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Brüno

Promotional film poster
Directed by Larry Charles
Produced by Sacha Baron Cohen
Jay Roach
Dan Mazer
Jonah Hill
Starring Sacha Baron Cohen
Gustaf Hammarsten
With cameos by:
Chibundu Orukwowu
Chigozie Orukwowu
Josh Meyers
Michelle McLaren
Clifford Bañagale
Music by Erran Baron Cohen
Cinematography Anthony Hardwick
Wolfgang Held
Editing by Scott Davids
James Thomas
Studio Media Rights Capital
Distributed by Universal Pictures (most territories)
Columbia Pictures (select territories)
Release date(s) July 10, 2009
Running time 81 minutes[1]
Brüno: Snipped
79 minutes
Country United Kingdom
United States
Language English
German
Budget $42,000,000 (est.)[2]
Gross revenue $136,933,838 [3]

Brüno (pronounced as Bruno) is a 2009 British/American mockumentary comedy film directed by Larry Charles. Sacha Baron Cohen, who also produced and co-wrote the movie, stars as the flamboyant gay Austrian fashion journalist Brüno. This film is the third based on characters from Da Ali G Show, following Ali G Indahouse and Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan. A cut version of the film was also released, Bruno: Snipped, running two and a half minutes shorter to meet the demands of 15-17-year-old teenage viewers.

Contents

Plot

The film opens with the song "Nessaja" to a modified Universal Studios logo with an umlaut above the letter U. The main character, gay Austrian fashion reporter Brüno, is introduced. He is fired from his own television show, Funkyzeit mit Brüno (Funkytime with Brüno) after disrupting a Milan Fashion week catwalk, and his lover Diesel (Tom Compton) leaves him for another man. Accompanied by his assistant's assistant Lutz (Gustaf Hammarsten), he travels to the United States to become "the biggest Austrian superstar since Hitler".

Brüno unsuccessfully attempts an acting career as an extra on NBC's Medium. He then produces a celebrity interview pilot, showing him dancing erotically, criticizing Jamie-Lynn Spears' fetus with reality TV star Brittny Gastineau, unsuccessfully stalking and attempting to "interview" actor Harrison Ford, and closing with a close-up penis being swung around. A focus group audience who reviewed the pilot hate it, calling it "worse than cancer". Other advice suggested creating a sex tape, so Brüno arranges an interview with Ron Paul (unwittingly "played" by himself) whom Brüno mistakes for drag queen RuPaul. While waiting in a hotel bed room for a staged technical problem to be fixed, Brüno hits on Paul, who leaves angrily and calls him "queer as blazes".

Brüno consults a spiritualist (Gary Williams) to contact the deceased Rob Pilatus of Milli Vanilli for advice, only to perform homosexual mime sex acts on the invisible Pilatus. He consults charity PR consultants Nicole and Suzanne DeFosset to select a world problem to maximize his fame, choosing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. He flies to Jerusalem to interview former Mossad agent Yossi Alpher and Palestinian politician Ghassan Khatib and confuses hummus and Hamas. In another interview with Israeli and Palestinian professors he sings his own "Dove of Peace" while forcing the two to caress each other's hands. He also meets with Ayman Abu Aita, subtitled as "terrorist group leader, Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades" in a location described as a Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon (actually a hotel restaurant near Bethlehem), where he hopes to be kidnapped.[4][5] Brüno insults Abu Aita's hair then suggests that "King Osama" looks like a dirty wizard or a homeless Santa Claus. Abu Aita's translator orders Brüno to leave immediately.

Brüno interviews parents of child models, asking them if their children would be ready to lose a lot of weight, undergo liposuction, be near "antiquated heavy machinery" or "amateur science", or be dressed in Nazi uniforms. Later on a TV talk show hosted by Richard Bey, he shows the African American audience a black baby named O.J., whom he acquired in Africa by "swapping him" for a U2 Product Red iPod. He shows photographs of the boy covered with bees, on a crucifix, and in a jacuzzi next to adults in a 69 position. The audience is appalled and social services take the baby away from Brüno, driving him to depression, later found at a diner gorging on high-carb junk food committing "carbicide". Lutz carries him back to a hotel room. After a night of sex, they awake to find they are trapped in a bondage mechanism, unable to find the key. They call a hotel engineer for help, and are asked to leave. After accosting a group of anti-gay protesters from the Westboro Baptist Church while still in bondage gear and boarding a bus, Brüno and Lutz finally remove their equipment at a police station. Lutz says he loves Brüno but Brüno tells him he does not love him, having been influenced by "carb goggles" and so Lutz leaves Brüno.

After realizing that the biggest names in Hollywood are straight (citing Tom Cruise, Kevin Spacey and John Travolta), Brüno consults two Christian gay converters to help him become heterosexual. He attempts "straight" activities, such as joining the National Guard, going hunting in Alabama, learning taekwondo, and attending a swingers party at which he is whipped by a dominatrix (Michelle McLaren). Each of these attempts end miserably due to Bruno's failure to keep his gay traits hidden, but he vows that he will become straight.

Eight months later, a now-heterosexual Brüno, under the alias "Straight Dave", hosts a cage-fight match in Arkansas, Straight Dave's Man Slammin' Maxout. Lutz appears at the event and calls Brüno a faggot. The two fight, only to rekindle their love, making out and stripping in front of the aghast spectators who throw objects into the cage, among them plastic cups and a metal folding chair. The clip gets International press, so the now-famous Brüno attempts to marry Lutz and gets O.J. back in exchange for a MacBook Pro. Brüno records a charity song, "Dove of Peace", featuring Bono, Elton John, Chris Martin, Snoop Dogg, Sting and Slash at Abbey Road Studios.

Deleted scenes

The trailers for the film shown in the US included a scene in which Brüno shops for clothing at Sears, telling the sales clerk "You might find this very hard to believe, but I'm gay" in which the clerk responds "Okay" while maintaining an awkward posture. [6]

The DVD includes extended and deleted scenes, such as Bruno interviewing Pete Rose, trying to make the sex tape with John R. Bolton and Tom Ridge, becoming a reporter at NBC affiliate KETK-TV in Tyler, Texas, and attending a Proposition 8 rally.

Michael Jackson incident

Following the sudden death of Michael Jackson on June 25, 2009, a scene from Brüno was hastily removed from the film before its Hollywood premiere later that evening. The scene involved Brüno tricking La Toya Jackson into an interview where he asked her to take a seat on hunched over Latino workers substituting for chairs and invited her to eat sushi from the torso of a naked man. Brüno then asked La Toya to let him look at her mobile phone in order to get her brother Michael's phone number. The scene was later confirmed to be removed from the film permanently,[7] although the scene can be viewed on the DVD release and a similar scene involving Paula Abdul did make it into the final cut of the film.

Production

The theme song from the beginning of the film is "Nessaja" from German electronic dance music band Scooter, who also contributed to the theme to the Bruno segments on Da Ali G Show.

During Baron Cohen's Middle East interview of Alpher and Khatib, he repeatedly conflated Hamas and hummus and feigned belief that the conflict was between Jews and Hindus. The two interviewees (who had received a fee to appear on camera), convinced by the elaborate production, were confused by the questions but generally went along, even when asked by Baron Cohen to hold hands.[8]

On June 6, 2008, a riot ensued at a stunt orchestrated by Baron Cohen and the producers of the film as they staged a "Blue Collar Brawlin'" in Fort Smith, Arkansas. Patrons were lured to an event billed as cage fighting, held at a convention center, by print and Craigslist advertisements, promoting "hot girls", $1 beer, and $5 admission. Approximately 1500 people attended the event and were greeted by signs that informed them that they were being filmed. No mobile phones, video, or cameras were allowed inside. The acts taking place became homosexual in nature, with Bruno inviting a man up to fight him, who turned out to be Lutz. Celine Dion's "My Heart Will Go On" starts to play and they both start kissing and stripping, the place went wild and people threw chairs and beer at the performers. The performers were Brüno (Baron Cohen) under the ironic gimmick, "Straight Dave" and Gustaf Hammarsten portraying his opponent, Lutz.[9][10]

In July 2008, Tyler, Texas television station KETK-TV was approached by a "documentary film-maker" who was allowed to bring a crew to interview a few members of the staff, including news director Neal Barton and sports director Danny Elzner. They signed releases and expected to be talking about small-town news in the United States. Instead, the interviews conducted by the flamboyant Brüno character drifted towards the topic of homosexuality.[11]

In September 2008, video and photographs were released showing Baron Cohen (in character as Brüno) storming the catwalk with objects on his velcro outfit during an Ágatha Ruiz de la Prada fashion show in Milan, Italy. Baron Cohen managed to walk down the runway for a few moments before lights were dimmed and security guards escorted him away. This occurred after Baron Cohen and his crew were allegedly stopped by security while attempting to enter back-stage at two other shows during Milan's fashion week.[12]

On November 2, 2008, Baron Cohen, dressed as Brüno, and his film crew were spotted at a Los Angeles rally that was in support of California's Proposition 8.[13] Though he appeared to fool most, he was recognized by some at the rally and whisked away before he could be interviewed by reporters.

On November 7, 2008, while appearing as an extra in a scene for the NBC TV series Medium, Baron Cohen interrupted a scene in character and was removed from the set. Production on the episode was shut down temporarily,[14] though actor Miguel Sandoval, who was told that a cousin of NBC executive Ben Silverman would appear as an extra in the jury, has stated that he recognized Baron Cohen and played along, commenting, "It's one thing for Borat to go into an antique store in Georgia or Alabama. For Brüno to go on a TV show, he's among insiders. Most people knew who he was."[15]

The production team also deceived former presidential candidate Ron Paul into being interviewed by Brüno by posing as an Austrian TV reporter looking to question the congressman about economic issues. The interview starts out normally, but after a staged technical error, Brüno suggests he and Dr. Paul wait in the other room while the crew fixes a light. It is there that Brüno turns on music and begins dancing, which Ron Paul ignores at first. However, as soon as Brüno drops his trousers, the congressman storms out of the room. A spokeswoman for Paul commented on the incident. She said Baron Cohen's people were very deceptive in their tactics. At the time, she thought they were "legitimate" but later confessed to some concern. "I'm familiar with his work, so you can imagine how I feel about it," she said. Jesse Benton, senior vice-president of Ron Paul's Campaign for Liberty organization and former campaign spokesman for Paul, said Paul was not familiar with Baron Cohen's program, Da Ali G Show. "If it's not on hard-core financial news, he doesn't follow it," Benton said. But, he added, "It sounds like it's going to be pretty funny."[16]

The scene filmed during a taping of The Richard Bey Show, however, was staged, as Bey was in on the joke, as his daytime show went off the air in 1996. The audience, however, was not made aware of the truth of the production. Similarly unaware of the true nature of the production was Paula Abdul, who, during her interview scene in the film, sat atop a Latino landscaper and was presented with food adorned upon a man lying down on a cart wearing nothing but a "sock" over his penis. Abdul told a radio interviewer that she was "scarred" by the incident.[15]

In July 2009, documents released under the Freedom of Information Act from the Alabama National Guard showed the tactics utilized by the producers of Brüno to gain access to the base.[17] Posing as a German documentary film crew, the producers falsely represented their project, and in e-mails obtained from the National Guard, they stated, "We have been exploring the fabric of America, telling the story of her citizens by visiting the workplace... While in the Huntsville, Alabama area, we would be honored to film with the Alabama National Guard. You are a strong and proud organization that carries out your challenging duties with bravery and class."

Nicole and Suzie DeFosset, the twins behind the public relation firm that Baron Cohen's character ostensibly goes to for advice about Darfur,[18] claimed they realized the filming (they were paid to be on camera) was some kind of prank. They said they did not realize that they were part of the movie until a friend contacted them 11 months after the incident.

Baron Cohen suffered a severe reaction to hydrogen peroxide after bleaching his hair in preparation for the role of Brüno. Although the incident temporarily slowed the production of the movie, he suffered no long-lasting injuries.[19]

The film's credits name many well-known writers who made small contributions of additional material and ideas, including Matt Lucas (former writer for the Channel 4 Ali G Show), Jesse Armstrong and Sam Bain, Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg (former writers for the HBO series), and Patrick Marber.

Release

Though the film was originally slated for a May 15, 2009 release,[20] the release was later moved to July 10, 2009.[21] The film received an early release in Australia, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands,[citation needed] New Zealand,[22] and Iceland[citation needed] on July 8 and in Germany, Greece, Ireland, Serbia,[23] Slovenia,[24] Israel,[citation needed] and Bosnia and Herzegovina[25] on July 9, 2009. The film was then released internationally on July 10.

Ratings and versions

In the U.S. the film was given an NC-17 rating,[26] but it has been released in a re-edited version that got an R rating. It has been suggested that Sacha Baron Cohen and the film's producers expected to have to do this, but submitted the first version anyway to drum up publicity for the film.[27] It is possible that the first version will be released on DVD.[28]

The version originally submitted to the BBFC was 82m 32s in length, and was given an 18 certificate on 17 June 2009. The producers then decided to release a slightly shorter 81m 16s version, which was given an 18 certificate on 3 July 2009. A third version, entitled Brüno: Snipped running to 79m 6s was given a 15 certificate on 14 July 2009.[29] Brüno: Snipped will be released to meet the demand of 15-17 year-olds who want to see the film, and marks the first time two different versions of the same film have been on release simultaneously in the UK.[30]

In Canada, the film received an 18A rating, with Quebec assigning a 16+ classification. In Australia it received an R 18+ prior to release before being scaled down to an MA 15+ rating, while in New Zealand it received an R16 rating. The Irish Film Classification Office gave the film a 16 rating. In the Netherlands the film was first in the cinemas with rating 12, but this was raised to 16 after complaints. In Sweden the film has been rated 11, and in Norway it received a 15 rating by the Norwegian Media Authority.

Brüno's genitals are pixelized in the scene where he walks around nude at the hunting camp, even in versions with the uncensored scene of the swung-around penis, and even though the first-mentioned scene is in less clear night vision style. In sex scenes at the swing party genital areas have been blocked out.

Promotion

In a staged publicity stunt at the 2009 MTV Movie Awards, Sacha Baron Cohen appeared as Brüno to present the award for Best Male Performer. Dressed as a winged angel wearing a jockstrap and white go-go boots, he was suspended on wires and flew over the audience towards the stage, but fell and landed on rapper Eminem, with his head in Eminem's lap and his buttocks in front of Eminem's face. Eminem shouted, "Are you fucking serious?" and, "Get this motherfucker off me!" with the live censors failing to completely block the profanity in his outburst, until they completely cut off the audio (this despite the event being staged).[31] Eminem and his entourage then walked out of the show and did not return. It was later revealed that Eminem and Baron Cohen had staged the incident, rehearsing it beforehand to make sure it went off without a hitch, and leaving Eminem laughing to himself in his hotel room about how the crowd was easily fooled.[32]

Brüno also appeared on The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien where he performed a lap dance for Conan O'Brien and briefly lowered his trousers in front of the host. He approximately did the same routine on French Canal+ show Le Grand Journal, lapdancing and showing his behind to host Michel Denisot, then eventually dropping the trousers to reveal flesh-colored thongs imprinted with a picture of French President Nicolas Sarkozy. On the same day he was parading half-naked, surrounded with dancers, on the Champs-Élysées.

Ban in Ukraine

In Ukraine, the movie was scheduled to premiere on July 23, but on July 14, 2009 the Minister of Culture and Tourism of Ukraine decided to ban the distribution and demonstration of the film in the country.[33] The reason for the prohibition was that nine out of 14 experts of a commission of experts said the film contained "obscene language, homosexual scenes, scenes of sadism, as well as asocial behaviour that could harm public morals."[34] Cohen's previous film, Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan, was also never shown in Ukraine.[33] The "Vinnytsya Human Rights Group" immediately expressed its anger with the ban.[35] An unofficial premiere of the film in Kiev on July 22, 2009 was disrupted by a smoke bomb.[36][37]

DVD release

The film was released on DVD and Blu-Ray on November 17, 2009. Special features include deleted/extended scenes and a commentary by Sacha Baron Cohen and Larry Charles. [38]

Reception

Reviews

Reviews of the premiere screenings of Brüno were generally positive among audiences. Nick Curtis of the Evening Standard wrote that Brüno is "funnier, more offensive, and more outrageous than Borat".[39] The Telegraph gave the film four stars out of four, saying "impossible not to laugh and also praising Brüno's controversial style of comedy."[40] The BBC also gave the film a positive review, saying "Brüno pushes the boundaries further than Borat ever did." However, they also said that "It's not going to be everyone's cup of tea" due to the offensive nature of the film.[41] Roger Ebert awarded the film three and a half out of four stars, and said "Here is a film that is 82 minutes long and doesn't contain 30 boring seconds", although he noted that the film's R rating was "very, very hard".[42]

Andy Lowe from Total Film gave it a lower review, giving it three stars out of five and calling it "as phoney and frustrating as it is funny... The clothes may be new and more fabulous, but the emperor seriously needs to go shopping."[43] A. O. Scott of The New York Times wrote that the film shows "that lampooning homophobia has become an acceptable, almost unavoidable form of homophobic humor," and called the film "a lazy piece of work that panders more than it provokes."[44] At the Movies critic Ben Mankiewicz criticized the film for being too demeaning and playing on homosexual stereotypes. He later named Brüno the worst film at the halfway point of 2009.[45]

The film currently holds a 67% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes and is advertised as a "Certified Fresh Pick".[46] For its opening weekend, it narrowly beat Ice Age 3 (in its second week of release) for the highest gross, in the lowest attended second-weekend-in-July in 18 years.[47]

Reception in Austria

While Borat was highly criticized in Kazakhstan, Austrians were generally positive about Brüno. Some commented that the film places Austria in the spotlight, and that "it might stop people confusing Austria with Australia." Others regarded the humour as "pretty average" and "inoffensive to Austria."[48] Within the Austrian press, reactions have been generally mild and positive, although the film has also been labelled as "repetitive". Christian Fuchs, from the Austrian radio station FM4, writes that "hidden beneath the hard-as-nails satirist Cohen, lies a humanist who enlightens." However, the film has also met some opposition in Austria, due to its portrayal of homosexuality, and basing the country of Austria on motifs such as Josef Fritzl and Hitler,[49] even going as far as calling Mel Gibson "der Führer".

Ayman Abu Aita Lawsuit

On December 2, 2009 it was reported that Ayman Abu Aita, a man portrayed as a terrorist in the movie, is filing a lawsuit of $110 million in libel damages for defamation. Rumors of the lawsuit were speculated since Abu Aita went on a media blitz earlier this year, but the lawsuit was finally confirmed at a press conference on December 2.[50] Included in the lawsuit are David Letterman, NBC Universal, CBS, Worldwide Pants, Gannett Company, and Larry Charles.[51]

Box office

Bruno topped the charts with $33 million in its first week. It has made $60,054,530 in the United States and Canada, and $76,879,308 in the rest of the world, totaling $136,933,838 worldwide.[3]

LGBT

Some LGBT groups have criticized the character as perpetuating LGBT stereotypes while simultaneously enlightening institutionalized homophobia issues.[52] "Sacha Baron Cohen's well-meaning attempt at satire is problematic in many places and outright offensive in others," Rashad Robinson, senior director of media programs for the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) told The New York Times.[53]

Lawsuit

On May 22, 2009, a charity worker at a seniors bingo game sued Baron Cohen, claiming an incident shot for the film at a charity bingo tournament left her disabled.[54] However, the worker later retracted her statement saying the "actor never struck her", but that he "beat her down emotionally to the point she's now confined to a wheelchair."[55] The scene did not make the final cut for the film.

Title

Bruno: Delicious Journeys Through America for the Purpose of Making Heterosexual Males Visibly Uncomfortable in the Presence of a Gay Foreigner in a Mesh T-Shirt was a mock-title proposed by Hollywood-news and gossip blog Defamer[56][57] and mistakenly reported as genuine by a number of sources of film information, including MovieTome, where it is still used in the search results,[58] the Daily Star,[59] The Irish Times, The Boston Globe,[60] and (although no longer) the Internet Movie Database. However, the official Bruno movie website lists the extended 'title' in its metadata.[61]

Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade

Sacha Baron Cohen has "increased his security detail" after the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade threatened his life following the premiere of the film.[62] The group was reacting to the film's comedic interview of a man the film claims is a terrorist associated with Al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade. The man in question is Ayman Abu Aita, who is a Christian and charity worker, who has said he plans to sue, stating that he was misled and that he did not sign release forms for the footage of him which appeared in the film.[63] It was recently announced that Ayman Abu Aita is suing Sacha Baron Cohen for £70 million after receiving death threats.[64]

Notes and references

  1. ^ ""Brüno rated 18 by the BBFC"". BBFC. 2009-07-03. http://www.bbfc.co.uk/website/Classified.nsf/ClassifiedWorks/c3c2314f90328d70802575e800461a4b. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  2. ^ Brüno (2009) - Box office/business
  3. ^ a b "Bruno (2009)". Box Office Mojo. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=bruno.htm. Retrieved August 29, 2009. 
  4. ^ The actual location, according to Abu Aita, was a private section of a popular restaurant at the Everest Hotel in the town of Beit Jala, in a section of the West Bank opposite Bethlehem under Israeli control. Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades is a coalition of Palestinian militias in the West Bank. Abu Aita claims to no longer be affiliated with Al-Aqsa and has threatened legal action against Cohen.
  5. ^ "Ayman Abu Aita, Bruno's 'Terrorist', Threatens Legal Action", July 13, 2009, The Huffington Post
  6. ^ Monkey See Presents: 'Bruno,' The Annotated Trailer
  7. ^ (26 June 2009)Bruno: Michael Jackson-related scene permanently cut from film, Entertainment Weekly
  8. ^ Alpher, Yossi (July 11, 2008), What Kind of Interviewer Confuses Hamas and Hummus?, The Forward
  9. ^ "Bruno" Pranks It Up
  10. ^ Gustaf Hammarsten - stjärna med rätt att tiga
  11. ^ (July 11, 2008), NewsBlues- Brüno Dupes KETK (Subscription Required)
  12. ^ VIDEO: Sacha Baron Cohen Hashim Malik held by police after outrageous stunt on Milan catwalk Mail Online, Accessed September 26, 2008.
  13. ^ (November 04, 2008) Outed at Prop 8 rally Chicago Tribune Accessed July 10, 2009
  14. ^ Ausiello, Michael (November 7, 2008). "Exclusive: Bruno (a.k.a.) Sacha Baron Cohen Disrupts 'Medium'", Entertainment Weekly, Retrieved on November 19, 2008.
  15. ^ a b "Is 'Brüno' REal or Fake?" TV Guide; July 27, 2009; Page 9
  16. ^ Beam, Christopher, (March 16, 2009), Ron Paul's insane cameo in Sacha Baron Cohen's upcoming Bruno movie, Slate.com.
  17. ^ FOIA Documents / Electronic Communications; (Released July 2009) How "Bruno" Gains Access – Documents Reveal Inside Look at Tactics, The Black Vault
  18. ^ admit that they were fooled
  19. ^ Stroud, Carl; Smart, Gordon; (08 May 2009) Rash-a Burnin’ Cohen, The Sun
  20. ^ "Universal sets a date for 'Bruno'." Variety.com. June 17, 2008.
  21. ^ McClintock, Pamela (2009-01-25). "Universal bumps 'Bruno' to July". Variety. RBI. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117999050.html?categoryid=1236&cs=1. Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  22. ^ (Jun 18, 2009), Sneak Peak at Bruno, New Zealand Herald
  23. ^ Premijera filma "Bruno" u Domu sindikata, SrbijaNet (Serbian)
  24. ^ Kolosej Slovenia
  25. ^ Bruno u Sarajevu prije ostatka svijeta
  26. ^ Sephre, Gina, (March 30, 2009), Bruno Ambushed by NC-17 Rating, E!
  27. ^ Saunders, Robert A. (April 1, 2009). ""Bruno NC17? The Marketing Campaign Has Begun." The Many Faces of Sacha Baron Cohen. Retrieved on April 1, 2009.
  28. ^ (31 March 2009) Borat star to 'edit sex scenes' BBC (quoting Variety magazine).
  29. ^ British Board of Film Classification
  30. ^ (July 13, 2009), Bruno to get a 15 certificate in UK
  31. ^ (June 1, 2009), Eminem and Bruno Engage in a 69 at the MTV awards, FHM.com
  32. ^ (June 2009), Eminem vs. Bruno Staged, Hollywood Insider
  33. ^ a b "'Bruno' banned in Ukraine", Kyiv Post (July 14, 2009)
  34. ^ Distribution of Bruno comedy film banned in Ukraine, Interfax-Ukraine (July 15, 2009)
  35. ^ Вінницькі правозахисники закликають оскаржити рішення про заборону "Бруно", TCH (July 16, 2009) (Ukrainian)
  36. ^ У Києві зірвано прем’єру “Бруно", TCH (July 23, 2009) (Ukrainian)
  37. ^ Events by themes: «Bruno» film unofficial premiere is wrecked in Kiev, UNIAN (July 22, 2009)
  38. ^ Bruno(2009) DVD Details - Moviefone
  39. ^ Curtis, Nick, (18 June 2009),First review: Brüno is gay, offensive ... and very funny, London Evening Standard
  40. ^ Hiscock, John, (18 June 2009), Brüno, review Gross, offensive, and very, very funny: Sacha Baron Cohen's new satire, Brüno, pushes the boundaries of bad taste to the limit, The Telegraph
  41. ^ (18 June 2009) Bruno Review BBC
  42. ^ Ebert, Roger, (July 8, 2009) Bruno
  43. ^ "Bruno Movie Reviews". Total Film. Future Publishing. http://www.totalfilm.com/reviews/cinema/bruno. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  44. ^ "Teutonic Fashion Plate Flaunts His Umlauts"
  45. ^ http://bventertainment.go.com/tv/buenavista/atm/
  46. ^ "Bruno (2009)". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/bruno/. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  47. ^ Box Office Mojo report on opening weekend
  48. ^ Austrians say outrageous Bruno ist pretty funny - Yahoo!7 News
  49. ^ Bruno tells Austrians to 'get über it' - Yahoo!7 News
  50. ^ Palestinian Deemed Terrorist in 'Bruno' Sues NBC, Baron Cohen - Wall Street Journal News Blog
  51. ^ Lawsuit Camplaint - Wall Street Journal News Blog
  52. ^ Reuters "Cohen camps it up as Queen's guard for UK premiere",By Cindy Martin and Mike Collett-White June 17, 2009
  53. ^ CNN Showbiz "'Vassup!' 'Bruno' hits the carpet for London premiere" by Mairi Mackay, June 18, 2009
  54. ^ Richelle Olson : Bruno the Austrian Fashionista Sued
  55. ^ http://www.tmz.com/2009/07/10/sacha-baron-cohen-bingo-re-sued/ TMZ News (11th of July 2009)
  56. ^ Abramovitch, Seth (2008-06-18). "The Curious Case Of The Fake Defamer 'Bruno' Title That Ate The Internets". Defamer. Gawker Media. http://defamer.com/5017659/the-curious-case-of-the-fake-defamer-bruno-title-that-ate-the-internets. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  57. ^ Graham, Mark (2006-10-30). "Universal Bets $42 Million That Sacha Baron Cohen Can Continue To Taunt Middle America With Naive-Foreigner Characters". Defamer. Gawker Media. http://defamer.com/hollywood/borat/universal-bets-42-million-that-sacha-baron-cohen-can-continue-to-taunt-middle-america-with-naiveforeigner-characters-211085.php. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  58. ^ [1]
  59. ^ Borat’s in the Khazi
  60. ^ Bruno is No Borat, by Wesley Morris
  61. ^ http://www.thebrunomovie.com/
  62. ^ "Palestinian group threatens Sacha Baron Cohen." JTA. 28 July 2009. 28 July 2009.
  63. ^ the Guardian, 31 July 2009, The non-profit worker from Bethlehem who was branded a terrorist by Bruno
  64. ^ Sacha Baron Cohen sued for £70m

External links



BRUNO was the first commercial computer software program for creating presentations using a WYSIWYG user interface. BRUNO, which originated on the HP-1000 computer, was finished in 1979 and was used around the world by HP customers. BRUNO was later ported to the HP-3000 and renamed HP-Draw.








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