment in a sustained manner for several years, but the number using the more restrictive and costly forms of treatment, such as inpatient admission, declines with time.^ The majority of BPD patients continue to use outpatient treatment in a sustained manner for several years, but the number using the more restrictive and costly forms of treatment, such as inpatient admission, declines with time.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A patient with BPD may be continuously suicidal for months or years.
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^ BPD patients are treated in outpatient clinics.
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[75] .Experience of services varies.^ Experience of services varies.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[76] .Assessing suicide risk can be a challenge for mental health services (and patients themselves tend to underestimate the lethality of self-injurious behaviours) with typically a chronically elevated risk of suicide much above that of the general population and a history of multiple attempts when in crisis.^ Mental health services and recovery .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Assessing suicide risk can be a challenge for mental health services (and patients themselves tend to underestimate the lethality of self-injurious behaviours) with typically a chronically elevated risk of suicide much above that of the general population and a history of multiple attempts when in crisis.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They tend to view the world generally as dangerous and malevolent, and themselves as powerless, vulnerable, unacceptable and unsure in self-identity.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[77]
.Particular difficulties have been observed in the relationship between care providers and individuals diagnosed with BPD. A majority of psychiatric staff report finding individuals with BPD moderately to extremely difficult to work with, and more difficult than other client groups.^ Particular difficulties have been observed in the relationship between care providers and individuals diagnosed with BPD. A majority of psychiatric staff report finding individuals with BPD moderately to extremely difficult to "deal" with, and more difficult than other client groups.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Have a pattern of difficult relationships caused by alternating between extremes of intense admiration and hatred of others.
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  • CIGNA - Borderline Personality Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have all too often worked with clients who have legitimized ending relationships due to such minutiae as a significant others bad breath, small shoe size, or eyebrow thickness.
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[78] .On the other hand, those with the diagnosis of BPD have reported that the term "BPD" felt like a pejorative label rather than a helpful diagnosis, that self-destructive behaviour was incorrectly perceived as manipulative, and that they had limited access to care.^ On the other hand, those with the diagnosis of BPD have reported that the term "BPD" felt like a pejorative label rather than a helpful diagnosis, that self destructive behaviour was wrongly perceived as manipulative, and that they had limited access to care.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is helpful in identifying BPD in others.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ BPD is not intended to be a pejorative term.
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[79] .Attempts are made to improve public and staff attitudes.^ Attempts are made to improve public and staff attitudes.
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[80][81]

Epidemiology

.The prevalence of BPD in the general population ranges from 1 to 2 percent.^ Figures from surveys of the prevalence of diagnosable BPD in the general population vary, ranging from approximately one percent to two percent.
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^ The incidence of BPD has been calculated as 1 to 3 percent of the American adult population.
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^ If you question any clinician or substance abuse counselor they will tell you how prevalent BPD is in their facility and complain about how hard this population is to treat.
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[82][83] .The diagnosis appears to be several times more common in (especially young) women than in men, by as much as 3:1, according to the DSM-IV-TR,[2] although the reasons for this are not clear.^ It is more common in boys than in girls.
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^ Women commonly suffer from depression more often than men.
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^ You're wonderful, for sure, much more than a diagnosis.

[84]
.The prevalence of BPD in the United States has been calculated as 1 percent to 3 percent of the adult population,[5] with approximately 75 percent of those diagnosed being female.^ Approximately 2% of the population are affected by BPD. .
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^ The incidence of BPD has been calculated as 1 to 3 percent of the American adult population.
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^ A number of studies have been performed to determine the prevalence of personality disorders and BPD. Prevalence results indicate that BPD affects anywhere between 0.5 and 5.9% of adults.
  • Out of the FOG - Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nook2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85] .It has been found to account for 20 percent of psychiatric hospitalizations.^ Patients often need extensive mental health services, and they account for 20 percent of psychiatric hospitalizations.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively, it has been calculated as 2 percent of the population composed mostly of young women and accounts for 20 percent of psychiatric hospitalizations.
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^ Individuals with BPD sometimes need extensive mental health services and have been found to account for around 20% of psychiatric hospitalizations.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

History

.Since the earliest record of medical history, the coexistence of intense, divergent moods within an individual has been recognized by such writers as Homer, Hippocrates and Aretaeus, the last describing the vacillating presence of impulsive anger, melancholia and mania within a single person.^ The construct has been described as a hybrid of the impulsive and borderline subtypes of the ICD's Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder, and also incorporates six of the nine DSM BPD criteria.
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^ Sometimes medications such as antidepressants, lithium carbonate, or antipsychotic medication are useful for certain patients or during certain times in the treatment of individual patients.
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^ The ICD describe BPD as a: ‘Personality disorder characterized by a definite tendency to act impulsively and without consideration of the consequences; the mood is unpredictable and capricious.
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.After medieval suppression of the concept, it was revived by Bonet in 1684, who, using the term folie maniaco-mélancolique, noted the erratic and unstable moods with periodic highs and lows that rarely followed a regular course.^ The basic dysphoric mood of those with Borderline Personality Disorder is often disrupted by periods of anger, panic, or despair and is rarely relieved by periods of well-being or satisfaction.
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.His observations were followed by those of other writers who noted the same pattern, including writers such as the American psychiatrist C. Hughes in 1884 and J.C. Rosse in 1890, who described "borderline insanity."^ Others who have the book, or those who purchase the book will be able to follow along with us on this .
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ This results in so much of the maladaptive behavior generated by those who are borderline.
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^ As well as for those who themselves have Borderline Personality Disorder, but have never fully understood their own behavior patterns.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

.Kraepelin, in 1921, identified an "excitable personality" that closely parallels the borderline features outlined in the current concept of borderline.^ A commonly used mnemonic to remember all features of borderline personality disorder is AM SUICIDE [29] : .
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^ The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions.
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^ Figure 4 identifies some of the future directions for borderline personality House Resolution 1005 states that “it is essential to in- disorder in light of these facts.
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[1]
.Adolf Stern wrote the first significant psychoanalytic work to use the term "borderline" in 1938, referring to a group of patients with what was thought to be a mild form of schizophrenia, on the borderline between neurosis and psychosis.^ The term borderline, although it was used as early as the 17th century to describe this condition, was employed by Adolph Stern in 1938 to describe a condition as being on the borderline between neurosis and psychosis.
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^ The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drug s used to treat psychosis .
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The term borderline derives from Adolph Stern who in 1938 described the condition as being on the borderline between neurosis and psychosis .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

.For the next decade the term was in popular and colloquial use, a loosely conceived designation mostly used by theorists of the psychoanalytic and biological schools of thought[citation needed].^ In long-term use, therapeutic concentrations of lithium have been thought to cause histological and functional changes in the kidney.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But what happens now, in clin psych, is that we use these terms loosely, then completely unrelated to their actual definitions.
  • The Last Psychiatrist: The Diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder: What Does It Really Mean? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC thelastpsychiatrist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alone's response: I wrote a few posts on narcissism, search on "narcissism" in the box, but psychs use the term more loosely (another heuristic) as I defined it in this post.
  • The Last Psychiatrist: The Diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder: What Does It Really Mean? 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC thelastpsychiatrist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Increasingly, theorists who focused on the operation of social forces were recognized as well.^ The earlier Borderline Personality Disorders (BPDs), as well as those who are Bi-Polar, are diagnosed, and the condition is recognized, the better for the patient, family and friends.
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

.During the 1940s and 1950s a variety of other terms were also used for this group of patients, such as "ambulatory schizophrenia" (Zilboorg), "preschizophrenia" (Rapaport), "latent schizophrenia" (Federn), "pseudoneurotic schizophrenia" (Hoch and Polatin), "schizotypal disorder" (Rado), and "borderline state" (Knight).^ Meaning, the book begins, as does every other BPD book, with describing the disorder, explaining the DSM criteria and giving useful information about the condition.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms of borderline personality disorder are not caused by another medical condition or by medicines, and they are not a result of long-term substance abuse problems.
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^ If such a person is not available in your community, you should ask other potential providers of care about their level of experience in the area of borderline disorder.
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.The 1960s and 1970s saw a shift from thinking of the borderline syndrome as borderline schizophrenia to thinking of it as a borderline affective disorder (mood disorder), on the fringes of manic depression, cyclothymia and dysthymia.^ Category:Mood disorders Clinical depression .
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "I think you have Borderline Personality Disorder."
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Borderline personality disorder ( BPD ) is a personality disorder described as a prolonged disturbance of personality function in a person over the age of eighteen years, characterized by depth and variability of moods.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.In DSM-II, stressing the affective components, it was called Cyclothymic personality (Affective personality).^ The name comes from the DSM-IV-TR ; the ICD-10 in Europe has an equivalent called Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder .
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPD only became an official Axis II (personality) diagnosis in 1980 with the publication of DSM-III. [44] .
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[2] .In parallel to this evolution of the term "borderline" to refer to a distinct category of disorder, psychoanalysts such as Otto Kernberg were using it to refer to a broad spectrum of issues, describing an intermediate level of personality organization[1] between neurotic and psychotic processes.^ Includes poetry and personal journal entrie s describing Borderline Personality Disorder.
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^ "The interface between borderline personality disorder and affective disorder".
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^ It uses the term borderline to describe a level of psychic functioning.
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[86]
.Standardized criteria were developed[87] to distinguish BPD from affective disorders and other Axis I disorders, and BPD became a personality disorder diagnosis in 1980 with the publication of DSM-III.^ BPD ( aka Borderline Personality Disorder ) .
  • Borderline Personality Disorder is Real . 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Mnemonics for DSM-IV personality disorders.
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^ Distinguishing borderline personality disorder from bipolar disorder: differential diagnosis and implications ".
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[82] The diagnosis was formulated predominantly in terms of mood and behavior, distinguished from sub-syndromal schizophrenia which was termed "Schizotypal personality disorder."[86] The final terminology in use by the DSM today was decided by the DSM-IV Axis II Work Group of the American Psychiatric Association.[88]

Society and culture

.Several films portraying characters either explicitly diagnosed or with traits strongly suggestive of the diagnosis have been the subject of discussion by psychiatrists and film experts alike.^ Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms Anyone with six or more of the above traits and symptoms may be diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder.
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.The films Play Misty for Me[89] and Fatal Attraction are two cited examples,[90] as well as the book and movie Girl, Interrupted by Susanna Kaysen; all highlight the emotional instability of the disorder and the frantic attempts to avoid abandonment.^ Make frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
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^ Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment .
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^ The nine features (reproduced in brief) are as follows: 1 Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
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.However, the first two cases show a person more aggressive to others than to herself; the latter is a more usual outcome in these situations.^ However, other disorders associated with impulsivity, such as antisocial personality and substance abuse, also tend to burn out around the same age.
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^ I'm not sure if you were able to meet other family members of this person or not, Renda, but did you ever notice any of these traits in other family members?
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Borderline Personality Disorder is about five times more common among first-degree biological relatives of those with the disorder than in the general population.
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[91]
.The 1992 film Single White Female highlights different aspects of the disorder, as the character Hedy, suffering from a markedly disturbed sense of identity, adopts wholesale the attributes of her flatmate.^ Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self 4.
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^ Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self .
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^ Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | The Psycho Ex Wife 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thepsychoexwife.com [Source type: Original source]

.A chronic emptiness is implied and, as with the last two films, abandonment leads to drastic measures.^ Some symptoms may last longer, such as feelings of anger or emptiness or abandonment, suspiciousness, and difficulty tolerating being alone.
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^ If left untreated it will generally resolve within six months to two years although occasionally depression becomes chronic and lasts for many years or indefinitely.
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[92] .Other films cited as depicting prominent characters with the disorder include The Crush, Malicious, Interiors, Presumed Innocent,"Bliss" and The Hand That Rocks the Cradle.^ Common conditions with which antipsychotics might be used include schizophrenia , mania and delusional disorder , although antipsychotics might be used to counter psychosis associated with a wide range of other diagnoses.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In Kraepelin's classification this would include 'unipolar' clinical depression , as well as bipolar disorder and other mood disorders such as cyclothymia .
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other psychological treatments which have been used, to lesser effectiveness, to treat this disorder include those which focus on social learning theory and conflict resolution.
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[90] .In the HBO series The Sopranos, it was suggested that Tony Soprano's mother suffered from BPD. The film Borderline, based on the book of the same name by Marie-Sissi Labrèche, explores BPD through the story of Kiki.^ Renn came to know her grandmother as Mom, while her mother, named Lana in the book, remained largely out of the picture until her teens.
  • Contradictions in the Depiction of “Plus-Size” Model Crystal Renn » Sociological Images 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC contexts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My mother has been diagnosed with suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder.

^ Research suggests that people with BPD frequently suffer from identity and interpersonal issues.
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The memoir, Songs of Three Islands by Millicent Monks is a meditation on how BPD has haunted several generations of the wealthy Carnegie family.[93]
.On stage, BPD was a central theme of Joe Penhall's 2000 play Blue/Orange, in which two psychiatrists do battle over the future treatment of a patient suffering from the condition.^ Like all forms of psychiatric treatment, electroshock can be given without a patient's consent, but this is subject to legal conditions dependent on the jurisdiction.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This sets the stage for the patient to avoid the problematic behavior in the future.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because of their impulsivity, about two thirds of borderline patients drop out of treatment within a few months.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]
.Despite no formal diagnosis ever being known - it has been publicly speculated that Princess Diana[95] , Adolf Hitler[96][97] and Marilyn Monroe all suffered from Borderline personality disorder.^ What causes borderline personality disorder?
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No surgery is available to treat borderline personality disorder .
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My mother has been diagnosed with suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder.

[98][99][100]

2009 UK soap opera coverage

.In March 2009, on the BBC soap opera, Doctors Receptionist, Ruth Pearce (played by Selina Chilton) was portrayed as having BPD and thought she was close friend, Nurse Michelle Corrigan (played by Donnaleigh Bailey).^ A close (male) friend once said; "when a woman hits a man, she's playing a man's game, and men react instinctively to violence."
  • GettinBetter.com's BORDERLINE PERSONALITY FORUM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC gettinbetter.com [Source type: General]

Doctors was nominated for the storyline as well as Selina Chilton who was nominated for Best Newcomer at the British Soap Awards 2009 and at the National Television Awards 2010.

Controversies

Gender

.The diagnosis of BPD has been criticized from a feminist perspective,[101] This is because some of the diagnostic criteria/symptoms of the disorder uphold common gender stereotypes about women.^ Criticisms have also come from a feminist perspective.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Meaning, the book begins, as does every other BPD book, with describing the disorder, explaining the DSM criteria and giving useful information about the condition.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Borderline Personality Disorder is about five times more common among first-degree biological relatives of those with the disorder than in the general population.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the criteria of “a pattern of unstable personal relationships, unstable self-image, and instability of mood,” can all be linked to the stereotype that women are, “neither decisive nor constant.” [102] The question has also been raised of why women are three times more likely to be diagnosed with BPD than men.^ Interpersonal relationships in BPD are particularly unstable.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pattern of unstable and intense personal relationships.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some think that people with BPD commonly have a history of sexual abuse in childhood.^ The most consistent finding in the search for causation in the disorder is a history of childhood trauma (possibly child sexual abuse ), [5] although some researchers have suggested other possible causes, such as a genetic predisposition, environmental factors or brain abnormalities.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, women with BPD who reported a previous history of neglect by a female caregiver and abuse by a male caregiver were consequently at significantly higher risk for being sexually abused by a noncaregiver (not a parent).
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A lot of people seem to think we love doing this to ourselves, I can safely say as a BPD sufferer, it's a living hell.

[103] .BPD is a stigmatizing diagnosis that evokes negative responses from health care providers (see below), so it is suggested that women who have survived sexual abuse in childhood are in this way re-traumatized by abusive mental health services.^ Mental health services and recovery .
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I used to work with women who had BPD ...
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

^ Additionally, women with BPD who reported a previous history of neglect by a female caregiver and abuse by a male caregiver were consequently at significantly higher risk for being sexually abused by a noncaregiver (not a parent).
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[104]
.Some feminist writers have suggested it would be better to give these women the diagnosis of a post-traumatic disorder as this would acknowledge their abuse, but others have argued that the use of the PTSD diagnosis merely medicalizes abuse rather than addressing the root causes in society.^ The most consistent finding in the search for causation in the disorder is a history of childhood trauma (possibly child sexual abuse ), [5] although some researchers have suggested other possible causes, such as a genetic predisposition, environmental factors or brain abnormalities.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, I found it easier to use than a lot of other methods.
  • Opposition defiant disorder - Support for parents 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.conductdisorders.com [Source type: General]

^ Meaning, the book begins, as does every other BPD book, with describing the disorder, explaining the DSM criteria and giving useful information about the condition.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

[105] Women may be more likely to receive a personality disorder diagnosis if they reject the female role by being hostile, successful or sexually active; alternatively if a woman presents with psychiatric symptoms but does not conform to a traditional passive sick role, she may be labelled as a "difficult" patient and given the stigmatizing diagnosis of BPD.[106]

Stigma

.The features of BPD include emotional instability, intense unstable interpersonal relationships, a need for relatedness and a fear of rejection.^ Interpersonal relationships in BPD are particularly unstable.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pattern of unstable and intense personal relationships.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unstable and intense relationships.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, people with BPD often evoke intense emotions in those around them.^ The thing about BPD is that it practically makes the people around the person take on the charecteristics as well!

^ People with this disorder often cause a great amount of stress or conflict in relationships with others, especially significant others or those who are very close to the person.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with BPD often have highly unstable patterns of social relationships.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

.Pejorative terms such as “difficult,” “treatment resistant,” “manipulative,” “demanding” and “attention seeking" are often used, and may become a self-fulfilling prophecy as the clinician's negative response triggers further self-destructive behaviour.^ On the other hand, those with the diagnosis of BPD have reported that the term "BPD" felt like a pejorative label rather than a helpful diagnosis, that self destructive behaviour was wrongly perceived as manipulative, and that they had limited access to care.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Eventually, she'll tire of trying to get your attention, and may use some dramatic tactics beforehand, but don't give into them.
  • GettinBetter.com's BORDERLINE PERSONALITY FORUM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC gettinbetter.com [Source type: General]

^ Outpatient treatment is usually difficult and long-term - sometimes over a number of years.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107] .In psychoanalytic theory, this stigmatization may be thought to reflect "countertransference" (when a therapist projects their own feelings on to a client), as people with BPD are prone to use defense mechanisms such as splitting and projective identification.^ According to Freud's theory, all people use defense mechanisms, but different people use different types of defense mechanisms.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I've read all kinds of horrible things that people have to say about "borderlines" such as the entry above that starts "My mother is BPD..."

^ I think the BPD diagnosis is often misused and is all too often used as a weapon against the patient to "put her in her place" and as retaliation for not making meaningful use of the therapeutic relationship (often tapping into the therapist's own narcissism for not being effective and/or loved by the patient)."
  • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

.Thus the diagnosis "often says more about the clinician's negative reaction to the patient than it does about the patient ...^ A. There's an old saying within the psychological community; "A three legged table is more stable than a two legged one."
  • GettinBetter.com's BORDERLINE PERSONALITY FORUM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC gettinbetter.com [Source type: General]

^ Borderline Personality Disorder is about five times more common among first-degree biological relatives of those with the disorder than in the general population.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than half of the 47 studies found that patients on antidepressants improved no more than those on placebos, Kirsch says.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

as an expression of counter transference hate, borderline explains away the breakdown in empathy between the therapist and the patient and becomes an institutional epithet in the guise of pseudoscientific jargon" (Aronson, p 217).[86]
.This inadvertent counter transference can give rise to inappropriate clinical responses including excessive use of medication, inappropriate mothering and punitive use of limit setting and interpretation.^ This is particularly true in the treatment of BPDs who can be adept at eliciting a range of responses from staff via the mechanisms of transference and counter-transference.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am afraid that some day an inappropriate response in a stressful situation will give me away.

^ Behavioral therapists use response cost to decrease the excessively dramatic behaviors of these individuals.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108] .People with BPD are seen as among the most challenging groups of patients, requiring a high degree of skill and training in the psychiatrists, therapists and nurses involved in their treatment.^ It is very hard to help people with BPD, especially within the limited scope of treatment allowed by most managed care programs.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ If one combines the professional's attitudes toward people with BPD with the ability of a high functioning person with BPD to act "as if " - one is having dinner with Boyer and Bergman as the lights dim.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include your level of commitment to treatment, locating a skilled primary clinician, determining the most appropriate level of care for you, evaluating your need for medication, and selecting the type of psychotherapy and support group that will be most effective for you.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[109] .People labeled with "Borderline Personality Disorder" often feel it is unhelpful and stigmatizing as well as simply inaccurate, supporting and adding to calls for a name change.^ Some who are labeled with "Borderline Personality Disorder" feel it is unhelpful and stigmatizing as well as simply inaccurate, supporting and adding to calls for a name change.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borderline personality disorder and mood disorders often appear concurrently.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with borderline personality disorder are also usually very impulsive.
  • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110]
.The Treatment and Research Advancements National Association for Personality Disorders (TARA-APD) campaigns to change the name and designation of BPD in DSM-V.^ Some who are labeled with "Borderline Personality Disorder" feel it is unhelpful and stigmatizing as well as simply inaccurate, supporting and adding to calls for a name change.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, other disorders associated with impulsivity, such as antisocial personality and substance abuse, also tend to burn out around the same age.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The construct has been described as a hybrid of the impulsive and borderline subtypes of the ICD's Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder, and also incorporates six of the nine DSM BPD criteria.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[111] The paper How Advocacy is Bringing BPD into the Light[112] reports that "the name BPD is confusing, imparts no relevant or descriptive information, and reinforces existing stigma...".

Terminology

.Because of the above concerns, and because of a move away from the original theoretical basis for the term (see history), there is ongoing debate about renaming BPD. Alternative suggestions for names include Emotional regulation disorder or Emotional dysregulation disorder.^ Because the term lacks specificity, there is an ongoing debate concerning whether this disorder should be renamed.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I see Borderline Personality Disorder as foremost an emotional dysregulation disorder.

^ Because the term no longer reflects current thinking, there is an ongoing debate concerning whether this disorder should be renamed.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Impulse disorder and Interpersonal regulatory disorder are other valid alternatives, according to John Gunderson of McLean Hospital in the United States.^ Impulse disorder and Interpersonal regulatory disorder are other valid alternatives, according to Dr. John Gunderson of McLean Hospital in the United States.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin shock treatment is an old and currently mostly abandoned treatment of severe depressions, psychoses , catatonic states and other mental disorders .
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dyslimbia has been suggested by Dr. Leland Heller [111] and Mercurial disorder has been proposed by McLean Hospital's Dr. Mary Zanarini.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[113] .Another term (for example, by psychiatrist Carolyn Quadrio) is Post Traumatic Personality Disorganization (PTPD), reflecting the condition's status as (often) both a form of chronic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and a personality disorder in the belief that it is a common outcome of developmental or attachment trauma.^ There are also scales for alcoholism, post-traumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders.
  • Personality disorders 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes depression as one of its major symptoms.
  • Everything about Mood Stabilizer 17 September 2009 5:05 UTC 1960.nl.wikimiki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another term advanced (for example by psychiatrist Carolyn Quadrio) is Post Traumatic Personality Disorganisation (PTPD), reflecting the condition's status as (often) both a form of chronic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Personality Disorder and a common outcome of developmental or attachment trauma.
  • Bing Health Article - Borderline personality disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

[53] .Some people do not report any kind of traumatic event.^ References to people, with the exception of myself, and events except those about me, and even some of those, are entirely fictional.

^ And maybe…some of the people you are talking about have some other kind of personality disorder.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder | The Psycho Ex Wife 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thepsychoexwife.com [Source type: Original source]

[114]

See also

References

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Further reading

General
  • Bockian, Neil R. et al. .New Hope for People with Borderline Personality Disorder: Your Friendly, Authoritative Guide to the Latest in Traditional and Complementary Solutions ISBN 978-0-7615-2572-1
  • Chapman, Alex & Gratz, Kim The Borderline Personality Disorder Survival Guide (2007)
  • Jensen, Joy A. Putting The Pieces Together: A Practical Guide to Recovery from Borderline Personality Disorder ISBN 978-0-9667037-6-4
  • Kreger, Randi The Essential Family Guide to Borderline Personality Disorder: New Tools and Techniques to Stop Walking on Eggshells (2008)
  • Kreisman, Jerold J. and Strauss, Hal.^ Participate in Educational Experiences About Borderline Disorder It is very important that you learn as much as possible about borderline disorder and your role in the treatment process.
    • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A recent addition to the therapeutic opportunities for family members of people with borderline disorder has been the introduction of family educational and training programs.
    • borderline personality disorder 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Perfect Book for Borderline Personality Disorder I was diagnosed with Bi-Polar II and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD).
    • Geometry.Net - Basic B Books: Borderline Personality Disorder 11 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

    .I Hate You, Don't Leave Me: Understanding the Borderline Personality (1991) ISBN 978-0-380-71305-9
  • Linehan, Marsha M., Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder New York ; London : Guilford Press, (1993.) ISBN 978-0-89862-034-4
  • Mason, Paul T. & Kreger, Randi Stop Walking on Eggshells: Taking Your Life Back When Someone You Care About Has Borderline Personality Disorder (1998)
  • Moskovitz, Richard A. Lost in the Mirror: An Inside Look at Borderline Personality Disorder (2001) ISBN 978-0-87833-266-3
  • Petrovic, Nick.^ The other book you've mentioned, "I Hate You, Don't Leave Me .
    • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Margo ~ I am so glad to hear that you have read "Stop Walking on Eggshells".
    • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Also, what are you doing to take care of yourself?
    • Opposition defiant disorder - Support for parents 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.conductdisorders.com [Source type: General]

    The 3D Society (2004)
  • Reiland, Rachel. Get Me Out Of Here: My Recovery from Borderline Personality Disorder (2004) ISBN 978-1-59285-099-0
Borderline parent resources
.
  • Lawson, Christine Ann.^ I also highly recommend the book "Understanding the Borderline Mother: Helping Her Children Transcend the Intense, Unpredictable, and Volatile Relationship" by Christine Ann Lawson .
    • What is Borderline Personality Disorder? | Gather 2 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gather.com [Source type: General]

    Understanding the Borderline Mother: Helping Her Children Transcend the Intense, Unpredictable, and Volatile Relationship (2002) ISBN 978-0-7657-0331-6
  • Roth, Kimberlee, Friedman, Freda B. & Kreger, Randi, Surviving a Borderline Parent: How to Heal Your Childhood Wounds & Build Trust, Boundaries, and Self-Esteem (2003)
Narcissistic/borderline couples
  • Lachkar, Joan The Narcissistic/Borderline Couple: New Approaches to Marital Therapy (2003)

External links


Simple English

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a type of personality disorder and mental illness.

Contents

Symptoms

People diagnosed with BPD might have strong mood swings, see things as "all good" or "all bad" (splitting), and be confused about their identity. They might have a lot of trouble with relationships with other people.

Diagnosis

Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals diagnose people with BPD using a book called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). They look at a person's behaviour and how they are feeling. If the person has five or more of the following signs, the DSM-IV-TR says that they have BPD.[1]

  1. Trying very hard to stop feeling abandoned
  2. A pattern of trouble in relationships, often thinking that other people are much better or much worse than they really are
  3. Being confused about personal identity
  4. Being impulsive in ways that are dangerous (like casual sex, drinking too much alcohol or taking drugs, not eating or eating too much, driving dangerously)
  5. Trying to commit suicide, or self injury (like cutting)
  6. Mood swings - feeling very happy, sad or anxious, for hours at a time
  7. Feeling empty inside
  8. Feeling very angry, getting into fights
  9. Having delusions or being paranoid

People with BPD often have other mental health problems, like depression, eating disorders, anxiety and substance abuse.

Cause

There is no one cause for BPD. Some researchers think that it might be caused by trauma in childhood, like sexual abuse and neglect.[2][3][4][5] A lot of people with BPD say that they were abused when they were children.[6]

Treatment

It can be very difficult to treat BPD, and it might take many years. Some types of psychotherapy can help, like dialectical behavioral therapy. Some doctors give patients with BPD medicines like antidepressants, antipsychotics or mood stabilizers.

References

  1. 301.83 Borderline Personality Disorder" in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349.3831. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  2. Kluft, Richard P. (1990). Incest-Related Syndromes of Adult Psychopathology. American Psychiatric Pub, Inc.. pp. 83,89. ISBN 0880481609. 
  3. Zanarini MC, Gunderson JG, Marino MF, Schwartz EO, Frankenburg FR (Jan–February 1989). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Childhood experiences of borderline patients"]. Comprehensive Psychiatry 30 (1): 18–25. doi:10.1016/0010-440X(89)90114-4. PMID 2924564. 
  4. Brown GR, Anderson B (January 1991). "Psychiatric morbidity in adult inpatients with childhood histories of sexual and physical abuse". Am J Psychiatry 148 (1): 55–61. PMID 1984707. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=1984707. 
  5. Herman, Judith Lewis; Judith Herman MD (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: BasicBooks. ISBN 0-465-08730-2. 
  6. Zanarini M.C.; F.R. Frankenburg (1997). "Pathways to the development of borderline personality disorder". Journal of Personality Disorders 11 (1): 93-104.

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