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Braulio Carrillo

In office
May 28, 1838 – April 11, 1842
Preceded by Manuel Aguilar Chacón
Succeeded by Francisco Morazán

In office
May 5, 1835 – March 1, 1837
Preceded by José Rafael Gallegos
Succeeded by Joaquín Mora Fernández

Born March 20, 1800(1800-03-20)
Cartago, Costa Rica
Died May 15, 1845 (aged 45)
La Sociedad, El Salvador
Birth name Braulio Evaristo Carrillo Colina
Spouse(s) Froilana Carranza Ramírez
Alma mater Universidad de León
Profession scribe, lawyer
Religion Roman Catholic

Braulio Evaristo Carrillo Colina (March 20, 1800 – May 15, 1845) was the Head of State of Costa Rica (the title as it was known before the reform of 1848) during two periods: the first between 1835 to 1837, and the de facto between 1838 and 1842.

Before becoming head of state, Carrillo held a number of public positions, including Judge and Chairman of the Supreme Court of Costa Rica, member of the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica and member of the Congress of the Federal Republic of Central America.

Biography

Braulio Carrillo studied law at the University of León in Nicaragua. At the early age of 28 years was elected to the legislature for a period of two years, and for a brief period held the position of president of the legislature. In 1834, he was sent as a representative of Costa Rica to the Central American Congress, in El Salvador.

Upon the resignation of Costa Rica's head of state José Rafael de Gallegos in 1835, Carrillo was elected to complete the term of Gallegos. Because of their strong character and that the assembly repealed in August of that year the Ambulance Act, the cities of Cartago, Heredia and Alajuela took up arms against the government in mid-September, but were defeated after a civil war lasted a fortnight.

Carrillo was a candidate for reelection in 1837, but was defeated by Manuel Aguilar Chacón, who was overthrown in 1838 by a cuartelazo. Carrillo again became the Head of State, with absolute powers. He convened a constituent assembly, which, in November, declared that the state was separated from the Federal Republic of Central America, and thus Costa Rica became a sovereign country. The constituent session was suspended in December 1838.

In 1841 Carrillo issued the Guarantee Law, which made him head of state for life. There were a number of changes in the social life of Costa Rica, and Carrillo became known as the "Architect of the Costa Rican National State". He worked to prohibit vagrancy, vice and crime. He greatly boost the development of Costa Rica and introduced order in the Civil Service. His efforts to open a path to communicate with the Central Valley Matina on the Caribbean coast, could not be satisfactorily completed, as the government of Francisco Morazán stopped work when they were well advanced. Due to this effort, the National Park located between the provinces of Limón and San José and a highway between San José and Guápiles carries his name today. Braulio Carrillo National Park is also named after him.

In 1842 Francisco Morazán, former Federal President Central America, invaded Costa Rica and seized power. Carrillo went into exile and settled in El Salvador, where he was killed in 1845.

Achievements of Carrillo's governments

  • Abolished Ambulance Act and established the capital in San Juan del Murciélago, now Tibás.
  • Reduced the number of public holidays in 1836.
  • Enacted the General Code of the State of Costa Rica in 1841.
  • Developed a plan to boost agriculture.
  • Costa Rica left the Central American Federation and assumed full sovereignty.
  • He organized new Courts of Justice.

Sources

Political offices
Preceded by
José Rafael Gallegos
Head of State of Costa Rica
1835-1837
Succeeded by
Joaquín Mora Fernández
Preceded by
Manuel Aguilar Chacón
Head of State of Costa Rica
1838-1842
Succeeded by
Francisco Morazán
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