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Brass die, along with zinc and copper samples.
.Brass is any alloy of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties.^ Some plant species are zinc accumulators, but the extent of the accumulation in plant tissues varies with soil properties, plant organ and tissue age.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Contamination of soil and sediment samples, in which zinc concentrations may vary in the range 102000 mg/kg, is less of a problem.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular, biological effects at various ratios of zinc and copper require further investigation.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] In comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin.[2] Despite this distinction some types of brasses are called bronzes and vice-versa.[3] Brass is a substitutional alloy. .It is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance; for applications where low friction is required such as locks, gears, bearings, doorknobs, ammunition, and valves; for plumbing and electrical applications; and extensively in musical instruments such as horns and bells for its acoustic properties.^ Given the low detection limits of modern analytical techniques, separation techniques, such as ion exchange or solvent extraction, that preconcentrate zinc from solution, are less frequently used nowadays, although they are required for ultratrace detection.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Speciation analyses in water require the application of separation techniques with any of the above methods or use of the labile-bound discrimination offered by ASV. .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Special symptom is the appearance of Looser zones and Milmans fracture and these are like Ribbon like zones and are seen in the body of tall bones and some broad bones such as Scapula.

It is also used in zippers. .Because it is softer than most other metals in general use, brass is often used in situations where it is important that sparks not be struck, as in fittings and tools around explosive gases.^ Alloys, other than brass .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CSV is best used with pristine samples, where interference due to other metals or adsorbing ligands is less likely.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is capable of reducing most other metal states and is therefore used as an electrode in dry cells and in hydrometallurgy.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]
Brass has a muted yellow color, somewhat similar to gold. It is relatively resistant to tarnishing, and is often used as decoration and for coins. In antiquity, polished brass was often used as a mirror.
.Although forms of brass have been in use since prehistory,[5] its true nature as a copper-zinc alloy was not understood until the post medieval period because the zinc vapour which reacted with copper to make brass was not recognised as a metal.^ Zinc ore (smithsonite) has been used for the production of brass since 1400.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, views on zinc were introduced for the first time in 1934, but it was not until 1960 that the importance of zinc, its deficiency and the related complications were completely understood.

[6] .Many references to "brass" appearing throughout the King James Bible are thought to signify another bronze alloy, or copper, rather than the strict modern definition of brass.^ Alloys, other than brass .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Further important applications are in dye-casting, the construction industry, and other alloys (brass, bronze).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .The earliest brasses may have been natural alloys made by smelting zinc rich copper ores.^ Certaines plantes accumulent le zinc, mais dans une proportion qui dépend de la nature du sol et des caractéristiques de la plante.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sinter and coke are charged to the imperial smelting blast furnace, which produces metallic zinc and lead, and an iron-rich slag.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Balance studies indicate that, as the amount of zinc in the diet increases, so does the amount of dietary copper required, so that persons on a diet high in zinc may have an increased risk of copper deficiency (Sandstead, 1982b).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .By the Roman period brass was being deliberately produced from metallic copper and zinc minerals using the cementation process and variations on this method continued until the mid 19th century.^ Most rocks and many minerals contain zinc in varying amounts.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In current zinc production, emission factors are 0.150 g of zinc per tonne of metal produced (EZI, 1996).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recycling provides some 28% of the zinc metal produced.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[9] .It was eventually replaced by speltering, the direct alloying of copper and zinc metal which was introduced to Europe in the 16th century.^ The zinc-copper-titanium alloy has become the dominant wrought-zinc alloy because of its greater strength and dent resistance than other metals of the same thickness (Beliles, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is widely used as a protective coating of other metals, in dye casting and the construction industry, and for alloys.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dirilgen N & Inel Y (1994) Cobalt-copper and cobalt-zinc effects on duckweed growth and metal accumulation.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[10]

Contents

Properties

Microstructure of cast brass at magnification 400×
The malleability and acoustic properties of brass have made it the metal of choice for brass musical instruments such as the trombone, tuba, trumpet, cornet, euphonium, tenor horn, and the French horn. Even though the saxophone is classified as a woodwind instrument and the harmonica is a free reed aerophone, both are also often made from brass. In organ pipes of the reed family, brass strips (called tongues) are used as the reeds, which beat against the shallot (or beat "through" the shallot in the case of a "free" reed).
.Brass has higher malleability than copper or zinc.^ In general, zinc levels in urban and industrial areas are higher than in rural areas.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc-activated enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase, therefore reach the same activity in tolerant plants at higher external zinc concentrations than in zinc-sensitive plants.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Under most conditions, the amount of zinc present in adsorbed soil fractions is much higher than the soluble fraction that remains in the pore waters or soil solution.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The relatively low melting point of brass (900 to 940°C, depending on composition) and its flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast. .By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses.^ Additionally changing the type of water pipes from zinc products to copper ones not only reduces the zinc content of water but also the increased copper content of water interferes with zinc absorption.

.The density of brass is approximately 8400 to 8730 kilograms per cubic metre[11] (equivalent to 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre).^ The mean zinc accumulation rate was calculated to be 2.21 g/g per day, which was calculated to be equivalent to 1.11% of the total body zinc per day.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Today almost 90% of all brass alloys are recycled.[12] Because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Brass scrap is collected and transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are heated and extruded into the desired form and size.
Aluminium makes brass stronger and more corrosion resistant. Aluminium also causes a highly beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) to be formed on the surface that is thin, transparent and self healing. .Tin has a similar effect and finds its use especially in sea water applications (naval brasses).^ Speciation analyses in water require the application of separation techniques with any of the above methods or use of the labile-bound discrimination offered by ASV. .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Van den Berg CMG (1986) The determination of trace metals in sea-water using cathodic stripping voltammetry.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Combinations of iron, aluminium, silicon and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant.

Lead content

To enhance the machinability of brass, lead is often added in concentrations of around 2%. This lead is present on the surface of the material, and thus presents a health concern similar to that of pure lead. .Silicon is an alternative material, however when silicon is used in a brass alloy, the scrap must never be mixed with leaded brass scrap because of contamination and safety problems.^ However, these detection limits are not achievable unless stringent procedures to avoid zinc contamination are implemented, including the use of ultrapure reagents.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the use of large safety factors in procedures to limit exposures to below toxic levels might result in target concentrations below essential levels.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]
Keys: In October 1999 the California State Attorney General sued 13 key manufacturers and distributors over lead content. .In laboratory tests, state researchers found the average brass key, new or old, exceeded the California Proposition 65 limits by an average factor of 19, assuming handling twice a day.^ One of the key questions in ecotoxicology is the extent to which laboratory tests under controlled conditions are predictive of effects that will be seen in the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[14] .In April 2001 manufacturers agreed to reduce lead content to 1.5%, or face a requirement to warn consumers about lead content.^ Fecal zinc content is about 5.1-10.3 mg/day which depends upon the amount of dietary zinc consumed.

^ For example, the zinc content of spinach is reduced by about 20% during freezing and thawing (Kampe, 1986); during the milling of wheat flour, up to 80% of zinc is removed.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Keys plated with other metals are not affected by the settlement, and may continue to use high lead content alloys.^ CSV is best used with pristine samples, where interference due to other metals or adsorbing ligands is less likely.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is capable of reducing most other metal states and is therefore used as an electrode in dry cells and in hydrometallurgy.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some of these indices are affected by biological and technical factors other than depleted body stores of zinc, which may confound the interpretation of the result.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[15][16]
Plumbing: By January 1, 2010 in California, lead-free brass (brass containing less than 0.25% lead) must be used for "each component that comes into contact with the wetted surface of pipes and pipe fittings, plumbing fittings and fixtures." The common practice of using pipes for electrical grounding is discouraged, as it accelerates lead corrosion.[17][18]

Applications

.Harsh environments: The so called dezincification resistant (DZR) brasses are used where there is a large corrosion risk and where normal brasses do not meet the standards.^ In order to protect steel structures from corrosion in the marine environment and in soils, sacrificial zinc anodes are used, resulting in a slow release of zinc to the environment.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Applications with high water temperatures, chlorides present or deviating water qualities (soft water) play a role.^ Phosphates and iron hydroxides play an important role in the transfer of heavy metals from river water to sediments (Houba et al., 1983).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic material has an important role in the binding of zinc in fresh water, particularly at high pH values (> 6.5).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is notable that zinc must be present in many nucleotide phosphate ester enzymes which catalyze reactions, playing important role in DNA synthesis.

DZR-brass is excellent in water boiler systems. .This brass alloy must be produced with great care, with special attention placed on a balanced composition and proper production temperatures and parameters to avoid long-term failures.^ Long-term studies (20 weeks) with zinc acetate revealed significant reductions in cocoon production at 5000 mg/kg.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because zinc is ubiquitous in the environment, special care is required during sampling, sample preparation and analysis to avoid sample contamination.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Germicidal properties: The copper in brass makes brass germicidal, via the oligodynamic effect. For example, brass doorknobs disinfect themselves of many bacteria within eight hours.[19] This effect is important in hospitals, and useful in many contexts.
Brass door hardware: Brass hardware is generally lacquered when new, which prevents tarnishing of the metal for a few years when located outside (and indefinitely when located indoors). After this most manufacturers recommend that the lacquer be removed (e.g. with paint stripper) and the items regularly polished to maintain a bright finish. Unlacquered brass weathers more attractively than brass with deteriorated lacquer, even if polishing is not carried out. .Freshly polished brass is similar to gold in appearance, but becomes more reddish within days of exposure to the elements.^ Initially the lesions are limited and erythematous becoming scaly within 5 days.

^ Very slight radiological symptoms and the beginning of Rickets in infantile age in most cases 20 days after treatment become more distinctive (Rickets in remission).

A traditional polish is Brasso.
.Other: Brass was used to make fan blades, fan cages and motor bearings in many antique fans that date before the 1930s.^ Expiry date: Four months after production Shake before use .

Brass can also be used for fixings for use in cryogenic systems.[20] Brass has also been use to make lower end Paiste cymbals.

Season cracking

Cracking in brass caused by ammonia attack
Brass is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, especially from ammonia or substances containing or releasing ammonia. The problem is sometimes known as season cracking after it was first discovered in brass cartridge cases used for rifle ammunition during the 1920s in the Indian Army. .Brittle cracks could cause serious accidents if the case was too weak to resist the charge when the rifle was fired.^ It could cause premature heart beats, dizziness, increased sweating, muscle weakness, alcohol intolerance, delirium and anemia.

The problem was caused by high residual stresses from cold forming of the cases during manufacture, together with chemical attack from traces of ammonia in the atmosphere. .The cartridges were stored in stables and the ammonia concentration rose during the hot summer months, so initiating brittle cracks.^ To administer zinc sulphate during the initial 6 months of life III immature and/or lowbirth weight babies.

The problem was resolved by annealing the cases, and storing the cartridges elsewhere.

Brass types

.
  • Admiralty brass contains 30% zinc, and 1% tin which inhibits dezincification in most environments.
  • Aich's alloy typically contains 60.66% copper, 36.58% zinc, 1.02% tin, and 1.74% iron.^ Excessive consumption of iron and copper inhibits absorption of zinc.

    ^ Zinc absorption is similar to that of copper and iron.

    ^ Most rocks and many minerals contain zinc in varying amounts.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Designed for use in marine service owing to its corrosion resistance, hardness and toughness.^ In order to protect steel structures from corrosion in the marine environment and in soils, sacrificial zinc anodes are used, resulting in a slow release of zinc to the environment.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    .A characteristic application is to the protection of ships' bottoms, but more modern methods of cathodic protection have rendered its use less common.^ For environmental and biological samples, the required detection limits necessitate the use of modern instrumental methods of analysis.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    Its appearance resembles that of gold.[21]
  • .
  • Alpha brasses with less than 35% zinc, are malleable, can be worked cold, and are used in pressing, forging, or similar applications.^ It should be noted that background zinc concentrations were less than 1 g/litre in the second experiment.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Natural atmospheric zinc levels due to weathering of soil are almost always less than 1000 ng/m 3 .
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ At present Zinc supplements on children less than 5 years old are supplied in three shapes in world markets, syrup, soluble tablets and powder, use of each of which is accompanied with advantages and limitations.

    They contain only one phase, with face-centered cubic crystal structure. .Prince's metal or Prince Rupert's metal is a type of alpha brass containing 75% copper and 25% zinc.^ Dirilgen N & Inel Y (1994) Cobalt-copper and cobalt-zinc effects on duckweed growth and metal accumulation.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Another form of zinc supplement contains about 25 mg of elemental zinc.

    ^ The cheaper zinc supplements usually contain the metallic form of the minerals and are administered in amounts greater than the required dose.

    Due to its beautiful yellow color, it is used as an imitation of gold.[22] .The alloy was named after Prince Rupert of the Rhine.
  • Alpha-beta brass (Muntz metal), also called duplex brass, is 35–45% zinc and is suited for hot working.^ However, refuse incineration, coal combustion, smelter operations, and some metal-working industries constitute the major sources of zinc in air (ATSDR, 1994).
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Perca fluviatilis ) caught downstream from a brass works in Sweden reflected the water concentration of zinc (0.5659 g/litre).
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ OSPARCOM (1994) Draft description of best available techniques for the primary production of non-ferrous metals (zinc, copper, lead and nickel works).
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    It contains both α and β' phase; the β'-phase is body-centered cubic and is harder and stronger than α. .Alpha-beta brasses are usually worked hot.
  • Aluminium brass contains aluminium, which improves its corrosion resistance.^ They usually consume less vitamin B 6 , Beta carotene and zinc containing products.

    .It is used in Euro coins (Nordic gold).
  • Arsenical brass contains an addition of arsenic and frequently aluminium and is used for boiler fireboxes.
  • Beta brasses, with 45–50% zinc content, can only be worked hot, and are harder, stronger, and suitable for casting.
  • Cartridge brass is a 30% zinc brass with good cold working properties.
  • Common brass, or rivet brass, is a 37% zinc brass, cheap and standard for cold working.
  • DZR brass is dezincification resistant brass with a small percentage of arsenic.
  • Gilding metal is the softest type of brass commonly available.^ Type of food, vitamin and ZInC content, and the amount to be used/day.

    ^ An increase in water hardness from 50 to 200 mg/litre (CaCO 3 ), and the addition of humic acid (1.5 mg/litre) significantly reduced the toxic effect of zinc on brood size.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    .An alloy of 95% copper and 5% zinc, gilding metal is typically used for ammunition components.
  • High brass contains 65% copper and 35% zinc, has a high tensile strength and is used for springs, screws, and rivets.
  • Leaded brass is an alpha-beta brass with an addition of lead.^ Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In nature, zinc occurs only rarely in its metallic state and the vast majority of environmental samples contain the element only in the form of zinc compounds.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Again, care is required in the handling of samples to avoid contamination (Batley, 1989a), avoiding metal surfaces and using appropriately cleaned plastic containers.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    .It has excellent machinability.
  • Lead-free brass as defined by California Assembly Bill AB 1953 contains "not more than 0.25 percent lead content".[17]
  • Low brass is a copper-zinc alloy containing 20% zinc with a light golden color and excellent ductility; it is used for flexible metal hoses and metal bellows.
  • Manganese brass is a brass most notably used in making golden dollar coins in the United States.^ Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Alloys, other than brass .
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The basal diet contained zinc at 20.2 g/g and copper at 3.1 g/g.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    .It contains roughly 70% copper, 29% zinc, and 1.3% manganese.^ Spencer H, Asmussen CR, Holtzman RB, & Kramer L (1979) Metabolic balances of cadmium, copper, manganese, and zinc in man.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Livers of dams fed excess zinc contained elevated zinc and reduced iron and copper levels (Ketcheson et al., 1969).
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The basal diet contained zinc at 20.2 g/g and copper at 3.1 g/g.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    [23]
  • .
  • Muntz metal is about 60% copper, 40% zinc and a trace of iron, used as a lining on boats.
  • Naval brass, similar to admiralty brass, is 40% zinc and 1% tin.
  • Nordic gold, used in 10, 20 and 50 cts euro coins, contains 89% copper, 5% aluminium, 5% zinc, and 1% tin.
  • Red brass, the American term for the copper-zinc-tin alloy known as gunmetal, which is technically not brass, can also refer to ounce metal, another copper-zinc-tin alloy.
  • Rich low brass (Tombac) is 15% zinc.^ The human body absorbs about 10-40% of dietary zinc.

    ^ Zinc absorption is similar to that of copper and iron.

    ^ Tabs as gluconate, 14.3 elemental: 10,15,50,78 mg Liq as acetate: 5,10 mg elemental Zn/ml .

    .It is often used in jewelry applications.
  • Tonval brass (also called CW617N or CZ122 or OT58) is a copper-lead-zinc alloy.^ Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cherian L & Gupta VK (1992) Spectrophotometric determination of zinc using 4-carboxyphenyldiazoaminoazobenzene and its application in complex materials.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Kumar S & Pant SC (1984) Comparative effects of the sublethal poisoning of zinc, copper and lead on the gonads of the teleost Puntius conchonius Ham.
    • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    It is not recommended for seawater use, being susceptible to dezincification.[24][25]
  • .
  • White brass contains more than 50% zinc and is too brittle for general use.^ Zinc is also helpful in treating menustral irregularities and genital disorders in female patients, although copper is more important than zinc in these circumstances.

    ^ For example the zinc requirement of a full term newborn, feeding on breast milk, is not very high; the reason being the high absorption (greater than 50%) of zinc from breast milk.

    ^ As an example certain parts in eye, male sex organs, brain, bone and hair contain more zinc as compared to other tissues and organs.

    The term may also refer to certain types of nickel silver alloys as well as Cu-Zn-Sn alloys with high proportions (typically 40%+) of tin and/or zinc, as well as predominantly zinc casting alloys with copper additive.
  • Yellow brass is an American term for 33% zinc brass.

History

Early Copper Zinc Alloys

.In West Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean early copper zinc alloys are now known in small numbers from a number of third Millennium BC sites in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmikia, Turkmenistan and Georgia and from 2nd Millennium BC sites in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq and Israel.^ In the Middle East Rickets in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Israel has become a major problem (1).

^ World Health Organization (Eastern Mediterranean Region) Respectfully, please be informed that your unsparing support for Zinc Studies and Research Unit have at last come to fruition and a meeting was held on Dec.

^ Now the question was this, whether supplementary Zinc can reduce Zinc deficiency and its known symptoms, in phase one, are effective on weight and height standards or not?

[26] However isolated examples of copper-zinc alloys are known in China from as early as the 5th Millennium BC.[27]
.The compositions of these early ‘brass’ objects are very variable and most have zinc contents of between 5% and 15% wt which is lower than in brass produced by cementation.^ The zinc content of foods varies.

^ Zinc content in various foods .

^ The amount of elemental zinc in tablets and capsules varies between 5-50mg.

[28] .These may be ‘natural alloys’ manufactured by smelting zinc rich copper ores in reducing conditions.^ Zinc and copper also appeared to be accumulated in transplanted livers, but these findings were not quantitative and there were no detectable histological effects following transplantation.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Certaines plantes accumulent le zinc, mais dans une proportion qui dépend de la nature du sol et des caractéristiques de la plante.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The zinc:copper ratio has been shown to induce dyslipidaemias, and studies on the cardiovascular consequences of these conditions need further investigation.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many have similar tin contents to contemporary bronze artefacts and it is possible that some copper-zinc alloys were accidental and perhaps not even distinguished from copper.^ Zinc absorption is similar to that of copper and iron.

^ The dose of zinc required for treating acrodermatitis enteropathica is about 30-50 mg/zn 2 +/day and for some cases even greater doses are required.

^ Some experts believe that zinc content of body could be increased by increasing the consumption of zinc-rich foods and/or multi-nutrient supplements such as zinc chelate, zinc aspartate, and zinc picolluate.

[29] .However the large number of copper-zinc alloys now known suggests that at least some were deliberately manufactured and many have zinc contents of more than 12% wt which would have resulted in a distinctive golden colour.^ However zinc supplementation during physical exercise must be according to the recommended daily dosage and not more.

^ Therefore consumption of legumes as whole, results in enterance of more zinc into body while less cadmium is absorbed.

^ At present, it is known that zinc is involved in the synthesis of more than 100 enzymes, sexual activity, hepatic detoxification process, metabolic activities, immune functioning, growth etc.

[30]
By the 8th-7th century BC Assyrian cuneiform tablets mention the exploitation of the ‘copper of the mountains’ and this may refer to 'natural' brass.[31] Oreichalkos, the Ancient Greek translation of this term, was later adapted to the Latin aurichalcum meaning ‘golden copper’ which became the standard term for brass.[32] In the 4th century BC Plato knew oreichalkos as rare and nearly as valuable as gold [33]and Pliny describes how aurichalcum had come from Cypriot ore deposits which had been exhausted by the 1st century AD.[34]

Brass Making in the Roman World

During the later part of first Millennium BC the use of brass spread across a wide geographical area from Britain [35]and Spain [36]in the west to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India in the east.[37] .This seems to have been encouraged by exports and influence from the Middle-East and eastern Mediterranean where deliberate production of brass from metallic copper and zinc ores had been introduced.^ Prasad and colleagues detected the relation existing between zinc and short stature and hypogonadism in boys III certain regions of Middle East.

^ Additionally changing the type of water pipes from zinc products to copper ones not only reduces the zinc content of water but also the increased copper content of water interferes with zinc absorption.

[38] .The 4th century BC writer Theopompus, quoted by Strabo, describes how heating earth from Andeira in Turkey produced ‘droplets of false silver’, probably metallic zinc, which could be used to turn copper into oreichalkos.^ Zinc could interfere with absorption of copper.

^ Also environmental pollution of hair could lead to a false rise in hair zinc concentration.

^ Women, who use oral contraceptive pills, usually have high serum copper levels and need zinc and vitamin B6 supplementation.

[39] .In the 1st century BC the Greek Dioscorides seems to have recognised a link between zinc minerals and brass describing how Cadmia (zinc oxide) was found on the walls of furnaces used to heat either zinc ore or brass and explaining that it can then be used to make brass.^ Zinc ore (smithsonite) has been used for the production of brass since 1400.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When heated to 150 C, the compound decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A significant correlation was found between hepatic zinc and metallothionein levels.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[40]
By the first century BC brass was available in sufficient supply to use as coinage in Phrygia and Bithynia,[41] and after the Augustan currency reform of 23 BC it was also used to make Roman dupondii and sestertii.[42] .The uniform use of brass for coinage and military equipment across the Roman world may indicate a degree of state involvement in the industry,[43] and brass even seems to have been deliberately boycotted by Jewish communities in Palestine because of its association with Roman authority.^ The results indicated that benthic macroinvertebrate communities from different stream orders may vary in sensitivity to zinc.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[44]
Brass was produced by the cementation process where copper and zinc ore are heated together until zinc vapour is produced which reacts with the copper. There is good archaeological evidence for this process and crucibles used to produce brass by cementation have been found on Roman period sites including Xanten[45] and Nidda[46] in Germany, Lyon in France[47] and at a number of sites in Britain.[48] .They vary in size from tiny acorn sized to large amphorae like vessels but all have elevated levels of zinc on the interior and are lidded.^ Body zinc status could be evaluated by measuring its' level in various body fluids such as plasma and urine.

^ In milder forms of deficiency, serum zinc level varies between 40-60 microgm/dl.

^ When they were administered zinc supplement, both hair and serum zinc levels increased.

[49] .They show no signs of slag or metal prills suggesting that zinc minerals where heated to produce zinc vapour which reacted with metallic copper in a solid state reaction.^ As compared with other mineral containing solutions and zinc preparations, there is little or no GI complication with the usage of this solution.

^ The cheaper zinc supplements usually contain the metallic form of the minerals and are administered in amounts greater than the required dose.

^ They showed the response of growth failure to zinc supplementation (Halsted et al 1972, Standsted et al 1976).

.The fabric of these crucibles is porous probably designed to prevent a build up of pressure and many have small holes in the lids which may be designed to release pressure [50]or to add additional zinc minerals near the end of the process.^ As a result food processing such as cooking, zinc along with other minerals, enter the water.

^ If zinc therapy is continued for a period of 3-6 months, consultation with a nutritionist is necessary in order to prevent from any possible mineral imbalance.

^ Overall food processing leads to loss of zinc and other minerals including mangenese, chrome, molidium, vitamin D etc.

.Dioscorides mentioned that zinc minerals were used for both the working and finishing of brass, perhaps suggesting secondary additions.^ Zinc ore (smithsonite) has been used for the production of brass since 1400.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Perca fluviatilis ) caught downstream from a brass works in Sweden reflected the water concentration of zinc (0.5659 g/litre).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results suggest that impaired taste acuity can be used as a functional test of suboptimal zinc nutriture in children, in conjunction with a biochemical index of zinc status.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[51]
.Brass made during the early Roman period seems to have varied between 20% to 28% wt zinc.^ The amount of zinc in other body tissues varies between 2­1 Omg/l OOgr.

^ The body requirement of zinc is maximum during the initial 6 weeks of life, a period which is associated with very rapid growth rate.

^ In milder forms of deficiency, serum zinc level varies between 40-60 microgm/dl.

[52] .The high content of zinc in coinage and brass objects declined after the first century AD and it has been suggested that this reflects zinc loss during recycling and thus an interruption in the production of new brass.^ In the first research which was conducted by the author and colleagues during autumn of 1999, entitled "The effect of zinc supplementation on height and weight percentiles" it was concluded that ZInC supplementation increased height and weight percentiles.

^ Thus we can say that the sexual strength of a man depends upon the zinc content of prostate.

^ Despite the high dietary intake of zinc during pregnancy, release of interleukin in this state results in moderate hypozincemia.

[53] However it is now thought this was probably a deliberate change in composition [54]and overall the use of brass increases over this period making up around 40% of all copper alloys used in the Roman world by the 4th century AD.[55]

Brass Making in the Medieval Period

Little is known about the production of brass during the centuries immediately after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Disruption in the trade of tin for bronze from Western Europe may have contributed to the increasing popularity of brass in the east and by the 6th-7th centuries AD over 90% of copper alloy artefacts from Egypt were made of brass.[56] .However other alloys such as low tin bronze were also used and they vary depending on local cultural attitudes, the purpose of the metal and access to zinc, especially between the Islamic and Byzantine world.^ However the fact that the level of zinc in hair illustrates body zinc levels is not supported by other studies and investigations.

^ The amount of elemental zinc in tablets and capsules varies between 5-50mg.

^ As a result food processing such as cooking, zinc along with other minerals, enter the water.

[57] .Conversely the use of true brass seems to have declined in Western Europe during this period in favour of gunmetals and other mixed alloys [58]but by the end of the first Millennium AD brass artefacts are found in Scandinavian graves in Scotland[59], brass was being used in the manufacture of coins in Northumbria [60] and there is archaeological and historical evidence for the production of brass in Germany[61] and The Low Countries[62] areas rich in calamine ore which would remain important centres of brass making throughout the medieval period,[63] especially Dinant - brass objects are still collectively known as dinanterie in French.^ Alloys, other than brass .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc ore (smithsonite) has been used for the production of brass since 1400.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Short stature and low weight are important Issues In this country.

The Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège in modern Belgium (before 1117) is an outstanding masterpiece of Romanesque brass casting.
The cementation process continued to be used but literary sources from both Europe and the Islamic world seem to describe variants of a higher temperature liquid process which took places in open topped crucibles.[64] .Islamic cementation seems to have used zinc oxide known as tutiya or tutty rather than zinc ores for brass making resulting in a metal with lower iron impurities.^ Alkaline Phosphates' quantity lower than normal limit is seen in severe malnutrition, Zinc deficiency, Radiotherapy, Scurvy and Achondroplasia (9).

^ The cheaper zinc supplements usually contain the metallic form of the minerals and are administered in amounts greater than the required dose.

^ Strain and Co-workers reported the amount of zinc in hair as 119.6±4.6 PPM, which is slightly lower than the above mentioned rates.

[65] .A number of Islamic writers and the 13th century Italian Marco Polo describe how this was obtained by sublimation from zinc ores and condensed onto clay or iron bars, archaeological examples of which have been identified at Kush in Iran.^ According to the writer, if people forget the foods that contain zinc, they can not obtain the required daily dose of zinc i.e.

^ CAS chemical names and registry numbers, synonyms, trade names and molecular formula of zinc ores a .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The main impurities in zinc ores are iron (114%), cadmium (0.10.6%), and lead (0.12%), depending on the location of the deposit (ATSDR, 1994).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[66] It could then be used for brass making or medicinal purposes. .In 10th century Yemen al-Hamdani described how spreading al-iglimiya, probably zinc oxide, onto the surface of molten copper produced tutiya vapour which then reacted with the metal.^ In air, acidifying factors, such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides and chlorides attack the zinc hydroxide-carbonate layer on the surface of metallic zinc yielding soluble zinc compounds.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cohen HJ & Powers BJ (1994) A study of respirable versus nonrespirable copper and zinc oxide exposures at a nonferrous foundry.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rohrs LC (1957) Metal-fume fever from inhaling zinc oxide.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[67] The 13th century Iranian writer al-Kashani describes a more complex process whereby tutiya was mixed with raisins and gently roasted before being added to the surface of the molten metal. A temporary lid was added at this point presumably to minimise the escape of zinc vapour.[68]
.In Europe a similar liquid process in open topped crucibles took place which was probably less efficient than the Roman process and the use of the term tutty by Albertus Magnus in the 13th century suggests influence from Islamic technology.^ Full term (less than 3 months) .

^ Long-term bioavailability of zinc in soil is influenced by mineralization processes, such as lattice penetration, which result in irreversible binding of zinc (Kiekens, 1995).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Researches have demonstrated that about 30-50% of old people use less than the recommended diet.

[69] The 12th century German monk Theophilus described how preheated crucibles were one sixth filled with powdered calamine and charcoal then topped up with copper and charcoal before being melted, stirred then filled again. The final product was cast, then again melted with calamine. .It has been suggested that this second melting may have taken place at a lower temperature to allow more zinc to be absorbed.^ Therefore consumption of legumes as whole, results in enterance of more zinc into body while less cadmium is absorbed.

^ It has been suggested that zinc may act as an antiviral agent.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In a second experiment it was reported that snails fed a bacterially contaminated diet absorbed more zinc than snails fed a sterile diet.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[70] Albertus Magnus noted that the ‘power’ of both calamine and tutty could evaporate and described how the addition of powdered glass could create a film to bind it to the metal.[71] .German brass making crucibles are known from Dortmund dating to the 10th century AD and from Soest and Schwerte in Westphalia dating to around the 13th century confirm Theophilus' account as they are open topped, although ceramic discs from Soest may have served as loose lids which may have been used to reduce zinc evaporation, and have slag on the interior resulting from a liquid process.^ Other components that have been shown to reduce the availability of zinc are binding to casein and its phosphopeptides as a result of tryptic or chymotryptic digestion.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result food processing such as cooking, zinc along with other minerals, enter the water.

^ As a result of weathering, soluble compounds of zinc are formed and may be released to water.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[72]

Brass Making in Renaissance and Post Medieval Europe

The Renaissance saw important changes to both the theory and practice of brassmaking in Europe. By the 15th century there is evidence for the renewed use of lidded cementation crucibles at Zwickau in Germany.[73] These large crucibles were capable of producing c.20kg of brass.[74] There are traces of slag and pieces of metal on the interior. Their irregular composition suggesting that this was a lower temperature not entirely liquid process.[75] .The crucible lids had small holes which were blocked with clay plugs near the end of the process presumably to maximise zinc absorption in the final stages.^ A major proportion of the zinc released from industrial processes is adsorbed on particles that are small enough to be in the respirable range.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The relationship between intake and health is affected by physiological factors (homeostasis) and by extrinsic factors that affect the availability of zinc for absorption and utilization or that interfere with the metabolism of zinc and biochemical processes that require zinc.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lee HH, Prasad AS, Brewer GJ, & Owyang C (1989b) Zinc absorption in human small intestine.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[76] Triangular crucibles were then used to melt the brass for casting.[77]
.16th century technical writers such as Biringuccio, Ercker and Agricola described a variety of cementation brass making techniques and came closer to understanding the true nature of the process noting that copper became heavier as it changed to brass and that it became more golden as additional calamine was added.^ Additionally changing the type of water pipes from zinc products to copper ones not only reduces the zinc content of water but also the increased copper content of water interferes with zinc absorption.

[78] Zinc metal was also becoming more commonplace By 1513 metallic zinc ingots from India and China were arriving in London and pellets of zinc condensed in furnace flues at the Rammelsberg in Germany were exploited for cementation brass making from around 1550.[79]
.Eventually it was discovered that metallic zinc could be alloyed with copper to make brass; a process known as speltering[80] and by 1657 the German chemist Johann Glauber had recognised that calamine was “nothing else but unmeltable zinc” and that zinc was a “half ripe metal.”[81] However some earlier high zinc, low iron brasses such as the 1530 Wightman brass memorial plaque from England may have been made by alloying copper with zinc and include traces of cadmium similar those found in some zinc ingots from China [82].^ Zinc could interfere with absorption of copper.

^ Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc absorption is similar to that of copper and iron.

.However the cementation process was not abandoned and as late as the early 19th century there are descriptions of solid state cementation in a domed furnace at around 900-950 degrees Celsius and lasting up to 10 hours.^ The proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the late follow-up sample, 37% (range 1963%), was increased compared with the early follow-up figure of 9% (221%).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[83] .The European brass industry continued to flourish into the post medieval period buoyed by innovations such as the 16th century introduction of water powered hammers for the production of battery wares.^ Zinc in urban and industrial areas, including metallurgical plants and brass/zinc production facilities, was present on particles with diameters of up to 5 m (Nriagu & Davidson, 1980).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[84] By 1559 the Germany city of Aachen alone was capable of producing 300,000 cwt of brass per year.[85] After several false starts during the 16th and 17th centuries the brass industry was also established in England taking advantage of abundant supplies of cheap copper smelted in the new coal fired reverberatory furnace.[86] .In 1723 Bristol brass maker Nehemiah Champion patented the use of granulated copper, produced by pouring molten metal into cold water.^ Carter JW & Cameron IL (1973) Toxicity bioassay of heavy metals in water using Tetrahymena pyriformis .
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zinc is the fourth most widely used metal in the world after iron, aluminium and copper.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Van den Berg CMG (1986) The determination of trace metals in sea-water using cathodic stripping voltammetry.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[87] .This increased the surface area of the copper helping it react and zinc contents of up to 33% wt were reported using this new technique.^ Zinc concentrations of up to 2.32 mg/litre in the water and 1016 mg/kg dw in gill tissue were reported.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Total zinc concentrations in fresh and estuarine waters have been reported to be up to 3900 and 15 g/litre, respectively.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Floating aquatic plants can take up zinc by the roots and shoots (the lower surface with water contact).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[88]
.In 1738 Nehemiah’s son William Champion patented a technique for the first industrial scale distillation of metallic zinc known as distillation per descencum or ‘the English process.’[89] This local zinc was used in speltering and allowed greater control over the zinc content of brass and the production of high zinc copper alloys which would have been difficult or impossible to produce using cementation, for use in expensive objects such as scientific instruments, clocks, brass buttons and costume jewellery.^ Zinc ore (smithsonite) has been used for the production of brass since 1400.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since those first reports, mild zinc deficiency has been reported in infants and younger children living both in developing and in industrialized countries.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Taking the historical consumption and produce life cycles of recovered zinc products into account, recovery rates have been estimated to be as high as 80% from zinc sheet and coated steels (EZI, 1996).
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[90] .However Champion continued to use the cheaper calamine cementation method to produce lower zinc brass [91]and the archaeological remains of bee-hive shaped cementation furnaces have been identified at his works at Warmley.^ However, liver copper levels were significantly lower only in the newborns of mothers fed 0.5% zinc.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A- Investigtigation of natural limits of the element Zinc in blood serum of the staff of Firouzgar Hospital using Atomic Ansorption Spectrophotometry method, year 2003.

^ Their results for dissolved zinc obtained using clean sampling and analysis techniques were lower by 12 orders of magnitude than those obtained in a national monitoring programme.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[92] .By the mid late 18th century developments in cheaper zinc distillation such as John-Jaques Dony’s horizontal furnaces in Belgium and the reduction of tariffs on zinc[93] as well as demand for corrosion resistant high zinc alloys increased the popularity of speltering and as a result cementation was largely abandoned by the mid 19th century.^ Porter FC (1995) Corrosion resistance of zinc and zinc alloys.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Of the electroanalytical techniques, polarography is rarely employed except for samples containing high zinc concentrations (> 10 g/litre), such as digests of ores.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The formation of such complexes can increase the mobility and/or solubility of zinc.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[94]

See also

References

  1. ^ Engineering Designer, v 30, n 3, May-June 2004, 6-9
  2. ^ Machinery Handbook, Industrial Press Inc, New York, Edition 24, page 501
  3. ^ Bearings and bearing metals, The Industrial Press, 1921, p. 29, http://books.google.com/books?id=nopKAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA29. 
  4. ^ OSH Answers: Non-sparking tools
  5. ^ Thornton, C. P. (2007) ‘Of brass and bronze in prehistoric southwest Asia’ in La Niece, S. Hook, D. and Craddock, P.T. (eds.) Metals and mines: Studies in archaeometallurgy London: Archetype Publications. p.
  6. ^ de Ruette, M. (1995) ‘From Contrefei and Speauter to Zinc: The development of the understanding of the nature of zinc and brass in Post Medieval Europe’ in Hook, D.R. and Gaimster, D.R.M (eds) Trade and Discovery: The Scientific Study of Artefacts from Post Medieval Europe and Beyond London: British Museum Occasional Papers 109
  7. ^ Cruden's Complete Concordance p. 55
  8. ^ Craddock, P.T. and Eckstein, K (2003) ‘Production of Brass in Antiquity by Direct Reduction’ in Craddock, P.T. and Lang, J. (eds) Mining and Metal Production Through the Ages London: British Museum p.227
  9. ^ Rehren, T. and Martinon Torres, M. (2008) ‘Naturam ars imitate: European brassmaking between craft and science’ in Martinon-Torres, M and Rehren, T. (eds) Archaeology, History and Science Integrating Approaches to Ancient Material  :Left Coast Press, 170-5
  10. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003 p.226-7
  11. ^ Walker, Roger. "Mass, Weight, Density or Specific Gravity of Different Metals". Density of Materials. United Kingdom: SImetric.co.uk. http://www.simetric.co.uk/si_metals.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-09. "brass - casting, 8400-8700... brass - rolled and drawn, 8430-8730" 
  12. ^ Ashby M, Johnson, K: Materials and Design; The art and science of Material Selection in Product Design, page 223. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, 2002, UK.
  13. ^ Chase Brass & Copper Company, Inc
  14. ^ News & Alerts - California Dept. of Justice - Office of the Attorney General
  15. ^ News & Alerts - California Dept. of Justice - Office of the Attorney General
  16. ^ San Francisco Superior Court, People v. Ilco Unican Corp., et a. (No. 307102) and Mateel Environmental Justice Foundation v. Ilco Unican Corp., et al. (No. 305765)
  17. ^ a b AB 1953 Assembly Bill - Bill Analysis
  18. ^ http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/PollutionPrevention/upload/Lead-in-Plumbing-Fact-Sheet.pdf
  19. ^ Doorknobs: A Source of Nosocomial Infection?
  20. ^ [1] Example patent referring to fixings
  21. ^ A Dictionary of Alloys by E.N. Simons.
  22. ^ National Pollutant Inventory - Copper and compounds fact sheet
  23. ^ manganese brass: Definition from Answers.com
  24. ^ Print Layout 1
  25. ^ http://nds.coi.gov.uk/content/detail.asp?NewsAreaID=2&ReleaseID=33758
  26. ^ Thornton 2007,189–201
  27. ^ Zhou Weirong, (2001) 'The Emergence and Development of Brass Smelting Techniques in China' Bulletin of the Metals Museum of the Japan Institute of Metals 34. p.87–98.
  28. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003 p.217
  29. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003 p.217
  30. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003 p.217, Thornton, C.P and Ehlers, C.B. (2003) ‘Early Brass in the ancient Near East’ in IAMS Newsletter 23 p.27-36
  31. ^ Bayley, J. (1990) ‘The Production of Brass in Antiquity with Particular Reference to Roman Britain’ in Craddock, P.T. (ed.) 2000 Years of Zinc and Brass London: British Museum p.8
  32. ^ Rehren and Martinon Torres 2008, p.169
  33. ^ Craddock, P.T. (1978) ‘The Composition of Copper Alloys used by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilisations: 3 The Origins and Early Use of Brass’ in Journal of Archaeological Science 5 p.8
  34. ^ Pliny the Elder Historia Naturalis XXXIV 2
  35. ^ Craddock, P.T., Cowell, M. and Stead, I. (2004) ‘Britain’s first brass’ in Antiquaries Journal 84 p339–46.
  36. ^ Montero-Ruis, I and Perea, A (2007) ‘Brasses in the early metallurgy of the Iberian Peninsula’ in La Niece, S. Hook, D. and Craddock, P.T. (eds.) Metals and mines: Studies in archaeometallurgy London: Archetype:p.136-40
  37. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, p.216-7
  38. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, 217
  39. ^ Bayley 1990, p.9
  40. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, p.222-4. Bayley 1990, p.10.)
  41. ^ Craddock, P.T. Burnett, A and Preston K. (1980) ‘Hellenistic copper-based coinage and the origins of brass’ in Oddy, W.A. (ed) Scientific Studies in Numismatics British Museum Occasional Papers 18 p.53-64
  42. ^ Caley, E.R. (1964) Orichalcum and Related Ancient Alloys New York; American Numismatic Society
  43. ^ Bayley 1990, 21, Ponting, M (2002) ‘Roman Military Copper Alloy Artefacts from Israel: Questions of Organisation and Ethnicity’ in Archaeometry 44 (4) p.555-571
  44. ^ Ponting, M (2002) Keeping up with the Roman? Romanisation and Copper Alloys in First Revolt Palestine in IAMS 22 p.3-6
  45. ^ Rehren, T. (1999) ‘Small Size, Large Scale: Roman Brass Production in Germania Inferior’ in Journal of Archaeological Science 26 (8) p.1083-1087
  46. ^ Bachmann, H. (1976) ‘Crucibles from a Roman Settlement in Germany’ in Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 10(1) p.34-5
  47. ^ Rehren and Martinon Torres 2008, p.170-1
  48. ^ Bayley 1990
  49. ^ Rehren and Martinon Torres 2008, p.170-1
  50. ^ Rehren and Martinon Torres 2008, p.170-1
  51. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, p.224
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  53. ^ Caley 1964
  54. ^ Dungworth, D (1996) ‘Caley’s ‘Zinc Decline’ reconsidered’ in Numismatic Chronicle 156 p.228-234
  55. ^ Craddock 1978, p.14
  56. ^ Craddock, P.T. La Niece, S.C and Hook, D. (1990) ‘Brass in the Medieval Islamic World’ in Craddock, P.T. (ed.) 2000 Years of Zinc and Brass London: British Museum p.73
  57. ^ Ponting, M. (1999) ‘East Meets West in Post-Classical Bet’shan’ in Journal of Archaeological Science 26 p.1311-21
  58. ^ Bayley 1990, p.22
  59. ^ Eremin, K Graham-Campbell, J. and Wilthew, P. (2002) ’Analysis of Copper alloy artefacts from Pagan Norse Graves in Scotland’ in Biro, K.T and Eremin, K. (eds) Proceedings of the 31st International Symposium on Archaeometry Oxford: Archaeopress BAR p.342-9
  60. ^ Gilmore, G.R. and Metcalf, D.M (1980) ‘The alloy of the Northumbrian coinage in the mid-ninth century’ in Metcalf, D and Oddy, W. Metallurgy in Numismatics 1 p.83-98
  61. ^ Rehren 1999
  62. ^ Day, J. (1990) ‘Brass and Zinc in Europe from the Middle Ages until the 19th Century’ in Craddock, P.T. (ed.) 2000 Years of Zinc and Brass London: British Museum p.123-150
  63. ^ Day 1990, 124-33
  64. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, p.224-5
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  66. ^ Craddock et al 1990, p.73-6
  67. ^ Craddock et al 1990, p.75
  68. ^ Craddock et al 1990, p.76
  69. ^ Rehren, T (1999) ‘The same...but different: A juxtaposition of Roman and Medieval brass making in Europe’ in Young, S.M.M. (ed.) Metals in antiquity Oxford: Archaeopress p.252-7
  70. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, 226
  71. ^ Rehren and Martinon Torres 2008, 176-8
  72. ^ Rehren and Martinon Torres 2008, p.173-5
  73. ^ Martinon Torres, M. And Rehren, T. (2002) Agricola and Zwickau: Theory and Practice of Renaissance Brass Production in SE Germany in Historical Metallurgy 36(2) p.95-111
  74. ^ Martinon Torres and Rehren 2002, 105-6
  75. ^ Martinon Torres and Rehren 2002, 103
  76. ^ Martinon Torres and Rehren 2002, 104
  77. ^ Martinon Torres and Rehren 2002, 100
  78. ^ Martinon Torres and Rehren 2008, 181-2, de Ruette 1995
  79. ^ de Ruette 1995, 198
  80. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, 228
  81. ^ de Ruette 1995, 198-9
  82. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, 228
  83. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, 226-7.
  84. ^ Day 1990, 131
  85. ^ Day 1990, 131
  86. ^ Day, J (1991) ‘Copper, Zinc and Brass Production’ in Day, J and Tylecote, R.F (eds) The Industrial Revolution in Metals London: The Institute of Metals p.135-44
  87. ^ Day 1990, 138
  88. ^ Craddock and Eckstein 2003, 227
  89. ^ Day 1991,179-81, Dungworth, D and White, H (2007) ‘Scientific examination of zinc-distillation remains from Warmley, Bristol’. Historical Metallurgy 41, 77–83
  90. ^ Day 1991, 183
  91. ^ Day 1991, 183
  92. ^ Day, J. (1988) ‘The Bristol Brass Industry: Furnaces and their associated remains’ in Journal of Historical Metallurgy 22(1) p.24
  93. ^ Day 1991, 186-9
  94. ^ Day 1991, 192-3, Craddock and Eckstein 2003, 228

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.There is more than one meaning of Brass discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.^ For omnivorous adults, more than one-third of dietary zinc can be provided by flesh foods, whereas for vegetarians, plant-based foods are the major dietary source.
  • Zinc (EHC 221, 2001) 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

which is an alloy of copper and zinc, was not known till the thirteenth century. What is designated by this word in Scripture is properly copper (Deut 8:9). It was used for fetters (Jdg 16:21; 2Kg 25:7), for pieces of armour (1Sam 17:5, 6), for musical instruments (1Chr 15:19; 1Cor 13:1), and for money (Mt 10:9).
It is a symbol of insensibility and obstinacy in sin (Isa 48:4; Jer 6:28; Ezek 22:18), and of strength (Ps 10716; Mic 4:13).
The Macedonian empire is described as a kingdom of brass (Dan 2:39). The "mountains of brass" Zechariah (6:1) speaks of have been supposed to represent the immutable decrees of God.
.The serpent of brass was made by Moses at the command of God (Num 21:4-9), and elevated on a pole, so that it might be seen by all the people when wounded by the bite of the serpents that were sent to them as a punishment for their murmurings against God and against Moses.^ It accelerates the healing process in wounds and enhances the immune system against infection especially in old aged people.

It was afterwards carried by the Jews into Canaan, and preserved by them till the time of Hezekiah, who caused it to be at length destroyed because it began to be viewed by the people with superstitious reverence (2Kg 18:4). (See Nehushtan.)
The brazen serpent is alluded to by our Lord in Jn 3:14, 15. (See SERPENT.)
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Simple English


Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Some types of brass are called bronzes.

Brass has a golden appearance. It is harder than pure metals. It costs more than zinc.

There are some common brasses:

  • Alpha brasses - with less than 40% zinc
  • Beta brasses -
  • White brasses - with more than 45% zinc

Things brass are used to make:


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Zinc, which are similar to those in the above article.








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