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Borrelia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Spirochaetes
Class: Spirochaetes
Order: Spirochaetales
Family: Spirochaetaceae
Genus: Borrelia
Species

Borrelia afzelii
Borrelia anserina
Borrelia burgdorferi
Borrelia garinii
Borrelia hermsii
Borrelia recurrentis
Borrelia valaisiana
Borrelia vincentii
etc.

Borrelia is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum. It causes borreliosis, a zoonotic, vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by ticks and some by lice, depending on the species.[1] There are 36 known species of Borrelia.

Contents

Lyme disease

Of the 36 known species of Borrelia, 12 of these species are known to cause Lyme disease or borreliosis and are transmitted by ticks. The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana.

Relapsing fever

Relapsing fever borreliosis often occurs with severe bacteremia.[1] Borrelia recurrentis is caused by the human body louse and no other animal reservoir of B. recurrentis is known. Lice that feed on infected humans acquire the Borrelia organisms that then multiply in the gut of the louse. When an infected louse feeds on an uninfected human, the organism gains access when the victim crushes the louse or scratches the area where the louse is feeding. B. recurrentis infects the person via mucous membranes and then invades the bloodstream.

Other tick-borne relapsing infections are acquired from other species, such as Borrelia hermsii or Borrelia Parkeri, which can be spread from rodents, and serve as a reservoir for the infection, via a tick vector. Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia recurrentis cause very similar diseases although the disease associated with Borrelia hermsii has more relapses and is responsible for more fatalities, while the disease caused by B. recurrentis has longer febrile and afebrile intervals and a longer incubation period.

Laboratory test

Immunoflourascent or confirm by serology by observing the organism in blood of patient.

Genetics

All members of the Borrelia genus that have been examined harbor a linear chromosome that is about 900 kbp in length as well as a plethora of both linear and circular plasmids in the 5-220 kbp size range. Genome sequences have been determined for B. burgdorferi, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. duttonii and B. recurrentis. The chromosomes, which carry the vast majority of the housekeeping genes, appear to be very constant in gene content and organization across the genus. The content of the plasmids, which carry most of the genes that encode the differentially-expressed surface proteins that interact with Borrelia's arthropod and vertebrate hosts, are much more variable. B. burgdorferi strain B31, the B. burgdorferi type strain, has been studied in the most detail and harbors twelve linear and nine circular plasmids that comprise about 612 kbp. The plasmids are unusual, as compared to most bacterial plasmids, in that they contain many paralogous sequences, a large number of pseudogenes and, in some cases, essential genes. In addition, a number of the plasmids have features suggesting that they are prophages. Some correlations between genome content and pathogenicity have been deduced and comparative whole genome analyses promise future progress in this arena.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b Samuels DS; Radolf, JD (editors) (2010). Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host Interaction and Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-58-5.  

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Treponema

  1. a taxonomic genus, within family Spirochaetaceae - the borrelia spirochetes, some of which cause relapsing fever
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Wikispecies

See also

  • See Wikispecies for species

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Division: Spirochaetes
Classis: Spirochaetes
Ordo: Spirochaetales
Familia: Spirochaetaceae
Genus: Borrelia
Species: B. burgdorferi group - B. anserina - B. bissettii - B. coriaceae - B. duttoni - B. hermsii - B. lonestari - B. lusitaniae - B. miyamoto - B. obermeieri - B. recurrentis - B. sinica - B. tanukii - B. turdae

References

  • Kahl, O., Gern, L., Eisen, L., and Lane, R. S. 2002. Ecological research on borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: Terminology and some methodological pitfalls. In Lyme Borreliosis: Biology, Epidemiology and Control (eds. Gray, J. S., Kahl, O., Lane, R. S., and Stanek, G.). CABI Publishing.

Vernacular names

Česky: Borrelia

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