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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Braga

Flag

Coat of arms
Country Portugal
Regions Norte
Sub-regions Cávado
District Braga
Area
 - Land 183.51 km2 (70.9 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 - Total 173,946

Braga (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈbɾaɡɐ]), a city in the Braga Municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the Braga District, the oldest archdiocese and one of the major cities of the country. With an urban population of 175,063, Braga is the seventh largest municipality in Portugal by population (including the city and suburban parishes, the municipality had a total of 62 parishes and 175,063 inhabitants as of 2007). Braga is also the center of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Minho with a population of 826,833 (2007) one of the fastest growing urban areas in the European Union. Under the Roman Empire, as Bracara Augusta, it was capital of the province Gallaecia. The urban area extends from the (river) Cavado to the (river) Este. Braga is serviced by regional and fast trains to Porto and Lisbon. The city of Oporto (Porto) is about 53 km. The present Mayor is Francisco Soares Mesquita Machado, elected from the Socialist Party.

Contents

History

For the Ecclesiastical history see Archbishopric of Braga
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Antiquity

Map of Braga at the end of the 16th century, when the city was still enclosed by its mediaeval wall. The large building in the middle is the Cathedral of Braga. The Palace of the Archbishops, with many courtyards, can be seen over the cathedral. The structure with many towers at the right corner of the walls is the ancient Castle of Braga, from which a tower has survived.

The region of Braga has been inhabited since pre-historic times, and in the Iron Age the Bracari people occupied the region and built their characteristic fortified villages (castrum). It was the capital of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, a tribe who occupied what is now Galicia and northern Portugal. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, and during the times of Emperor Augustus (around the year 20 BC) the city of Bracara Augusta was founded in the context of the administrative needs of the new Roman territory. Bracara was dedicated to the Emperor, hence its name Augusta.

The city of Bracara Augusta developed greatly during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension in the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Emperor Diocletianus promoted the city to the status of capital of the newly-founded province of Gallaecia.

During the times of the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula, Roman power was dissolved and Bracara Augusta and the whole region of Gallaecia fell into the hands of the Sueves, a Germanic people from Central Europe. In 410, the Sueves established a Kingdom in the Northwest of Iberia and chose Bracara as capital. But about 584 it passed into the hands of the Visigothic conquerors of Hispania, whose renunciation of the Arian and Priscillianist heresies, at two synods held here in the 6th century, marks the origin of its ecclesiastical greatness. The archbishops of Braga retain the title of primate of Portugal, and long claimed supremacy over the Hispanic church also; but their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania.

Braga had an important role in the Christianisation of the Iberian Peninsula. The first known bishop of Braga, Paternus, lived in the end of the 4th century, although Saint Ovidius (d. 135 AD) is sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city.[1] In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius, a friend of Saint Augustine born in Braga, wrote several theological and historical works of great importance. In the 6th century a great figure was Saint Martin of Braga, a bishop of Braga who converted the Sueves from Arianism to Catholicism. He also founded an important monastery near Braga, in Dumio (Dume), now an archaeological site. Several Councils were held in Braga during this period, a sign of the religious importance of the city.

Mediaeval wing (14th century) of the Archbishop's Palace of Braga with Saint Barbara's Garden.

Middle Ages

The history of Braga during Visigothic and Arab times is very obscure and represents periods of decadence for the city. From the Moors, who captured Braga early in the 8th century, the city was retaken in 1040 by king Ferdinand I of León and Castile. From 1093 to 1147 it was the residence of the Portuguese court. The bishopric was restored in 1070, and the first new bishop, Pedro, started rebuilding the Cathedral, many times modified in the following centuries. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop Gerald of Moissac managed to turn Braga into an archbishopric seat, with power over a large area in Iberia. The medieval city developed around the cathedral and covers only a fraction of the ancient Roman city. The maximum authority in the city remained that of the archbishop.

Modern Age

Saint Michael's church, Braga

In the 16th century, Braga did not profit from the Age of Portuguese Discoveries, that favoured cities like Lisbon, Évora and Coimbra. This situation was changed by Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals and new churches. He also modernised the cathedral by adding a new main chapel in the fashion of the time, the manueline style. Diogo de Sousa turned the mediaeval town into a renaissance city, and many of his improvements can still be seen in modern Braga.

Another golden age for the city was the 18th century, in which archbishops and architects like André Soares and Carlos Amarante dotted the city and surrounding region with beautiful baroque churches and civil buildings. The Municipality, the Public Library building, the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte and many urban palaces date from this period.

The 19th century was a difficult period for the city and the country, which had been invaded by Napoleonic troops. In the second half of that century, the influence of Portuguese immigrants who had lived in Brazil introduced new tastes and improvements in the city architecture and infrastructure.

In the 20th century Braga faced great demographic and urbanistic pressures, and the infrastructure of the city had to be greatly improved to meet the new needs.

Main sights

The city of Braga and surrounding region have many historical monuments,including:the Cathedral(Se),Bom Jesus and Sameiro(Sanctuaries).

In the historic city (centro)

Churches

Saint Paul Church in Braga (Igreja de São Paulo), 16th century.

Museums

Others

Municipality of Braga and Fountain of the Pelican. Both were built in the 18th century.

Outside the city centre

Commerce, business and transportation

Bank of Portugal building in Braga.

The major industries in the municipality are construction, metallurgy and mechanics, software development and web design. The computer industry is growing rapidly.

Education, science and technology

The city is the headquarters and main campus for the Universidade do Minho (Minho University), a public university founded in 1973. In the city was established also, in 1967, a branch of the oldest private university of Portugal, the Universidade Católica Portuguesa at Braga.

In the late 2000s a major international research centre was founded in the city - the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory.

Airport

Aerodromo de Braga / Palmeira

Sports

Braga's football team, S.C. Braga were founded in 1921 and play in the top division of the Portuguese Liga Sagres.

Famous citizens

  • Paulus Orosius (c.385–c.420): Important historian and theologue from the Braga diocese, friend of St. Augustine.
  • Martin of Braga (c.520 – 580): Bishop of Braga that converted the Suevi to Catholicism.
  • Diogo de Sousa (c.1461-1532): Archbishop of Braga after 1505. A great sponsor of the arts, he remodelled the Cathedral and promoted the urbanisation of the city following Renaissance models. He also founded several churches and an important school (the São Paulo School).
  • Francisco Sanches (1550-1623): 16th-century physician born in the Braga diocese and educated in universities in France and Italy.
  • André Soares (1720-1769): 18th century architect, designed several important Rococo buildings in Braga and Northern Portugal.
  • Domingos Leite Pereira: Portuguese politician of the Portuguese First Republic.
  • Marie Myriam (born Myriam Lopes in Braga,8 of May 1957) french singer of Portuguese origens,winner of 1977

Eurovision Song Festival with "L`Oiseau et L`Enfant" ("The Bird and the Child"), written by Jean Paul Cara and Joe Grace.

Use in popular culture

Braga is the home of a professional Quidditch team, the Braga Broomfleet, operating within the fictional Harry Potter universe.[1]

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Braga is twinned with:

See also

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  1. ^ Whisp, Kennilworthy (2001). Quidditch Through the Ages. WhizzHard Books. pp. 31–46. ISBN 1551924544.  

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Braga is a city in the Cavado valley, Minho region of Northern Portugal. It is the fifth largest city in Portugal,after Lisbon,Porto,Amadora and Vila Nova de Gaia.It is an ancient and modern city,one of the most important Archdiocese.

Its university is called Universidade do Minho, and it is around 30 years old. It is very new but it has a medium size campus area with lots of bars and cheap restaurants around it.

Get in

Train/Braga station.Or better yet the bus.Yes,indeed,take the bus if you wish to visit to be in the city center.Braga train is within the city limits,but not in the city centre.Train is ok if you are willig to take a taxicab to the city centre. There are several buscompanies operating Braga from Porto (and other cities). Normaly it´s cheaper and faster than the train + the busstation in Braga is more centrally located than the trainstation.

Get around

Transit/bus.

See

Cathedral(Se),Bom Jesus and Sameiro(Sanctueries).

Do

Visit the Sanctueries and Nacional Park of Peneda-Gerez.

Buy

Local souvenirs/ceramics of Barcelos.

Eat

With capacity for 120 people the Restaurant of the Hotel do Elevador presents a pleasant panoramic view of the city of Braga.

It offers a Traditional Kitchen of one of most important of the region. The diversity of the natural landscape and the influences received during centuries of other peoples, are elements that explains the multiplicity of the gastronomic specialities: potato and cabbage broth and bread made from maize, roast pork, the cod, the octopus and the trout, the chicken rice " pica no chão" and the duck rice, the kid and the baked heifer, the ham, the frying-pans of Braga, are some of the excellent examples.

  • Panoramic Restaurant “Hotel do Elevador”, Bom Jesus do Monte, Tel: +351 253 603 400, Fax: +351 253 603 409, elevador@hoteisbomjesus.pt, [1]. There are lots of cheap restaurants around the city. But beware of ordering a full ration of roast chicken (tastes wonderful). You´ll get a mountain of chicken and potatoes (enough for three to four persons).

Drink

Spring mineral water,coffee,vinho verde/local green wine.

Sleep

You can find some cheap pensions in Rua dos Chãos (near Avenida Central and not far from the busstation)

  • Pousada de Braga - São Vicente, Charming Hotel, Largo de Infias 4710-299 Braga, (+351) 253 209 500 (, fax: (+351) 253 209 500), [2]. * Pousada de Gerês (22,5km from Braga), S.Bento, Caniçada, +351- 253 649 150, [3].  edit  edit
  • Pousada de Amares - Sta. Maria do Bouro, Historic Luxury Hotel, 25,3 km (about 35 min. from Braga), Santa Maria do Bouro 4720-688 Amares, +351- 253 371 970 (, fax: +351- 253 371 976), [4].   edit
  • Hotel Ibis Braga, Rua do Carmo 38, (+351)253/204800, [5].  edit

Get out

Guimaraes,an histiric city with a castle.Barcelos,Viana do Castelo ,Ponte de Lima,Caminha,Penafiel,Amarante,Chaves,Vila Real,Lamego / Douro / Coa. Nearby beaches in Esposende(Fao / Ofir). Park nacional da Peneda-Geres. Porto / Oporto

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BRAGA, a city of northern Portugal, formerly included in the province of Entre Minho e Douro, situated on the right bank of the small river Deste near its source, and at the head of a railway from Oporto. Pop. (1900) 24,202. Braga, which ranks after Lisbon and Oporto as the third city of the kingdom, is the capital of an administrative district, and an archiepiscopal see. Its cathedral, founded in the 12th century, was rebuilt during the 16th century in the blend of Moorish and florid Gothic styles known as Manoellian. It contains several tombs of considerable historical interest, some fine woodwork carved in the 15th century, and a collection of ancient vestments, plate and other objects of art. Among the other churches Santa Cruz is noteworthy for its handsome facade, which dates from 1642. There are several convents, an archiepiscopal palace, a library, containing many rare books and. manuscripts, an orphan asylum, and a large hospital; also the ruins of a theatre, a temple and an aqueduct of Roman workmanship, and a great variety of minor antiquities of different ages. The principal manufactures are firearms, jewelry, cutlery, cloth and felt hats. Large cattle fairs are held in June and September, for cattle-breeding and dairy-farming are among the foremost local industries. On a hill about 3 m. E. by S. stands the celebrated sanctuary of Born Jesus, or Bom Jesus do Monte, visited at Whitsuntide by many thousands of pilgrims, who do public penance as they ascend to the shrine; and about 1 m. beyond it is Mount Sameiro (2535 ft.), crowned by a colossal statue of the Virgin Mary, and commanding a magnificent view of the mountainous country which culminates in the Serra do Gerez, on the north-east.

Braga is the Roman Bracara Augusta, capital of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, a tribe who occupied what is now Galicia and northern Portugal. Early in the 5th century it was taken by the Suevi; but about 485 it passed into the hands of the Visigothic conquerors of Spain, whose renunciation of the Arian and Priscillianist heresies, at two synods held here in the 6th century, marks the origin of its ecclesiastical greatness. The archbishops of Braga retain the title of primate of Portugal, and long claimed supremacy over the Spanish church also; but their authority was never accepted throughout Spain. From the Moors, who captured Braga early in the 8th century, the city was retaken in 1040 by Ferdinand I., king of Castile and Leon; and from 1093 to 1147 it was the residence of the Portuguese court.

The administrative district of Braga coincides with the central part of the province of Entre Minho e Douro. Pop. (1900) 357,159. Area, 1040 sq. M.


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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Peracarida
Ordo: Isopoda
Cladus: Scutocoxifera
Subordo: Cymothoida
Superfamilia: Cymothooidea
Familia: Cymothoidae
Genus: Braga
Species: B. amapaensis - B. bachmanni - B. brasiliensis - B. cichlae - B. fluviatilis - B. nasuta - B. patagonica


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