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Bowling Green State University
Established 1910
Type Public
Endowment $102.5 million[1]
President Dr. Carol A. Cartwright
Faculty 918
Staff 1915
Students 22,882[2]
Undergraduates 19,855
Postgraduates 3,027
Location Bowling Green, Ohio, United States
Campus 1338 acres (5.4 km²)
Colors Orange & Brown            
Nickname Falcons
Mascot Freddie and Frieda Falcon

Bowling Green State University (BGSU) is a public four-year institution located in Bowling Green, Ohio, USA, about 20 miles south of Toledo, Ohio on I-75. The institution was granted a charter in 1910 by the State of Ohio as part of the Lowry bill, which also established Kent State University. For the 2007–2008 academic year BGSU has a student body of around 23,000, of which 3,000 are graduate students.[3]

BGSU offers over 200 undergraduate programs,[4] as well as various master's and doctoral degrees, including the nation's first Ph.D. program in photochemical science, one of the first undergraduate programs in neuroscience, the first masters degree in Organizational Development and the first executive MBA program in the State of Ohio.[citation needed] In addition, BGSU has accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission (HLC) of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools to offer full degree programs online.

BGSU remains a leader in teacher preparation institution. Students enrolled in the College of Education and Human Development may choose majors from among several teacher licensure areas, including early childhood (grades Pre-K to 3), Middle Childhood (grades 4 - 9), Adolescent-Young Adult (grades 7 - 12), Special Education (grades K - 12), and foreign language (grades K - 12). In addition, BGSU continues to have one of the top three programs in the United States for Industrial & Organizational Psychology per U.S. News and World Report.[citation needed]

Housed within the School of Communication Studies is the national and international award-winning Falcon Forensics, Speech and Debate Team, established in 1919. BGSU is home of the national literary journal Mid-American Review, which publishes new works of fiction, poetry, and nonfiction, and which also sponsors Winter Wheat: The Mid-American Review Festival of Writing each November.




Early History

Originally known as Bowling Green State Normal School[5], it was one of several institutions established in the Progressive Era to meet demands for training and professional development of teachers. Classes began in 1914, enrolling 304 students primarily from Ohio and a few from Michigan and New York who were taught by the original faculty of 21. The school graduated 35 certified teachers in 1915, the same year that the campus’ first two buildings, University Hall and Williams Hall, opened their doors. Two years later the first baccalaureate degrees were awarded. Setting the pace for teacher education in Ohio with four-year degree programs, Bowling Green State Normal School achieved the status of college in 1929 and expanded its curriculum through the addition of the College of Liberal Arts, now known as the College of Arts and Sciences.[6][7]

On October 28, 1927, the nickname “Falcons” was originated by the sports editor of the Daily Sentinel-Tribune. He thought the Falcon was fitting because it was indicative of a powerful bird that was small in stature, its coloring represented the Bowling Green school colors, and like the athlete, the falcon is a bird that goes through a long period of training before battle. At the time the school was still named Bowling Green State Normal College, Common nicknames, used by sports writers throughout the state, were “B.G. Normals,” “Teachers,” and the “B.G. Pedagogues" [8]

The addition of graduate programs and the College of Business Administration helped to raise the status of the institution from the college level when it was designated Bowling Green State University in 1935. With continued growth, the Graduate School was formed, and BGSU awarded its first doctoral degree in English in 1963[9].

Recent History

The 1970s represented a hallmark of progress with the addition of three new colleges. The College of Health and Human Services opened in 1973[10] to offer degree programs in a variety of health and community services. In 1975, the School of Music was elevated to the College of Musical Arts[11] and the Graduate School to the Graduate College[12]. Adding further evidence of the University’s ability to address increasingly complex socioeconomic trends and offer expanding career opportunities, the School of Technology was given college status in 1985 and renamed the College of Technology[13]. The founding tradition of teacher preparation is now maintained in the university's College of Education and Human Development[14].[15]

Presidents of BGSU have included Homer B. Williams (1912–1937), R.E. Offenhauer (1937–1938), Frank J. Prout (1938–1951), Ralph W. McDonald (1951–1961), Ralph G. Harshman (1961–1963), William Travers Jerome III (1963–1970), Hollis A. Moore, Jr. (1970–1981), Michael R. Ferrari (Interim) (1981–1982), Paul J. Olscamp (1982–1995), Sidney A. Ribeau (1995–2008), and Carol A. Cartwright (2008-Present).


The campus (41°22′47″N 83°37′49″W / 41.37972°N 83.63028°W / 41.37972; -83.63028) is located on the Northeast side of Bowling Green, Ohio. The campus is laid out in a rectangle roughly one and a half miles long and a mile wide. The main portion of campus is bordered by Wooster Street to the South, Thurstin Ave to the West, Poe Rd to the North, and I-75 to the East. The university also owns a number of other buildings and parking lots throughout Bowling Green and the Bowling Green Research Enterprise Park just east of I-75. Ridge Street and East Merry Street run East-West through campus and Mercer Street bisects campus on a North-South axis. Oak Grove Cemetery is located in the North-central portion of campus.

Old Campus

Mosley Hall built in 1916

The Old Campus is located in the Southeast corner of campus. The part of campus has vast green space with many large trees and a number of historic buildings built in the early 1900s and original to the university. The area of campus has many large trees. A number of administrative services occupy the buildings in old campus as well as classroom space. Although not part of the historic section, Founders Hall, a large residence hall is located on the Southwest corner of campus.

Science Research Complex

The science research complex is located on northwest side of campus. The buildings of the science research complex are much newer, built in the mid 1960s. They include the Mathematical Science Building, Life Science, Psychology Building, Physical Science Building, and Technology Building(engineering), are all located in this portion of BGSU. In addition The Geology, Chemistry, and Earth Science Departments are located in Overman Hall on the Northwest portion of campus[16]. Two large residence hall occupy the Western edge of campus. The Offenhauer Towers consist of a 10 story tower and an 11 story tower. They are the two largest buildings on campus. The McDonald Quadrangle houses over 1,300 students[17].

Student Union Oval

Fresh snow covers the lawn near the Student Union.

The Bowen-Thompson Student Union opened in 2002 and is located in the West-central part of campus. It house a number of places to eat: Falcon's Nest food court,Starbucks and Wendy's, and The Black Swamp Pub, an on-campus pub. Other facilities include the Campus Bookstore, a convenience store, an on-campus post office, computer labs, meeting rooms, a 250-seat movie theater, ball rooms, and student lounges[18].

Campus Center, Arts Village, South Campus, and East Campus

Jerome Library on BGSU's main Campus

Central Campus is made up of a number of large lecture halls and classroom buildings. One of the most prominent is the 95,000 square-foot Olscamp Hall, which contains 28 classrooms and lecture halls capable of seating a total of 2,000 students. Other large lecture halls include, The Business Administration Building, The Education Building, and Eppler Complex, home to the Sport Management department. Anderson Arena is a 5,000-seat arena and the home for BGSU Men's and Women's basketball and women's gymnastics and volleyball. memorial hall is connected to Anderson and houses the ROTC programs[19]. Jerome Library is the main library on campus and the second tallest building at nine stories.

University Health Services is located along Ridge Street and the BGSU campus police station as well as parking and traffic is located near the intersection of Wooster Street and College Ave on the southern edge of campus. Kohl Hall and Rodgers Quadrangle are two residence halls located along Wooster Street in the central portion of campus. Located along Wooster Street is a complex of individual on-campus fraternity houses as well as a few sorority houses, although the majority of Sorority living spaces are near the Student Union on the western edge of BG.

Arts programs are located to the East of Anderson Arena and Jerome Library in the East-central portion of campus. Fine Arts Center is home to the School of Art and houses classroom, studio, and workshop spaces, art galleries, and faculty offices. Moore Musical Arts Center is located along Ridge and is the home to the College of Musical Arts. Moore includes classrooms, recording studios, rehearsal halls, and the MidAmerican Center for Contemporary Music[20]. The Centerpiece for the Arts portion of campus will be the Wolfe Center. The modern facility will house the Department of Theatre and Film. The 93,000 square foot building will include classrooms, rehearsal space, performance/theater space, as well as design and office space. Construction will begin in April 2009 with completion set for 2011[21].

Athletic and Recreation Facilities

BGSU vs. U. of Michigan hockey game

The majority of Athletic and recreation facilities are located on the Eastern half of campus along and to the East of Mercer Street. The Student Recreation Center is a 185,000 square foot facility that includes two swimming pools, four weight rooms, a cardio room, an elevated running track, an Activity Center for aerobics and a large Sports Center which accommodates basketball, tennis, volleyball, and badminton and other sports. The Perry Field House is a 127,000 sq. ft athletic facility with a 100 x 60 indoor synthetic turf, four batting cages, and a 200-meter track encircling four courts for basketball, volleyball, or tennis. The BGSU Ice Arena is a 5,000-seat ice hockey arena located across Mercer Road from the Rec Center. The Ice Arena is used by a number of BG sports and clubs as well as public uses. In addition to the main ice surface the arena also includes a curling rink, a figure skating studio, a skate shop. Doyt Perry Stadium is a 28,600 seat college football stadium located on the Eastern edge of campus along I-75.


The campus fare-free bus transit system that runs throughout campus and Bowling Green, Ohio. The system is made up of three routes (not including the special shortened Sunday-only route). The main route includes major stops on campus and buses run every 10 minutes. Off Campus North Route runs from the bus stop at the Student Union North through The Science Research Complex before leaving campus and running North to the Woodland Mall before heading back southeast with stops at major apartment complexes and downtown Bowling Green. The Off Campus South Route is the third route and runs through the southern portion of campus and the neighborhoods South of the university[22]. In addition to the bus system, the university also runs a free ride service for students to go to destinations off campus.

BGSU Firelands Campus

Extension services are integral to the University’s rich curricular texture and rural history. First offered in 1946 in the Sandusky, Ohio, area and later expanded to serve Erie, Huron, Lorain, and Ottawa counties, extension programs established a foundation for BGSU Firelands[23], the University's regional campus. Located near the shores of Lake Erie in Huron, Ohio, and about 60 miles east of Bowling Green, Ohio, This college was established in 1968, when the first building (now Foundation Hall) at the Huron location was opened. BGSU Firelands is home to approximately 2,000 students.[24] The college grants mostly 2-year degrees, but students are able to complete 4-year degrees in Early Childhood Education, Criminal Justice, Business Administration, Liberal Studies, Visual Communication Technology, Applied Health Science, Nursing, and Advanced Tech Ed.

In 2003, the Cedar Point Center, BGSU’s most technologically sophisticated facility, opened its doors on the Firelands campus to serve constituents of the University and the community. For instance, The Women's Center, founded in 1998, provides a place for the community to gather and serves as a resource center. Many student organizations meet at the center. The center hosts brown bag lunches once a month where all are welcome to join in informal discussions on topics of broad interest.

Academics and organization

University rankings (overall)

USNWR National University[25] NR
WM National University[26] 152

Colleges and schools at BGSU include College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business Administration, College of Education and Human Development, Graduate College, College of Health and Human Services, College of Musical Arts, and College of Technology. [27]

For 2009, BGSU was not ranked by U.S. News & World Report, being deemed a Tier 3 university.[28]


Sports at
Bowling Green
Cross County
Ice Hockey
Cross County
Track & Field

Bowling Green's sports teams are called the Falcons. The Falcons participate in NCAA Division I (Division I-A for football) and in the Mid-American Conference and the Central Collegiate Hockey Association. BGSU is one of only 13 universities in the country offering NCAA division I-A football, division I men's and women's basketball, and division I ice hockey. The Falcons have won three conference championships in a row in women's basketball in 2005, 2006, and 2007. In advancing to the NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship each of those years, the Falcons lost in the first round in 2005 and 2006, but then won their first two games on their way to the "Sweet Sixteen" in 2007. The women's soccer team won the conference crown in 2005.

The Falcons' main rivals are the Rockets of the University of Toledo. Separated by just 20 miles on Interstate 75, the two schools celebrate a heated rivalry in several sports. The most well-known of these games is the Battle of I-75, a football game held each year in which the winner takes home the Peace Pipe, an American Indian peace pipe placed upon a wood tablet. The 1984 Falcons hockey team defeated the University of Minnesota-Duluth, in the longest college hockey championship game in history, to win the NCAA National Championship. Former BGSU head footbal coach Doyt L. Perry lead the Falcons to a NCAA Football National Title in the year of 1959. Former BGSU head football coach Urban Meyer went on to great success at the University of Florida, earning two BCS National Championship Game appearances in a three year span, winning in both 2007 and 2009. Former BGSU head hockey coach Jerry York went on to become the winningest active coach in NCAA hockey and win two NCAA National Championships at Boston College in 2001 and 2008 after his first at Bowling Green in 1984.

In 2008, Bowling Green State University released plans for the new Stroh Center, which is intended to be the new home for BGSU basketball and volleyball. [29]

Another important entity of BGSU Athletics is the musical contributions from the 220 member Falcon Marching Band and the BGSU Athletic Band. They perform at most, if not all, "home" athletic events.


Facility Activity/Sport
Anderson Arena Men's and Women's Basketball
Women's Volleyball
Women's Gymnastics
BGSU Ice Arena Men's Ice hockey
Figure skating
Synchronized skating
Cochrane Stadium Men's and Women's Soccer
Cooper Pool Women's Swimming and Diving
Doyt Perry Stadium Football
Eppler Complex Fencing Dance
Forrest Creason Golf Course Men's and Women's Golf
Keefe Tennis Courts Women's Tennis
Kobacker Hall Coeducational Fine Art Presentations/Concerts
Meserve Softball Field Softball
Sebo Athletic Center Athletic Training and Athletic Department offices
Stroh Center (Under Construction) Men's and Women's Basketball
Women's Volleyball
Warren E. Steller Field Baseball
Whittaker Track Track and Field
Wolfe Center (Under Construction) Performing Arts

Student life

The Student Union

For the fourth consecutive year in 2007, BGSU was listed for its residential living/learning communities in U.S. News & World Report's “America's Best Colleges” under “Programs to Look For,” a section of the guide that notes “outstanding examples of academic programs believed to lead to student success."[30] In BGSU's residential learning communities, students with similar interests and goals live and study together. In the academically based communities students work closely with faculty members who teach classes and have offices right in the residence hall.

BGSU's Career Center provides comprehensive career services to its students and alumni including career planning, on- and off-campus student employment, co-op and internships opportunities, and post-graduate and graduate school planning. The following services are provided: (1) individual consultations to discuss academic and career planning or job search strategies, (2) career development courses including UNIV 131-Career & Life Planning, UNIV 141-Effective Strategies in the Workplace, and UNIV 141-Career Implementation, (3) career assessments that measure interests, personality characteristics and preferences for various work environments, (4) the Career Resource Library, (5) on-campus recruiting, (6) job fairs, (7) workshops related to interviewing, resume writing, job search techniques, and networking, (8)WorkNet, an online job listing software, and (9) career related publications. The Career Center can help students develop career goals, identify academic and experiential program that achieve these goals, and help students gain employment in their chosen field.

GeoJourney is a nine-week field trip/camping trip/road trip across the United States to many national parks and monuments for a full semester of college credit. The course content taught as a part of the GeoJourney field program includes geology, environmental studies and Native American studies. "[31] In 2004 the first GeoJourney trip went to 24 states 30 national parks and covered over 14,500 miles across the United States. Since then the GeoJourney program has run every year and taken 24 students around the country for BGSU course credit.

From its beginning in 1999 as a student run organization under the University Activities Organization, the BGSU Outdoor Program "[32] has evolved into a valuable additional to campus life as a part of the Department of Recreational Sports. The OP, as it is often referred, offers outdoor trips, an indoor climbing wall, team-building, and an outdoor equipment rental center to BGSU students, faculty, staff and surrounding community members. In August 2008 the BGSU Outdoor Program introduced the Freshman Wilderness Experience. This program couples a week-long backpacking trip on the Appalachian Trail with a monthly class to assist students in transitioning from high school to college life.

Bowling Green hosts an annual event for three days in February similar to other winter cities to celebrate winter, snow, and cold weather activities. Winterfest in Bowling Green centers around the rich ice skating and ice hockey traditions of the town[33]. Winterfest events are held all over Bowling Green, and on and off campus. Many of the on campus events are held at the BGSU Ice Arena, curling, skating, BGSU ice hockey and figure skating exhibitions are just a few of the events held during the weekend on campus[34].

Greek Life

Bowling Green hosts 40 social fraternities and sororities. Greek student comprise 12% of all undergraduate students at the university. Fraternities and sororities are apart of one of four councils: Inter-Fraternity Council (IFC), Panhellenic Council (Panhel), National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC), or Greek Independent Board (GIB). IFC members include: Alpha Sigma Phi, Alpha Tau Omega, Delta Chi, Delta Tau Delta, Kappa Alpha Order, Kappa Sigma, Lambda Chi Alpha, Phi Delta Theta, Phi Gamma Delta, Phi Kappa Psi, Phi Kappa Tau, Pi Kappa Alpha, Pi Kappa Phi, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma Nu, Sigma Phi Epsilon, & Tau Kappa Epsilon. Panhel members include: Alpha Chi Omega, Alpha Omicron Pi, Alpha Phi, Alpha Xi Delta, Chi Omega, Delta Gamma, Delta Zeta, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Delta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, Phi Mu, Pi Beta Phi, Sigma Kappa. NPHC members include eight of the Divine nine: Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority, Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, Delta Sigma Theta sorority, Iota Phi Theta fraternity, Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity, Omega Psi Phi fraternity, Phi Beta Sigma fraternity, & Zeta Phi Beta sorority. Social members of GIB include: Delta Xi Phi Multicultural Sorority Inc., Sigma Lambda Beta fraternity, Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia fraternity, and Sigma Lambda Gamma sorority.

Student media publications

  • The student operated, independent daily newspaper The BG News, which has been published since 1920. The BG News's web portal BG Views was launched in 2009.
  • The university's independent, student operated yearbook was first published in 1918 as the Bee Gee. Publication stopped after 1918 for 6 years and in 1924 the yearbook resumed production under a new name, The KEY and was published every year since 1924 as the only comprehensive record of students, activities, and events for a given year. In 2008, the yearbook was replaced with a magazine, The Key Magazine. This is the only magazine sponsored by BGSU and fully run by BGSU students and supported by local advertising only.
  • The Department of Telecommunications ran student operated, independent, non-commercial, FCC-licensed college radio station is WBGU 88.1 FM and the student operated, commercial radio station is WFAL Falcon Radio. BGSU is also home to BG24 News, a student-run television newscast airing live at 5:30pm three days a week.
  • Bowling Green Radio News Organization (BGRNO)-BGRNO provides up-to-the minute radio news coverage Monday-Friday on WBGU-FM AND WFAL-AM. Students write, produce, and report live on the air the latest local and national news, sports and weather stories.
  • Bowling Green Radio Sports Organization (BGRSO)-BGRSO broadcasts BGSU's football, hockey, men's and women's basketball, and baseball games on WBGU-FM and WFAL-AM. WBGU-FM is also the flagship station for women's basketball and hockey.
  • Mid-American Review (MAR), published through the BGSU Department of English since 1980, is nationally recognized for publishing contemporary fiction, poetry, nonfiction, and translations. Preceding MAR was Itinerary, a magazine that was established by editor Robert Early in 1972 to publish the works of BGSU's MFA students. However, the students tired of publishing nothing but their own work and suggested broadening into an international publication. Itinerary was retired in 1980 when the first issue of MAR was released. No BGSU student work is included in MAR (with the exception of occasional reviews of newly released literary titles).
  • Prairie Margins is a national undergraduate literary journal published by students in the Creative Writing Program at BGSU. The annual journal features literary work by both BGSU students and undergraduate creative writers from other institutions.

Traditions and events

  • BGSU's official spirit crew is called SICSIC which began in 1946.[35] New members are chosen during the end of their freshman year in order to replace that year's graduating seniors. SICSIC members are always masked and their identities are not revealed until the last home basketball game of their senior year, where they are unmasked in front of the student body. [36]
  • BGSU's official mascots are Freddie and Frieda Falcon. Freddie began appearing at athletic events in 1950. Frieda first appeared in 1966, but officially re-emerged in 1980.[37]
  • Buckeye Boys State - Bowling Green is the current home for the American Legion Buckeye Boys State, which gathers high-school students from all over Ohio for a nine-day program. At Buckeye Boys State, the students operate a full government modeled after the Government of Ohio. Buckeye Boys State is held each June.


BGSU has seen many of its former students go on to local and national prominence. This includes many athletes that have excelled at the collegiate and professional levels, including: Scott Hamilton, Mike McCullough, Nate Thurmond,[38] Rob Blake,[39] Orel Hershiser,[40] Ken Morrow,[41] Don Nehlen,[42] Jordan Sigalet,[43] and George McPhee.[44] In addition, many state politicians have graduated from Bowling Green, including current Ohio congressman Tim Ryan,[45] former Israeli ambassador Daniel Ayalon,[46] and current Ohio state senators Randy Gardner[47] and Kevin Coughlin.[48] Other notable alumni include author James Baldwin, actor Tim Conway,[49] ESPN sportscasters Jay Crawford[50] and Jason Jackson, CBS News Correspondent Steve Hartman,[51] TCU Chancellor Dr. Victor J. Boschini[52] and Adobe Systems President and CEO Shantanu Narayen.[53] Also William Easterly, an economics professor at NYU who is known for his radical aid ideas ((cite:


  1. ^ As of June 30, 2009. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2009 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2008 to FY 2009" (PDF). 2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Retrieved March 5, 2010. 
  2. ^ "About BGSU". Bowling Green State University. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  3. ^ "Headcount Enrollment by Class Level". Bowling Green State University Office of Institutional Research. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  4. ^ "BGSYou at a Glance". Bowling Green State University Office of Admissions. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  5. ^ Bowling Green State University - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society
  6. ^ of Arts and Sciences
  7. ^][
  8. ^ Bgsu:: Student Life:: Bgsu History And Traditions
  9. ^ Bgsu:: Student Life:: Bgsu History And Traditions
  10. ^ BGSU: College of Health and Human Services
  11. ^ BGSU:: College of Musical Arts Home:: College of Musical Arts
  12. ^ BGSU: Graduate College - Welcome!
  13. ^ BGSU:: Technology:: College of Technology
  14. ^ Bowling Green State University
  15. ^] [
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ BGSU: Firelands College
  24. ^ "Headcount Enrollment by Campus". Bowling Green State University Office of Institutional Research. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  25. ^ "National Universities Rankings". America's Best Colleges 2009. U.S. News & World Report. 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  26. ^ "The Washington Monthly National University Rankings" (PDF). The Washington Monthly. 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  27. ^ "BGSU Colleges". Retrieved 2009-14-12. 
  28. ^
  29. ^ "University reveals plans for new Stroh Center". BGNews. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  30. ^ "America's Best Colleges 2008: Learning Communities". US News and World Report. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  31. ^ "GeoJourney". GeoJourney. 
  32. ^ "BGSU Outdoor Program". Bowling Green State University. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^ "SICSIC". Bowling Green State University. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  36. ^ "The Spirit Crew". Sic Sic. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  37. ^ "History of Freddie and Frieda Falcon". Bowling Green State University. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  38. ^ "Nate Thurmond Bio". National Basketball Association. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  39. ^ "Information". Rob Blake Fansite. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  40. ^ "Biography of Orel Hershiser". Spiritus Temporis. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  41. ^ "Ken Morrow". Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  42. ^ "Lifetime Members". Varsity BG Club. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  43. ^ "Jordan Sigalet". Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  44. ^ "George McPhee - Vice President and Gernal Manager". Washington Capitals. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  45. ^ "Biography". Congressman Tim Ryan. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  46. ^ "Daniel Ayalon Biography". Embassy of Israel Briefing. 2002-07-30. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  47. ^ "Representative Randall L. Gardner". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  48. ^ "About Kevin Coughlin". Kevin Coughlin - Ohio's State Senator, 27th District. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  49. ^ "Tim Conway Biography". Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  50. ^ "Jay Crawford - Bio". ESPN Media Zone. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  51. ^ "Steve Hartman 'Assignment America' Correspondent". CBS News. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  52. ^ "About the Chancellor". Texas Christian University - Office of the Chancellor. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  53. ^ "Executive Profiles-Shantanu Narayen". Adobe Systems. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 

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