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The Brāhmaṇas (Devanagari: ब्राह्मणं) are part of the Hindu śruti literature. They are commentaries on the four Vedas, detailing the proper performance of rituals.

Each Vedic shakha (school) had its own Brahmana, and it is not known how many of these texts existed during the Mahajanapadas period. A total of 19 Brahmanas are extant at least in their entirety: two associated with the Rigveda, six with the Yajurveda, ten with the Samaveda and one with the Atharvaveda. Additionally, there are a handful of fragmentarily preserved texts. They vary greatly in length; the edition of the Shatapatha Brahmana fills five volumes of the Sacred Books of the East, while the Vamsa Brahmana can be printed on a single page.

The Brahmanas were seminal in the development of later Indian thought and scholarship, including Hindu philosophy, predecessors of Vedanta, law, astronomy, geometry, linguistics (Pāṇini), the concept of Karma, or the stages in life such as brahmacarya, grihastha and eventually, sannyasi. Some Brahmanas contain sections that are Aranyakas or Upanishads in their own right.

The language of the Brahmanas is a separate stage of Vedic Sanskrit, younger than the text of the samhitas (the mantra text of the Vedas proper) but for the most part older than the text of the Sutras. It dates to the Iron Age, or about the 9th, 8th and 7th centuries BC, with some of the younger Brahmanas (such as the Shatapatha Brahmana) overlapping with the Sutra period, dating to about the 6th century BC.[1] Historically, this corresponds to the emergence of great kingdoms or Mahajanapadas out of the earlier tribal kingdoms during the later Vedic period.

Contents

List of Brahmanas

Each Brahmana is associated with one of the four Vedas, and within the tradition of that Veda with a particular shakha or school:

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Rigveda

Yajurveda

Krishna Yajurveda

  • In the Krishna Yajurveda, the Brahmana texts are integrated in the samhitas.
    • Maitrayani Samhita (MS) and an Aranyaka (= accented Maitrayaniya Upanishad)
    • (Caraka) Katha Samhita (KS); the Katha school has an additional fragmentary Brahmana (KathB) and Aranyaka (KathA)
    • Kapisthalakatha Samhita (KpS), and a few fragments of its Brahmana
    • Taittiriya Samhita (TS). The Taittiriya school has an additional Taittiriya Brahmana (TB) and Aranyaka (TA) as well as the late Vedic Vadhula Anvakhyana (Br.)

Shukla Yajurveda

  • Madhyandina Shakha
  • Kanva Shakha
    • Shatapatha Brahmana, Kanva recension (SBK)

Samaveda

  • Kauthuma and Ranayaniya shakhas
    • Tandya Mahabrahmana or Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa (PB) is the prinicpal Brahmana of both the Kauthuma and Ranayaniya shakhas.
    • Sadvimsha Brahmana (Ṣaḍviṃṡa Brāhmaṇa) (ṢadvB) is considered as an appendix to the Panchavimsha Brahmana and its twenty-sixth prapathaka.
    • Samavidhana Brahmana comprises 3 prapathakas.
    • Arsheya Brahmana is an index to the hymns of Samaveda.
    • Devatadhyaya or Daivata Brahmana comprises 3 khandas, having 26, 11 and 25 kandikas respectively.
    • Chandogya Brahmana is divided in to ten prapathakas (chapters). Its first two prapathakas (chapters) form the Mantra Brahmana (MB) and each of them is divided into eight khandas (sections). Prapathakas 3-10 form the Chandogya Upanishad.
    • Samhitopanishad Brahmana has a single prapathaka (chapter) divided in to five khandas (sections).
    • Vamsa Brahmana consists of one short chapter, detailing successions of teachers and disciples.[4]
  • Jaiminiya shakha
    • Jaiminiya Brahmana (JB) is the prinicpal Brahmana of the Jaiminiya shakha, divided into three kandas (sections).
    • Jaiminiya Arsheya Brahmana is also an index to the hymns of Samaveda, belonging to the Jaiminiya shakha.
    • Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana (JUB) also known as Talavakara Upanishad Brahmana.

Atharvaveda

Notes

  1. ^ Michael Witzel, Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, 1989, 97–265.
  2. ^ Theodor Aufrecht, Das Aitareya Braahmana. Mit Auszügen aus dem Commentare von Sayanacarya und anderen Beilagen, Bonn 1879; TITUS etext
  3. ^ ed. E. R. Sreekrishna Sarma, Wiesbaden 1968.
  4. ^ "Vedic Samhitas and Brahmanas - A popular, brief introduction". http://www.dharmicscriptures.org/Vedic_SB_Intro.doc. 

References

  • Arthur Anthony Macdonell (1900). "Brāhmaṇas". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and company. 
  • Arthur Berriedale Keith, Rigveda Brahmanas (1920); reprint: Motilal Banarsidass (1998) ISBN 978-8120813595.
  • A. C. Banerjea, Studies in the Brāhmaṇas, Motilal Banarsidass (1963)
  • E. R. Sreekrishna Sarma, Kauṣītaki-Brāhmaṇa, Wiesbaden (1968, comm. 1976).
  • Dumont,P.E. [translations of sections of TB 3 ]. PAPS 92 (1948), 95 (1951), 98 (1954), 101 (1957), 103 (1959), 104 (1960), 105 (1961), 106 (1962), 107 (1963), 108 (1964), 109 (1965), 113 (1969).
  • Caland, W. Über das Vadhulasutra; Eine zweite / dritte / vierte Mitteilung über das Vadhulasutra. [= Vadhula Sutra and Brahmana fragments (Anvakhyana)]. Acta Orientalia 1, 3-11; AO II, 142-167; AO IV, 1-41, 161-213; AO VI, 97-241.1922. 1924. 1926. 1928. [= Kleine Schriften, ed. M. WItzel. Stuttgart 1990, pp. 268–541]
  • Caland. W. Pancavimsa-Brahmana. The Brahmana of twenty five chapters. (Bibliotheca Indica 255.) Calcutta 1931. Repr. Delhi 1982.
  • Bollée, W. B. Sadvinsa-Brahmana. Introd., transl., extracts from the commentaries and notes. Utrecht 1956.
  • Bodewitz, H. W. Jaiminiya Brahmana I, 1-65. Translation and commentary with a study of the Agnihotra and Pranagnihotra. Leiden 1973.
  • Bodewitz, H. W. The Jyotistoma Ritual. Jaiminiya Brahmana I,66-364. Introduction, translation and commentary. Leiden 1990.
  • Gaastra, D. Das Gopatha Brahmana, Leiden 1919
  • Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b) Strassburg 1899

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Noun

Brahmanas

  1. Plural form of Brahmana.

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