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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Botrytis cinerea
Botrytis cinerea infection on strawberry.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
Class: Leotiomycetes
Order: Helotiales
Family: Sclerotiniaceae
Genus: Botryotinia
Species: B. cinerea
Binomial name
Botryotinia cinerea
(De Bary) Whetzel

Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that affects many plant species, although its most notable hosts may be wine grapes. In viticulture, it is commonly known as botrytis bunch rot; in horticulture, it is usually called grey mould or gray mold.

The fungus gives rise to two different kinds of infections on grapes. The first, grey rot, is the result of consistently wet or humid conditions, and typically results in the loss of the affected bunches. The second, noble rot, occurs when drier conditions follow wetter, and can result in distinctive sweet dessert wines, such as Sauternes or the Aszú of Tokaj. The species name Botrytis cinerea is derived from the Latin for "grapes like ashes"; although poetic, the "grapes" refers to the bunching of the fungal spores on their conidiophores, and "ashes" just refers to the greyish colour of the spores en masse. The fungus is usually referred to by its anamorph (asexual form) name, because the sexual phase is rarely observed. The teleomorph (sexual form) is an ascomycete, Botryotinia cinerea (see taxonomy box).

Contents

Biology

A Botrytis cinerea conidiophore
Botrytis cinerea growing on a plate with a ring of visible sclerotia (dark brown balls)

Botrytis cinerea is characterized by abundant hyaline conida (asexual spores) borne on grey, branching tree-like conidiophores. The fungus also produces highly resistant sclerotia as survival structures in older cultures. It overwinters as sclerotia or intact mycelia, both of which germinate in spring to produce conidiophores. The conidia are dispersed by wind and rain-water and cause new infections.

A considerable genetic variability has been observed in different Botrytis magnoceps strains (polyploidy).

Gliocladium roseum is a fungal parasite of Botrytis cinerea. [1]

Viticulture

In the Botrytis infection known as "noble rot" (pourriture noble in French, or Edelfäule in German), the fungus removes water from the grapes, leaving behind a higher percent of solids, such as sugars, fruit acids and minerals. This results in a more intense, concentrated final product. The wine is often said to have an aroma of honeysuckle and a bitter finish on the palate.

Botrytis complicates winemaking by making fermentation more complex. Botrytis produces an anti-fungal that kills yeast and often results in fermentation stopping before the wine has accumulated sufficient levels of alcohol[citation needed]. Makers of fine German dessert wines have been known to take fermenting tubs of wine into their homes to nurture the yeast through the night to assure that the alcohol level reaches legal minimums for the product to be called wine[citation needed].

Botrytis cinerea on Riesling grapes.

Botrytis bunch rot is another condition of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea that causes great losses for the wine industry. It is always present on the fruitset, however, it requires a wound to start a bunch rot infection. Wounds can come from insects, wind, accidental damage, etc. To control botrytis bunch rot there are a number of fungicides available on the market. Generally, these should be applied at bloom, bunch closure and veraison (the most important being the bloom application). Some winemakers are known to use the German method of fermentation and prefer having a 5% bunch rot rate in their grapes and will usually hold the grapes on the vine a week longer than normal.

Horticulture

Botrytis cinerea affects many other plants. It is economically important on soft fruits such as strawberries and bulb crops. Unlike wine grapes, the affected strawberries are not edible and are discarded. To minimize infection in strawberry fields, good ventilation around the berries is important to prevent moisture being trapped among leaves and berries. This is accomplished by slightly elevating the strawberry plants from the soil using straw, rather than planting them directly on the ground. In greenhouse horticulture, Botrytis cinerea is well-known cause for considereable damage in tomato.

The infection appears on rhubarb.

Human disease

Botrytis cinerea mold on grapes may cause "winegrower's lung", a rare form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (a respiratory allergic reaction in predisposed individuals).

References

External links

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