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Brachyury: Wikis

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T, brachyury homolog (mouse)
Identifiers
Symbol T
Entrez 6862
HUGO 11515
OMIM 601397
RefSeq NM_003181
UniProt O15178
Other data
Locus Chr. 6 q27

The brachyury mutation was first described in mice by Nadine Dobrovolskaïa-Zavadskaïa in 1927 as a mutation that affected tail length and sacral vertebrae in heterozygous animals and is lethal in homozygous animals around embryonic day 10 due to defects in mesoderm formation, notochord differentiation and the absence of structures posterior to the forlimb bud (Dobrovolskaïa-Zavadskaïa, 1927). The name brachyury comes from the Greek brakhus meaning short and oura meaning tail.

According to human and mouse genome nomenclature, brachyury now has the symbol and gene name T although brachyury is maintained as the gene description.

The mouse T gene was cloned by Bernhard Herrmann and colleagues (Herrmann et al., 1990) and proved to encode an 436 amino acid embroynic nuclear transcription factor. T binds to a specific DNA element, a near palindromic sequence TCACACCT through a region in its N-terminus, called the T-box. T is the founding member of the T-box family which in mammals currently consists of 18 T-box genes.

Brachyury expression in 7.5dpc CD1 mouse embryos

Contents

Function

Transcription of genes required for mesoderm formation and cellular differentiation.

Expression

In mice T is expressed in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo (but not in the majority of mouse embryonic stem cells) followed by the primitive streak (see image). In later development expression is localised to the node and notochord.

In Xenopus laevis Xbra (the Xenopus T homologue, also recently renamed t) is expressed in the mesodermal marginal zone of the pre-gastrula embryo followed by localisation to the blastopore and notochord at the mid-gastrula stage.

The Danio rerio homologue is known as ntl (no tail)

Cancer

Expression of the brachyury gene has been identified as a definitive diagnostic marker of chordoma, a malignant tumor typically occurring along the spine. This supports the hypothesis that chordomas arise from cells derived from the notochord.

See also

Sources

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