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Bowdoin College

Seal of Bowdoin College
Motto Ut Aquila Versus Caelum
Motto in English As an eagle towards the sky
Established June 24, 1794
Type Private, Non-profit
Religious affiliation Nonsectarian, originally Congregationalist
Endowment $688.5 million[1]
President Barry Mills
Faculty 206[2]
Undergraduates 1,723[2]
Postgraduates Some postdoctoral students and visiting scholars
Location Brunswick, MaineMaine, USAUnited States
Coordinates: 43°54′32″N 69°57′44″W / 43.90875°N 69.96231°W / 43.90875; -69.96231
Campus Suburban
Sports 30 varsity teams, 6 club teams
Colors White     , Black     
Mascot Polar Bear
Athletics NCAA Division III
Affiliations NESCAC
Website www.bowdoin.edu
Bowdoin-wordmark.jpg

Bowdoin College (boʊdɪn), founded in 1794, is a private liberal arts college located in the coastal New England town of Brunswick, Maine. The college enrolls approximately 1,700 students and has been coeducational since 1971. It offers 33 majors and 4 additional minors; the academic year consists of two four-course semesters, and the student-faculty ratio is 9:1. As of 2009, U.S. News and World Report ranks Bowdoin sixth among liberal arts colleges in the United States.[3]

Brunswick is located on the shores of Casco Bay and the Androscoggin River, 12 miles north of Freeport, Maine, and 28 miles north of Portland, Maine. In addition to its Brunswick campus, Bowdoin also operates a 118 acre (478,000 m²) coastal studies center on Orrs Island in Harpswell, Maine[4] and a 200 acre (809,000 m²) scientific field station on Kent Island, [5] in the Bay of Fundy.

Contents

History

The Founding & 19th Century

Bowdoin College was chartered in 1794 by Governor Samuel Adams of Massachusetts, of which Maine was then a district, and was named for former Massachusetts governor James Bowdoin, whose son James Bowdoin III was an early benefactor. At the time of its founding, it was the easternmost college in the United States. In 1806, 13 Harvard graduates opted to accept a Bowdoin degree along with their diploma from Harvard[6].

Bowdoin came into its own in the 1820s, a decade in which Maine became an independent state as a result of the Missouri Compromise and the college graduated a number of its most famous alumni, including future United States President Franklin Pierce, class of 1824, and writers Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, both of whom graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1825.

Bowdoin's connections to the Civil War have prompted some to quip that the war "began and ended" in Brunswick. Harriet Beecher Stowe, "the little lady who started this big war," started writing her influential anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin in Bowdoin's Appleton Hall while her husband was teaching at the College, and General Joshua Chamberlain, a Bowdoin alumnus and professor, was responsible for receiving the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House in 1865. Chamberlain, a Medal of Honor recipient who later served as governor of Maine, adjutant-general of Maine, and president of Bowdoin, distinguished himself at Gettysburg, where he led the 20th Maine in its valiant defense of Little Round Top.

Campus circa 1910, showing (at left) Hubbard Hall, 1903, designed by Henry Vaughan, and the Walker Art Building, 1894, designed by Charles Follen McKim

There are other Civil War connections as well: General Oliver Otis Howard, class of 1850, led the Freedmen's Bureau after the war and later founded Howard University; Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew, class of 1837, was responsible for the formation of the famous 54th Massachusetts; and William P. Fessenden 1823 and Hugh McCulloch 1827 both served as Secretary of the Treasury during the Lincoln Administration. After the war, Bowdoin contended that a higher percentage of its alumni fought in the war than that of any other college in the North—and not only for the Union. In fact, Confederate President Jefferson Davis held an honorary degree from Bowdoin, which he received while United States Secretary of War in 1858.

In addition to Howard and Chamberlain, a third Bowdoin alumnus attained general officer rank in the Civil War: Brevet Brigadier General Ellis Spear, Class of 1858, who was Chamberlain's second-in-command at Gettysburg.

20th Century

Although Bowdoin's Medical School of Maine closed its doors in 1920, the College is currently known for its particularly strong programs in the natural sciences. One illustrious alumnus was Dr. Augustus Stinchfield, who received his MD in 1868, who went on to become one of the co-founders of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. He was asked to join the two Mayo brother's private medical practice in 1892. In 1915, the remaining partners in the then private practice embraced the creation of the non-profit Mayo Clinic. While perhaps Bowdoin's better-known alumnus in the sciences is the controversial entomologist-turned-sexologist Alfred Kinsey, class of 1916, the College's reputation in this area was cemented in large part by the Arctic explorations of Admiral Robert E. Peary, class of 1877, and Donald B. MacMillan, class of 1898. Peary led the first successful expedition to the North Pole in 1908, and MacMillan, a member of Peary's crew, became famous in his own right as he explored Greenland, Baffin Island and Labrador in the schooner Bowdoin between 1908 and 1954. Bowdoin's Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum [7] honors the two explorers, and the College's mascot, the Polar Bear, was chosen in 1913 to honor MacMillan, who donated a particularly large specimen to his alma mater in 1917.

Italianate residence of the college's president in circa 1920

Following in the footsteps of President Pierce and House Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed, class of 1860, several 20th century Bowdoin graduates have assumed prominent positions in national government while representing the Pine Tree State. Wallace H. White, Jr., class of 1899, served as Senate Minority Leader from 1944–1947 and Senate Majority Leader from 1947–1949; Joseph Finnegan, class of 1923, later served as Senator for MA, George J. Mitchell, class of 1954, served as Senate Majority Leader from 1989-1995 before assuming a prominent role in the Northern Ireland peace process; and William Cohen, class of 1962, spent twenty-five years in the House and Senate before being appointed Secretary of Defense in the Clinton Administration. Maine's First Congressional District has been christened the "Bowdoin seat" due to its long occupation by graduates of the College. A total of eleven Bowdoin graduates have ascended to the Maine governorship, and three graduates of the College currently sit on the state's highest court.

Over the last several decades, Bowdoin College has modernized dramatically. In 1970, it became one of a very limited number of selective schools to make the SAT optional in the admissions process, and in 1971, after nearly 180 years as a small men's college, Bowdoin admitted its first class of women. Bowdoin also abolished fraternities in the late 1990s, replacing them with a system of college-owned social houses.

Recent Developments

20.8 million dollar renovations of the Bowdoin College Museum of Art (originally built in 1811), completed in 2007.

Recent developments include the 2001 appointment of Barry Mills, class of 1972, as the fifth alumnus president of the College, and a 2002 decision by the faculty to change the grading system so that it incorporated plus and minus grades.

On January 18, 2008, Bowdoin announced that it would be eliminating loans for all new and current students receiving financial aid, replacing those loans with grants beginning with the 2008-2009 academic year.[8] It will be joining a very small group of schools who have chosen the "no-loans" policy, among them Harvard University, Yale University and Princeton University, all of whom have very large endowments. President Mills stated, "Some see a calling in such vital but often low paying fields such as teaching or social work. With significant debt at graduation, some students will undoubtedly be forced to make career or education choices not on the basis of their talents, interests, and promise in a particular field, but rather on their capacity to repay student loans. As an institution devoted to the common good, Bowdoin must consider the fairness of such a result."[8]

Academics

Bowdoin's archetypal Hubbard Hall, once the College's library

Bowdoin is consistently ranked among the top ten liberal arts colleges in the United States by U.S. News and World Report. In the 2009 edition of the rankings, Bowdoin ranks sixth, behind Williams, Amherst, Swarthmore, Wellesley, and Middlebury. In other years it has ranked as high as fourth.[9] In 2006, Newsweek described Bowdoin as a "New Ivy," one of a number of elite colleges and universities outside of the Ivy League.[10] Bowdoin is also part of the SAT optional movement for undergraduate admission. As of April 2008, Bowdoin was the first college to be named "School of the Year" by College Prowler [11].

Bowdoin offers majors in African Studies, Anthropology, Art History, Asian Studies, Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Classics, Computer Science, Economics, English, Environmental Studies, Finance, French, Gender and Women's Studies, Geology, German, Government and Legal Studies, History, Latin American Studies, Mathematics, Music, Neuroscience, Philosophy, Physics and Astronomy, Psychology, Religion, Russian, Sociology, Spanish, and Visual Arts. In addition, the college offers minors in Dance, Education Studies, Film Studies, Gay and Lesbian Studies, Teaching, and Theater.

The Government & Legal Studies Department, whose prominent professors include Allen Springer, Paul Franco, Richard E. Morgan, Chris Potholm and Jean M. Yarbrough, was ranked the top small college political science program in the world by researchers at the London School of Economics in 2003.[12] Government & Legal Studies was the most popular major for every graduating class between 2000 and 2009.

Student body

In 2009, Bowdoin's overall acceptance rate was 18.5% — lower than both Williams[13] and Middlebury Colleges[14] — making it the second most selective NESCAC school, and one of the most selective colleges in the country. 89% of enrolling students are in the top 10% of their high school graduating class.[15]

Coles Tower, constructed in 1964 as the "Senior Center", is the second tallest building in Maine.

The April 17th, 2008 edition of the Economist noted Bowdoin in an article on university admissions: "So-called “almost-Ivies” such as Bowdoin and Middlebury also saw record low admission rates this year (18% each). It is now as hard to get into Bowdoin, says the college's admissions director, as it was to get into Princeton in the 1970s." Although Bowdoin does not require the SAT in admissions, all students must submit a score upon matriculation. The middle 50% SAT range for the verbal and math sections of the SAT is 660-750 and 660-750, respectively — numbers only of those submitting scores during the admissions process. The middle 50% ACT range is 30-33.[16]

While a significant portion of the student body hails from New England — including nearly 25% from Massachusetts and 10% from Maine — recent classes have drawn from an increasingly national pool. Although Bowdoin once had a reputation for homogeneity (both ethnically and socioeconomically), a diversity campaign has increased the percentage of students of color in recent classes to more than 31%.[17] In fact, admission of minorities goes back at least as far as John Brown Russwurm 1826, Bowdoin's first African-American college graduate, and the third African-American graduate of any American college.[18]

Many students apply for financial aid, and around 85% of those who apply receive aid. Bowdoin is a need-blind and a no-loans institution. Students applying to the school are evaluated independently of their financial situations, the college meets 100% of demonstrated financial need, and the college replaces loans with grants for all students on financial aid to lift the burden of significant student debt upon graduation.[19]

Student life

Recalling his days at Bowdoin in a recent interview, Professor Richard E. Morgan '59 described student life at the then-all-male school as "monastic," and noted that "the only things to do were either work or drink." (This is corroborated by the Official Preppy Handbook, which in 1980 ranked Bowdoin the number two drinking school in the country, behind Dartmouth.) These days, Morgan observed, the College offers a far broader array of recreational opportunities: "If we could have looked forward in time to Bowdoin's standard of living today, we would have been astounded." [20]

Thorne Dining Hall, one of Bowdoin's dining halls. Its dining services consistently rank as first or second in the nation.

Bowdoin is particularly well-known for its dining services, which the Princeton Review has ranked first in three of the last four years, including the 2006-2007 school year.[21] The College has two major dining halls, one of which was renovated in the late 1990s, and every academic year begins with a lobster bake outside Farley Fieldhouse. Bowdoin also does well in other lifestyle categories; in 2004 it ranked 10th in dorm quality and 14th for quality of life.[22] In April 2008, College Prowler, a publishing company for guidebooks on top colleges and universities in the United States and written by students, named Bowdoin College its "School of the Year" citing excellence in academics, safety and security, housing and dining.

Since abolishing Greek fraternities in the late 1990s, Bowdoin has switched to a system in which entering students are assigned a "college house" affiliation correlating with their first-year dormitory. While six houses were originally established, following the construction of two new dorms, two were added effective in the fall of 2007, bringing the total to eight: Ladd (affiliated with Osher Hall), Baxter (West), Quinby (Appleton), MacMillan (Coleman), Howell (Hyde), Helmreich (Maine), Reed (Moore), and Burnett (Winthrop). The college houses are physical buildings around campus which host parties and other events throughout the year. Those students who choose not to live in their affiliated house retain their affiliation and are considered members throughout their Bowdoin career. Before the fraternity system was abolished in the 1990s, all the Bowdoin fraternities were co-educational (except for one unrecognized sorority and two unrecognized all-male fraternities).

Bowdoin's chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, which was founded in 1825, is the nation's sixth oldest. Among those who have been inducted to the Maine Alpha chapter as undergraduates include Nathaniel Hawthorne (1825), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1825), Robert E. Peary (1877), Owen Brewster (1909), Harold Hitz Burton (1909), Paul Douglas (1913), Alfred Kinsey (1916), Thomas R. Pickering (1953), and Lawrence B. Lindsey (1976).

Postgraduate placement

In 2003, the Wall Street Journal ranked Bowdoin College among the top twenty colleges and universities in the United States based on the percentage of alums who attend a "top five" graduate program in business, law or medicine — ahead of a number of highly ranked universities, including Rice, Northwestern, Johns Hopkins, Caltech, Virginia, Notre Dame, William & Mary, Georgetown University, UC Berkeley, Tufts and Washington University.[23]

In 2006, Bowdoin was named a "Top Producer of Fulbright Awards for American Students" by the Institute of International Education.[24]

According to payscale.com, alumni of Bowdoin College have a mid-career median salary of $106,000, making it the 29th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $52,700 ranked 55th in the same peer group.[25]

Student organizations

Media and Publications

Bowdoin's student newspaper, The Bowdoin Orient, is the oldest continuously published college weekly in the United States.[26] The Orient was named the second best tabloid-sized college weekly at a Collegiate Associated Press conference in March 2007.[27] Additionally, the school's literary magazine, The Quill, has been published since 1897. The College's radio station, WBOR, has been in operation since 1951. In 1999, The Bowdoin Cable Network was formed, producing a weekly newscast and several student created shows per semester.[28]

A Cappella

Of the six a cappella groups on campus, the Meddiebempsters and Longfellows are all-male, Miscellania and Bella Mafia are all-female, and BOKA and Ursus Verses are co-ed. The Meddiebempsters, the oldest of Bowdoin's six a cappella groups and the third oldest collegiate a cappella group in the nation, were well known after World War II for performing at numerous USO shows in Europe[29].

Other

The largest student group on campus is the Outing Club, which leads canoeing, kayaking, rafting, camping and backpacking trips throughout Maine [30]. One of the school's two historic rival literary societies, the Peucinian Society, has recently been revitalized and has featured such people as Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Joshua Chamberlain amongst its former members.

Campus

Museums on Bowdoin's campus include the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, the Joshua L. Chamberlain Museum, and the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum. Notable Buildings include Massachusetts Hall, Hubbard Hall, the Parker Cleaveland House and the Harriet Beecher Stowe House.

The main Quad of Bowdoin College in the middle of autumn.

Athletics

Hubbard Grandstand in 1912, built in 1904 at Whittier Field

The Bowdoin Polar Bears compete in the NCAA Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC), which also includes Amherst, Conn College, Hamilton, Middlebury, Trinity, Tufts, Wesleyan, Williams, and Maine rivals Bates and Colby in the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium (CBB). The College's official color is white, though black is traditionally employed as a complement.

Bowdoin offers thirty varsity teams, including men's teams in baseball, basketball, cross country, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, Nordic skiing, sailing, soccer, squash, swimming and diving, tennis, and track and field, and women's teams in field hockey, golf, ice hockey, lacrosse, Nordic skiing, sailing, soccer, softball, squash, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, volleyball, and rugby. Men's ice hockey is the most popular spectator sport, with hundreds of students turning out for games against arch-rival Colby. In 2004, Bowdoin became the second college in the United States to elevate the women's rugby team to varsity status. While technically still varsity, the women's rugby team competes in New England Rugby Football Union, rather than NESCAC. The sailing team, which competes in the New England Intercollegiate Sailing Association (NEISA) is co-ed and was considered in 2006 to be one of the top 20 sailing teams in the nation by Sailing World magazine. There are also intercollegiate and club teams in men's and women's fencing, men's and women's rowing, men's rugby, water polo, men's volleyball and men's and women's Ultimate. Recent NESCAC champions include men's tennis (2008), men's cross country (2001, 2002), women's basketball (2001–2007), women's ice hockey (2002, 2004) and women's field hockey (2001,2005, 2006, 2007); recent NCAA tournament appearances include women's basketball (Elite Eight, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007; Final Four, 2004), men's rugby (sweet 16, 2001), women's ice hockey (Final Four, 2002, 2003; Elite Eight, 2004, 2005), and women's field hockey (Final Four, 2005, 2006). Bowdoin College has won two NCAA Division III Championships—both in women's field hockey; in 2007, defeating Middlebury College in the finals and in 2008, defeating Tufts University.

Facilities

Bowdoin's athletic facilities combine modern & high-tech buildings with old traditions, and have been historically used as training grounds for Olympic athletes. In addition to several outdoor athletic fields, the College's athletic facilities include:

  • Sidney J. Watson Arena, one of the finest ice hockey arenas of Division III hockey, with a 2,300 spectator capacity and LEED certification.
  • Buck Center for Health and Fitness, a 15.2 million dollar LEED-certified facility with a 40-foot climbing wall and spaces for meditation, yoga, and tai chi classes.
  • Hubbard Grandstand and Whittier Field, a 9,000 spectator football field and additional six-lane all weather track renovated in 2005 by Nike corporation.
  • Leroy Greason Pool, a state of the art swimming pool that can accommodate up to 16 lanes of lap swimming.
  • Lubin Family Squash Center, which features seven state-of-art squash courts with moveable sidewalls.
  • a rowing boathouse, several basketball courts, indoor and outdoor tennis courts, and a several new athletic fields including a new astroturf field.

Sustainability

According to its Environmental Mission Statement, Bowdoin College "shall seek to encourage conservation, recycling, and other sustainable practices in its daily decision making processes, and shall take into account, in the operations of the College, all appropriate economic, environmental, and social concerns." [31] Between 2002 and 2008, Bowdoin College decreased its CO2 emissions by 40%. It achieved that reduction by switching from #6 to #2 oil in its heating plant, reducing the campus set heating point from 72 to 68 degrees, and by adhering to its own Green Design Standards in renovations.[32] In addition, Bowdoin runs a single stream recycling program, and its dining services department has begun composting food waste and unbleached paper napkins.[33] Bowdoin received an overall grade of "B" for its sustainability efforts on the College Sustainability Report Card 2009 published by the Sustainable Endowments Institute.[34]

Alma Mater

Bowdoin's Alma Mater is "Raise Songs to Bowdoin." Originally penned by Kenneth C.M. Sills, class of 1901, new lyrics have since been added by Anthony Antolini '63, who serves on the faculty of the College's Department of Music. Singers punch the air on the word 'friend' in both verses.

Class of 1875 Gateway
Raise songs to Bowdoin, praise her fame,
And sound abroad her glorious name;
To Bowdoin, Bowdoin lift your song,
And may the music echo long
O'er whispering pines and campus fair
With sturdy might filling the air.
Bowdoin, from birth, our nurturer and friend
To thee we pledge our love again, again.
 
While now amid thy halls we stay
And breathe thy spirit day by day,
Oh may we thus full worthy be
To march in that proud company
Of poets, leaders and each one
Who brings thee fame by deeds well done.
Bowdoin, from birth, our nurturer and friend
To thee we pledge our love again, again.

The original lyrics for the first verse were as follows. The changed phrases have been highlighted.

Rise sons of Bowdoin, praise her fame,
And sing aloud her glorious name;
To Bowdoin, Bowdoin lift your song,
And may the music echo long
O'er whispering pines and campus fair
With sturdy might filling the air.
Bowdoin, from birth, the nurturer of men,
To thee we pledge our love again, again.
Bowdoin College during the winter semester.

Bowdoin alumni

Silhouettes of the Class of 1825, including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Jonathan Cilley and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Famous Bowdoin graduates include:

Bowdoin graduates have led all three branches of the federal government, including both houses of Congress. Franklin Pierce (1826) was America's fourteenth President; Melville Weston Fuller (1853) served as Chief Justice of the United States; Thomas Brackett Reed (1860) was twice elected Speaker of the House of Representatives; and Wallace H. White, Jr. (1899) and George J. Mitchell (1954) both served as Majority Leader of the United States Senate.

Bowdoin in literature and film

  • Fanshawe (1828) — This Nathaniel Hawthorne novel, published only three years after his graduation from Bowdoin, is set at a small college which bears a striking resemblance to his alma mater.
  • "Morituri Salutamus" (1875) — Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote this poem for his 50th Bowdoin reunion, and recited it on that occasion. One famous passage recalls the College: "O ye familiar scenes,—ye groves of pine / That once were mine and are no longer mine, — / Thou river, widening through the meadows green / To the vast sea, so near and yet unseen, — / Ye halls, in whose seclusion and repose / Phantoms of fame, like exhalations, rose / And vanished,—we who are about to die / Salute you; earth and air and sea and sky / And the Imperial Sun that scatters down / His sovereign splendors upon grove and town." [35]
  • Broken Arrow (1950) — This Golden Globe Award-winning film starring James Stewart featured Oliver Otis Howard, class of 1850 as a prominent character.
  • M*A*S*H (1968, 1970) — In both the book and film, the character Hawkeye Pierce is said to have played football at Androscoggin College, a fictional school based on the alma mater of author H. Richard Hornberger, Bowdoin class of 1945.
  • The Killer Angels (1975) — This historical novel by Michael Shaara, which won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction, focuses in large part on the role played by Bowdoin graduate and professor Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain at the Battle of Gettysburg.
  • Glory (1989) — Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew, class of 1837 is a character in this film about the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
  • Gettysburg (1993) — In this movie based on The Killer Angels, there is at least one reference to character Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain as having had an academic career at Bowdoin, which he put aside to lead the 20th Maine.
  • The Man Without a Face (1993) — Parts of this movie were filmed on campus.
  • The Cider House Rules (1994) — In this John Irving novel, a Bowdoin-educated doctor forges a Bowdoin diploma for a young protégé.
  • The Sopranos (1999) — In an episode entitled "College," Tony Soprano and his daughter Meadow visit Colby, where Tony kills a former associate, and Bowdoin, where he reads an inscription paraphrasing Hawthorne's warning that "no man, for any considerable period, can wear one face to himself, and another to the multitude, without finally getting bewildered as to which may be true." [36] Tony's daughter is ultimately rejected from Bowdoin and ends up attending Columbia. The episode was not filmed on Bowdoin's campus, but was filmed at Drew University in New Jersey.
  • Where the Heart Is (2000) — The main character in this movie falls in love with a Bowdoin man. The film, which has a scene "at Bowdoin," is based on a novel of the same name.
  • Gods and Generals (2003) — This film, based on a historical novel of the same name, is a prequel to Gettysburg.
  • Kinsey (2004) — Biopic about sex researcher Alfred Kinsey, class of 1916, includes a scene in which his father opposes his decision to transfer to Bowdoin.
  • The Aviator (2004) — 1909 Bowdoin grad and U.S. Senator Owen Brewster plays a major role in this Howard Hughes biopic.
  • Grey's Anatomy (2008) — Dr. Derek "McDreamy" Shepherd is canonically a Bowdoin grad.
  • Catamount, A North Country Thriller (2008) — A thriller that takes place in the North Country of New Hampshire. Two fly fishermen who fall victim to a rogue mountain lion were roommates at Bowdoin. The novel was written by Rick Davidson, class of 1969.
  • Mad Men (2009) — In the season three episode entitled "Wee Small Hours," a Bowdoin t-shirt is worn by character Suzanne Farrell.
  • The Good Wife (2009) — In the first scene of an episode entitled "Crash" a character introduces a new assistant, listing "Bowdoin 2005, summa cum laude" among her credentials.

Presidents of Bowdoin

  1. Joseph McKeen (1802–07)
  2. Jesse Appleton (1809–19)
  3. William Allen (1820–39)
  4. Leonard Woods (1839–66)
  5. Samuel Harris (1867–71)
  6. Joshua Chamberlain (1871–83)
  7. William DeWitt Hyde (1885–1917)
  8. Kenneth C.M. Sills (1918–52)
  9. James S. Coles (1952–67)
  10. Roger Howell, Jr. (1969–78)
  11. Willard F. Enteman (1978–80)
  12. A. LeRoy Greason (1981–90)
  13. Robert Hazard Edwards (1990–2000)
  14. Barry Mills (2001–present)

External links

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b Bowdoin Institutional Research
  3. ^ Liberal Arts College Rankings. America's Best Colleges 2009. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved on 2009-05-18.
  4. ^ The Bowdoin Coastal Studies Center
  5. ^ A description of Kent Island.
  6. ^ Bowdoin Traditions and History
  7. ^ Website of the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum
  8. ^ a b Bowdoin Eliminates Student Loans While Vowing to Maintain its Com, Campus News (Bowdoin)
  9. ^ US News and World Report rankings for liberal arts colleges.
  10. ^ Newsweek Web Exclusive (Aug 21, 2006). "25 New Ivies -- The nation's elite colleges these days include more than Harvard, Yale and Princeton. Why? It's the tough competition for all the top students. That means a range of schools are getting fresh bragging rights.". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/39401. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  11. ^ College Prowler names Bowdoin College “School of the Year”
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ http://www.williams.edu/admin/news/releases/997/
  14. ^ http://www.alacrastore.com/research/s-and-p-credit-research-Middlebury_College_VT_s_Series_2009_Bonds_Rated_AA_On_Solid_Financial_Operations-767908
  15. ^ http://collegeprowler.com/bowdoin-college/statistics/
  16. ^ [3]
  17. ^ College Search
  18. ^ Charles C. Calhoun, A Small College in Maine: 200 Years of Bowdoin, published by the College in 1993, ISBN 091-6606-25-2
  19. ^ http://www.bowdoin.edu/news/archives/1bowdoincampus/004745.shtml
  20. ^ Orient article interviewing Professor Morgan
  21. ^ Princeton Review dining rankings
  22. ^ Princeton Review dorm rankings
  23. ^ Wall Street Journal rankings of undergraduate institutions' success at sending students to top-five graduate programs.
  24. ^ Bowdoin Orient article on Bowdoin producing Fulbright Scholars.
  25. ^ "Do Elite Colleges Produce the Best-Paid Graduates?", New York Times, July 20, 2009
  26. ^ Maine League of Historical Societies and Museums (1970). Doris A. Isaacson. ed. Maine: A Guide 'Down East'. Rockland, Me: Courier-Gazette, Inc.. pp. 177. 
  27. ^ Bowdoin Brief: Orient takes national newspaper award
  28. ^ [4]
  29. ^ Race, Peter (1987). Meddiebempsters History: "And may the music echo long..." 1937-1987. pp. 17–30. ML200.8.B73 M44 1987. 
  30. ^ Bowdoin Outing Club website.
  31. ^ "Environmental Mission Statement". Bowdoin College. http://www.bowdoin.edu/sustainability/sustainable-planning/mission-statement.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  32. ^ "What We're Doing". Bowdoin College. http://www.bowdoin.edu/sustainability/emissions/actions.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  33. ^ "Waste Management". Bowdoin College. http://www.bowdoin.edu/sustainability/sustainable-planning/waste-management.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  34. ^ http://www.greenreportcard.org/report-card-2009/schools/bowdoin-college
  35. ^ Longfellow poem written for his 50th Bowdoin reunion.
  36. ^ Synopsis of the Sopranos episode in which Tony Soprano and his daughter visit Bowdoin.
  • "House Linked to 'Uncle Tom's Cabin'". (June 16, 1968), NY Times.
  • "Bowdoin Seeks End of R.O.T.C. Credits". (Feb 16, 1969), NY Times.
  • "Bowdoin Drops College Boards" (Jan 19, 1970), NY Times.
  • "Bowdoin to Become Coed" (Sept 29, 1970), NY Times.
  • Moran, Malcolm (Aug 6, 1984). "First Women's Olympic Marathon to Benoit". NY Times.
  • "Favorite Elective at Bowdoin: Food". (Feb 21, 1988), NY Times.







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