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.In sociology and political science, bourgeoisie (adjective: bourgeois) describes a range of groups across history.^ It is now too late for the bourgeoisie to try anew to formulate an apologetic, to construct a new bourgeois science, to develop a new "ideology."
  • Epistemological Problems, Psychological Basis of the Opposition, Hypothesis of Marxism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC mises.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Increasingly it was in the arena of politics, "the soft under-belly of the bourgeoisie," that bourgeois successes began, paradoxic ally, to take their toll.
  • The Peculiarities of German History and the "Sonderweg" Debate 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC userwww.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While the bourgeoisie break up and disintegrate the peasantry and all the petty-bourgeois groups, they weld together, unite and organize the proletariat.
  • The State and Revolution — Chapter 2 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marxist.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the Western world, between the late 18th century to now, the bourgeoisie is a social class characterized by their ownership of capital and their related culture.^ Its overtones became important in the 18th century, when the middle class of professionals, manufacturers, and their literary and political allies began to demand an influence in politics consistent with their economic status.
  • bourgeoisie (social class) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Reviewing my Father's books and papers I've come across some powerful evidences of the kinds of changes that characterize relations between labor and capital throughout the 20th century.
  • XMCA Mail 2004_01: Re: real and virtual worlds 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC lchc.ucsd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically speaking, the rise of the Turkish bourgeoisie does not go back to the 18th or 19th century.
  • The business of the Turkish bourgeoisie- İBRAHİM ÖZTÜRK 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.todayszaman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The business of the Turkish bourgeoisie- İBRAHİM ÖZTÜRK 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.todayszaman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A member of the bourgeoisie is a bourgeois or capitalist (plural: bourgeoises; capitalists).^ This was a bourgeois revolution from above, fought in the name of the monopoly capitalist bourgeoisie.
  • Papers6 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.labortech.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the neo-bourgeoisie itself, in short, could become, after a fashion, the very products of the flexible capitalist system that they energize and operate.

.They are a part of the middle or merchant classes, and derived social and economic power from employment, education, and wealth, as distinguished from social classes whose power came from being born into an aristocratic family of titled land owners granted feudal privileges by the monarch.^ They were a part of the middle or merchant classes of European feudalism, where their power came from employment, education, and wealth, as distinguished from those whose power came from being born into an aristocratic family of land owners.
  • Anarchist Discussion Forums • View topic - The Bourgeois 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were not part of the power elite.
  • Poalei Tziyon Platform 1906 - Text - (Ber Borochov) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Owners of land have different class interests.
  • Soc101 for HCI-types: class notes on Marx 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.zephoria.org [Source type: Original source]

.The bourgeoisie emerged from late feudal and early modern towns, through the control of long distance trade and petty manufacture.^ The possibility of a government controlled by their own reformist parties, particularly after long years of rule by the parties of the bourgeoisie, can be of great attractiveness to many workers.
  • International Socialism: The workers' government 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.isj.org.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • International Socialism: The workers' government 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.isj.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The ruling Feudal aristocracy of late and post-medieval Europe was even more fragmented than was the bourgeoisie.
  • XMCA Mail 2004_01: Re: real and virtual worlds 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC lchc.ucsd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The middle peasantry, too, are the victims of the depredations of usurious capital, of feudal and capitalist landlords in the countryside and of the capitalist market controlled by MNCs and big bourgeoisie.
  • Party Programme | Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bourgeois and bourgeoisie originate in the French language, meaning "city-dweller" (from bourg, cf.^ Nevertheless, the word bourgeoisie has a more special meaning when it serves to express the distinction between the bourgeois and the peasant and workman.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 152, BOURGEOISIE | Library of Economics and Liberty 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The term burgeois literally means city dweller, and is cognate to the English word 'Burgess' and comes from the Germanic root 'burg,' meaning town or city.
  • bourgeois@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The socialist revolution is not a means of solving bourgeois national problems, but of resolving the conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
  • Prometheus Research Series 2: Attitude of the Proletariat Towards Imperialist War 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.prl.org [Source type: Original source]

German Burg).
.Marxism defines the bourgeoisie as the social class that owns the means of production in a capitalist society.^ The bourgeoisie create the means of their own demise.

^ The bourgeoisie are traditionally defined as the middle class.
  • Fed Policy Becomes a Bourgeoisie Windfall -- Seeking Alpha 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: General]

^ The social product is appropriated by the individual capitalist.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Marxism views the group as emerging from the wealthy urban classes in pre- and early capitalist societies.^ Causing the labor class to become bigger and bigger (much bigger than the capitalist group) until the laborers rise up against the capitalist and force changes in their favor.

^ Hence, for a period of time, capitalists will be functioning in some capacity and will, true to their class nature, attempt to impose their ideology on society and restore their former position.
  • The Digital Fire 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.leninism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Browder denied the class character of the capitalist state, and considered American society a unified and harmonious society, without social antagonisms, a society in which understanding and class co-operation prevailed.
  • MIA REFERENCE SECTION - Enver Hoxha: 'Eurocommunism' is Anti-Communism - pt. 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In contemporary (capitalist) societies, the term bourgeoisie can refer to middle, upper middle, and/or upper classes, and/or their lifestyle and values.^ The bourgeoisie are traditionally defined as the middle class.
  • Fed Policy Becomes a Bourgeoisie Windfall -- Seeking Alpha 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: General]

^ The bourgeoisie, the middle class, has not disappeared.

^ Misinterpreting Karl Marx's writings, Marxists and their relatives in political philosophy (Communists, Socialists, etc) referred to the bourgeoisie as the enemy of the proletariat and a class of people that repressed the poor workers of society.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A533396 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Contents

Etymology and uses

.Bourgeoisie is a French word that was borrowed directly into English in the specific sense described above.^ Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other - bourgeoisie and proletariat.
  • Manifest of the Communist Party - Chapter One 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.socialistparty.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.
  • The Communist Manifesto 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.jjay.cuny.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two greathostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.
  • Marx - Communist Manifesto 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC media.pfeiffer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the French feudal order pre-revolution, "bourgeois" was a class of citizens who were wealthier members of the Third Estate.^ But what is a bourgeois revolution led by the working class?
  • Permanent Revolution | SocialistWorker.org 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Revolution, for example, abolished feudal property in favor of bourgeois property.
  • Marx 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • eHistory at OSU | Primary Sources 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Revolution, for example, abolished feudal property in favour of bourgeois property.
  • Marx & Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1848 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The French word bourgeois evolved from the Old French word burgeis, meaning "an inhabitant of a town" (cf.^ In France, the word bourgeois sounds sexy and trendy ; it means you are rich and influential .
  • bourgeois@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bourgeois literally means someone who lives in a town.

^ Nevertheless, the word bourgeoisie has a more special meaning when it serves to express the distinction between the bourgeois and the peasant and workman.
  • Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 152, BOURGEOISIE | Library of Economics and Liberty 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

Middle English burgeis, Middle Dutch burgher and German Bürger). The Old French word burgeis is derived from bourg, meaning a market town or medieval village, itself derived from Old Frankish burg, meaning "town".[1]
.The term bourgeoisie has been widely used as an approximate equivalent of upper class under capitalism.^ The term was later used by Marx and other socialist writers, both Communist and Anarchist , to discribe the owner class in capitalism , which, as a class, had largely evolved out of this Renaissance merchant class.
  • bourgeois@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last-but-one surviving class is the bourgeoisie, which possesses all capital and appropriates the surplus value produced by labour.
  • Anthony de Jasay, The State, Chapter 1.6 | Library of Economics and Liberty 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In proportion as the bourgeoisie, i.e., capital, is developed, in the same proportion is the proletariat, the modern working class, developed -- a class of labourers, who live only so long as they find work, and who find work only so long as their labour increases capital.
  • Marx & Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1848 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • 2 : I. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.literatureproject.com [Source type: Original source]

.The word also evolved to mean merchants and traders, and until the 19th century was mostly synonymous with the middle class (persons in the broad socioeconomic spectrum between nobility and peasants or proletarians).^ The 21st century will be the century of the universal middle class.
  • Reason Magazine - Bourgeois Blues 11 September 2009 12:24 UTC www.reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its overtones became important in the 18th century, when the middle class of professionals, manufacturers, and their literary and political allies began to demand an influence in politics consistent with their economic status.
  • bourgeoisie (social class) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To his own bourgeoisie he is related by the fact of direct exploitation, to the enemy bourgeoisie he is related on the one hand by the fact of it being the enemy of his own bourgeoisie in a war between governments, and by the fact of it being the oppressor of his class brother—the proletarian of the “enemy” country.
  • Prometheus Research Series 2: Attitude of the Proletariat Towards Imperialist War 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.prl.org [Source type: Original source]

.As the power and wealth of the nobility faded in the second half of the 19th century, and that of the merchant and commercial classes came to be dominant, the bourgeoisie emerged, by definition, as the replacement of the deposed nobility and the new ruling class.^ That’s what the ruling class the bourgeoisie *replaced* did.
  • Bourgeoisie Cat - Lolcats 'n' Funny Pictures of Cats - I Can Has Cheezburger? 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC icanhascheezburger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Florida would not have been far amiss if he had closed his text by paraphrasing the Communist Manifesto of the proletarian class a century and a half before: "Creative workers of the world, unite!"

^ Historically speaking, the rise of the Turkish bourgeoisie does not go back to the 18th or 19th century.
  • The business of the Turkish bourgeoisie- İBRAHİM ÖZTÜRK 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.todayszaman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The business of the Turkish bourgeoisie- İBRAHİM ÖZTÜRK 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.todayszaman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Academic concepts

Within Marxism and historical materialism

.Marxism defines the bourgeoisie as the social class that owns the means of production in a capitalist society.^ For both, the working class is defined by its seperation from ownership of the means of production .
  • Bourgeoisie@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bourgeoisie create the means of their own demise.

^ The social product is appropriated by the individual capitalist.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.As such, the core of the modern bourgeoisie is industrial bourgeoisie, which obtains income by hiring workers to put in motion their capital, which is to say, their means of production - machines, tools, raw material, etc.^ Marx felt that history was composed of class struggles and that the bourgeoisie were the oppressors of the proletarians, using wage-labour as a tool of subjugation wherein, come industrialization , the worker was alienated to add insult to injury.
  • Bourgeoisie@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such wars are the consummate expression of the inability of capitalism to transcend the contradiction between the productive forces, which have outgrown both national boundaries and private property relations, and the relations of production which define the two great classes of modern society, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
  • Prometheus Research Series 2: Proletarian Military Policy 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.prl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In proportion as the bourgeoisie, i.e., capital, is developed, in the same proportion is the proletariat, the modern working class, developed -- a class of labourers, who live only so long as they find work, and who find work only so long as their labour increases capital.
  • Marx & Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1848 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • 2 : I. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.literatureproject.com [Source type: Original source]

.Besides that, other bourgeois sectors also exist, notedly the commercial bourgeoisie, which earns income from commercial activities such as the buying and selling of commodities, wares, and services.^ The government's real nature than showed itself as a government to protect the bourgeoisie -- the owners of capital, and employers of wage labor -- against classes other than the bourgeois owners of capital (employers), but especially against the wage earning propertyless class of working people, who are defined as that class who really own nothing but our ability to work (our labor power) as our fundamental commodity, which we seek to sell for wages to diverse capitalist employers.
  • It Ain't The Apple, It's The Whole Barrel | ItsYourTimes.com 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reputational gossip, Greif notes, was cheap, "a by-product of the commercial activity [itself] and passed along with other commercial correspondence."
  • Reason Magazine - Bourgeois Blues 11 September 2009 12:24 UTC www.reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term "middle classes" on the other hand is used - especially by the bourgeoisie media - in very vague way comprising all those with a certain level of income.
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.In medieval times, the bourgeois was typically a self-employed proprietor, small employer, entrepreneur, banker, or merchant.^ 'Not being inhabited by a petty bourgeois stratum of small peasant proprietors, the Cuban countryside...
  • Permanent Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ A fortnight’s paid leave for those women employed full-time so that they can visit their home towns, and travel expenses to be shared by employers.
  • The Lumpen Bourgeoisie « Kafila 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC kafila.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Small employers are those who employ between two and ten workers, and the petty bourgeoisie are those who employ one or no workers, but who are self-employed.
  • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In industrial capitalism, on the other hand, the bourgeoisie becomes the ruling class - which means it also owns the bulk of the means of production (land, factories, offices, capital, resources - though in some countries land ownership would still be a monopoly of a different class, landed oligarchy), and controls the means of coercion (national armed forces, police, prison systems, court systems).^ Every class has national interests differing from the national interests of other classes.
  • Poalei Tziyon Platform 1906 - Text - (Ber Borochov) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bourgeoisie subjected the country to the rule of towns.

^ What is different is that the system of ownership has been changed."
  • All-Round Dictatorship Over the Bourgeoisie 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marx2mao.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ownership of the means of production enables it to employ and exploit the work of a large mass of wage workers (the working class), who have no other means of livelihood than to sell their labour to property owners; while control over the means of coercion allows intervention during challenges from below.^ The wage-worker sells his labour-power to the owner of land, factories and instruments of labour.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Owners of means of production .
  • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The class struggle is by no means over.
  • Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung, 2 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.art-bin.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Marx distinguished between "functioning capitalists" actually managing enterprises, and others merely earning property rents or interest-income from financial assets or real estate (rentiers).^ On the other hand, Florida fails to discern the deeper connection between (a) the new cultural forms that he finds in his creative class and (b) new capitalist modes of accumulation and production.

^ When we pass to those stychic processes in which territorialism is realized, we must again distinguish between creative and liberating factors and thus clarify the respective roles of the bourgeoisie and of the proletariat.....
  • Poalei Tziyon Platform 1906 - Text - (Ber Borochov) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SS : The other new work of yours that was really interesting for me, is the Give to Take, Estate Agency.
  • Eurozine - The return of the red bourgeoisie - Nada Prlja, Stefan Szczelkun An interview with Nada Prlja 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.eurozine.com [Source type: General]

[3]
.Marxism sees the proletariat (wage labourers) and bourgeoisie as directly waging an ongoing class struggle, in that capitalists exploit workers and workers try to resist exploitation.^ In a war between governments he is neutral, but imperialist war is a manifestation of the class conflict within society consequently he is not neutral towards his own bourgeoisie, he is not impartial towards the military fate of his own oppressor but desires the defeat of his own ruling class—the class which directly exploits him.
  • Prometheus Research Series 2: Attitude of the Proletariat Towards Imperialist War 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.prl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The further steps of the revolution are rich in historic examples--how the bourgeoisie tried to separate itself from the masses, the rural poor and the budding proletariat; how thereafter sharp class antagonisms were revealed between the bourgeoisie, which was concerned with securing, promoting and safeguarding its properties and its form of exploitation, and the rural and plebeian masses.
  • Chapter 4 * Perestroika: A Marxist Critique [Sam Marcy] 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.workers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the proletariat is the only class that is consistently revolutionary, the only class that can unite all the working and exploited people in the struggle against the bourgeoisie, in completely removing it.
  • The State and Revolution — Chapter 2 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marxist.net [Source type: Original source]

.This exploitation takes place as follows: the workers, who own no means of production of their own, must seek employment in order to make a living.^ For Gramsci, the dominant class of a Western Europe nation of his time was the bourgeoisie, defined in the Communist Manifesto as "the class of modern Capitalists, owners of the means of social production and employers of wage-labour," while the crucial (because potentially revolution-leading) subordinate class was the proletariat, "the class of modern wage-labourers who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labour-power in order to live" ( SPN 473 n5).

^ The film follows a modern young woman (actress Mumtaz) frequenting nightclubs and other such places of unparalleled wickedness, and having no respect for her own sacrosanct culture (whatever that was).
  • Filming irony - A brief history lesson on Pakistani Cinema - RateDesi Forums 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC forums.ratedesi.com [Source type: General]

^ In this contradictory class location, Wright places all those workers who supervise other people on the job, or who can be considered managers.
  • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They get hired by a capitalist and work for him, producing some sort of goods or services.^ No matter how well some black people have done for themselves financially, they still have to work for a living.
  • Black Bourgeoisie: The Book That Brought the Shock of Self-Revelation to Middle-Class Blacks in America | LOGOOnline Shop 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC shop.logoonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The means of production, as well as the product, of the individual producer became more and more worthless; there was nothing left for him but to turn wage-worker under the capitalist.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The post-industrial economy is driven by the shared values of, and the conflicts between, the modern capitalist and the people who work for him.
  • The Degenerate Charm of the Bourgeoisie 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.sinister-designs.com [Source type: Original source]

.These goods or services then become the property of the capitalist, who sells them and gets a certain amount of money in exchange.^ With goods of the same quality, the one who sells most cheaply is certain of driving the others out of the field and securing the greatest sale for himself?

^ The capitalist is still receiving the same amount of money per pound and that remains the case unless the supply and the demand change.

^ The dominant force on the Parliamentary side was the rising Presbyterian bourgeoisie based on the City of London and the merchant capitalists who had been accumulating vast amounts of capital.
  • Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

.Part of this money is used to pay workers' wages, another part is used to pay production costs, and a third part is kept by the capitalist in the form of profit (or surplus value in Marxist terms).^ No use of production for profit or exchange.
  • Just da FAQ's 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC communism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capitalist has a goal to make a profit (surplus).

^ The worker spends one part of the day covering the cost of maintaining himself and his family (wages), while the other part of the day he works without remuneration, creating for the capitalist surplus-value, the source of profit, the source of the wealth of the capitalist class.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus the capitalist can earn money by selling the surplus (profit) from the work of his employees without actually doing any work, or in excess of his own work.^ Thus not working and making money.
  • Anarchist Discussion Forums • View topic - The Bourgeois 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC flag.blackened.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Laborers want to sell their skills for money, and the capitalist want to make a profit.

^ The capitalist has a goal to make a profit (surplus).

.Marxists argue that new wealth is created through work; therefore, if someone gains wealth that he did not work for, then someone else works and does not receive the full wealth created by his work.^ Redistribution of wealth does not create wealth.
  • Imperialism: Enemy of Freedom by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr. 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s a poem that is not finished and that can be continued by all the other poets; it’s not a closed work; it’s an open work where all the currents and all the new creations, and all the new problems of this new continent can circulate.
  • Eric Bockstael, "An Interview with Pablo Neruda" / Memorious 4 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC memorious.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Broke and persona non grata in his own country, Buñuel came to New York, where, from 1939 through 1942, he worked at the Museum of Modern Art.
  • The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie (1972) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.theauteurs.com [Source type: General]

In other words, that "someone else" is exploited. .In this way, the capitalist might turn a large profit by exploiting workers.^ The means of production, as well as the product, of the individual producer became more and more worthless; there was nothing left for him but to turn wage-worker under the capitalist.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Capitalists in Africa as in America derive income in the form of profits by exploiting wage-labor.

^ The capitalists could not afford to exploit and oppress their own peoples to the fullest extent while there was the example of what workers could achieve with their socialist system.
  • These Marxist Principles Cannot be Destroyed 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.mltranslations.org [Source type: Original source]

.Marx himself primarily used the term "bourgeois", with or without sarcasm, as an objective description of a social class and of a lifestyle based on ownership of private capital, not as a pejorative.^ And no other attitude is to be expected, for there can be no impartial social science in a society based on class struggle.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Into their place stepped free competition, accompanied by a social and political constitution adapted to it, and by the economical and political sway of the bourgeois class.
  • Marx & Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1848 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • 2 : I. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.literatureproject.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Socialism was a system based on ideology and idealisation – and one of the driving forces of this code of belief was imagery glorifying the working class.
  • Eurozine - The return of the red bourgeoisie - Nada Prlja, Stefan Szczelkun An interview with Nada Prlja 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.eurozine.com [Source type: General]

He commended the industriousness of the bourgeoisie, but criticised it for its moral hypocrisy. .This attitude is shown most clearly in the Communist Manifesto.^ Hence, any realistic discussion of the attitude of a communist party to internal factions must include consideration of the means by which the struggle against opportunism can be most successfully waged.
  • The Digital Fire 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.leninism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The racial nature of the Left's attitude towards the bourgeoisie is most clearly expressed in the treatment of the Kulaks under the Soviets.

^ Their views are most clearly and fully expounded in the works of Engels, Ludwig Feuerbach and Anti-Dhring, which, like the Communist Manifesto, are handbooks for every class-conscious worker.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.He also used it to describe the ideology of this class; for example, he called its conception of freedom "bourgeois freedom" and opposed it to what he considered more substantive forms of freedom.^ Clearly the case studies of Ecuador and Bolivia demonstrate that ‘communitarianism’ is an ideology of the rising Indian petit bourgeois eager to undermine an intensive intra-Indian class struggle.
  • Voices - A Class Perspective on Ecology and Indian Movements: “Diversity with Inequality is Not Social Justice” 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.thepeoplesvoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He argues that positions within the mode of production, and forms of and relationship to exploitation provide a way of describing and understanding social class.
  • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Essentially they were parties which considered themselves to be in favor of workers and peasants and which opposed a restoration of bourgeois power.
  • The Digital Fire 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.leninism.org [Source type: Original source]

.He also wrote of bourgeois independence, individuality, property, family, etc.; in each case he referred to conceptions of these ideals which are compatible with condoning the existence of a class society.^ The working class will do well to ponder over these questions, to lay the responsibility where it lies, to see Hitlerism for what it was, a defense of bourgeois society in which all the bourgeoisie participated to the best of its ability.
  • The Lesson of Germany by CLR James 1945 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC marxists.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ We cannot, unless we have become bourgeois pacifists or opportunists, forget that we are living in a class society from which there is no way out, nor can there be, save through the class struggle.
  • The Military Programme of the Proletarian Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marx2mao.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The lower middle class, the small manufacturer, the shopkeeper,the artisan, the peasant, all these fight against the bourgeoisie, tosave from extinction their existence as fractions of the middleclass.
  • Marx - Communist Manifesto 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC media.pfeiffer.edu [Source type: Original source]

The petit bourgeois

.The term (also petty bourgeoisie) is used to describe the class below the bourgeoisie but above the proletariat (usually independent operators with a small number of employees or no employees at all).^ And that class alliance will involve the bourgeoisie, the petty-bourgeoisie and the proletariat (the working class) - all three.

^ Inflation, bankruptcy of small firms and small farmers, mass unemployment among the professional classes, the technicians and the higher salaried employees creates a ferment among those sections of society and the classical petty bourgeoisie, which can either be used to bring these masses closer to the proletariat in the struggle for socialism or, failing that, be welded into a battering ram to be used against the working class.
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, the class struggle between the different political forces, and the class struggle in the ideological field between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie will continue to be long and tortuous and at times will even become very acute.
  • All-Round Dictatorship Over the Bourgeoisie 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marx2mao.com [Source type: Original source]

Marxist Anarchist's perspectives

.In the view of some 20th century Marxist currents, the nomenklatura or lower state bureaucrats in "communist states" were or are a state bourgeoisie presiding over a system of state capitalism.^ Under the leadership of the big bourgeoisie, the State sector itself became an instrument for building capitalism.
  • Party Programme | Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The result was the first state sponsored genocide of the 20th century.
  • Kurdistan and the National Question 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.bolshevik.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Khrushchevism and the other revisionist currents have in common the liquidation of the communist party and its transformation into a political force which serves the bourgeoisie.
  • MIA REFERENCE SECTION - Enver Hoxha: 'Eurocommunism' is Anti-Communism - pt. 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.To some schools of anarchists, all prominent members, functionaries and leaders of any kind of state are part of this state bourgeoisie.^ But, what is omitted is that the Afro-Asian Eastern Mediterranean states, which were the ancient centers of wealth in which Rome was part and parcel, had been integrated for some time as the so-called civilized world.

^ If a troop of intelligent 'leaders' supported by the State and the bourgeoisie struggle against workers' autonomy, they are capable of hindering the victory of the latter although all the other conditions might be favourable to it.
  • Wildcat Spain Encounters Democracy 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.notbored.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reacting to this situation, returning blow for blow, ready for everything, the workers threw all their weight against the bourgeoisie and the State.
  • Wildcat Spain Encounters Democracy 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.notbored.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to these interpretations, the bourgeoisie is composed of any individuals who have exclusive control over the means of production, regardless of whether this control comes in the form of private ownership or state power.^ According to Marx's analysis of history, the aristocracy controlled European countries until the bourgeoisie 's rise to power in the decades after the Renaissance.
  • Television: Glossary A-D 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.tvcrit.com [Source type: General]

^ For Flynn, the hallmarks of fascism were: 1) unrestrained government; 2) an absolute leader responsible to a single party; 3) a planned economy with nominal private ownership of the means of production; 4) bureaucracy and administrative "law"; 5) state control of the financial sector; 6) permanent economic manipulation via deficit spending; 7) militarism, and 8) imperialism (pp.
  • MODERN LEFTISM AS RECYCLED FASCISM 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC jonjayray.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It may have surplus labour extorted from it by the bourgeoisie, and is generally prevented from exercising economic ownership by the bourgeoisie, or those who control the means of production.
  • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Social history

Emergence of burghers within European feudalism's third estate

Urban bankers, merchants and creditors within other "feudal" societies

Rise in Western Europe during the late Middle Ages and Early modern period

.In the late Middle Ages, as cities were emerging, artisans and tradesmen began to emerge as both a physical and economic force.^ Economic contact between provinces was established by the market and the railroads; but both the market and the railroad were ikn the city's hands.
  • Three Concepts of the Russian Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.internationalist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many people today who long for a system of economics that prevailed in the Middle Ages.
  • Imperialism: Enemy of Freedom by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr. 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Europe emerged from the Middle Ages, the nascent merchant capitalist class was forced into a collision with the feudal system.
  • Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

.They formed guilds, associations and received charters for companies to conduct business and promote their own interests.^ They were also promoted by bourgeois society as its own spectacular negation.
  • Wildcat Spain Encounters Democracy 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.notbored.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They meant that the entire class was preparing for its communal existence with equal interests, formulating its own ideas from its own practice.
  • Wildcat Spain Encounters Democracy 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.notbored.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They conducted business with each other, got drunk together, intermarried, and had the same mistresses.
  • French Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uweb.ucsb.edu [Source type: Original source]

These were the early bourgeoisie. .In the late Middle Ages (the 14th and 15th centuries), they were the highest guildsmen and artisans, as evidenced in their ability to pay the fines for breaking sumptuary laws, and by paying to be called citizens of the city in which they lived.^ They will break their own laws and make new ones as necessary.
  • The Digital Fire 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.leninism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coupled with the material help they received, the RP was able to win support from people living in shantytowns of big cities and facing deep financial difficulties.
  • Turkey: 12 years since the last military intervention, new coup feared 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were all ideas from his predecessors among the "Progressives" (Leftists) of America in the late 19th and early 20th century.
  • MODERN LEFTISM AS RECYCLED FASCISM 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC jonjayray.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.In fact the King of France granted nobility to all of the bourgeoisie of Paris in the late fourteenth century.^ The more romantic ideology of adventure developed in stories of knighthood at the end of the 12 th century in France and with stories of King Arthur and his Round Table and Lancelot.
  • The Knight Errant's Ideology of Adventure - Boje and Luhman 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC business.nmsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Baker's reasoning is germane to late 18th century France because the monarchial institution set up in medieval times was becoming increasingly obsolescent.
  • French Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uweb.ucsb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A bourgeoisie which arrives late on the scene is fundamentally different from its ancestors of a century or two earlier.
  • Permanent Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.February 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] They eventually allied with the kings in centralising power and uprooting feudal barriers against trade.^ That is why all fascist regimes eventually turn against the very class on the backs of which they came to power.
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They needed the masses as a force to counter the bourgeoisie, but feared them, and always tended to default to advising those in power .
  • Dependency theory -- where did it go wrong? - www.communistvoice.org 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC home.flash.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were no more than enclaves in a world pervaded by the struggle among feudal powers.
  • Joseph Schumpeter: State, Imperialism and Capitalism (1919) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.panarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the 17th and 18th century, the bourgeois supported the English revolution[4], American revolution and French revolution in overthrowing the laws and privileges of feudal order.^ The French Revolution, for example, abolished feudal property in favor of bourgeois property.
  • Marx 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • eHistory at OSU | Primary Sources 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Revolution, for example, abolished feudal property in favour of bourgeois property.
  • Marx & Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1848 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The bourgeoisie was victorious in these revolutions, but the victory of the bourgeoisie was at the same time the victory of a new social order, the victory of bourgeois ownership over feudal ownership, of nationality over provincialism, of competition over the guild, of the division of land over primogeniture, of the rule of the over the domination of the owner by the land, of enlightenment over superstition, of the family over the family name, of industry over heroic idleness, of bourgeois law over medieval privileges.'
  • Was there a bourgeois revolution? 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marxmail.org [Source type: Original source]

.These changes in property law cleared the way for the rapid expansion of commerce and the establishment of capitalist societies.^ In the trusts, freedom of competition changes into its very opposite into monopoly; and the production without any definite plan of capitalistic society capitulates to the production upon a definite plan of the invading socialistic society.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All the changes which occurred after the Second World War proved in practice the theses of Marx and Lenin that the capitalist world was in decay and heading for collapse, while the revolution and socialism were on the ascent.
  • MIA REFERENCE SECTION - Enver Hoxha: 'Eurocommunism' is Anti-Communism - pt. 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Marxism has always taught, and Bolshevism, too, accepted, and taught, that the peasantry and proletariat are two different classes, that it is false to identify their interests in capitalist society in any way, and that a peasant can join the Communist Party only if, from the property viewpoint, he adopts the views of the proletariat.
  • Trotsky on China 31 SUMMARY AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE CHINESE REVOLUTION 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.zhongguo.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the expansion of commerce, trade, and the market economy, the bourgeoisie grew in size, influence, and power.^ The big bourgeoisie’s compromise with landlordism led to the domestic market not being expanded as the purchasing power of the peasantry could not grow sufficiently.
  • Party Programme | Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the the Jewish petty and middle bourgeoisie has no territory and market, and operate in a foreign internal market, it falls under the influence of assimilatory forces in Jewish life.
  • Poalei Tziyon Platform 1906 - Text - (Ber Borochov) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (In this new mode, enthusiasm grew for the short-term market price of stocks as opposed to the long-term productive capacity of companies being traded.

.In many countries, the aristocracy either transformed into essentially bourgeoisie rentiers, or found itself overthrown by a bourgeois revolution.^ According to Marx's analysis of history, the aristocracy controlled European countries until the bourgeoisie 's rise to power in the decades after the Renaissance.
  • Television: Glossary A-D 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.tvcrit.com [Source type: General]

^ "After the victory of the revolution, because of the existence of the bourgeoisie internationally, because of the existence of bourgeois remnants internally, because the petit bourgeoisie exists and continually generates a bourgeoisie, therefore the classes which have been overthrown within the country will continue to exist for a long time to come and may even attempt restoration."
  • CHINESE COMMUNIST CRITIQUES OF SOVIET SOCIETY 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC freespace.virgin.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of them of course have bourgeois aspirations, many more are deluded and [unclear] by bourgeois ideology and propaganda and therefore the struggle to win the petit bourgeoisie has historically been a very serious intense struggle in all countries that have embarked upon a path of Socialist transformation.

[citation needed]
.The bourgeoisie was never without critics.^ And even if it had been able to arise without protective tariffs, it would never have developed into imperialism in the hands of an unwarlike bourgeoisie.
  • Joseph Schumpeter: State, Imperialism and Capitalism (1919) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.panarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was first accused of narrow-mindedness, materialism, hypocrisy, and lack of culture, among other things, by persons such as the playwright Truldière and the novelist Flaubert, who denounced its supposed banality and mercenary aspirations.^ 'The intangible world of information merges with the material world of money, and new phrases that combine the two, such as "intellectual capital" and "the culture industry", come into vogue.
  • Are you a BOurgeois BOhemian? | From the Observer | The Observer 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ They who have founded philanthropic institutions, such as no other country can boast of!
  • The Attitude of the Bourgeoisie Towards the Proletariat 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The security and solidity are not due to an artistic or scientific talent; There is narrow-mindedness, absence of dynamism and lack of rafinesse.
  • bourgeois@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The earliest recorded pejorative uses of the term "bourgeois" are associated with aristocratic contempt for the lifestyle of the bourgeoisie.^ At best some sort of implicit analysis is present with the use of terms such as "new bourgeoisie" but no overall outline is presented.
  • CHINESE COMMUNIST CRITIQUE OF SOVIET SOCIETY 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.oneparty.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The term "middle classes" on the other hand is used - especially by the bourgeoisie media - in very vague way comprising all those with a certain level of income.
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ More often, however, the Bourgeois name and accent are decried as ' posh ' and the term "middle class" is used as an insult.
  • bourgeois@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Successful embourgeoisement typically meant being able to retire and live on invested income.

Political triumph and social decline in the twentieth century

Fascist Italy

.The Italian fascist regime regarded the bourgeois as an obstacle of modernism because of its purported par excellence.^ The regime of Primo de Rivera was not a fascist dictatorship because it did not base itself upon the reaction of the petty-bourgeois masses.
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As a much more modern regime than Mussolini's however, we cannot expect Putin's Russia to have all the features of Fascist Italy.
  • MODERN LEFTISM AS RECYCLED FASCISM 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC jonjayray.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because pugnacious sovereigns stood in constant fear of attack by their equally pugnacious neighbours, the modern bourgeois attributes aggressive designs to neighbouring peoples.
  • Joseph Schumpeter: State, Imperialism and Capitalism (1919) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.panarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

[5] .The bourgeoisie and the bourgeois spirit were exploited, with the latter being used to manipulate the public.^ The Syndicalists know how to use the general strike to defend the republic, that is the republican bourgeoisie, but they do not know how to use it to break the bourgeois republic and to seize power!
  • The Spanish Revolution at the Crossroads 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The bourgeois state will only arm the workers for its own purposes—while this contradiction can and must be exploited by Marxists, it is utopian to expect that the trade unions could be able to use the bourgeois army for their own purposes.
  • Prometheus Research Series 2: Proletarian Military Policy 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.prl.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Solid bourgeois interests were being consistently served throughout, despite the bourgeoisie.
  • Anthony de Jasay, The State, Chapter 1.6 | Library of Economics and Liberty 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, Benito Mussolini, in a 1938 speech, voiced the clear distinction between capitalism and the bourgeoisie,[5] in which case he described the bourgeoisie as a moral category, a state of mind.^ It is necessary to describe the class relations between the Northern and Southern sections of the bourgeoisie as they have developed historically.
  • Class Struggle in the U.S. South Part 1: The “New South” and the Old Capitalism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.lrp-cofi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the leadership of the big bourgeoisie, the State sector itself became an instrument for building capitalism.
  • Party Programme | Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course elements of the bourgeoisie, various cliquesand elements, have turned it into a campaign and it's possible that the major campaign that emerges will be "clean politics" along with "moral capitalism".
  • MP's expenses: problems for the British bourgeoisie? | libcom.org 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC libcom.org [Source type: General]

.He possessed the articulateness to singlehandedly isolate the bourgeoisie as a parasitic entity of the state that is draining the state of potentiality because of its materialistic, hedonistic approach to life.^ On the other hand, because of the intense national competition raging among the middle and petit bourgeoisie, the isolating factor is felt in every branch of activity.
  • Poalei Tziyon Platform 1906 - Text - (Ber Borochov) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Browder, the United States of America, which possessed colossal economic power and great scientific-technical potential, had to.
  • MIA REFERENCE SECTION - Enver Hoxha: 'Eurocommunism' is Anti-Communism - pt. 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of developing these potentialities, the big bourgeoisie which acquired State power embarked upon a type of capitalist development suited to serve its own narrow interests.
  • Party Programme | Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: Original source]

[5] This principle was condensed in the slogan "The Fascist man disdains the «comfortable» life". In the final years of the regime, interests of Catholic circles and that of Benito Mussolini merged. During this period, one priest who founded the journal Frontespizio, Giuseppe De Luca, declared that:
"Christianity is essentially anti-bourgeois .... A Christian, a true Christian and thus a Catholic, is the opposite of a bourgeois."[6]
The bourgeois was perceived as unmanly, effeminate, and infantile in the following quote:
"Middle class, middle man, incapable of great virtue or great vice: and there would be nothing wrong with that if only he would be willing to remain as such; but when his childlike or feminine tendency to camouflage pushes him to dream of grandeur, honours, and thus riches, which he cannot achieve honestly with his own 'second-rate' powers, then the average man compensates with cunning, schemes, and mischief; he kicks out ethics and becomes a bourgeois. The bourgeois is the average man who does not accept to remain such and who, lacking the strength sufficient for the conquest of essential values - those of the spirit - opts for material ones, for appearances."[7]
.The economic freedom and mobility as exemplified by the bourgeois posed a direct threat to the integrity of the fascist regime.^ The regime of Primo de Rivera was not a fascist dictatorship because it did not base itself upon the reaction of the petty-bourgeois masses.
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Every oppressed nation in the Near East which aspires to independence poses a profound threat to the brittle bonapartist regimes of the region.
  • Kurdistan and the National Question 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.bolshevik.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So a Fascist Russia should be capable of considerable economic advancement for its people and thus will almost certainly be a much more relaxed regime than Soviet Russia.
  • MODERN LEFTISM AS RECYCLED FASCISM 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC jonjayray.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.If and when the bourgeois gain power, there is the potential loss of control and unity as maintained by the state, so this is seen as threatening by Mussolini and his followers.^ Of the great bourgeois state that was Germany, there is not one claimant for power.
  • The Lesson of Germany by CLR James 1945 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC marxists.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ To return to the pamphlet: There must be no collaboration with capitalism, whether outside the bourgeois state or from within government itself.
  • The Friends of Durruti Group: 1937-1939 - 8. Balius' Pamphlet: Towards a Fresh Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.spunk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They maintain their control over the major sectors of the state machine, over the key areas of the economy and over most of the means of communic¬ation.
  • International Socialism: The workers' government 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.isj.org.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • International Socialism: The workers' government 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.isj.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

To become bourgeois was still a fault pertaining to the masculine mystique: not by change, shortly after, the bourgeois was scornfully defined as someone who was "spiritually castrated".[7]

Bourgeois culture

.Marxism describes human culture as being subject to a dominant ruling class culture, in this sense all human culture is currently "bourgeois" culture.^ Engels formulates this as follows: (The state) "in all typical periods is exclusively the state of the ruling class, and in all cases remains essentially a machine for keeping down the...
  • Anthony de Jasay, The State, Chapter 1.6 | Library of Economics and Liberty 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Marxism, the system of beliefs about the world propagated and supported by the society's ruling class .
  • Television: Glossary A-D 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.tvcrit.com [Source type: General]

^ Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois State; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the over-looker, and, above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself.
  • Marx & Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1848 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • 2 : I. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.literatureproject.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, in a more precise manner, a set of shared cultural mores have been attributed internationally to the bourgeois, many having their apparent origins in the shop culture of early modern France.^ The point is however that many of these are actually part of the working class and become ever more "proletarianised".
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For many a decade past the history of industry and commerce is but the history of the revolt of modern productive forces against modern conditions of production, against the property relations that are the conditions for the existence of the bourgeois and of its rule.
  • CPUSA Online - 4-22-07 Readings Part 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But modern bourgeois private property is the final and most complete expression of the system of producing and appropriating products that is based on class antagonisms, on the exploitation of the many by the few.
  • Marx 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC history.hanover.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • eHistory at OSU | Primary Sources 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]

This was ridiculed at length in the Emile Zola novel series, Les Rougon-Macquart.[8] .Most noted features of bourgeois culture focus on the central cultural space of the sitting room, and English bourgeois culture is often attacked as a sitting room culture.^ It has often been noted by middle-class liberals that the home of their lone Negro neighbor is always the most meticulously kept, and the Negro children are the cleanest and least likely to be misbehaved.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bourgeois material culture has focused on mass-produced high quality luxury items, though the material content of this has varied over time.^ Borrowing from Daniel Bell, Harvey uses the term "cultural mass" to identify the producers and consumers of works of art "in an age of electronic reproduction and image banks."

.The painted porcelain, machine printed wall-paper and cotton fabrics, and Sheffield steel of the early nineteenth century have given way to luxury consumer items and contemporary conspicuous consumption.^ But cotton’s white gold has given way to new riches stored deep below the ground.
  • Bard College’s lumpen bourgeoisie « Louis Proyect: The Unrepentant Marxist 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC louisproyect.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These items are often displayed wealth, rather than used wealth as in nineteen century working class homes.^ People occupy these class locations as they are recruited for and fill the various occupations and jobs in the economy and society, and as they do the work required in these jobs.
  • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using a more refined index of mobility, there is a sense in which middle-class Negro professionals have not been upwardly mobile-at least when compared to working-class Negro beats.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the trade union, parliamentary, coalitions which were both useful and meaningful for the working class last century have now become ways to paralyse its struggle.
  • Manifesto of the 1st Congress of the ICC, 1975 | International Communist Current 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC en.internationalism.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the past display involved cluttered small rooms;[9] however, in the contemporary era this display involves large expanses of open space in the domestic setting.^ During the opening day of the exhibition, a group of eight factory workers occupied a row of work tables displayed in the main gallery space.
  • Eurozine - The return of the red bourgeoisie - Nada Prlja, Stefan Szczelkun An interview with Nada Prlja 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.eurozine.com [Source type: General]

Bourgeois mentality

Much of the earlier mentality can be viewed through the two key spatial construct: the shop display, and the sitting room.[9] In English, the term "sitting room culture" is a synonym for bourgeois mentality. .This cultural view is associated with Victorianism, in particular the repression of emotional and sexual desires, and the construction of an intensely regulated social space where the key desirable personal trait is propriety.^ Personal rules, Afanasiy Stepanovich, are not a desire to rearrange the universe, but an attempt to organize, the best one can, the space closest to you.
  • Articles & Commentary 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.aei.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the cardinal question of the party, in connection with the leading factor of the revolution and the construction of socialism, there is a community of political, ideological and organizational views between Browderism and Titoism.
  • MIA REFERENCE SECTION - Enver Hoxha: 'Eurocommunism' is Anti-Communism - pt. 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout association's heyday, Greeley feuded with fellow Whigs who viewed socialism as a dangerous threat to the traditional family, property, and social stability.
  • Adam-Max Tuchinsky | "The Bourgeoisie Will Fall and Fall Forever": The New-York Tribune, the 1848 French Revolution, and American Social Democratic Discourse | The Journal of American History, 92.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sociologists such as Paula LeMasters have identified progressive values such as respect for non-conformity, self-direction, autonomy, gender equality and openness to innovation as middle class values in child-raising.^ Beats also value interracial romances and social contact with Negroes as a supreme way of rejecting the middle-class mess.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As has often been noted, the black bourgeoisie take a very positive stand toward middle-class values and are very critical of average Negroes.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "They may say, and this is true to a certain extent, that the new middle class, the functionaries of the state, the private administrators, etc., etc., can form such a base.
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

[10][11] .Many values identified as belonging to the middle classes may be related to the needs of middle-class professions.^ Beats also value interracial romances and social contact with Negroes as a supreme way of rejecting the middle-class mess.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As has often been noted, the black bourgeoisie take a very positive stand toward middle-class values and are very critical of average Negroes.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "They may say, and this is true to a certain extent, that the new middle class, the functionaries of the state, the private administrators, etc., etc., can form such a base.
  • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

.Self-control, advanced expertise, as well as innovation are commonly important to succeeding in middle-class occupations.^ But, he argued, because Fourierism embraced "gradualism" and the "pursuit of wealth" and, most important, accommodated such middle-class values as property and self-fulfillment, it "dissolved" all too "easily into acceptance and then affirmation....
  • Adam-Max Tuchinsky | "The Bourgeoisie Will Fall and Fall Forever": The New-York Tribune, the 1848 French Revolution, and American Social Democratic Discourse | The Journal of American History, 92.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the spirit of the latter, he argues that the free-labor ideal legitimated middle-class values by naturalizing self-interest and the outcomes of market competition.
  • Adam-Max Tuchinsky | "The Bourgeoisie Will Fall and Fall Forever": The New-York Tribune, the 1848 French Revolution, and American Social Democratic Discourse | The Journal of American History, 92.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The national movement for independence succeeded because of the mass participation of the working class, the peasantry, the middle classes, the intelligentsia, women, students and youth.
  • Party Programme | Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Representation in literature and film

A famous early satire of certain aspects of the bourgeois personality is Le Bourgeois gentilhomme by Molière.[12] .The bourgeois is a recurring subject matter for Buñuel especially evident in the films Le charme discret de la bourgeoisie and the surrealist masterpiece L'Âge d'Or.^ Les protestations de beaucoup de lecteurs, nanmoins, le fora arrter la publication de ces articles et de les retirer de la circulation.
  • Joseph Staline - Mensonges trotskistes et capitalistes sur l'URSS de Staline 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.communisme-bolchevisme.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Les rsultats des recherches historiques contredisaient compltement les estimations de la presse libre au sujet du nombre de morts et de prisonniers.
  • Joseph Staline - Mensonges trotskistes et capitalistes sur l'URSS de Staline 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.communisme-bolchevisme.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Winston Churchill, le 21 dcembre 1959, l'occasion du 80 me anniversaire de la naissance de Staline : .
  • Joseph Staline - Mensonges trotskistes et capitalistes sur l'URSS de Staline 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.communisme-bolchevisme.net [Source type: Academic]

[13][14]

Use as a pejorative

Within the socialist movement

.In the rhetoric of some Communist parties, "bourgeois" is sometimes used as a pejorative, and those who are perceived to collaborate with the bourgeoisie are called its lackeys.^ Such a tendency to collaborate with the state machine is not primarily a consequence of the existence within such governments of bourgeois parties.
  • International Socialism: The workers' government 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.isj.org.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • International Socialism: The workers' government 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.isj.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who are Communists in name but new bourgeois elements in reality exhibit the features of the decadent and moribund bourgeoisie as a whole.
  • All-Round Dictatorship Over the Bourgeoisie 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marx2mao.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This abandonment of internationalism signified the death of the Communist International and the passage of its parties into the camp of the bourgeoisie.
  • Manifesto of the 1st Congress of the ICC, 1975 | International Communist Current 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC en.internationalism.org [Source type: Original source]

.Socialists, especially Marxists, have multiple uses for the term: the original meaning, the social class of capitalists, and the pejorative.^ As in Russia so in Spain, the theory of the Socialists is that since the capitalists are too weak to establish their rule, the workers must help them to establish capitalism, since capitalism must come before Socialism.
  • The Spanish Revolution at the Crossroads 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Browder denied the class character of the capitalist state, and considered American society a unified and harmonious society, without social antagonisms, a society in which understanding and class co-operation prevailed.
  • MIA REFERENCE SECTION - Enver Hoxha: 'Eurocommunism' is Anti-Communism - pt. 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Party pledged to work for the establishment of a socialist society in India, free from class exploitation and social oppression.
  • Party Programme | Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Something or someone is described as bourgeois it generally lacks authenticity, is superficial, and/or is counterrevolutionary.^ And in a semicolony, where lack of true sovereignty generates economic national slavery and thus extreme social injustice, this program does not sound "bourgeois".
  • Exchanges on Nehru, the Indian bourgeoisie, and socialism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marxmail.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Within the United States

.In the United States—outside of Marxism and anarchism[15]—the word bourgeois often refers to the social stereotype of the middle classes.^ Beats also value interracial romances and social contact with Negroes as a supreme way of rejecting the middle-class mess.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like Jews, middle-class Negroes are on trial, and although their guilt is often a foregone conclusion, both may attempt to improve their position and to conform more than anyone else, for if they do not they are guilty of being stereotyped Jews or N egroes.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this way, Browder went over from open revision of the fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism and the revolutionary strategy and tactics to the organizational liquidation of the communist movement in the United States of America.
  • MIA REFERENCE SECTION - Enver Hoxha: 'Eurocommunism' is Anti-Communism - pt. 1 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC eprints.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is associated with consumerist lifestyles often emphasising conspicuous consumption and material status.^ For the black bourgeoisie jobs are seen as an important means of obtaining status and a means to bigger and better conspicuous consumption.
  • The White Negro 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary etymology
  2. ^ The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850, Works of Karl Marx, 1850
  3. ^ A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, T. B. Bottomore, Page 272 states this distinction was made in Marx's work Capital III
  4. ^ Christopher Hill, Century of Revolutions
  5. ^ a b c Bellassai, Sandro. (2005). The masculine mystique: anti-modernism and virility in fascist Italy. Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 3, 314-335.
  6. ^ Marino, Giuseppe Carlo (1983) L'autarchia della cultura. Intellettuali e fascismo negli anni trenta, Roma: Editori Riuniti.
  7. ^ a b Paravese, Roberto (1939) 'Bonifica antiborghese', in Edgardo Sulis (ed.), Processo alla borghesia, Roma: Edizioni Roma, pp.51 - 70.
  8. ^ Emile Zola, Les Rougon-Macquart cycle, 1871-1893.
  9. ^ a b Walter Benjamin. Halles project.
  10. ^ a b Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing. 0-534-50520-1. 
  11. ^ Williams, Brian; Stacey C. Sawyer, Carl M. Wahlstrom (2005). Marriages, Families & Intimate Relationships. Boston, MA: Pearson. 0-205-36674-0. 
  12. ^ Molière, ed. Warren 1899
  13. ^ see this review by Roger Ebert
  14. ^ Kinder (ed.) 1999
  15. ^ Howard Zinn. People's history of the United States.
  16. ^ Beckert, S 2001 "Propertied of Different Kind: Bourgeoisie and Lower Middle Class in the Nineteenth-Century United States" in Burton J. Bledstein and Robert D. Johnston (eds.), The Middling Sorts: Explorations in the History of the American Middle Class Routledge.

Further reading

  • Burton J. Bledstein and Robert D. Johnston (eds.), .The Middling Sorts: Explorations in the History of the American Middle Class.^ For some decades about 80 percent of Americans have identified themselves as "middle class" (such consciousness of course may be false).
    • Reason Magazine - Bourgeois Blues 11 September 2009 12:24 UTC www.reason.com [Source type: Original source]

    Routledge. .2001.
  • David Brooks, Bobos In Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There.^ "They may say, and this is true to a certain extent, that the new middle class, the functionaries of the state, the private administrators, etc., etc., can form such a base.
    • Trotsky and the struggle against fascism 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.trotsky.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ How will workers prevent the former bourgeoisie (or a new ruling class) from coming back to power?
    • Just da FAQ's 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC communism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The bourgeoisie would be extremely partisan in how they presented it and would be sure to link it up with their contemporary class interests.
    • Chapter 4 * Perestroika: A Marxist Critique [Sam Marcy] 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.workers.org [Source type: Original source]

    Simon & Schuster. 2001.
  • Frank J. Byrne, Becoming Bourgeois: Merchant Culture in the South, 1820-1865. University Press of Kentucky. 2006.
  • Margaret R. Hunt, The Middling Sort: Commerce, Gender, and the Family in England, 1680-1780. .University of California Press.^ Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press.
    • The Knight Errant's Ideology of Adventure - Boje and Luhman 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC business.nmsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1996.
  • Marsha Kinder (ed.), Luis Buñuel's The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie. .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    • The Knight Errant's Ideology of Adventure - Boje and Luhman 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC business.nmsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    1999.
  • David Lockwood, Cronies or Capitalists? .The Russian Bourgeoisie and the Bourgeois Revolution from 1850 to 1917.^ All the theories concerning the nature of the Russian revolution which had been advanced by Marxists before 1917 were necessarily of a more or less general and conditional nature.
    • Chapter Four - The Theory of The Permanent Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "To the Russian intellectual...," Lenin wrote toward the end of 1904, "it always seems that to recognize our revolution as bourgeois means to make it colorless, to humiliate it, to vulgarize it.
    • Three Concepts of the Russian Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.internationalist.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The February revolution of 1917 was not the proletariat fighting the bourgeois nation as foreseen by Trotsky, but the overthrow of Tsarism by a bourgeois revolution carried through by the workers and peasants, that Lenin had foreseen.
    • Chapter Four - The Theory of The Permanent Revolution 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

    Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 2009.
  • Molière, and Frederick Morris Warren (ed.), Molière's Le bourgeois gentilhomme. D.C. Heath & Co. .1899. (full text)
  • Jerrold Seigel, Bohemian Paris: Culture, Politics, and the Boundaries of Bourgeois Life, 1830-1930.^ For, as we have seen, the mode of life that flows logically from the nature of capitalism necessarily implies an anti-nationalist orientation in politics and culture.
    • Joseph Schumpeter: State, Imperialism and Capitalism (1919) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.panarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With its mass base, popular appeal and its alternative policies to the bourgeois-landlord regime, the Communist movement is a significant force in the country's political and social life.
    • Party Programme | Communist Party of India (Marxist) 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.cpim.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For Whig communal self-culture, see Howe, Political Culture of the American Whigs , 1–42; James Parton, Life of Horace Greeley (Boston, 1872), 171.
    • Adam-Max Tuchinsky | "The Bourgeoisie Will Fall and Fall Forever": The New-York Tribune, the 1848 French Revolution, and American Social Democratic Discourse | The Journal of American History, 92.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Johns Hopkins University Press. 1999.
  • Robert W. Stern, Changing India: Bourgeois Revolution on the Subcontinent. .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    • Erik Olin Wright 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC uregina.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    • The Knight Errant's Ideology of Adventure - Boje and Luhman 10 February 2010 12:34 UTC business.nmsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    2nd edition, 2003.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also bourgeoisie

German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Bourgeoisie
Wikipedia de

Noun

Bourgeoisie f. (genitive Bourgeoisie, no plural)
  1. bourgeoisie

Synonyms

  • Bürgertum

Simple English

Bourgeoisie [1] means a social class of people who are in the upper or merchant class. Their status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth and not from aristocratic origin. The term is widely used in many non-English speaking countries as an approximate equivalent of middle class. [2]

Bourgeoisie is a French word that was borrowed directly into English in the sense that is explained above. The French word bourgeois comes from the Old French word burgeis, meaning "an inhabitant of a town" (cf. Middle English burgeis, Middle Dutch burgher and German Bürger). The Old French word burgeis comes from bourg, meaning a market town or medieval village, itself derived from Late Latin burgus, meaning "fortress"[3]

Contents

Other pages

The English Wiktionary has a dictionary definition (meanings of a word) for:

Notes

  1. RP /ˌbɔː.ʒwɑːˈzi/, GA /ˌbu(r).ʒwɑˈzi/
  2. Mostly the word has negative connotations. One thinks of undeserved wealth, or lifestyles, tastes, and opinions that are not accepted by the speaker. Therefore it is rare for people in the English speaking world to identify themselves as members of the bourgeoisie, although many self-identify as middle class.
  3. American Heritage Dictionary etymology

References

  • Hal Draper, Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution, Vol. 2: The Politics of Social Classes. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979.
  • Ralph Miliband, Class and class power in contemporary capitalism, in: Stanislaw Kozyr-Kowalski and Jacek Tittenbrun, On Social Differentiation. A Contribution to the Critique of Marxist Ideology, Part 2. Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University Press, 1992, pp. 7-62.
  • Ernest Mandel, Social differentiation in capitalist and postcapitalist societies, in: Stanislaw Kozyr-Kowalski and Jacek Tittenbrun, On Social Differentiation. A Contribution to the Critique of Marxist Ideology, Part 2. Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University Press, 1992, pp. 63-91.
  • Erik Olin Wright et al., The Debate on Classes. London: Verso, 1989.
  • Anthony Giddens, The Class Structure of the Advanced societies, 1981.

Other websites



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bourgeoisie, which are similar to those in the above article.








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