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Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Bornaviridae
Genus: Bornavirus
Type species
Borna disease virus

Borna disease virus is the virus that causes Borna disease.





It has the smallest genome (8.9 kilobases) of any Mononegavirales species and is unique within that order in its ability to replicate within the host cell nucleus.

Borna virus was isolated from a diseased horse in the 1970s, but the virus particles were difficult to characterise. Nonetheless, the virus' genome has been characterised. It is a linear negative-sense single stranded RNA virus in the order of the mononegavirales. This order contains the family of lyssaviruses which includes the viruses responsible for rabies. A new family named the bornaviridae was created to hold this virus.


Bornaviruses enter the host by endocytosis. After this virus has entered its host it is taken up by endosomes. Replication of the bornavirus occurs inside the nucleus. This is the only virus within the order Mononegavirales to do this.

Bornaviruses have negative sense RNA genomes [1] The negative sense RNA is copied to make a positive sense RNA template. This template is then used to synthesise many copies of the negative sense RNA genome. This is like making copies of a mold, and then using these molds to make many many more viruses.

Endogenous provirus

Elements homologous to the nucleoprotein gene of the Bornavirus have been shown to exist in the genomes of several mammalian species[2] .


The Bornavirus was first described in 1885 as "heated head disease" of cavalry horses in 1885 in the town Borna, Germany.[3]


  1. ^ Tomonaga K, Kobayashi T, Ikuta K. Molecular and cellular biology of Borna disease virus infection. Microbes Infect. 2002 Apr;4(4):491–500. Review.
  2. ^ Keizo Tomonaga, Masayuki Horie (7 January 2010), Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes, 7277, 463, Nature, pp. 9–128, doi:doi:10.1038/nature08695,, retrieved 2009-01-07  
  3. ^ "Evolutionary Surprise: Eight Percent of Human Genetic Material Comes from a Virus". ScienceDaily. 2010-01-08.  

External links


Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies


Main Page
Regnum: Virus
Phylum: not divided
Classis: not divided
Ordo: Mononegavirales
Familia: Bornaviridae
Genus: Bornavirus
Species: Borna disease virus

Vernacular names

中文: 玻那病毒屬


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