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Federative Republic of Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil (Portuguese)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Ordem e Progresso"
(Portuguese)
"Order and Progress"
AnthemHino Nacional Brasileiro
(Portuguese)
"Brazilian National Anthem"

National seal
Selo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of Brazil (color).svg
(Portuguese)
"National Seal of Brazil"
Capital Brasília
15°45′S 47°57′W / 15.75°S 47.95°W / -15.75; -47.95
Largest city São Paulo
Official language(s) Portuguese
Demonym Brazilian
Government Presidential Federal republic
 -  President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Worker's Party)
 -  Vice-President José Alencar (Brazilian Republican Party)
 -  President of the Chamber of Deputies Michel Temer (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party)
 -  President of the Senate José Sarney (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party)
 -  Chief Justice Gilmar Mendes
Legislature National Congress
 -  Upper House Federal Senate
 -  Lower House Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Portugal 
 -  Declared 7 September 1822 
 -  Recognized 29 August 1825 
 -  Republic 15 November 1889 
 -  Current constitution 5 October 1988 
Area
 -  Total 8,514,877 km2 (5th)
3,287,597 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.65
Population
 -  2009 estimate 192,272,890[1] (5th)
 -  2007 census 189,987,291 
 -  Density 22/km2 (182nd)
57/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $2.002 trillion[2] (9th)
 -  Per capita $10,455[2] (77th)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $1.482 trillion[2] (8th)
 -  Per capita $7,737[2] (63rd)
Gini (2009) 49.3[3] 
HDI (2007) 0.813[4] (high) (75th)
Currency Real (R$) (BRL)
Time zone BRT[5] (UTC-2 to -4[5])
 -  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2 to -4)
Date formats dd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .br
Calling code +55
.Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil[6][7] (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil, About this sound listen ), is the largest country in South America and the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas.^ The fundamental objectives of the Federative Republic of Brazil are: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Portuguese is the official language of the Federative Republic of Brazil Paragraph 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ República Federativa de Brasil/ Federative Republic of Brazil Constitución Política de 1988, con reformas de 1996, em inglês 1988 Constitution, with 1996 reforms in english .
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[8] .It is the fifth largest country by geographical area and the fifth most populous country in the world.^ It is Latin America's largest country and the world's fifth-largest.
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[8][9]
Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi).[8] .It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay.^ Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.
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^ The South American summit was attended by the presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.
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^ (NH, 7/96, p.74,75) 1865-1870 South America’s War of the Triple Alliance saw Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay aligned against Paraguay.
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Numerous archipelagos are part of the Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[8]
.Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until its independence in 1822.[10] Initially independent as the Brazilian Empire, the country has been a republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified.^ The President and the Vice-President of the Republic shall take office in a session of the National Congress, pledging to maintain, defend and carry out the Constitution, obey the laws, promote the general well-being of the Brazilian people, sustain the union, the integrity and the independence of Brazil.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFC, 7/1/00, p.B5) 1500-1800 "Chapters of Brazil Colonial History" by Joao Capistrano de Abreu (1853-1927) covered this period.
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^ Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.
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[10] .Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Federal Republic.^ The fundamental objectives of the Federative Republic of Brazil are: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The political and administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, all of them autonomous, as this Constitution provides.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Federative Republic of Brazil for over fifteen uninterrupted years and without criminal conviction, provided that they apply for the Brazilian nationality.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] .The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities.^ (SFC, 1/1/98, p.A14) 1997 The state of Amazonas formed the Amazona Filarmonica with a core of musicians from the former Soviet Union.
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[11][12]
.Brazil is the world's eighth largest economy by nominal GDP[13] and the ninth largest by purchasing power parity.^ Brazil is the world's largest chicken exporter.
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^ Stroessner led a $20 billion joint venture with Brazil to build Itaipu, at this time the world’s largest hydroelectric dam.
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^ Cardoso announced a $150 million credit line from the World Bank for infrastructure and the purchase of land for settlements in northeastern Brazil.
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[14] Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition.[15] .Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, Mercosul (Mercosur) and the Union of South American Nations, and is one of the BRIC Countries.^ (AP, 8/30/05) 1990 Dec 3, President Bush began a five-nation South American tour as he arrived in Brazil.
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^ Brazilian nationality, it being the only requirement for persons originating from Portuguese-speaking countries the residence for one uninterrupted year and good moral repute; 2.
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^ (AP, 12/13/07) 2007 Dec 16, Argentina and Brazil successfully launched a rocket into space in the first joint space mission by the two South American nations.
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.Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats.^ (Econ, 8/9/08, p.37) 2008 Aug 11, Brazil's environment minister said he granted a license for the Santo Antonio hydroelectric dam but attached stringent conditions to protect Amazon Indian reservations and nature preserves.
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[8]

Contents

History

Portuguese colonization and territorial expansion

.The land now called Brazil (the origin of whose name is disputed), was claimed by Portugal in April 1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.^ Empire_of_Brazil) 1826 Dom Pedro IV, emperor of Brazil, attained the Portuguese throne.
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^ (AP, 3/14/09) 2009 Mar 19, Brazil's Supreme Court sided with Amazonian Indians in a land dispute that some have called critical for determining the future of the rainforest that sprawls the size of Western Europe.
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^ (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20) 1502 Jan 1, Portuguese navigator Pedro Cabral and Amerigo Vespucci sailed the into the harbor of Rio de Janeiro.
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[16] The Portuguese encountered stone age natives divided into several tribes, most of whom shared the same Tupi-Guarani linguistic family, and fought among themselves.[17]
.Colonization was effectively begun in 1534, when Dom João III divided the territory into twelve hereditary captaincies,[18][19] but this arrangement proved problematic and in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony.^ In a federal territory, state taxes are within the competence of the Union and, if the territory is not divided into municipalities, also municipal taxes; municipal taxes are within the competence of the Federal District.
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^ Paragraph 1 - The territories may be divided into municipalities, to which the provisions of Chapter IV of this Title shall be applied, insofar as pertinent.
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[19][20] .The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes[21] while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.^ Paragraph 7 - The other rules regarding legislative procedure shall apply to the bills mentioned in this article, as long as they are not contrary to the provisions of this section.
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^ (SFC, 6/26/98, p.D4) 1998 Jul 6, The native population was estimated to be about 300,000 people in some 200 tribes.
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[22][23] .By the mid 16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export[17][24] and the Portuguese imported African slaves[25][26] to cope with the increasing international demand.^ Some 4 million slaves had been imported, the most of any nation in the western hemisphere.
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^ The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000 people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote Amazon areas.
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^ African honeybees were imported to Brazil by a scientist who let them escape.
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[22][27]
The first Christian mass in Brazil, 1500.
.Through wars against the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567, and to the northwest, taking São Luís in 1615.[28] They sent military expeditions to the Amazon rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds,[29] founding villages and forts from 1669.[30] In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Eastern Strip region (present-day Uruguay).^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8) 1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (MC, 4/4/02) 1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
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[31]
.At the end of the 17th century sugar exports started to decline[32] but the discovery of gold by explorers in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais (General Mines) around 1693, and in the following decades in current Mato Grosso and Goiás, saved the colony from imminent collapse.^ Leaders sought to refocus Mercosur on the needs of the region's poor as Venezuela's outspoken president called for remaking Mercosur to fit his vision of "21st century socialism."
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[33] From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines.[34]
.The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory that belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and succeeded in conquering the Eastern Strip in 1777. However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian borders.^ The sovereignty of the people shall be exercised by universal suffrage and by the direct and secret voting, with equal value for all, and, according to the law, by means of: 1.
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^ Brazilian nationality, it being the only requirement for persons originating from Portuguese-speaking countries the residence for one uninterrupted year and good moral repute; 2.
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^ (AP, 4/6/05) 2005 Apr 16, The Brazilian government created "Raposa Serra do Sol" reserve in Roraima state, which borders Venezuela and Guyana.
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[35]
.In 1808, the Portuguese royal family, fleeing the troops of the French Emperor Napoleon I that were invading Portugal and most of Central Europe, established themselves in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which thus became the seat of the entire Portuguese Empire.^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8) 1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (MC, 4/4/02) 1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
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[36] In 1815 Dom João VI, then regent on behalf of his incapacitated mother, elevated Brazil from colony to sovereign Kingdom united with Portugal.[36] In 1809 the Portuguese invaded French Guiana (which was returned to France in 1817)[37] and in 1816 the Eastern Strip, subsequently renamed Cisplatina.[38]

Independence and empire

Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Emperor Pedro I on 7 September 1822.
.King João VI returned to Europe on 26 April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil.^ (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8) 1974 Mar 15, In Brazil General Ernesto Geisel (1907-1996) became president and ruled for 5 years.
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^ Empire_of_Brazil)(AP, 9/7/97) 1822-1831 Pedro I ruled Brazil.
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[39] The Portuguese government attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808.[40] The Brazilians refused to yield and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.[41] On 12 October 1822, Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822.[42]
At that time almost all Brazilians were in favor of a monarchy and republicanism had little support.[43][44] .The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions.^ Sole paragraph - The Supreme Federal Court and the Superior Courts have their seat in the Federal Capital and their jurisdiction over the entire Brazilian territory.
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[45] The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824[46] and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.[47]
.
Emperor Dom Pedro II.
^ Brazil's Emperor Dom Pedro was among the witnesses.
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^ Empire_of_Brazil) 1826 Dom Pedro IV, emperor of Brazil, attained the Portuguese throne.
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^ (WSJ, 8/6/96, p.A1)(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/98) 1889 Nov 15, In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Emperor Dom Pedro II was overthrown and military officers established a republic.
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Due to "the length of government and the transformations that occurred, no other head of State has ever had a deeper impact on the country’s history".[48]
.The first Brazilian constitution was promulgated on 25 March 1824, after its acceptance by the municipal councils across the country.^ (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A10) 1825 Mar 25, The first Brazilian Constitution was promulgated by Peter I and solemnly sworn in the Cathedral of the Empire.
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[49][50][51][52] .Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to reclaim his daughter’s crown, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who was to become Dom Pedro II.^ (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14) 1831 Apr 7, Pedro I of Brazil abdicated in favor of his 5-year-old son, Pedro de Alcantara, Pedro II. (EWH, 4th ed., p.855) 1832 Apr 4, Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle reached Rio de Janeiro.
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[53] As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional prerogatives until he reached maturity, a regency was created.[54]
Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency.[55] The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy,[56][57] even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor.[58] .Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress."^ Brazil was nearly 100% Roman Catholic a century ago, but the percentage dropped to 84% in 1995 and is 74% today.
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[59]
.Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the War of the Triple Alliance)[60] and witnessed the consolidation of representative democracy, mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the press.^ (NH, 7/96, p.74,75) 1865-1870 South America’s War of the Triple Alliance saw Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay aligned against Paraguay.
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^ Paragraph 1 - If the vacancy occurs during the last two years of the President's term of office, the National Congress shall hold elections for both offices thirty days after the last vacancy.
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[61] .Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850[62] and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888.[63] The slave population had been in decline since Brazil's independence: in 1823, 29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%.^ The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000 people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote Amazon areas.
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^ (AP, 4/22/04) 2004 Apr, Brazil’s Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) began operations.
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^ (HN, 3/5/01)(MC, 3/5/02) 1888 May 13, Slavery was abolished in Brazil.
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[64]
.When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889[65] there was little desire in Brazil to change the form of government[66] and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his subjects.^ (WSJ, 8/6/96, p.A1)(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/98) 1889 Nov 15, In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Emperor Dom Pedro II was overthrown and military officers established a republic.
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[67][68] However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow."[69] After the death of his two sons, Pedro believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him."[70] .He cared little for the regime's fate[71][72] and so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of slavery.^ (AP, 3/4/07) 2007 Mar 5, In Brazil Bishop Ivo Lorscheiter (79), a prominent critic of the former military regime, died in Santa Maria.
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[73][74][75]

Old republic and Vargas era

.
The Brazilian coup d'état of 1930 raised Getúlio Vargas (center with military uniform but no hat) to power.
^ (SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2) 1930 Nov 3, Getulio Vargas (1883-1954) seized power in Brazil on the grounds of election fraud.
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He would rule the country for fifteen years.
The "early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship. .The army dominated affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states.^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8) 1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (MC, 4/4/02) 1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
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Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power".[65] In 1894 the republican civilians rose to power, opening a "prolonged cycle of civil war, financial disaster, and government incompetence."[76] By 1902, the government began a return to the policies pursued during the Empire, policies that promised peace and order at home and a restoration of Brazil's prestige abroad.[76] and was successful in negotiating several treaties that expanded (with the purchase of Acre) and secured the Brazilian boundaries.[77]
In the 1920s the country was plagued by several rebellions caused by young military officers.[78][79] By 1930, the regime was weakened and demoralized, which allowed the defeated presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas to lead a coup d'état and assume the presidency.[80] .Vargas was supposed to assume the presidency temporarily but instead, he closed the National Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with his supporters.^ Brazil voted for president, the lower house of Congress, a third of the Senate and all state governors and legislatures.
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^ (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20) 1951 Getulio Vargas, former autocrat, was elected president of Brazil and ruled to 1954.
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[81][82]
In 1935 Communists rebelled across the country and made an unsuccessful bid for power.[83] .The communist threat, however, served as an excuse for Vargas to launch another coup d'état in 1937 and Brazil became a full dictatorship.^ Seen as a threat to the dictatorship that ruled Brazil between 1964 and 1985, Boal was arrested, jailed and tortured before being exiled to Argentina.
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[84][85] The repression of the opposition was brutal with more than 20,000 people imprisoned, internment camps created for political prisoners in distant regions of the country, widespread torture by the government agents of repression, and censorship of the press,[86][87]
.Brazil remained neutral during the early years of World War II until the government declared war against the Axis powers in 1942.[88] Vargas then forced German, Japanese and Italian immigrants into concentration camps,[89] and, in 1944, sent troops to the battlefields in Italy.^ (SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2) 1930 Nov 3, Getulio Vargas (1883-1954) seized power in Brazil on the grounds of election fraud.
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^ (NH, 7/96, p.74,75) 1865-1870 South America’s War of the Triple Alliance saw Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay aligned against Paraguay.
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^ They sent more than 10,000 troops to crush the uprising in the proceeding years.
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[90][91] .With the allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in a military coup.^ They began experimenting with electric instruments and the rhythms of rock, but in 1970 the military regime sent them into exile in Europe.
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[92] Democracy was reinstated and General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president and took office in 1946.[93] Vargas returned to power in 1951, this time democratically elected, but he was incapable of either governing under a democracy or of dealing with an active opposition, and he committed suicide in 1954.[94][95]

Military regime and contemporary era

Several brief interim governments succeeded after Vargas's suicide.[96] .Juscelino Kubitscheck became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises.^ Jose Dirceu (59), the president's former chief-of-staff, and bar him from holding public office for 8 years amid a corruption scandal that has rocked the government.
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[97] .The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably,[98] but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in 1960.[99] His successor was Jânio Quadros, who resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office.^ (WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8) 1961 Aug 25, Brazilian president Janio Quadros resigned.
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^ (AP, 12/8/09) 2009 Dec 8, Brazil's largest city of Sao Paulo was been hit by severe floods for the second time in less than a week.
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^ (SFC, 1/13/01, p.A24) 1960 Apr 21, Brazil inaugurated its new capital, Brasilia, transferring the seat of national government from Rio de Janeiro.
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[100] .His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition[101] and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.^ He was replaced by vice-president Joao Goulart.
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^ Alfredo Palacio, a heart surgeon and Ecuador's vice president, assumed the presidency.
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^ (AP, 4/3/04) 1964 Mar 31, In Brazil a coup was put in motion and was over by April 4, when Pres.
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[102]
.The new regime was intended to be transitory[103] but it gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968.[104] The repression of the dictatorship's opponents, including urban guerrillas,[105] was harsh, but not as brutal as in other Latin American countries.^ It is Latin America's largest country and the world's fifth-largest.
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[106] Due to the extraordinary economic growth, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached its highest level of popularity in the years of repression.[107]
The transition from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva revealed that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability.
General Ernesto Geisel became president in 1974 and began his project of re-democratization through a process that he said would be "slow, gradual and safe."[108][109] Geisel ended the military indiscipline that had plagued the country since 1889,[110] as well as the torture of political prisoners, censorship of the press,[111] and finally, the dictatorship itself, after he extinguished the Fifth Institutional Act.[104] .However, the military regime continued, under his chosen successor General João Figueiredo, to complete the transition to full democracy.^ He had held on to power as the country came under a military dictatorship and returned to democracy.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[112]
.The civilians fully returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney assumed the presidency[113] but, by the end of his term, he had become extremely unpopular due to the uncontrollable economic crisis and unusually high inflation.^ José Sarney became president.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[114] .Sarney's unsuccessful government allowed the election in 1989 of the almost unknown Fernando Collor, who was subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992.[115] Collor was succeeded by his Vice-President Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Minister of Finance.^ Itamar Franco named Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Finance Minister, the 4th in 18 months.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.A13) 1997 Jan 7, It was announced that the government’s plan to privatize its 51% of Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) was opposed by former Presidents Jose Sarney and Itamar Franco, as well as Workers Party leader Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, all candidates in the 1998 elections.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ President and Vice-President of the Republic for crime of malversation and the Ministers of State for crimes of the same nature relating to those; 2.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real (Royal Plan)[116] that granted stability to the Brazilian economy[117] and he was elected as president in 1994 and again in 1998.[118] The peaceful transition of power to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva, who was elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006, proved that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability.^ This success enabled Cardoso to win elections for president in 1994.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Lula da Silva and Peru's Pres.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Lula da Silva.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[119]

Government and politics

The National Congress in Brasília, the capital of Brazil.
.The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District.^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities; 7.
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^ Federal District and the municipalities; 7.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, of their autonomous Government entities and other entities controlled by the Federal Government; 8.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] .The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The Federation is set on five fundamental principles:[11] sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism.^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities; 7.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal District and the municipalities; 7.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, of their autonomous Government entities and other entities controlled by the Federal Government; 8.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial under the checks and balances system), is formally established by the Constitution.^ Paragraph 3 - A legal entity indebted to the social welfare system, as established in law, may not contract with the Government nor receive benefits or fiscal or credit incentives therefrom.
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^ The states shall organize their judicial system, observing the principles established in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Legislative, Executive and Judicial Powers shall maintain an i ntegrated system of internal control for the purpose of: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] .The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District spheres.^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities; 7.
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^ The Union, the states and the Federal District have the power to legislate concurrently on: 1.
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^ Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities: 2.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected.^ Sole paragraph - All power emanates from the people, who exercise it by means of elected representatives or directly, as provided by this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[120][121][122] Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams.[120] .Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.[11] Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), and Democrats (DEM).^ (AP, 3/3/05) 2005 Mar 8, Brazilian prosecutors formally charged four men in the death of a 73-year-old American nun who worked to defend poor rainforest communities.
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^ (MC, 8/6/02) 1695 Nov 20, Zumbi dos Palmares, Brazilian leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an ambush.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Silva had seemed assured of a first-round victory until two weeks ago when Worker Party operatives were caught allegedly trying to pay $770,000 in cash for information to incriminate Alckmin's Social Democracy Party.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive.^ Public security, the duty of the State and the right and responsibility of all, is exercised to preserve public order and the safety of persons and property, by means of the following agencies: 1.
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.The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system.^ Paragraph I - The form and system of government defined by the plebiscite shall become effective on January 1, 1995.
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^ The Federative Republic of Brazil, formed by the indissoluble union of the states and municipalities and of the Federal District, is a legal democratic state and is founded on: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] .The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term,[11] with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term.^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities, to a person over sixty-five years of age, whose total income consists exclusively of work earnings.
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^ Paragraph 1 - The term of office of the State Deputies shall be four years and the provisions of this Constitution shall be applied to them in what refers to the electoral system, inviolability, immunities, remuneration, loss of office.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 6/24/06) 2006 Jun 24, Brazil’s President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announced his bid for a second term, pledging to push harder to eradicate poverty in Latin America's largest country if re-elected.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The current president is Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva who was elected on October 27, 2002,[123] and re-elected on October 29, 2006.[124] The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government.^ Lula da Silva and Peru's Pres.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Lula da Silva.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 11/11/09) 2009 Nov 24, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva gave a welcoming bear hug Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, and urged Western nations to drop threats of punishment over the Iranian nuclear program and instead negotiate a fair solution.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[11] Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. .The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate.^ Brazil voted for president, the lower house of Congress, a third of the Senate and all state governors and legislatures.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.
.Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress.^ (AP, 2/27/07) 2007 Feb, In Brazil 21 political parties were represented in the 513-seat Congress.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. .The largest political parties are the Workers' Party (PT), Democrats (DEM), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB-center), Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), Progressive Party (PP), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Liberal Party (PL), Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB), Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Democratic Labor Party (PDT), and the Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB).^ (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A7) 2001 Sep, Antonio Costa Santos, Worker’s Party (PT) mayor of Campinas, was assassinated.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 2/27/07) 2007 Feb, In Brazil 21 political parties were represented in the 513-seat Congress.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (WSJ, 2/20/02, p.A1) 2002 Mar 7, Brazil’s 4-party coalition collapsed with the pullout of the Liberal Front Party.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[125]

Law

Interior of the Supreme Federal Tribunal.
Brazilian law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions[126] and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.
The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, which was promulgated on 5 October 1988, and is the fundamental law of Brazil. .All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules.^ I sometimes wish I had time to go away with Adam Smith, John Locke, the founding fathers, and a choice selection of court decisions to think about all this.
  • Why Brazil Loves Linux : Gustavo Duarte 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC duartes.org [Source type: General]

^ A: Yes, all presentations must respect the rules defined in the OWASP Speaker Agreement .
  • AppSec Brasil 2009 - OWASP 10 February 2010 12:36 UTC www.owasp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paragraph 7 - The other rules regarding legislative procedure shall apply to the bills mentioned in this article, as long as they are not contrary to the provisions of this section.
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[127] As of April 2007, there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution.[128] .Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (leis orgânicas) which act in a similar way to constitutions.^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities; 7.
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^ Federal District and the municipalities; 7.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities: 2.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11][129] Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms.[11] .Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments.^ Paragraph 3 - An amendment to the Constitution shall be promulgated by the Directing Boards of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate with the respective sequence number.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Directing Boards of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Federal Senate, under the terms of paragraph 3 of article 60, of the Federal Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alters paragraph 2 of article 25 of the Federal Constitution The Directing Boards of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Federal Senate, under the terms of paragraph 3 of article 60, of the Federal Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] .There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts.^ X h the exceptional of the cases within the competence of the Supreme Federal Court and of the bodies of the Military Justice, of the Electoral Justice, of the Labour Justice and of the Federal Justice: 2.
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^ There shall be a Regional Electoral Court in the capital of each state and in the Federal District.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Other courts are federal electoral tribunals, to protect elections, and labor tribunals.
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[11] .The highest court is the Supreme Federal Tribunal.^ Supreme Federal Court; 11.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Courts and the Courts of Justice, to propose to the respective Legislative Power, with due regard for the provisions of article 169: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Justices of the Supreme Federal Court, the Attorney-General of the Republic and the Advocate-General of the Union for crimes of malversation; 3.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

This system has been criticised over the last few decades for the slow pace at which final decisions are issued. .Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings are made.^ The length of the sentences was largely symbolic because under Brazilian law no one can serve more than 30 years in prison.
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^ Some 600 delegates from more than 100 political parties met under the 52-year-old Socialist International's motto: "For a more human society.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ They sent more than 10,000 troops to crush the uprising in the proceeding years.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[130] .Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via Youtube.^ Supreme Federal Court; 11.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Courts and the Courts of Justice, to propose to the respective Legislative Power, with due regard for the provisions of article 169: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Justices of the Supreme Federal Court, the Attorney-General of the Republic and the Advocate-General of the Union for crimes of malversation; 3.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[131][132] .More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them.^ In 2009 Brazil’s Supreme Court struck down the press censorship legislation.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Paragraph 2 - The sports courts shall render final judgement within sixty days, at the most, counted from the date of the filing of the action.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Paragraph 1 - The Attorney-General of the Republic shall be previously heard in actions of unconstitutionality and in all suits under the power of the Supreme Federal Court.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[133]

Foreign relations and military

States hosting a diplomatic mission of Brazil.
.Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America,[134][135] however, social and economic problems prevent it from becoming an effective global power.^ (AP, 3/6/07) 2007 Mar 8, President Bush opened a weeklong tour of Latin America in Brazil.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 6/26/09) 2009 Jul 1, In Brazil Sao Paulo state officials launched what they say is Latin America's first passenger bus with an electric engine powered by hydrogen fuel cells.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Brazil’s National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES), founded in 1952, helped fund its development.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[136] Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. .More recently, the country has aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, and engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.^ It covers more than 40% of South America, bordering every country on the continent except Chile and Ecuador.
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^ (AP, 8/30/05) 1990 Dec 3, President Bush began a five-nation South American tour as he arrived in Brazil.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 5/20/08) 2008 May 23, In Brazil 12 South American leaders gathered in Brasilia to set up a Union of South American Nations.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[137]
Aircraft carrier NAE São Paulo of the Brazilian Navy.
.Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as: a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.^ It is Latin America's largest country and the world's fifth-largest.
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^ (AP, 3/6/07) 2007 Mar 8, President Bush opened a weeklong tour of Latin America in Brazil.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 6/26/09) 2009 Jul 1, In Brazil Sao Paulo state officials launched what they say is Latin America's first passenger bus with an electric engine powered by hydrogen fuel cells.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[138] In general, current Brazilian foreign policy reflects multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries.[139] .The Brazilian Constitution also determines that the country shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.^ Sole paragraph - The Federative Republic of Brazil shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the peoples of Latin America, viewing the formation of a Latin-American community of nations.
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^ The Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities shall promote and further tourism as a factor of social and economic development.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The domestic market is pan of the national patrimony and shall be supported with a view to permitting cultural and socio-economic development, the well-being of the population and the technological autonomy of the country, as set forth in a federal law.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11][140][141][142]
.The armed forces of Brazil consist of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian Air Force.^ The Legacy jet stabilized after the apparent collision and then landed at a Brazilian air force base in the Amazon state of Para.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Brazil claimed responsibility (Brazilian Revolutionary Action Front) for the killing and the Sep murder of another Workers’ Party mayor.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Armed Forces, comprised of the Navy, the Army and the Air Force, are permanent and regular national institutions, organized on the basis of hierarchy and discipline, under the supreme authority of the President of the Republic, and are intended for the defense of the Country, for the guarantee of the constitutional powers, and, on the initiative of any of these, of law and order.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With a total of 371,199 active personnel,[143] they comprise largest armed force in Latin America.^ (WSJ, 7/6/01, p.A7) 2001 Jul 8, Some 100 inmates escaped through a tunnel from Latin America’s largest prison in Sao Paulo.
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^ By 2009 it was Latin America’s largest oral history center.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ It is Latin America's largest country and the world's fifth-largest.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[citation needed] The Army is responsible for land-based military operations and has 235,978 active personnel.[144] .The Military Police (States' Military Police) is described as an ancillary force of the Army by the constitution, but is under the control of each state's governor.^ Paragraph 6 - The military polices and military fire brigades, ancillary forces and reserve of the Army, are subject, together with the civil police, to the Governors of the states, of the Federal District and of the territories Paragraph 7 - The law shall regulate the organization and operation of the agencies responsible for public security in such a manner as to guarantee the efficiency of their activities.
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^ During the period in which the state of siege decreed under article 137, I, is in force, only the following measures may be taken against persons: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Paragraph 3 - By proposal of the Court of Justice, a state law may create the state Military Justice, constituted, at first instance, by the Councils of Justice and, at second instance, by the Court of Justice itself, or by the Court of Military Justice in those states in which the military police troops count more than twenty thousand members.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] The Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding Brazilian territorial waters. .It is the oldest of the Brazilian armed forces and the only navy in Latin America to operate an aircraft carrier, the NAe São Paulo (formerly FS Foch of the French Navy).^ (WSJ, 7/6/01, p.A7) 2001 Jul 8, Some 100 inmates escaped through a tunnel from Latin America’s largest prison in Sao Paulo.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Brazil claimed responsibility (Brazilian Revolutionary Action Front) for the killing and the Sep murder of another Workers’ Party mayor.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[145] .The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces, and the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service.^ (WSJ, 7/6/01, p.A7) 2001 Jul 8, Some 100 inmates escaped through a tunnel from Latin America’s largest prison in Sao Paulo.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ By 2009 it was Latin America’s largest oral history center.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Legacy jet stabilized after the apparent collision and then landed at a Brazilian air force base in the Amazon state of Para.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[146]

States and municipalities

.Brazil is a federation composed of twenty-six States, one federal district (which contains the capital city, Brasília) and municipalities.^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities; 7.
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^ Federal District and the municipalities; 7.
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^ Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities: 2.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] .States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government.^ Ministers of State, the higher management of the federal administration; 3.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The political and administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, all of them autonomous, as this Constitution provides.
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^ Paragraph 3 - The proceeds from the collection of the tax mentioned in the present article are not subject to any mode of sharing with another unit of the federation.
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They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. .They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice.^ Court of Justice grants a petition to ensure observance of the principles indicated in the state Constitution or to provide for the enforcement of the law, judicial order or decision.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Paragraph 1 - The competence of the courts shall be defined in the Constitution of the state, and the law of judicial organization shall be the initiative of the Court of Justice.
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^ Attorney-General of the Republic by the Superior Court of Justice, in the case of refusal to enforce a federal law.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States.^ He was accused of shipping more than 70 tons of cocaine to the United States.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Paragraph 1 - The total number of Deputies, as well as the representation of the states and of the Federal District shall be established by a supplementary law, in proportion to the population, and the necessary adjustments shall be made in the year preceding the elections, so that none of those units of the Federation has less than eight or more than seventy Deputies.
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^ Paragraph 3 - By proposal of the Court of Justice, a state law may create the state Military Justice, constituted, at first instance, by the Councils of Justice and, at second instance, by the Court of Justice itself, or by the Court of Military Justice in those states in which the military police troops count more than twenty thousand members.
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.For example, criminal and civil laws can only be voted by the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.^ Paragraph 4 - A federal law shall provide for the use, by the Government of the Federal District, of the civil and military polices and the military fire brigade.
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^ The discussion and voting of the bills of law which are the initiative of the President of the Republic, the Supreme Federal Court and of the Superior Courts shall start in the Chamber of Deputies.
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^ Paragraph 6 - The retirement and pension benefits of the federal civil servants shall be financed by resources originating from the Union and from the contributions of the civil servants, under the terms of the law."
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[11]
.The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern.^ Federal Regional Courts or by the courts of the states, of the Federal District and the Territories, in the event of a denial; 3.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal Regional Courts or by the courts of the states, of the Federal District and the Territories, when the decision appealed: 1.
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^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities; 7.
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The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. .Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the application of federal funds in development projects.^ Paragraph 4 - A federal law shall provide for the use, by the Government of the Federal District, of the civil and military polices and the military fire brigade.
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^ North, Northeast and Centre-West Regions, through their regional financial institutions, in accordance with regional development plans, the semi-arid area of the Northeast being ensured of half of the funds intended for that Region, as provided by law; 2.
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^ Public funds shall be allocated to public schools, and may be channelled to community, religious or philanthropic schools, as defined by law, which 1.
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.Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities; 7.
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^ Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, of their autonomous Government entities and other entities controlled by the Federal Government; 8.
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^ Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities: 2.
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[11] .Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law.^ The courts may declare a law or a normative act of the Government unconstitutional only by the vote of the absolute majority of their members or of the members of the respective special body.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county).^ The political and administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, all of them autonomous, as this Constitution provides.
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^ Courts of Accounts of the states and of the Federal District, those of the Federal Regional Courts, of the Regional Electoral and Labour Courts, the members of Councils or Courts of Accounts of the municipalities and the members of the Public Prosecution of the Union who act before court; 2.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Paragraph l - Outside control of the Municipal Chamber shall be exercised with the assistance of the state or municipal Court of Accounts, or of the Municipal Councils or Courts of Accounts, where they exist.
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Geography

Topography map of Brazil.
.Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,[147] sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north.^ The South American summit was attended by the presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.
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^ Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.
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^ (NH, 7/96, p.74,75) 1865-1870 South America’s War of the Triple Alliance saw Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay aligned against Paraguay.
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.It shares a border with every country in South America except for Ecuador and Chile.^ It covers more than 40% of South America, bordering every country on the continent except Chile and Ecuador.
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^ The South American summit was attended by the presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.
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It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[8] Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse.[147]
.Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, China and the United States, and third largest in the Americas; with a total area of 8,514,876.599 square kilometers (3,287,612 sq mi) [148], including 55,455 square kilometers (21,411 sq mi) of water.^ Brazil is the world's largest chicken exporter.
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^ It is Latin America's largest country and the world's fifth-largest.
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^ (AP, 6/9/06) 2006 Jun 15, In Brazil some 3 million evangelical Protestants staged a huge rally in of Sao Paulo, demonstrating their growing influence in the world's largest Roman Catholic country.
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[8] It spans three time zones; from UTC-4 in the western states, to UTC-3 in the eastern states (and the official time of Brazil), and UTC-2 in the Atlantic islands.[5]
Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres (660 ft) and 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation.[149] The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country.[149] The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.[149]
The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).[149] These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar.[149] .In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north.^ Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.
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^ Theodore Roosevelt, started down the Rio da Duvida (River of Doubt) in the Amazon Basin for a 2-month adventure.
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The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina at 2,994 metres (9,823 ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.[8]
.Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.^ Brizola, one of Brazil's most notable leftist politicians, created and armed the so-called "Groups of 11," cells designed to resist the military dictatorship.
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^ (Econ, 8/8/09, p.70) 1998 Jan 1, In Brazil the new law making all Brazilian adults potential organ donors went into effect.
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^ Antonio Carlos Peixoto de Magalhaes (79), one of Brazil's most influential politicians, died.
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[150] .Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and Tapajós rivers.^ The dam is one of two planned for the Madeira river in the Amazon state of Rondonia.
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[150]

Climate

.The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.^ The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000 people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote Amazon areas.
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[8] According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.[151] Many regions have starkly different microclimates.[152][153]
An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.[151] Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F),[153] with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.[152]
Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate.[152] This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a lower altitude.[151] In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. .The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than 800 millimetres (31 in) of rain,[154] most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year[155] and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought.^ Paragraph 3 - The evidence mentioned in this article may be produced at intervals of less than five years, at the discretion of the employer.
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^ The couple was sentenced to five months in prison, five months of house arrest and a probation period for failing to declare they were carrying more than $10,000 into the United States.
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^ More than 800 civilians died from police bullets in Rio during the first eight months of this year.
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[152] .Brazil's 1877-78 Grande Seca (Great Drought), the most severe ever recorded in Brazil,[156] caused approximately half a million deaths.^ Death rates in Brazil from gunshots had reached 25.78 per 100,000.
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^ Most of the dead were in southern Brazil, including eight in Rio Grande do Sul.
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^ (SFC, 6/24/04, p.B6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonel_Brizola) 1983 A severe drought plagued northeast Brazil.
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[157] The one from 1915 was devastating too.[158]
South of Bahia, near São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year .[151] The south enjoys temperate conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding 18 °C (64 °F);[153] winter frosts are quite common, with occasional snowfall in the higher areas.[151][152]

Flora and fauna

The Macaw is a typical animal of Brazil. The country has one of the world's most diverse populations of birds and amphibians.
Amazon Rainforest, the largest tropical forest in the world.
.Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,[159] with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity.^ (AP, 3/23/07) 2007 Mar 29, Brazil's government said it will provide free Internet access to native Indian tribes in the Amazon in an effort to help protect the world's biggest rain forest.
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^ (SFC, 4/6/00, p.A12) 2000 Apr, UNESCO declared the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil a World Heritage site.
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^ She had spent decades fighting efforts by loggers and large landowners to expropriate lands and clear large areas of the Amazon rainforest.
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[160] In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions.[160]
The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Much of it, however, remains largely undocumented, and new species are regularly found.[citation needed] Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million.[160]
Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes; peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are abundant. .Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests.^ (SFC, 4/6/00, p.A12) 2000 Apr, UNESCO declared the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil a World Heritage site.
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^ Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva decreed a new 3.8 million acre (1.5 million hectare) Indian reservation in the heart of the Amazon rain forest's logging frontier.
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^ (AP, 6/2/05) 2005 Jun 3, In Brazil new logging permits were suspended in Mato Grosso state where the rain forest is being cleared at an ever increasing rate.
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[160][161] Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.[162]
.The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water contamination, climate change, fire, and invasive species.^ (WSJ, 3/21/97, p.A17)(WSJ, 9/13/04, p.A8) 1994 In Brazil some 5,800 square miles were cleared by fire for agriculture and ranching in this year.
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[159] In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development.[163] Construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.[162][164]

Economy

An Embraer ERJ-135 commercial jet. Brazil is the worlds second largest aircraft producer.
.Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's tenth largest economy at market exchange rates and the ninth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.^ Brazil is the world's largest chicken exporter.
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^ It is Latin America's largest country and the world's fifth-largest.
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^ (WSJ, 7/6/01, p.A7) 2001 Jul 8, Some 100 inmates escaped through a tunnel from Latin America’s largest prison in Sao Paulo.
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[2][165][166] .The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest in the world in the decades to come, the GDP per capita following and growing.^ This and a pending acquisition with Bertin, another Brazilian firm, would make JBS the world’s largest processor of meat.
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[167] .Its current GDP (PPP) per capita is $10,200, putting Brazil in the 64th position according to World Bank data.^ (AP, 10/31/08) 2008 Nov 3, Two of Brazil’s largest banks agreed to merge in a move to buttress the country’s financial system.
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^ (AP, 11/10/08) 2008 Nov 23, In southern Brazil weekend rains caused rivers to overflow their banks.
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^ (Econ, 2/5/05, p.36) 2005 Jan 1, Brazil was forecast for 3.6% annual GDP growth with a population at 181.4 million and GDP per head at $3,200.
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It has large and developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool.[14]
Brazilian exports are booming, creating a new generation of tycoons.[168] Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.[169] .The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.^ Brizola, one of Brazil's most notable leftist politicians, created and armed the so-called "Groups of 11," cells designed to resist the military dictatorship.
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[170]
Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998[171] and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.[172]
.Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion,[173] then a record sum.^ (AP, 7/23/02) 2002 Jul 26, In Brazil the new $1.4 billion Amazon Radar Surveillance (SIVAM), developed by Raytheon, was unveiled.
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^ (WSJ, 7/31/02, p.A12) 2002 Aug 7, The IMF agreed to lend Brazil $30 billion to stem a financial panic.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/98, p.A12) 1998 Oct 1, The IMF and the World Bank were negotiating an emergency loan package for Brazil of some $30 billion.
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.Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006.[174] One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period.^ The competence of the Union to issue currency shall be exercised exclusively bv the central bank.
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^ During the period in which the state of siege decreed under article 137, I, is in force, only the following measures may be taken against persons: 1.
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^ The President and the Vice-President of the Republic may not, without authorization from the National Congress, leave the country for a period of more than fifteen days, subject to loss of office.
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[175] .Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007.[176] Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.^ (WSJ, 9/4/98, p.A9) 1998 Sep 4, The Central Bank raised interest rates from 20 to 30%.
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^ (AP, 12/12/99) 1994 Brazil’s central bank increased interest rates to nearly 50% in response to the Mexican debt crises and devaluation.
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^ (AP, 8/27/06) 2006 Aug 30, Brazil’s central bank cut its key interest rate 0.5% to 14.25%, a quarter point more than had been expected.
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[177]

Components and energy

Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation and second-largest by installed capacity.
.Brazil's economy is diverse,[178] encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services.^ Almost 600 reserves were established, encompassing 12.5% of Brazil’s territory, but many only existed on paper.
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[168][179][180][181] The recent economic strength has been due in part to a global boom in commodities prices with exports from beef to soybeans soaring.[180][181] .Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007,[182] a performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.^ A reduction in trade barriers in the early 1990s along with an appreciating currency and pressure from cheap Chinese labor had combined to stagnate Brazil’s shoe exports.
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^ The national financial system, structured to promote the balanced development of the country and to serve the collective interests, shall be regulated by a supplementary law which shall also provide for: 1.
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^ (AP, 6/4/04) 2004 Jun 13, The UN Conference on Trade and Development opened in San Paulo, Brazil.
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[183][184]
The industry — from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables— accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product.[182] .Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8) 1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (MC, 4/4/02) 1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
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[185]
.Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; nonrenewable energy is mainly produced from oil and natural gas.^ Brazil is the world's largest chicken exporter.
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^ In 2006 it acquired Inco, a Canadian nickel producer, and became the world’s 2nd largest mining company.
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^ (AP, 4/14/08) 2008 Apr 14, In Brazil a top energy official said a deep-water exploration area could contain as much as 33 billion barrels of oil, an amount that would nearly triple Brazil's reserves and make the offshore bloc the world's third-largest known oil reserve.
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[186] A global power in agriculture and natural resources, Brazil experienced tremendous economic growth over the past three decades.[187] It is expected to become a major oil producer and exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries.[188][189][190] .The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.^ National Congress shall institute, as an auxiliary agency; the Social Communication Council, in the manner prescribed by law.
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^ Morales in response to Bolivia’s decision to nationalize its oil and gas industry.
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^ The National Defense Council is a consultation body of the President of the Republic on matters related to national sovereignty and the defense of the democratic state, and the following participate in it as natural members: 1.
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[191][192]

Science and technology

Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes. .But more than 73% of funding for basic research still comes from government sources.^ Its funded debt for more than two consecutive years, except for reasons of force majeure; 2.
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[193] .Some of Brazil's most notable technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE.^ Brizola, one of Brazil's most notable leftist politicians, created and armed the so-called "Groups of 11," cells designed to resist the military dictatorship.
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^ Paragraph 2 - The provisions of this article apply to scientific and technological research institutions."
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^ Brazil began construction of a rocket base at Alcantara, forcing some 300 local families to resettle elsewhere.
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.The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant capabilities in launch vehicles, launch sites and satellite manufacturing.^ Paragraph 2 - The law shall regulate construction standards for public sites and buildings and for the manufacturing of public transportation vehicles, in order to ensure adequate access to the handicapped.
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^ Initially taped segments were broadcast, but by 2007 live programming reached over 30 stations in Argentina and elsewhere in Latin America.
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[194]
Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory to fuel the country's energy demands and plans are underway to build the country's first nuclear submarine.[195] .Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America[196] with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences.^ (AP, 3/6/07) 2007 Mar 8, President Bush opened a weeklong tour of Latin America in Brazil.
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^ (AP, 12/21/07) 2007 Dec 23, Aloisio Lorscheider (b.1924), one of Latin America's most influential cardinals, died in Sao Paulo, Brazil, after a lengthy hospitalization.
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^ (MC, 4/22/02) 1948 The Safra banking family arrive in Brazil from Lebanon and proceeded to establish one of the country's biggest banks.
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Transport

BR-116 highway in the outskirts of Fortaleza.
Brazil has a large and diverse transport network. Roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,425 mi) in 2002.[197]
Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. .The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,186 mi) in 2002, as compared with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Most of the railway system belongs to the Federal Railroad Corp., with a majority government interest; there are also seven lines which the government privatized in 1997.[198] The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil.^ (WSJ, 7/31/02, p.A12) 2002 Aug 7, The IMF agreed to lend Brazil $30 billion to stem a financial panic.
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^ (AP, 10/31/08) 2008 Nov 3, Two of Brazil’s largest banks agreed to merge in a move to buttress the country’s financial system.
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^ (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A12) 1997 May 7, Brazil’s state mining Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), incorporated in 1942, was privatized.
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.The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina, Fortaleza, and Salvador.^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8) 1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (MC, 4/4/02) 1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
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.There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States.^ Brazil is the world's largest chicken exporter.
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^ About 7,500 people invaded plots of government-owned land near Petrolina, 1,360 miles north of Sao Paulo in Pernambuco state.
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^ Stroessner led a $20 billion joint venture with Brazil to build Itaipu, at this time the world’s largest hydroelectric dam.
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[199] .São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting the city with virtually all major cities across the world.^ (AP, 6/9/06) 2006 Jun 15, In Brazil some 3 million evangelical Protestants staged a huge rally in of Sao Paulo, demonstrating their growing influence in the world's largest Roman Catholic country.
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^ (AP, 12/8/09) 2009 Dec 8, Brazil's largest city of Sao Paulo was been hit by severe floods for the second time in less than a week.
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^ (AP, 5/25/05) 2005 May 26, In Sao Paulo, Brazil, at least 1.5 million evangelical Protestants rallied in the heart of the financial district, demonstrating their growing clout in the world's largest Roman Catholic country.
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[200]
Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos. .Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul.^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8) 1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (MC, 4/4/02) 1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
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[201]

Demographics

Colour/Race (2008)
White 48.43%
Brown (Multiracial) 43.80%
Black 6.84%
Yellow 0.58%
Amerindian 0.28%
.The population of Brazil as recorded by the 2008 PNAD was approximately 190 million[202] (22.31 inhabitants per square kilometer), with a ratio of men to women.^ (SFC, 8/31/01, p.D2) 2001 Aug 22, Brazil moved to produce a generic version of the anti-AIDS drug nelfinavir under int’l.
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^ (AP, 12/31/06) 2006 Dec, Brazil’s government agreed to spend $3 million on a bridge to Guyana over the Takutu River.
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^ (Econ, 9/13/08, p.44) 2008 Sep 22, In southern Brazil 5 hooded gunmen killed 15 people on an alleged drug trafficker's ranch.
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of 0.95:1[203] and 83.75% of the population defined as urban.[204] .The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.^ Almost 600 reserves were established, encompassing 12.5% of Brazil’s territory, but many only existed on paper.
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^ Legislative Assembly shall be composed of seventeen Deputies if the population of the state is less than six hundred thousand inhabitants, and of twenty-four Deputies if it is equal to or greater than this number, up to one million and five hundred thousand inhabitants; 2.
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^ (AP, 6/9/09)(SFC, 6/9/09, p.A3) 2009 Jun 12, A Brazilian ship recovered three more bodies from the Atlantic bringing the total to 44.
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Population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, due to a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. .In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years[205] and to 72.6 years in 2007.[206] It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950–1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050 [207] thus completing the demographic transition.^ Paving of the road was expected to be completed by 2008.
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^ The Asian crises had reduced commodity demand and the central bank fought to defend the real, increasing overnight interest rates to an annual 40% and killing growth.
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^ (AP, 8/29/04) 2004 Aug, An $11 billion merger between Belgium’s Interbrew and Brazil’s largest brewer AmBev formed InBev.
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[208]
.According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; 43.80% (about 83 million) as Brown (Multiracial), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Yellow; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian, while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race.^ (SFC, 10/23/98, p.A10) 1998 Oct 28, Brazil unveiled an $84 million austerity package that included a tax on government pensions.
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^ (AP, 4/16/07) 2007 Apr 14, The population of Brazil numbered about 188 million people.
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^ (AP, 12/17/09)(SFC, 12/18/09, p.A5)(AP, 12/19/09) 2009 Brazil’s population stood at about 192 million people.
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[209]
.In 2007, the National Indian Foundation reported the existence of 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from 40 in 2005. Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.^ Brazil is the world's largest chicken exporter.
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^ (AP, 6/5/07) 2007 Jun 10, In Brazil millions of people packed the streets of Sao Paulo for what organizers said was the world's largest gay pride parade, dancing and waving rainbow flags in a carnival-like atmosphere to condemn homophobia, racism and sexism.
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^ (AP, 3/23/07) 2007 Mar 29, Brazil's government said it will provide free Internet access to native Indian tribes in the Amazon in an effort to help protect the world's biggest rain forest.
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[210]
.Most Brazilians descend from the country's indigenous peoples, Portuguese settlers, and African slaves.^ Brazilian nationality, it being the only requirement for persons originating from Portuguese-speaking countries the residence for one uninterrupted year and good moral repute; 2.
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^ The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000 people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote Amazon areas.
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[211] Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500 miscegenation between these three groups has taken place. .The brown population (as multiracial Brazilians are officially called; pardo in Portuguese)[212][213] is a broad category that includes Caboclos (descendants of Whites and Indians), Mulattoes (descendants of Whites and Blacks) and Cafuzos (descendants of Blacks and Indians).^ (HN, 12/2/98) 1964 The Brazilian film "Black God, White Devil" was directed by Glauber Rocha.
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[211][212][213][214][215][216] Caboclos form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Central-Western regions.[217] .A large Mulatto population can be found in the eastern coast of the northeastern region from Bahia to Paraíba[216][218] and also in northern Maranhão,[219][220] southern Minas Gerais[221] and in eastern Rio de Janeiro.^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8) 1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (MC, 4/4/02) 1832 Apr 8, Charles Darwin began a trip through Rio de Janeiro.
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[216][221] From the 19th century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration. .About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany, Japan and the Middle-East.^ The Sao Francisco River project is meant to benefit some 12 million poor people by allowing large sections of the country's arid northeast to be irrigated.
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^ (USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.10) 1808 Napoleon chased Portugal’s royal family to Brazil.
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^ (Econ, 10/29/05, p.66) 2004 Aug, Brazil and Peru inaugurated the construction of a $7 million bridge between Assis, Brazil, and Inapari, Peru.
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[222]
Christ the Redeemer, symbol of Brazilian Christianity.
In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48%[223] and among the youth (ages 15–19) 1.74%. .It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor.^ The Sao Francisco River project is meant to benefit some 12 million poor people by allowing large sections of the country's arid northeast to be irrigated.
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[224] Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.[225]
.In 2006 nearly 50,000 people were murdered in Brasil.^ It was reported that 50,000 people die annually from car accidents because drivers routinely ignore traffic laws.
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^ About 700,000 people were infected with both in 2006.
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[226] .More than 500,000 people have been killed by firearms in Brazil between 1979 and 2003, according to the UN report.^ It was reported that 50,000 people die annually from car accidents because drivers routinely ignore traffic laws.
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^ (AP, 3/25/03) 2003 Apr 4, In southern Brazil 2 buses crashed head-on during heavy rains, killing 18 people and injuring seven others.
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^ (AP, 5/12/05) 2005 May 14, In Brazil more than 12,000 landless farmers who have marched nearly 125 miles to protest the slow pace of land reform reached the outskirts of Brasilia.
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[227]
.Catholicism is dominant, making Brazil the largest Catholic nation in the world.^ Brazil is the world's largest chicken exporter.
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^ This and a pending acquisition with Bertin, another Brazilian firm, would make JBS the world’s largest processor of meat.
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^ (AP, 6/9/06) 2006 Jun 15, In Brazil some 3 million evangelical Protestants staged a huge rally in of Sao Paulo, demonstrating their growing influence in the world's largest Roman Catholic country.
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[228] .According to the 2000 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 73.57% of the population followed Roman Catholicism; 15.41% Protestantism; 1.33% Kardecist spiritism; 1.22% other Christian denominations; 0.31% Afro-Brazilian religions; 0.13% Buddhism; 0.05% Judaism; 0.02% Islam; 0.01% Amerindian religions; 0.59% other religions, undeclared or undetermined; while 7.35% have no religion.^ (AP, 10/1/05) 2005 Sep 30, Olga de Alaketu (80), the high priestess of one the oldest temples of the Afro-Brazilian religion Condomble, was buried.
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^ (AP, 10/11/05) 2005 Oct 13, Argentina and Chile suspended imports of Brazilian meat, joining 28 other countries with similar bans after an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.
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^ Paragraph 1 - The State shall protect the expressions of popular, Indian and Afro-Brazilian cultures, as well as those of other groups participating in the national civilization process.
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[229]
.The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte — all in the Southeastern Region — with 19.5, 11.5, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively.^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 7/19/02, p.A5) 90Mil BC The Baurusuchus salgadoensis lived in an area of southeastern Brazil known as the Bauru Basin, some 700 kilometers (450 miles) west of modern-day Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8) 1565 Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro.
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[230] Almost all of the state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina. .There are also non-capital metropolitan areas in the states of São Paulo (Campinas, Santos and the Paraíba Valley), Minas Gerais (Steel Valley), Rio Grande do Sul (Sinos Valley), and Santa Catarina (Itajaí Valley).^ (WSJ, 1/28/09, p.A10) 2009 Jan 30, In Brazil officials in Rio Grande do Sul state said 10 victims had drowned in the city of Pelotas, and that floods had driven thousands from their homes.
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^ (AP, 1/12/03) 2003 Jan 16, In Brazil mudslides killed at least 36 people in Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo states.
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^ (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A10) 1997 Jan 4, Some 54 people were killed during 4 days of torrential rain in the southeastern state of Minas Gerais.
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[231]
Largest cities of Brazil

Rank Municipality State Population
1 São Paulo São Paulo 10,990,249
2 Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro 6,161,047
3 Salvador Bahia 2,948,733
4 Brasília Federal District 2,557,158
5 Fortaleza Ceará 2,473,614
6 Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais 2,434,642
7 Curitiba Paraná 1,828,092
8 Manaus Amazonas 1,709,010
9 Recife Pernambuco 1,549,980
10 Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul 1,430,220
11 Belém Pará 1,424,124
12 Guarulhos São Paulo 1,279,202
13 Goiânia Goiás 1,265,394
14 Campinas São Paulo 1,056,644
15 São Luís Maranhão 986,826
16 São Gonçalo Rio de Janeiro 982,832
17 Maceió Alagoas 924,143
18 Duque de Caxias Rio de Janeiro 864,392
19 Nova Iguaçu Rio de Janeiro 855,500
20 São Bernardo do Campo São Paulo 801,580
Source: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2008 Population Estimates)

Language

Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo, the first language museum in the world.
.The official language of Brazil is Portuguese[9] which is spoken by almost all of the population and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes.^ Portuguese is the official language of the Federative Republic of Brazil Paragraph 1.
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^ Paragraph 2 - Regular elementary education shall be given in the Portuguese language and Indian communities shall also be ensured the use of their native tongues and their own learning methods.
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.The exception to this is in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira where Nheengatu, an indigenous language of South America, has been granted co-official status with Portuguese.^ Portuguese is the official language of the Federative Republic of Brazil Paragraph 1.
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[232] .Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.^ The rights inherent to born Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
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^ The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
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^ Brazilian nationality, it being the only requirement for persons originating from Portuguese-speaking countries the residence for one uninterrupted year and good moral repute; 2.
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[233]
Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, influenced by the Amerindian and African languages.[234] .As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries.^ Brazilian nationality, it being the only requirement for persons originating from Portuguese-speaking countries the residence for one uninterrupted year and good moral repute; 2.
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These differences are comparable to those between American and British English.[234]
.In 2008, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of Portuguese into one international language, as opposed to two diverged dialects of the same language.^ Brazilian nationality, it being the only requirement for persons originating from Portuguese-speaking countries the residence for one uninterrupted year and good moral repute; 2.
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^ Paragraph 2 - Regular elementary education shall be given in the Portuguese language and Indian communities shall also be ensured the use of their native tongues and their own learning methods.
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^ Portuguese is the official language of the Federative Republic of Brazil Paragraph 1.
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All CPLP countries were given from 2009 until 2014 to adjust to the necessary changes.[235]
Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas and a number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants.[234] There are significant communities of German (mostly the Hunsrückisch, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian dialect, of Venetian origin) speakers in the south of the country, both of which, are influenced by the Portuguese language.[236][237]

Culture

The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese empire. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles.[238] The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions.[239] .Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other European immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil.^ Paragraph 1 - The State shall protect the expressions of popular, Indian and Afro-Brazilian cultures, as well as those of other groups participating in the national civilization process.
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^ Paragraph 1 - The teaching of Brazilian History shall take into account the contribution of the different cultures and ethnic groups to the formation of the Brazilian people.
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[240] The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.[241]
Coffee has been one of the main beverages among Brazilians since the beginning of the 19th century.
Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.[242] Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's national dish;[243][244] and regional foods such as vatapá, moqueca, polenta and acarajé. Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros ("brigadiers") and beijinhos ("kissies"). The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha.
.Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century)[245][246] to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism.^ Paragraph 1 - The teaching of Brazilian History shall take into account the contribution of the different cultures and ethnic groups to the formation of the Brazilian people.
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Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Brazil.[242]
Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim in recent years.[247]
Brazilian music encompasses various regional styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms. It developed distinctive styles, among them samba, música popular Brasileira, choro, sertanejo, brega, forró, frevo, maracatu, bossa nova, Brazilian rock, and axé.
The most popular sport in Brazil is football (soccer). .The Brazilian national football team is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament five times.^ Brazilian father or a Brazilian mother, provided that they come to reside in the Federative Republic of Brazil and opt for the Brazilian nationality at any time; 2.
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^ Those born abroad, of a Brazilian father or a Brazilian mother, provided that they come to reside in the Federative Republic of Brazil and opt for the Brazilian nationality at any time; II - ....................................................................................
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[248] Basketball, volleyball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences. Though not as regularly followed or practiced, tennis, team handball, swimming, and gymnastics have found a growing number of enthusiasts over the last decades. Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football,[249] futsal (indoor football)[250] and footvolley emerged in Brazil as variations of football. In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira,[251] Vale tudo,[252] and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.[253] In auto racing, Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One world championship nine times.[254][255][256]
Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1950 FIFA World Cup[257] and has been chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup.[258] The São Paulo circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil.[259] .São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963,[260] and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007.[260] On 2 October 2009, Brazil was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games, the first to be held in South America.^ Paragraph 2 - The Pedro II School, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, shall be maintained in the federal sphere.
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[261]

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [3] Global Peace Index[262] 85 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 75 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 75 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 56 out of 133

See also

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Brazil 2009 Estimate IGBE: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Brazil". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=223&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr1.x=61&pr1.y=8. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ "Desigualdade e pobreza continuaram caindo no Brasil mesmo com crise, revela Ipea — Agência Brasil – EBC". Agenciabrasil.gov.br. http://www.agenciabrasil.gov.br/noticias/2009/08/03/materia.2009-08-03.3509162052/view. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  4. ^ UNDP Human Development Report 2009. "Table H: Human development index 2007 and its components" (PDF). UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  5. ^ a b c "Hora Legal Brasileira". Observatório Nacional. http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  6. ^ As on for example the national website.
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  194. ^ "Brazil — The Space Program". country-data.com. April 1997. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-1826.html. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
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  196. ^ Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität
  197. ^ Road system in Brazil
  198. ^ "Brazil – Transportation", Encyclopedia of the Nations (nationsencyclopedia.com).
  199. ^ "Ociosidade atinge 70% dos principais aeroportos", globo.com, 12 August 2007. (Portuguese)
  200. ^ "Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo/Guarulhos-Governador André Franco Montoro", infraaero.gov.br. (Portuguese)
  201. ^ "Mercado Brasileiro Terminais de Contêineres", Santos Brasil. (Portuguese)
  202. ^ 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade"
  203. ^ 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade"
  204. ^ 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade."
  205. ^ José Alberto Magno de Carvalho, "Crescimento populacional e estrutura demográfica no Brasil" Belo Horizonte: UFMG/Cedeplar, 2004 (PDF file), p.  5.
  206. ^ "Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". IBGE. 1999-11-29. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_visualiza.php?id_noticia=1275&id_pagina=1. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  207. ^ "Projeусo da Populaусo do Brasil". IBGE. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_impressao.php?id_noticia=1272. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  208. ^ Magno de Carvalho, "Crescimento populacional e estrutura demográfica no Brasil", pp. 7–8.
  209. ^ 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por cor ou raça, situação e sexo".
  210. ^ "In Amazonia, Defending the Hidden Tribes", The Washington Post, 8 July 2007.
  211. ^ a b Enciclopédia Barsa vol. 4, p. 230.
  212. ^ a b Coelho (1996), p. 268.
  213. ^ a b Vesentini (1988), p. 117.
  214. ^ Adas, Melhem. Panorama geográfico do Brasil, 4th ed (São Paulo: Moderna, 2004), p. 268
  215. ^ Azevedo (1971), pp. 2–3.
  216. ^ a b c Moreira (1981), p. 108.
  217. ^ Enciclopédia Barsa, vol. 4, pp. 254–55, 258, 265.
  218. ^ Azevedo (1971), pp. 74–75.
  219. ^ Enciclopédia Barsa, vol. 10 (Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopaedia Britannica do Brasil, 1987), p. 355.
  220. ^ Azevedo (1971), p. 74.
  221. ^ a b Azevedo (1971), p. 161.
  222. ^ Maria Stella Ferreira-Levy, "O papel da migração internacional na evolução da população brasileira (1872 a 1972), Revista de Saúde Pública Volume 8, suplemento. June 1974. ) (1974). Table 2, p.  74. (Portuguese) Available here [1] at scielo.br as a PDF file.
  223. ^ PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo, alfabetização e grupos de idade e grupos de idade".
  224. ^ PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo, alfabetização e grupos de idade".
  225. ^ PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo e alfabetização".
  226. ^ "O DIA Online – Rio no mapa da morte"
  227. ^ "UN highlights Brazil gun crisis". BBC News. June 27, 2005.
  228. ^ "Brazil". International Religious Freedom Report. U.S. Department of State. 2005-11-08. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51629.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  229. ^ Census 2000, IBGE. "População residente por cor ou raça e religião".
  230. ^ 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade".
  231. ^ "Principal Cities". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_3/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  232. ^ "Language Born of Colonialism Thrives Again in Amazon", New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
  233. ^ Portuguese language and the brazilian singularity
  234. ^ a b c "Languages of Brazil". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=br. Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  235. ^ Nash, Elizabeth (2008-05-02). "Portugal pays lip service to Brazil's supremacy". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/portugal-pays-lip-service-to-brazils-supremacy-819728.html. Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  236. ^ DW-World.de, O alemão lusitano do Sul do Brasil
  237. ^ O talian.
  238. ^ "15th–16th Century". History. Brazilian Government official website. http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/history/xvi_cent/. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  239. ^ "People and Society". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_3/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  240. ^ "Population". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_3/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  241. ^ Freyre, Gilberto (1986). "The Afro-Brazilian experiment: African influence on Brazilian culture". UNESCO. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1986_May-June/ai_4375022. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  242. ^ a b "Way of Life". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_4/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  243. ^ Roger, "Feijoada: The Brazilian national dish" braziltravelguide.com.
  244. ^ "Brazil National Dish: Feijoada Recipe and Restaurants". Visited on November 8, 2009.
  245. ^ Leandro Karnal, Teatro da fé: Formas de representação religiosa no Brasil e no México do século XVI (São Paulo, Editora Hucitec, 1998; available here [2].
  246. ^ "The Brazilian Baroque", Encyclopaedia Itaú Cultural
  247. ^ "Theater and Film". Encarta. MSN. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554342_5/Brazil.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  248. ^ "Football in Brazil". Goal Programme. International Federation of Association Football. 2008-04-15. http://www.fifa.com/associations/association=bra/goalprogramme/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  249. ^ "Beach Soccer". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/developing/beachsoccer/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  250. ^ "Futsal". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/developing/futsal/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  251. ^ "The art of capoeira". BBC. 2006-09-20. http://www.bbc.co.uk/northyorkshire/content/articles/2005/09/13/capoeira_feature.shtml. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  252. ^ "Brazilian Vale Tudo". I.V.C. http://valetudo.com.br/. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  253. ^ "Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Official Website". International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation. http://www.ibjjf.org/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  254. ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Emerson Fittipaldi". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/282/. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  255. ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Nelson Piquet". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/181/. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  256. ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Ayrton Senna". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/45/. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  257. ^ "1950 FIFA World Cup Brazil". Previous FIFA World Cups. International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=7/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  258. ^ "2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/brazil2014/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  259. ^ "Formula 1 Grande Premio do Brasil 2008". The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/races/in_detail/brazil_804/circuit_diagram.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  260. ^ a b "Chronological list of Pan American Games". Pan American Sports Organization. http://odepapaso.org/paso/chrono.html. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  261. ^ "Olympics 2016: Tearful Pele and weeping Lula greet historic win for Rio", The Guardian, 2 October 2009.
  262. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

References

  • Azevedo, Aroldo. O Brasil e suas regiões. .São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1971. (Portuguese)
  • Barman, Roderick J. Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. ISBN 1-8047-3510-7 (English)
  • Boxer, Charles R..^ The rights inherent to born Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Paragraph I - The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in the Constitution.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    O império marítimo português 1415–1825. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN 8535902929 (Portuguese)
  • Bueno, Eduardo. Brasil: uma História. São Paulo: Ática, 2003. (Portuguese) ISBN 8508082134
  • Calmon, Pedro. História da Civilização Brasileira. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002. (Portuguese)
  • Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. (Portuguese)
  • Coelho, Marcos Amorim. Geografia do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 1996. (Portuguese)
  • Diégues, Fernando. A revolução brasílica. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2004. (Portuguese)
  • Enciclopédia Barsa. Volume 4: Batráquio – Camarão, Filipe. Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987. (Portuguese)
  • Fausto, Boris and Devoto, Fernando J. Brasil e Argentina: Um ensaio de história comparada (1850–2002), 2nd ed. São Paulo: Editoria 34, 2005. (Portuguese)
  • Gaspari, Elio. A ditadura envergonhada. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN 8535902775 (Portuguese)
  • Janotti, Aldo. O Marquês de Paraná: inícios de uma carreira política num momento crítico da história da nacionalidade. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1990. (Portuguese)
  • Lyra, Heitor. .História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870).^ Paragraph 2 - The Pedro II School, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, shall be maintained in the federal sphere.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    v.1
    . Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)
  • Lyra, Heitor. .História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Declínio (1880–1891).^ Paragraph 2 - The Pedro II School, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, shall be maintained in the federal sphere.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    v.3
    . Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)
  • Lustosa, Isabel. D. Pedro I: um herói sem nenhum caráter. São Paulo: Companhia das letras, 2006. ISBN 8535908072 (Portuguese)
  • Moreira, Igor A. G. O Espaço Geográfico, geografia geral e do Brasil. 18. Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1981. (Portuguese)
  • Munro, Dana Gardner. The Latin American Republics; A History. New York: D. Appleton, 1942. (English)
  • Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1998. ISBN 8571648379 (Portuguese)
  • Skidmore, Thomas E. Uma História do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003. (Portuguese) ISBN 8521903138
  • Souza, Adriana Barreto de. Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento. .Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. (Portuguese) ISBN 9788520008645
  • Vainfas, Ronaldo.^ Paragraph 2 - The Pedro II School, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, shall be maintained in the federal sphere.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. .Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002. ISBN 8573024410 (Portuguese)
  • Vesentini, José William.^ Paragraph 2 - The Pedro II School, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, shall be maintained in the federal sphere.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Brasil, sociedade e espaço – Geografia do Brasil. 7th Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1988. (Portuguese)
  • Vianna, Hélio. História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república, 15th ed. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1994. (Portuguese)

Further reading

  • Alves, Maria Helena Moreira (1985). State and Opposition in Military Brazil. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 
  • Amann, Edmund (1990). The Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy under Cardoso. World Development (pp. 1805–1819). 
  • "Background Note: Brazil". US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35640.htm. 
  • Bellos, Alex (2003). Futebol: The Brazilian Way of Life. London: Bloomsbury Publishing plc. 
  • Bethell, Leslie (1991). Colonial Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  • Costa, João Cruz (1964). A History of Ideas in Brazil. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 
  • Fausto, Boris (1999). A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  • Furtado, Celso. .The Economic Growth of Brazil: A Survey from Colonial to Modern Times.^ Lula promised to move ahead on social reforms, while at the same time seeking to promote economic growth and root out corruption.
    • BRAZIL 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He vowed to modernize the country and made economic growth his main goal.
    • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
     
  • Leal, Victor Nunes (1977). Coronelismo: The Municipality and Representative Government in Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  • Malathronas, John (2003). Brazil: Life, Blood, Soul. Chichester: Summersdale. 
  • Martinez-Lara, Javier (1995). .Building Democracy in Brazil: The Politics of Constitutional Change.^ The political and administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, all of them autonomous, as this Constitution provides.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Macmillan.
     
  • Prado Júnior, Caio (1967). .The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil.^ The culture of modern Brazil has been formed from a rich background of ethnic traditions.
    • BRAZIL 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
     
  • Schneider, Ronald (1995). .Brazil: Culture and Politics in a New Economic Powerhouse.^ Sole paragraph - The Federative Republic of Brazil shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the peoples of Latin America, viewing the formation of a Latin-American community of nations.
    • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Boulder Westview.
     
  • Skidmore, Thomas E. (1974). .Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought.^ (HN, 12/2/98) 1964 The Brazilian film "Black God, White Devil" was directed by Glauber Rocha.
    • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
     
  • Wagley, Charles (1963). An Introduction to Brazil. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. 
  • The World Almanac and Book of Facts: Brazil. New York, NY: World Almanac Books. 2006. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Brazil-map-blank.png
This article is about the South American country. For the film, see Brazil (film).
Brazil is the largest country in South America.

Sourced

  • I think an interpreter has to sing everything, to sing what wants to sing. It cannot be with that foolishness, that here in Brazil we face this thing that when one records a song, later no one can rerecord it. This is madness, absurd. Music doesn't have an owner, the music doesn´t belong to anyone.

Unsourced

  • In Brazil we have a saying, "You're married, but you're not dead."
  • Le Brésil n’est pas um pays [sérieux]. (Brazil is not a [serious] country.)
    • Attributed to Charles de Gaulle, but probably said by Carlos Alves de Souza Filho, during the "lobster war".

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

South America : Brazil
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Quick Facts
Capital Brasilia
Government federative republic
Currency Real (BRL)
Area 8,511,965 sq km
Population 190,010,647 (July 2007 est.)
Language Portuguese
Religion Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%
Electricity In general 127V/60Hz with some cities using 220V/60Hz (North American or European plug)
Calling Code 55
Internet TLD .br
Time Zone UTC -3 (-2 to -4)
Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil), [1], is the largest country in South America. Famous for its football (us:soccer) tradition and its annual Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Recife and Olinda. It is a country of great diversity, from the bustling urban mosaic of São Paulo to the infinite cultural energy of Pernambuco and Bahia, the untouched wilderness of the Amazon rainforest and world-class landmarks such as the Iguaçu Falls, there is plenty to see and to do in Brazil.

Understand

History and Economy

Until 1500, Brazil was inhabited solely by indigenous people, mainly of the Tupi and Guarani ethnic groups. Actual settling by the Portuguese began later that century, with the extraction of valuable pau-brasil wood, from which the country draws its name. Brazil was settled by the Portugese and not the Spanish (as the rest of Central and South America in New World was because of the Papal Line of Demarcation) The following four centuries saw further exploitation of the country's natural riches (gold and rubber) besides the rise of an economy based on agriculture (sugar and coffee) and slave labor, millions of Africans taken to the new world in a forced diaspora. Meanwhile, extermination or Christianizing of natives kept its pace, and the 19th Century saw a second wave of European (mainly Italian and German) immigration, adding to this unique and complex set of factors that generated today's equally complex and unique Brazilian culture and society.
Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became an independent nation in 7 September, 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, it has also overcome more than two decades (1964-1988) of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue a democratic ruling, while facing the challenge of keeping its industrial and agricultural growth and developing its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, today Brazil is South America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem. A consequence of this is a high crime rate, specifically in large cities.
After 20 years of democracy, the country has grown strong, and despite the social problems of the unequal income distribution, the people have remained happy and festive.

Culture

Owing to Brazil’s continental dimensions, varied geography, history and people, the country’s culture is rich and diverse. It has several regional variations, and in spite of being mostly unified by a single language, some regions are so different from each other that they could have become different countries altogether.
Music plays an important part in Brazilian identity. Styles like choro, samba and bossa nova are considered genuinely Brazilian. Caipira music is also in the roots of sertanejo (the national equivalent to country music). MPB stands for Brazilian Popular Music, which mixes several national styles under a single concept. Forró, a north-eastern happy dancing music style, has also become common nationwide. New urban styles include funk - name given to a dance music genre from Rio's favelas that mixes heavy electronic beats and often raunchy rapping - and techno-brega, a crowd-pleaser in northern states, that fuses romantic pop, dance music and caribbean rhythms.
A mixture of martial arts, dance, music and game, capoeira was brought to Brazil by African slaves, mainly from Portuguese Angola. Distinguished by vivacious complicated movements and accompanying music, it can be seen and practiced in many Brazilian cities.
In the classical music, the Modern Period is particularly notable, due to the works of composers like Heitor Villa-Lobos and Camargo Guarnieri, who created a typical brazilian school, mixing elements of the traditional european classical music to the brazilian rhythms, while other composers like Cláudio Santoro followed the guidelines of the Second School of Vienna. In the Romantic Period, the greatest name was Antonio Carlos Gomes, author of some italian-styled operas with typical brazilian themes, like Il Guarany and Lo Schiavo. In the Classical Period, the most proeminent name is José Maurício Nunes Gacia, a priest who wrote both sacred and secular music and was very influenced by the viennese classical style of the 18th century and early 19th century.
Candomble and Umbanda are religions with African roots that have survived prejudice and persecution and still have a significant following in Brazil. Their places of cult are called terreiros and many are open to visit.
Indigenous traits can be found everywhere in Brazilian culture, from cuisine to vocabulary. There are still many indigenous groups and tribes living in all Brazilian regions, although many have been deeply influenced by "western" culture, and several of the country's surviving indigenous languages are in danger of disappearing completely. The traditional lifestyle and graphic expressions of the Wajãpi indigenous group from the state of Amapá were proclaimed a Masterpiece of the World's Intangible Heritage [2] by UNESCO.
Globo, the largest national television network, also plays an important role in shaping the national identity. Nine out of ten households have a TV set, which is the most important source of information and entertainment for most Brazilians followed by the radio broadcast. TVs broadcast sports, movies, local and national news and telenovelas (Soap Operas)– 6-month-long series that have become one of the country’s main cultural exports.

People

Throughout its history, Brazil has welcomed several different peoples and practices. Brazil constitutes a melting pot of the most diverse ethnic groups thus mitigating ethnic prejudices and preventing racial conflicts (though long-lasting slavery and genocide among indigenous populations have taken their toll). Prejudice is often directed towards different social classes rather than between races. Nevertheless, race (or simply skin colour) is still a dividing factor in Brazilian society and you will notice the skin typically darkens as the social class gets lower: wealth and middle-class are mostly white; many middle-class are mixed; and the majority of poor people are black or indian. Nowadays, however, Afro-Brazilians and Amerindian populations are increasingly aware of their civil rights and of their rich cultural heritage, and social mobility is achievable through education.
In general, Brazilians are a fun-loving people. While Southerners may be somewhat colder and more reserved, from Rio upwards people usually boast a captivating attitude towards life and truly enjoy having a good time. Some may even tell you that beer, football, samba and barbecue is all they could crave for.
Friendship and hospitality are highly praised traits, and family and social connections are strongly valued. To people they have met, or at least know by name, Brazilians are usually very open, friendly and sometimes quite generous. Once introduced, until getting a good reason not to, a typical Brazilian may treat you as warmly as he would treat a best friend. Brazilians are reputedly one of the most hospitable people in the world and foreigners are usually treated with respect and often with true admiration.
Attitudes towards foreigners may also be subject to regional differences:
  • The state of Santa Catarina welcomes their Spanish-speaking tourists with bilingual signs and welcome committees.
  • In Salvador, the largest city of the Northeast, anyone talking, acting or looking like a tourist (even other Brazilians!) could be charged higher prices, such as in parking lots, in restaurants, etc.
Whereas the "Western" roots of Brazilian culture are largely European (evidenced by its colonial towns and even sporadic historic buildings between the skyscrapers...), there has been a strong tendency in the last decades to adopt a more "American way of life" which is found in urban culture and architecture, mass media, consumerism and a strongly positive feeling towards technical progress. In spite of that, Brazil is still a nation faced to the Atlantic, not to Hispanic America, and the intellectual elites are likely to look up to Europe (especially France), not the U.S., as source of inspiration. Many aspects in Brazilian society, such as the educational system, are inspired by the French, and may seem strange at first to Anglo-Saxon visitors.
Brazilians are not Hispanic.
The contrasts in this huge country equally fascinates and shocks most visitors, as well as the indifference of many locals towards the social, economic and ecological problems. Whereas an emerging elite of young, well-educated professionals indulge in amenities of modern society, child labor, illiteracy and subhuman housing conditions still exist even in regions blessed by economic growth and huge foreign investments such as Sao Paulo or Rio.
As much as Brazilians acknowledge their self-sustainability in raw materials, agriculture, and energy sources as an enormous benefit for the future, most of them agree that without huge efforts in education there will hardly be a way out of poverty and underdevelopment.
Brazil has a growing Chinese population, made up significantly of immigrants from Macau.

Climate

Brasil is a huge country with different climate zones. In the north, near the equator there is a wet and a dry season; from about Sao Paulo down to the south there is spring/summer/fall/winter.
Carnival dates (Sat-Wed)
  • 2009: 21-25 February
  • 2010: 13-17 February
  • 2011: 05-09 March
Brazil observes the following national holidays (only 13 days during all year):
  • New Year - 1st January
  • Carnival - February/March (Movable - 7 weeks before Easter, see box for precise dates. Monday and Tuesday are the actual holidays, but celebrations usually begin on Saturday and last until 12PM of Ash Wednesday, when shops and services re-open.)
  • Good Friday - March/April (movable) two days before Easter Sunday
  • Tiradentes - 21st April
  • Labour Day - 1st May
  • Corpus Christi - May/June (movable) sixty days after Easter Sunday
  • Independence Day - 7th September
  • Patroness of Brazil - 12th October
  • All Souls' Day (Finados) - 2nd November
  • Republic - 15th November
  • Christmas - 25th December
Working hours are usually from 8AM or 9AM to 5PM or 6PM. Banks open Monday to Friday, from 10AM to 4PM. Street shops tend to close at noon on Saturday and only re-open on Monday. Shopping malls normally open from 10AM to 10PM, Monday to Saturday, and from 3PM to 9PM on Sundays. Some malls, specially in large cities, also open on Sundays. And is also possible to find 24h stores and small markets that open even in the Sundays.

Electricity

Brazil is one of a few countries that uses both 120 and 240 volts for everyday appliances. Expect the voltage to change back and forth as you travel from one place to the next -- even within the same Brazilian state, sometimes even within the same building. There is no physical difference in the electric outlets (power mains) for the two voltages.
Electric outlets usually accept both flat (North American), and round (European) plugs. Otherwise adaptors from flat blades to round pins are easy to find in any supermarket or hardware shop. Some outlets are too narrow for the German "Schuko" plugs. The best makeshift solution is to buy a cheap T-connection and just force your "Schuco" in, -the T will break, but it will work. Very few outlets have a grounding point, and some might not accept newer North American polarized plugs, where one pin is slightly larger. Again, use the cheap T. Near the border with Argentina, you might occasionally find outlets for the Australia/New Zealand-type plug. If crossing the border, you'll probably need this adapter as well.
Frequency is 60Hz, which may disturb 50 Hz electric clocks. Blackouts are less and less frequent, but you always run a risk at peak of high season in small tourist towns.
Regions of Brazil
Regions of Brazil
Brazil is the fifth largest country on earth. It is divided into five regions, mainly drawn around state lines, but they also more or less follow natural, economic and cultural borderlines.
North (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Tocantins)
The Amazon, the rain forest and frontier life, with remarkable indian influence.
Northeast (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe)
Strong black culture (especially in Bahia) mingles with early Iberic folklore. This is often considered the country's most beautiful coastline, and has the sunniest and hottest climate; but it is also the country's driest and poorest region.
Central West (Distrito Federal (Federal District), Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul)
The Pantanal wetlands, great farms, young cities, the cerrado and the Federal District, with its outworldly modernist architecture.
Southeast (Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo)
São Paulo and Rio are the largest cities of the country and its economic and industrial hub; there are also some century-old colonial towns.
South (Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina)
Is a land of valleys and pampas where a strong gaucho culture (shared with Uruguay and Argentina) meets European influences. Accordingly it is experiencing much growth and tourism. It has the best standard of living in Brazil with only two large cities (Curitiba and Porto Alegre) and several mid-size cities with very low crime rates. German, Italian, Polish and Ukranian immigrants colonized the region in the mid 19th century. It is also the only region in Brazil where it snows every year, mainly in the central mountains of Santa Catarina State.

Cities

Brazil has many exciting cities, ranging from pretty colonial towns and coastal hideouts to hectic, lively metropolises; these are a few of the more prominent travel destinations:
  • Brasília - The capital of Brazil, and an architectural spectacle. Noteworthy buildings include a basket-shaped Cathedral, the beautiful Arches Palace (seat of the Ministry of Justice) and others.
  • Belém - The second largest city in the Amazon region. Religious festivals (Cirio de Nazare), traditional market (Ver-o-Peso).
  • Curitiba - The capital of the state of Paraná is known for its innovative urban solutions, it still keeps its traditional spirit and features of the european immigrants, mostly from Italy, Germany and slavic countries.
  • Florianópolis - The major city in Brazil located in an island in the Atlantic Ocean, with lakes, lagoons, amazing nature and more than 40 clean, beautiful and full of nature beaches.
  • Fortaleza -- The 4th biggest city in Brazil, blessed with beautiful beaches. Home of the Iracema's Beach street market. A good base for exploring the beaches of the northeastern coast, including Jericoacoara. Famed for forró music and comedians.
  • Manaus - Located in the heart of the Amazon, is the capital of the Amazonas State and it is also the biggest city of the Amazon. At Manaus the rio Negro and Solimões meet to became the Amazonas River. The best place to go to visit the Amazon Forest. It is a gateway to the Anavilhanas and to Jaú National Park.
  • Porto Alegre-- a major city between Argentina and São Paulo and gateway to Brazil~s fabulous Green Canyons.
  • Recife - A major city in the Northeast region, originally settled by Dutch colonizers. Nicknamed "The Brazilian Venice", it is built on several islands linked by many bridges. Rich in history, art and folklore. Do not miss neighboring Olinda and Porto de Galinhas. The city is also a gateway to the amazing archipelago of Fernando de Noronha.
  • Rio de Janeiro - World famous, beautiful city that welcomes visitors with that big statue of an open-armed Jesus atop Corcovado Hill.
  • Salvador - The first capital of Brazil is home to a unique blend of indigenous, African and European cultures. Its Carnival fun is famous, and the influence of African culture and religion is remarkable.
  • São Paulo - Brazil's largest, richest and most cosmopolitan city, where you can find traces of most major cultures of Earth, including Italian, Korean, Japanese, German, Russian, Jamaican, Greek and Arab
  • Parque Nacional Chapada dos VeadeirosCerrado (tropical savanna) wildlife and stunning waterfalls.
  • Iguaçu Falls - The world-famous waterfalls.
  • Itatiaia National Park - The first Brazilian National Park, located on the Itatiaia Massif between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.
  • Pantanal - The world's largest wetland hosts lots of eco-tourism and vast biodiversity, including caiman, jaguar, anaconda, giant anteater, primates, giant otter, and piranha.
  • Brazil has a reciprocal visa policy with all countries, meaning that whenever prices and restrictions are applied to Brazilian visiting a country, Brazil adopts the same measures for that country's visitors, which means that Americans have to pay at least US$131 for a tourist visa and US$191 for a business visa. As of November 2008, citizens of Canada should expect to pay at least CDN$ 117.00 for a tourist visa not including any handling or processing fees.
  • Citizens from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay may enter the country with a valid ID card and stay up to 90 days.
  • No visa is required for stays of up to 90 days from holders of passports from these countries, unless otherwise indicated: Andorra, Argentina, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Rep., Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR passport, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom (Including British National (Overseas) passport holders), Uruguay , Venezuela (60 days) and Vatican City. Note that the immigration officer has the right to restrict your visa to less than 90 days, if he deems fit. (This has been done routinely for lone male travellers arriving in Fortaleza, allegedly to combat prostitution tourism.) He will then state the number of days (e.g. 60 or 30) in pen writing inside the stamp just given in your passport; if not, it remains as 90 days. Note that even if you receive a tourist visa that is valid for a longer period of time, a tourist visa is invalid unless it has been initially used within ninety days of its issue.
  • Citizens from the following countries currently need a visa for Brazil: Angola, Armenia, Australia, Canada, Cape Verde, China (not including Hong Kong and Macau, see above), Cyprus, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Russia, Syria, Taiwan, the United States, former Soviet countries and others not listed above (complete list [3] - Portuguese only).
  • Tourist visas (including those granted on the spot in immigration control, as for most Europeans) can be extended at any office of the Policia Federal. All state capitals, and most border towns and international ports have one. Tourist visas only be extended once, for a maximum of 90 days, and under no circumstances can you be granted more than 180 days with a tourist visa for any 365-day period. You should contact the federal police about 1 week before your visa expires. The handling fee is currently R$ 67 (Oct. 2008). You may be asked for an outbound ticket (book a fully refundable one on the internet, then cancel when your visa is extended), and a proof of subsistance (for which your credit card is mostly accepted.) In order to apply for the extension, you must fill out the Emissão da Guia de Recolhimento on the Federal Police website, which you will carry to the Banco do Brasil in order to pay the fee. Do not pay the fee until you have spoken with a federal police officer about your case. If she/he denies the extension of your visa, you must have a bank account in Brazil in order to receive a refund.
Entry vs. exit stamps
Immediately after your passport is stamped by the Brazilian Federal Police, ensure that the last number on the right-end of the stamp is a 1. A number 1 indicates that you entered the country and a number 2 indicates that you exited. Some federal police officers have mistakenly given foreigners the number 2 stamp upon entering. If you have the number 2 stamp and try to extend the visa in a city that is not your port of entry, you will be told to return to the city where you received the incorrect stamp so that it may be corrected before you can receive the extension. For example, if you enter Brazil in Porto Alegre, receive the exit stamp instead of the entrance stamp, and try to extend your visa in São Paulo, the Federal Police in São Paulo will tell you that they cannot extend your visa and that you will have to return to Porto Alegre to get an entrance stamp before your visa can be extended.
  • By law you are required to produce your outbound ticket upon entry, but this is only enforced in exeptional cases. Even if you are asked, you could often get away with explaining that you are taking the bus to Argentina, and couldn´t buy the ticket in, say, Europe.
  • If you overstay your tourist visa, you will be fined R$8.28 per day (as of October 2007), for a maximum of 100 days. This means that even if you stay illegally for 5 years, the fine will never exceed R$828. You will be made to pay this at the border crossing. As this can take time, it could be wise to do it a few days up front at a federal police office, especially if you have a domestic to international flight connection. The federal police will then give you 8 days to get out of the country. If you don´t pay your fine upon exiting, you will have to pay the next time you enter. The fact that you have been fined for overstaying in the past does not normally imply future difficulties with immigration, but you´d better keep all receipts and old passports for reference.
  • If you want to enter/exit the country for some reason without coming in contact with the immigration authorities, there are numerous tiny border towns that have virtually no control. You will perhaps be told by the local police (who don´t have stamps or computer registers for immigration) to contact the federal police in such and such nearby town.
  • When you are travelling from certain tropical regions to Brazil you need a yellow fever vaccination and the certificate showing you had this. Note that it is illegal to bring in animals, meat, dairy, seeds, plants, eggs, honey, fruit, or any kind of non-processed food without a permit. Contact [vigiagro@agricultura.gov.br] for more information.

By plane

The cheapest airfares are from February (after Carnaval) to May and from August to November. Tickets from New York, for instance, can cost as little as US$699 including taxes.
All U.S. Citizens with a passport will need to get a tourist visa from the local Brazilian Consulate (according to the reciprocity law). This can be processed by mail with an additional $20 charge; a third party can also apply for the visa for an additional fee of US$20. It can take up to 5 business days to process the visa and will cost a minimum of US$130. The visa must be used within 90 days and will be valid from six months to up to 5 years after it was used, depending on the determination of the consulate.
By far the largest international airport in Brazil is São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (IATA: GRU ICAO: SBGR), the hub of TAM airlines [4], with connections to most of the capital cities in South America and major cities in the USA such as Atlanta, New York,Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami and Houston. Besides that, it also has connections to major cities in Europe, with Seoul (by Korean Air), Tokyo (by JAL), and Dubai (by Emirates), the only connections in Asia.
The second largest airport in Brazil is Rio de Janeiro-Galeão International Airport, (IATA: GIG ICAO: SBGL) the home of Gol Transportes Aéreos [5], which flies to many regional destinations including Montevideo, Buenos Aires and Asuncion. Delta Air Lines flies to Atlanta, and New York, United Airlines also flies to Washington, D.C.
TAP Portugal [6] is the biggest foreign airline operating in Brazil, from Lisbon and Porto, and provides extensive connection onwards to Europe and Africa. TAP serves the following cities in Brazil: Fortaleza, Natal, Recife, Salvador, Brasilia, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.

By car

The main border crossings are at:
  • with Uruguay: Chuy/Chuí, Bella Unión/Barra do Quaraí, Artigas/Quaraí, Aceguá/Aceguá, Río Blanco/Jaguarão, and between Rivera/Santana do Livramento
  • with Argentina: Paso de los Libres/Uruguaiana, Santo Tomé/São Borja, Bernardo de Irigoyen/Dionísio Cerqueira, Tobuna/Paraíso (Santa Catarina), Comandante Andresito/Capanema, and between Puerto Iguazu/Foz do Iguaçu
  • with Paraguay: Ciudad del Este/Foz do Iguaçu, Salto del Guaira/Guaíra, and between Pedro Juan Caballero/Ponta Porã
  • with Bolivia: Puerto Suarez/Corumbá, Cobija/Brasileia/Epitaciolandia, San Matías/Cáceres and between Riberalta/Guayaramerin/Guajará-Mirim (the bridge over Mamoré river will be ready in 2007)
  • with Peru: Iñapari/Assis Brasil
  • with Colombia: Letícia/Tabatinga No road connections on either side of the border.
  • with Guyana: Lethem/Bonfim
In certain border towns, notably Foz do Iguaçu/Ciudad del Este/Puerto Iguazu, you do not need entry/exit stamps or other formalities for a daytrip into the neighbouring country. These same towns are good venues if you for some reason want to croos without contact with immigration authorities.

By bus

Long-distance bus service connects Brazil to its neighboring countries. The main capitals linked directly by bus are Buenos Aires, Asunción, Montevideo, Santiago de Chile, and Lima. Direct connections from the first three can also be found easily, but from Lima it might be tricky, though easily accomplished by changing at one of the others. Those typically go to São Paulo, though Pelotas has good connections too. It should be kept in mind that distances between Sāo Paulo and any foreign capitals are significant, and journeys on the road may take up to 3 days, depending on the distance and accessibility of the destination. The national land transport authority has listings[7] on all operating international bus lines.

By boat

Amazon river boats connect northern Brazil with Peru, Venezuela and Colombia. The ride is a gruelling 12 days upriver though. From French Guiana, you can cross the river Oyapoque, which takes about 15 minutes.

By train

Train service within Brazil is almost nonexistent. However, there are exceptions to the rule, and the most famous way to enter Brazil by train is on the Trem da Morte, or Death Train, which goes from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, to a small town just over the border from Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. There is still a train line from there all the way to São Paulo which at the moment is not in use, but bus connections to São Paulo via the state capital, Campo Grande, are plentiful. The journey itself is reputedly replete with robbers who might steal your backpack or its contents but security has been increased recently and the journey can be made without much difficulty. It goes through the Bolivian agricultural belt and along the journey one may see a technologically-averse religious community which resembles the American Amish in many ways.
Brazil Air Pass
If you intend to visit various cities within Brazil, you should consider getting a Brazil Air Pass, offered by Brazilian airline Varig. It is available to anyone who lives outside Brazil holding an international air ticket to Brazil. You can travel to 4 different cities from USD479, and each additional city in the pass will cost you USD 120. The Air Pass is valid for 21 days, starting on the day of the first flight, and can be used for flights to up to 9 cities throughout Brazil. Other air passes are also available (Mercosul, South America, All America). TAM also offers air passes.
Air service covers most of Brazil. Note that many flights make many stops en route, particularly in hubs as Sao Paulo or Brasilia. Most all airports with regular passenger traffic are operated by the federal Infraero.[8]. They have a very convenient website, with an English version. It lists all the airlines operating at each airport, and also has updated flight schedules.
The Brazilian airline scene completely changed at least twice over the last 10 years or so. The largest carriers are now TAM[9] and Gol[10]. The traditional Varig[11] is now just another brand of Gol. Others include, WebJet [12], TAF [13], Oceanair[14] and Azul[15]. Portuguese TAP[16] has a few domestic code shares with TAM. There are also a number of regional companies, such as NHT[17](Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina). Price differences, at least if a ticket is purchased on the internet well in advance, are so small that it´s rather meaningless to call any of these "low cost".
Booking online for domestic flights can be frustrating for non-Brazilian citizens. Often, you will be asked for your CPF national identity number while paying by credit card. Of course, as a foreigner, you don't have one. Some airlines such as GOL will accept American Express cards (but not VISA or Master Card) without a CPF. One trick that often will work is to visit one of the airlines' foreign websites (such as Gol´s in Argentina) If all else fails, try calling or e-mailing the airline and ask how to proceed. Most flights can also be found on international ticket offices such as ebookers, edreams etc. to the same price (or lower) than the Brazilian sites, and are ofcourse purchased without CPF.
Be aware that many domestic flights have so many stops that some, inluding yours, may be missing from the listings in the airports. Double check your flight number and confirm with ground staff.
Certain domestic flights in Brazil are considered "international," giving flyers a chance to purchase items at a "duty free" store in the airport. (There may be passengers on board from other South American countries who have not yet cleared customs.) Also, you must go through immigrations and customs again upon arrival, even though you never left Brazil. Ignore what the Brazilians do, if you're not a resident. On domestic flights, do NOT fill out a new immigration form, but show the carbon copy of the one completed upon arriving internationally (with their passport and visa stamp).

By car

Brazil has the largest road network in Latin America with over 1.6 million kilometres. A car is a good idea if you want to explore scenic areas, e.g. the historic cities of Minas Gerais, the Rio-Santos highway, or the beaches in North-East Brazil. There are the usual car rental companies at the airports.
Many roads are in good condition, especially in the east and south of the country and along the coast. In other areas and outside the metropolitan regions there are also gravel and dirt roads for which an off-road vehicle can be strongly recommended. This especially applies to the Amazon area where many roads are difficult or not at all passable during the rainy season from November to March. This is why it is advisable to travel with a good map and to be well informed about distances, road conditions and the estimated travel time. Road maps of the brand Guia 4 Rodas (can be bought from most newstands in Brazil) provide not only maps and distances but also information about current conditions of the roads. On the web, the site of cochera andina publishes useful information on almost 300 routes in the country. In theory, the driving rules of Brazil resemble those of Western Europe or North American. In practice, driving in Brazil can be quite scary if you are used to European (even Mediterranean) or North American road culture, due to widespread violations of driving rules, and the toleration thereof.
Distances kept to other vehicles are kept at a bare minimum, overtaking whenever close to possible, and changing lanes without much of a prior signal. Many large cities also suffer from hold-ups when you wait at a red light in the night. Even if there is no risk of robbery, many drivers (including of city buses) run red lights or stop signs at night when they do not see incoming traffic from the cross street. Drivers also indulge in "creative" methods of saving time, such as using the reverse direction lanes. In rural areas, many domestic animals are left at the roadside, and they sometimes wanders into the traffic. Pedestrians take enormous chances crossing the road, since many drivers do not bother to slow down if they see pedestrians crossing. The quality of the paving is very varied, and the presence of enormous potholes is something that strongly discorages night-driving. Also consider the risk of highway hold-ups after dark, not to mention truck drivers on amfetamine (to keep awake for days in a row).
  • In Brazil cars are driven on the right hand side of the road.
  • A flashing left signal means that the car ahead is warning you not to pass, for some reason. If the car ahead of you wants to show you that it is safe to pass it will flash the right signal. The right signal is the same signal to indicate that you're going to stop on the side of the road, so it means you're going to slow down. On the other hand the left signal is the same signal to indicate you're going to pass the car ahead, meaning you're going to speed up.
  • Flashing, twinkling headlights from the cars coming on the opposite side of the road means caution on the road ahead. Most of the time, it indicates that there are animals, cops or speed radar ahead.
  • Keep the doors locked when driving, especially in the larger cities, as robberies at stop signs and red lights are quite common in some areas. You'll make it much easier for the robber if he can simply open up the door and sit down. Be equally careful with keeping your windows wide open, as someone might put their hands inside your car and steal a wallet, for instance. Leave your handbags and valuables out of sight.

By bicycle

In smaller cities and towns the bicycle is a common means of transport. This does not mean that cyclists are usually respected by cars, trucks, or bus drivers. But you may find good roads with little traffic outside the cities. It is also easy to get a lift by a pickup or to have the bike transported by a long-distance bus. Cycling path are virtually non-existent in cities, except along certain beachfronts, such as Rio de Janeiro and Recife.
There are a bicyclers groups around the country, e.g Sampa Bikers [18] in [Sao Paulo] which meets weekly.

By train

Brazil's railway system was mostly wrecked during the military regimes. Today there are few passenger lines left:
  • The Serra Verde Express[19] from Curitiba to Paranaguá. This scenic 150 km long railroad links the capital of Paraná to the coastal cities of Morretes and Paranaguá, through the beautiful Serra do Mar mountains covered with mata atlântica forest. The trip takes about 3 hours and has bilingual guides. Trains leave daily at 08:15 and prices start from about R$ 50 (round-trip) - see Curitiba#Get_out for more information.
  • From São João del Rei to Tiradentes - This 35-minute trip on a steam train is almost like time travel. The train operates Fri-Sun, with departures from São João at 10:00 and 15:00 and 13:00 and 17:00 from Tiradentes. The round trip costs R$ 16.
  • From Belo Horizonte to Vitória - Daily trains operated by Companhia Vale do Rio Doce [20] leave Belo Horizonte at 07:30 and Vitória at 07:00. Travel time is about twelve and a half hours. Tickets are sold at the train stations and a single 2nd class fare costs about R$ 25. Seats are limited and it is not possible to reserve, so it is advisable to buy in advance.
  • From São Luis to Parauapebas - interesting because part of it passes through the Amazon rainforest.
  • From Macapá to Serra do Navio

By bus

Long-distance buses are a convenient, economical, and sometimes (usually if you buy the most expensive ticket), rather comfortable way to travel between regions. The bus terminal (rodoviária) in cities play a role akin to train stations in many countries. You should check travel distance and time while traveling within Brazil, going from Rio de Janeiro to the south region could take more than 24 hours, so it may worth going by plane if you can afford it.
Brazil has a very good long distance bus network. Basically, any city of more than 100.000 people will have direct lines to the nearest few state capitals, and also to other large cities within the same range. Pretty much every and any little settlement has public transport of some kind (a lorry, perhaps) to the nearest real bus station. Mostly you have to go to the bus station to buy a ticket, although some of the large companies now have internet sales. In a few cities you can also buy a ticket on the phone and have it delivered to your hotel for an extra charge of some 3-5 reais. Some companies have also adopted the airlines´ genius policy of pricing: In a few cases buying early can save you more than 50%. The facility of flagging a bus and hopping on (if there are no available seats you will have to stand, still paying full price) is widespread in the country. This is less likely to work along a few routes where armed robberies have happened frequently, such as those leading to the border with Paraguay and to Foz do Iguaçu.
Most major bus companies make reservations and sell tickets by Internet but you must pick-up your ticket with some time in advance. There is no one bus company that serves the whole country. Therefore you need to identify the company that connect two cities in particular bu calling the bus station of one city. ANTT, the national authority for land transportation, has a search engine [21] (in Portuguese) for all available domestic bus lines.
Bus services are often sold in three classes: Regular, Executive and First-Class (Leito, in Portuguese). Regular may or may not have air conditioning. For long distances or overnight travels, Executive offers more space and a folding board to support your legs. First-Class has even more space and only three seats per row, making enough space to sleep comfortably.
All travels with more than 4 hours are covered by buses with bathrooms and the buses stop for food/bathrooms at least once every 4 hours of travel.
Be aware that some big cities like São Paulo and Rio have more than one bus station, each one covering certain cities around. It is good to check in advance to which bus station you are going.
Brazilian bus stations, known as rodoviária or terminal rodoviário, tend to be located away from city centers. They are often in pretty sketchy areas, so if you travel at night be prepared to take a taxi to/from the station. There will also be local bus lines.
Even if you have a valid ticket bought from elsewhere, some Brazilian bus stations may also require a boarding card. This can be obtained from the bus company, often for a supplement fee. If you buy a ticket in the departure bus station you will also be given this boarding card.
Rodoviárias include many services, including fast-food restaurants, cafés, Internet cafés, toilets and left luggage. As a general rule, the larger the city, the more expensive the services (e.g. leaving a suitcase as left luggage in a smaller city may cost 1 R$, but in Recife in might cost you 5 R$).
When buying tickets, as well as when boarding the bus, you may be asked for proof of ID. Brazilian federal law requires this for interstate transportation. Not all conductors know how to read foreign passports, so be prepared to show them that the name of the passport truly is the same as the name on the ticket.

By boat

In the Amazon region as well as on the coast west of Sao Luis, boat travel is often the only way to get around.

Inside cities

Most cities have extensive bus services. Multiple companies may serve a single city. There is almost never a map of the bus lines, and often bus stops are unmarked. Be prepared for confusion and wasted time.
Bus have a board behind the windshield that advertises the main destinations they serve. You may have to ask the locals for information, but they may not know bus lines except the ones they usually take.
In most cities you have to wave to stop the bus when you want to take it. This in itself would no pose a problem, however, in big cities there may be dozens of bus lines stopping at a given bus stop and bus stops are not designed to accommodate so many vehicles. Frequently one cannot observe the oncoming buses due to other buses blocking the view. Bus drivers are reluctant to slow down for a bus stop if they are not sure someone will take their bus, so it is common to miss your bus because you could not see it coming to wave on time or the driver did not see you waving in between buses already at the stop. Some people go into the middle of a busy street to wait for their bus to make sure they see it and the driver sees them. In some places, like Manaus, drivers even tend to ignore stop requests (both to get on and to get off) if it is not too easy to navigate to the bus stop.
Most city buses have both a driver and a conductor. The conductor sits behind a till next to a turnstile. You have to pay the conductor, the price of the bus is usually advertised on the windshield. The turnstiles are narrow, and very inconvenient if one carries any kind of load (try balancing a heavy backpack over the turnstile while the bus is running). Larger buses often have a front section, before the turnstile, meant in priority for the elderly, handicapped and pregnant women - you can use it but you still have to pay! Typical prices are around R$ 2,00.
You can try asking the conductor to warn you when the bus is close to your destination. Depending on whether he or she understands you and feels like helping you, you may get help.
In addition to large city buses, there are often minibuses or minivans (alternativo). You pay the driver when exiting.

Talk

The official language of Brazil is Portuguese, spoken by the entire population (except for a few, very remotely located tribes). Indeed, Brazil has had immigrants from all parts of the world for centuries, whose descendants now speak Portuguese as their mothertongue.
Brazilian Portuguese has a number of pronunciation differences with that spoken in Portugal (and within, between the regions there are some accent and slang differences), but speakers of either can understand each other. However, European Portuguese (Luso) is more difficult for Brazilians to understand than the reverse, as many Brazilian television programs are shown in Portugal. Note that a few words can have a totally different meaning in Brazil and Portugal, usually slang words. An example of this is "Rapariga" which in Portugal means young girl, and in Brazil means prostitute.
English is not widely spoken except in some touristy areas. Don't expect bus or taxi drivers to understand English, so it may be a good idea to write down the address you are heading to before getting the cab. In most big and luxurious hotels, it is very likely that the taxi fleet will speak some English.
Spanish speakers are usually able to get by in Brazil, especially towards the south. While written Portuguese can be quite similar to Spanish, spoken Portuguese may be much harder to understand. Compare the number 20 which is veinte (BAYN-teh) in Spanish to vinte (VEEN-chee) in Brazilian Portuguese. Even more different is gente (people), pronounced "HEN-teh" in Spanish and "ZHEN-chee" in Brazilian Portuguese. Letters CH, D, G, J, R, RR, and T are particularly difficult for those who know some Spanish, and that's without even considering the vowels. Spanish speakers (European or Latin American) usually find European Portuguese slighty easier to pronounce than the Brazilian one.

Body language

Brazilians use a lot of body gestures in informal communication, and the meaning of certain words or expressions may be influenced by them.
  • The thumbs up gesture is used everywhere and all the time in Brazil.
  • The OK gesture (thumb and finger in a circle), on the other hand, may have obscene connotations in Brazil. Avoid it if you can, people may laugh at you, or be offended (usually if they are drunk). Use thumbs up instead.
  • A circular movement of the forefinger about the ear means you are crazy!, the same as in English.
  • Stroking your two biggest fingers with your thumb (possibly ironically stating that something takes a long time) is a way of saying that something is expensive (same as French).
  • Clicking your middle finger with your thumb multiple times means a long time.
  • Joining your thumb and middle finger and snapping your index finger upon them means fast (not in whole country).
  • Stroking your lips with your index finger and snapping it means delicious, grabbing your earlobe with your index and thumb means the same (not in all country).
  • Making a fist with your thumb between the index and middle finger is the sign of good luck (not in whole country).
  • Touching the palm with the thumb and making a circular movement with the hand means I am being robbed! (sometimes meaning that some price is too high) (not in whole country).
  • The Hush gesture is considered extremely impolite, just about the same as shouting "shut up!" to someone.
  • An informal way to get someone's attention (similar to a whistle in other cultures) is a hissing sound: "pssiu!" It is not perceived as unpolite, but gets really, really, REALLY annoying if repeated too often. They also call cats with a similar sound, rather than the kiss noise others (the French again) produce.

See

Morro de São Paulo [22]

Do

Carnival in Brazil

Buy

Brazil's unit of currency is the Real (pronounced 'hay-AHL'), plural Reais ('hay-EYES'), abbreviated BRL, or just R$. One real is divided into 100 centavos. As an example of how prices are written, R$1,50 means one real and fifty centavos.
Foreign currency such as US Dollars or Euros can be exchanged major airports and luxury hotels (bad rates), exchange bureaux and major branches of Banco do Brasil (no other banks). The latter allegedly has the best rates, but you need your passport and your immigration form.
Look for an ATM with your credit/debit card logo on it. Large branches of Banco do Brasil usually has one, and most all Bradesco, Citibank, BankBoston and HSBC machines will work. Banco 24 Horas (not a bank) operates a network of ATMs which accept foreign cards, however, additional fees are levied for the use of these machines. Withdrawal limits are mostly R$ 600 (Bradesco) or R$ 1000 (BB, HSBC), per transaction, and in any case R$ 1000 per day. The latter can be circumvented by several consecutive withdrawals, choosing different "accounts", i.e. "credit card", "checking", "savings". Note that most ATMs will only give you R$ 100 after 10 PM.
In smaller towns, it is possible that there is not a single ATM that accepts foreign cards. You should therefore always carry sufficient cash.
Wiring money to Brazil seems to be difficult without a brazilian bank account (you may receive Western Union transfers and pick it up at a Banco do Brasil branch in most cities. Check the Western Union web page for details).
Travellers' cheques can be hard to cash outside major airports.
A majority of Brazilian shops now accept major credit cards. Beware, however, that frequently you can find places that sport the VISA or MasterCard logos, but they accept only Brazilian-issued credit cards. This is especially true for smaller companies or places where there are fewer foreign tourists. As noteworthy example is the GOL airline where payments with foreign cards are not accepted (except American Express).
Coins are R$0.05 (copper and silver), R$0.10 (bronze and silver), R$0.25 (bronze and silver), R$0.50 (silver) and R$1 (silver with a golden border). Bills come in the following denominations: R$1 (green, being phased out), R$2 (blue), R$5 (purple), R$10 (red and plastic red/blue), R$20 (yellow) R$ 50 (orange) and $100 (blue).

Exchange rates

The Real is a free-floating currency and has become stronger in the past few years. Especially for Americans, prices (based on exchange rates) have increased quite a bit. As of January 2010, R$1 was worth about:
  • US$0.60=
  • €0.40
  • £0.35
There are many federal regulations for dealings with foreign currency and many exchange offices operate in a shady area. In addition, exchange offices are almost impossible to find outside of big cities. Currency other than USD and EUR is hard to exchange and the rates are ridiculous. If you would like to exchange cash at a bank, be prepared to pay a hefty comission. E.g., Banco do Brasil collects US$15 for each transaction (regardless of amount).

Shopping

It's not a bad idea to pack light and acquire a Brazilian wardrobe within a couple of days of arrival. It will make you less obvious as a tourist, and give you months of satisfied gloating back home about the great bargains you got whenever you are complimented on your clothing. Brazilians have their own sense of style and that make tourists - especially those in Hawaiian shirts or sandals + socks - stand out in the crowd. Have some fun shopping, and blend in. Another good reason for buying clothes and shoes in Brazil is that the quality is usually good and the prices often cheap. However, this does not apply to any foreign brand as imports are burdened by high import taxes - therefore, do not expect to find any good prices on brands like Diesel, Levi's, Tommy Hilfiger, etc. To figure your Brazilian trousers size, measure your waist in centimeters, divide by 2, and round up to the next even number.
Store windows will often display a price followed by "X 5" or "X 10", etc. This is an installment-sale price. The price displayed is the per-installment price, so that, "R$50 X 10", for example, means 10 payments (typically monthly) of R$50 each. The actual price is almost always lower if you pay in cash.
Make sure any appliances you buy are either dual voltage or the same as in your home country. Brazil is 60Hz, so don't buy electric clocks or non-battery operated motorized items if you live in Europe or Australia. The voltage, however, varies by state (see Electricity below).
Brazilian-made appliances and electronics are usually expensive or of poor quality. All Electronics are extremely expensive compared to European or US prices.
Brazil uses a hybrid video system called "PAL-M." It is NOT at all compatible with the PAL system of Europe and Australia. Television began in black and white using the NTSC system of the USA and Canada, then years later, using PAL for its analogue colour -- making a totally unique system. Nowadays, most new TV sets are NTSC compatible. However, the newly-introduced digital TV standard is not compatible with that of most other countries. Digital video appliances such as DVD players are also compatible with NTSC (all digital colour is the same worldwide), but make sure the DVD region code(s), if any, match your home country (Brazil is part of Region 4). Prices for imported electronic goods can be quite expensive due to high import tax, and the range of domestic electronic gadgets is not very wide. Also, be aware that the term "DVD" in Brazil is both an abbreviation for the disc itself and for its player, so be specific to avoid confusion.

Eat

Cuisine

Brazil's cuisine is as varied as its geography and culture. On the other hand, some may find it an unrefined melange, and everyday fare can be bland and monotonous. While there are some quite unique dishes of regional origin, many dishes were brought by overseas immigrants and have been adapted to local tastes through the generations. In Brazil, Italian and Chinese food can often be as baffling as Amazonian fare.
Brazil's national dish is feijoada, a hearty stew made of black beans, pork (ears, knuckles, chops, sausage) and beef (usually dried). It's served with rice, garnished with collard greens and sliced oranges. It's not served every restaurant; the ones that do typically offer it on Wednesdays and Saturdays. A typical mistake made by tourists is to eat too much feijoada upon first encounter. This is a heavy dish, -even Brazilians usually eat it parsimoniously.
The standard Brazilian set lunch is called Prato Feito, with its siblings Comercial and Executivo. Rice and brown beans in sauce, with a small steak. Sometimes farofa, spaghetti and vegetables will come along. Beef may be substituted for chicken, fish or others.
Excellent seafood can be found in coastal towns, especially in the North East.
Brazilian snacks, lanches(sandwiches) and salgadinhos(most anything else), include a wide variety of pastries. Look for coxinha (deep-fried, batter-coated, chicken), empada (a tiny pie, somewhat similar to empanadas: try out the palmito - heart of palm variety), and pastel (fried turnovers). Another common snack is a misto quente, a pressed,toasted ham-and-cheese sandwich. Pão-de-queijo, a roll made of manioc flour and cheese, is very popular - pão-de-queijo and a cup of fresh Brazilian coffee is a classic combination.
  • Southern - Churrasco is Brazilian barbecue, and is usually served "Rodizio" ou "espeto corrido" (all-you-can-eat). Waiters carry huge cuts of meat on steel spits from table to table, and carve off slices onto your plate (use the tongs to grab the meat slice and don't touch the knife edge with your silverware to avoid dulling the edge). Traditionally, you are given a small wooden block colored green on one side and red on the other. When you're ready to eat, put the green side up. When you're too stuffed to even tell the waiter you've had enough, put the red side up... Rodizio places have a buffet for non meaty items; beware that in some places, the desserts are not considered part of the main buffet and are charged as a supplement. Most churrasco restaurants (churrascarias) also serve other types of food, so it is safe to go there with a friend that is not really fond of meat. Whereas the churrascarias are usually fairly expensive places (for Brazilian standards) in the North and Central areas of the country, they tend to be much cheaper in the South, where they are frequented even by the less affluent.
  • Mineiro is the "miner's" cuisine of Minas Gerais, based on pork and beans, with some vegetables. Dishes from Goiás are similar, but use some different ingredients such as pequi and guariroba. Minas Gerais cuisine if not seen as particularly tasty, has a "homely" feel that is much cherished.
  • The food of Bahia, on the northeast coast has its roots across the Atlantic in West Africa. Coconut, dende palm oil, and seafood are the prime ingredients. Tip: hot ("quente") means lots of pepper, cold ("frio") means less or no pepper at all. If you don't dare to eat it hot you should try acarajé (prawn-filled roasties) and vatapá (drinkable black beans soup).
  • Espírito Santo and Bahia have two different versions of moqueca, a delightful tomato-based seafood stew prepared in a special type of clay pot.
  • Amazon cuisine draws from the food of the indigenous inhabitants, including various exotic fish and vegetables. There is also a stupendous variety of tropical fruits.
  • Ceará's food in the coastline has a great sort of seafood, is known to have the country's best crab. It's so popular that literally every weekend thousands of people go to Praia do Futuro in Fortaleza to eat fried fish and crabs (usually followed by cold beer).
Brazilian cuisine also has a lot of imports:
  • Pizza is quite popular in Brazil. In Sāo Paulo, travellers will find the highest rate of pizza parlours per inhabitant in the country. The variety of flavours is extremely vast, with some restaurants offering more than 50 types of pizza. It is worth noting the difference between the European "mozzarella" and the Brazilian "mussarela". They differ in flavor, appearance and origin but buffalo mozzarella ("mussarela de búfala") is also often available. The Brazilian "mussarela", which tops most pizzas, is yellow in color and has a stronger taste. In some restaurants, particularly in the South, pizza has no tomato sauce. Other dishes of Italian origin, such as macarrão (macaroni), lasanha and others are also very popular.
  • Middle-eastern and Arab (actually Lebanese) food is widely available. Most options offer high quality and a big variety. Some types of middle-eastern food, such as quibe and esfiha have been adapted and are available at snack stands and fast food joints nation-wide.
  • São Paulo's Japanese restaurants serve up lots of tempura, sushi and sashimi. The variety is good and mostly the prices are very attractive when compared to Europe, USA and Japan. Most Japanese restaurants also offer the rodizio or buffet deal, with the same quality as if you ordered from the menu. Sometimes, however, it can be quite a departure from the real thing. The same can be said of Chinese food, again with some variations from the traditional. Cheese-filled spring rolls, anyone?
  • Most restaurants will add a 10% service charge on the bill, and this is all the tip a Brazilian will ever pay. It is also what most waiters survive on, however it is not mandatory and you may ignore it. In some tourist areas you might be tried for extra tip. Just remember that you will look like a complete sucker if you exagerate.
  • There are two types of self-service restaurants (sometimes both options are available in one place): all-you-can-eat buffets with barbecue served at the tables (called "rodízio"), or a price per weight ("por quilo"), very common during lunchtime throughout Brazil. Load up at the buffet and get your plate on the scales before eating any. In the South there's also the Italian "galeto", where you're served different types of pasta, salads, soups and meat (mostly chicken) at your table.
  • Customers are allowed by law to visit the kitchen and see how the food is being handled.
  • Some Brazilian restaurants serve only meals for two. The size of the portions might not say in the menu, -ask the waiter. Most restaurants of this category allow for a "half-serving" of such plates (meia-porção), at 60-70% of the price.
  • Fast food is also very popular, and the local takes on hamburgers and hot-dogs ("cachorro-quente", translated literally) are well worth trying. Brazilian sandwiches come in many varieties, with ingredients like mayonnaise, bacon, ham, cheese, lettuce, tomato, corn, peas, raisins, french fries, ketchup, eggs, pickles, etc. Brave eaters may want to try the traditional complete hot dog (just ask for a completo), which, aside from the bun and the sausage, will include everything on display.
  • Large chains: The fast-food chain Bob's is found nationwide and has been around in the country for almost as long as McDonald's. There is also a national Arab fast-food chain called Habib's. Recent additions, though not as widespread, are Burger King and Subway. Pizza Hut is rare.

Drink

Liquor

Brazil's national booze is cachaça (cah-shah-sah, also known as aguardente ("burning water") and pinga), a 40% sugar-cane liquor known to knock the unwary out quite quickly. It can be tried in virtually every bar in the country. Famous producing regions include Minas Gerais, where there are tours of distilleries, and the city of Paraty. Pirassununga is home to Caninha 51, Brazil's best-selling brand. Outside Fortaleza there is a cachaça museum (Museu da Cachaça) where you can learn about the history of the Ypioca brand.
Drinking cachaça straight, or stirring in only a dollop of honey or a bit of lime juice, is a common habit on the Northeast region of the country. Çafé Pingado' is coffee with some cachaça in it.
The strength of cachaça can be hidden in cocktails like the famous caipirinha, where it is mixed with sugar, lime juice and ice. Using vodka instead of cachaça is nicknamed caipiroska or caipivodka; with white rum, it's a caipiríssima; and with sake it's a sakerinha (not in every region).
Another interesting concoction is called capeta ("devil"), made with cachaça, condensed milk, cinnamon, guarana powder (a mild stimulant), and other ingredients, varying by region.
If you enjoy fine brandy or grappa, try an aged cachaça. Deep and complex, this golden-coloured spirit is nothing like the ubiquitous clear liquor more commonly seen.
While imported alcohol is very expensive, many international brands are produced under license in Brazil, making them widely available, and fairly cheap. You can buy booze in the tax-free after landing at brazilian airports, but it is more expensive than buying it outside the airports.

Beer

Beer in Brazil has a respectable history because of the German immigrants. Most Brazilian beer brands tend to be less thick and bitter than actual German, Danish or English beer. More than 90% of all beer consumed in Brazil is Pilsner, and it is usually drunk very cold (at a temperature below 0ºC). The most popular domestic brands are Brahma, Antarctica, Bavaria, and Skol. Traditional brands include Bohemia, Caracu and Itaipava. Other international brands available are Carlsberg, Stella Artois, Guinness, Miller, Budweiser and others. There are two ways of drinking beer in bars: draft or bottled beer. Draft lager beer is called chope or chopp ('SHOH-pee'), and is commonly served with one inch of foam, but you can make a complaint to the bartender if the foam is consistently thicker than that. In bars, the waiter will usually collect the empty glasses and bottles on a table and replace them with full ones, until you ask him to stop, in a "tap" charging system. In the case of bottled beer, bottles (600ml) are shared among everyone in the table and poured in small glasses, rather than drunk straight from the bottle. Brazilians like their beer nearly ice-cold - hence, to keep the temperature down, bottles of beer are often kept in an insulated polystyrene container on the table.
  • Rio Grande do Sul is the leading wine production region. There are a number of wine-producing farms that are open to visitors and wine tasting, and wine cellars selling wine and fermented grape juice. One of these farms open to visitors is Salton Winery [23], located in the city of Bento Gonçalves (Rua Mário Salton, 300, Distrito de Tuiuty, CEP 95700-000. Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul. Tel: +55(54) 2105-1000).
The Sao Francisco Valley, along the border of the states of Pernambuco and Bahia, is the country's newest wine-producing region. Brazilian wines are usually fresher, fruitier and less alcoholic than, for instance, French wines. Popular brands like Sangue de Boi, Canção and Santa Felicidade and others with prices below R$ 6.00 are usually seen as rubbish.
  • In Minas Gerais, look for licor de jabuticaba (jabuticaba liquor) or vinho de jabuticaba (jabuticaba wine), an exquisite purple-black beverage with a sweet taste. Jabuticaba is the name of a small grape-like black fruit native to Brazil.

Coffee and tea

Brazil is known world-wide for its high-quality strong coffee. Café is so popular that it can name meals (just like rice does in China, Japan and Korea): breakfast in Brazil is called café da manhã (morning coffee), while café com pão (coffee with bread) or café da tarde (afternoon coffee) means a light afternoon meal. Cafezinho (small coffee) is a small cup of strong, sweetened coffee usually served after meals in restaurants (sometimes for free, just ask politely). Bottled filtered coffee is being replaced by stronger espresso cups in more upscale restaurants.
Chá, or tea in Portuguese, is most commonly found in its Assam version (orange, light coloured). Some more specialised tea shops and cafés will have Earl Gray and green tea available as well.
Mate is an infusion similar to tea that is very high in caffeine content. A toasted version, often served chilled, is consumed all around the country, while Chimarrão (incidentally called mate in neighbouring Spanish-speaking countries) is the hot, bitter equivalent that can be found in the south and is highly appreciated by the gaúchos (Rio Grande do Sul dwellers). Tererê is a cold version of Chimarrão, common in Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso state.

Soft drinks

Nothing beats coconut water (água de côco) on a hot day.(Stress the first o, otherwise it will come out as "poo"! (cocô) ). It is mostly sold as côco gelado in the coconut itself, drunk with a straw. Ask the machete-wielding vendors to cut the coconut in half so that you can eat the flesh after drinking the water.
If you want a Coke in Brazil, ask for coca or coca-cola, as "cola" means "glue", in Portuguese.
Guaraná; is a carbonated soft drink made from the guaraná berry, native to the Amazon area. The major brands are Antarctica and Kuat, the latter owned by Coke. Pureza is a lesser known guaraná soft drink specially popular in Santa Catarina.

Fruit juices

Fruit juices are very popular in Brazil. Some cities, notably Rio de Janeiro has fruit juice bars at nearly every corner. *Açai (a fruit from the Amazon) is delicious and nutritious(rich in antioxidants). Traditionally used blended in combination with guarana (a stimulant)powder,and a raw quail egg and sometimes a banana to re-energize from late-night partying It is served cold and has a consistency of soft ice.
  • Maracuja (passion fruit)(careful during an active day- this has a relaxant effect)
  • Caju (cashew fruit) and
  • Manga (mango) are also great juice experiences.
Brazilians have great taste when it comes to mixing juices.

Sleep

High season in Brazil follows the school holidays calendar, December and January (summer) being the busiest months. New Year, Carnival (moveable between February and March, see Understand above) and Holy week are the peak periods, and prices can skyrocket, especially in coastal cities like Rio and Salvador. Also, during those holidays, many hotels restrict bookings to a 3 or 4-day minimum and charge in advance.
Hotels are plentiful in just about all areas of Brazil and can range from luxury beach resorts to very modest and inexpensive choices. The Brazilian tourism regulation board imposes specific minimum attributes for each type of facility, but as the 1-5 star rating is no longer enforced, check in advance if your hotel provides the kind of services you expect.
Pousada means guesthouse (the local equivalent of a French auberge or a British boarding house), and are usually simpler than hotels, and will offer less services (room service, laundry etc.). Pousadas are even more widespread than hotels.
In wilderness areas like the Pantanal, travelers usually stay in fazendas, which are ranches with guest facilities. In small towns of Minas Gerais people are fond of hotéis-fazenda (farm hotels) where you can swim, ride, walk, play football, and camp as well as sleep in picturesque barracks.
Also there is great fun in going on a boat hotel which will take you to inaccessible places on the rivers and lakes for great fishing trips or for simply relaxing and watching and photographing the wildlife which is very abundant in the Pantanal. The boats are large, safe, and comfortable with air-conditioned rooms (very necessary). Several small aluminum boats with outboard motor, carried by the boat hotel, driven by experienced fisher/guide will take 2 or 3 tourists to the best "points".
Motel is the local term for a "sex hotel". There's no social stigma per se in staying in one, but the room service and rates are geared to adults staying for a few hours with utmost discretion and privacy.
Youth hostels (albergues da juventude) are becoming increasingly common.
Some basic words and phrases
Oi: Hi
Bom dia: good morning
Boa tarde: good afternoon
Boa noite: good evening/night
E ai?: What's up?
Tchau: bye (like the italian ciao)
Como Vai?: How are you? (formal)
Tudo bom?: How are you?
Tudo bem?: How are you?
Obrigado(m) or obrigada (f): thank you
Quanto custa?: How much does it cost?
Desculpe: Sorry
A conta, por favor: The bill, please.
Não falo português: I don't speak Portuguese
Legal (LE-GOW): Cool (could be illegal, indeed
Portuguese courses for foreigners are not widespread outside the big cities. A good alternative is to befriend language students and exchange lessons.
If you come to Brazil with some initial notions of Portuguese, you will see that people will treat you much better and you will get by much easier.
Language schools have Portuguese courses from 2 weeks up:

Work

If you are moving to Brazil to find work, or are thinking it will be easy to find a job, you may want to think again.
If you are a native English speaker, you may be able to find an English-teaching part-time job; but don't expect that to save your holidays. The pay will be under-the-table without contract. There is also a growing demand for Spanish language classes, especially in the major cities. In both cases, it's always much more lucrative to find work privately rather than through schools. This can be done by advertising in newspapers or weeklies or by putting up signs on the notice boards at universities.
Refer to the Ministery of Labour webiste [24] for more detailed information.
Gringoes.com [25] is the main online community of expat's living and working in Brazil.

Stay safe

One of the unfortunate sides of travel in Brazil is the endemic violent street crime. Brazil's large cities, especially of the north, northeast and southeast states, are notorious for attacks (against foreigners and locals alike). However, taking extra precautions and using common sense to keep yourself safe while travelling in Brazil will allow you to enjoy your stay without any incidents, like millions of visitors do every year.
By law, everyone must carry a photo ID at all times. For a foreigner, this means your passport. However, the police will mostly be pragmatic and accept a plastified color photocopy.

Stay healthy

Food from street and beach vendors has a bad hygienic reputation in Brazil. The later in the day, the worse it gets. Bottled and canned drinks are safe, although some people will insist on using a straw to avoid contact with the exterior of the container.
Bear in mind the heat and humidity when storing perishable foods.
Tap water varies from place to place, (from contaminated, saline or soaked with chlorine to plain drinkable) and Brazilians themselves usually prefer to have it filtered.
In airports, bus stations, as well as many of the cheaper hotels, it is common to find drinking fountains (bebedouro). In hostel kitchens, look for the tap with the cylindrical filter attached. In more expensive hotels, there is often no publicly accessible fountain, and bedrooms contain minibars — selling you mineral water at inflated prices.
Vaccination against yellow fever and taking anti-malaria medication may be necessary if you are traveling to central-western (Mato Grosso) or northern (Amazon) regions. If you're arriving from Peru, Colombia or Bolivia, proof of yellow fever vaccination is required before you enter Brazil. Some countries, such as Australia and South Africa, will require evidence of yellow fever vaccination before allowing you enter the country if you have been in any part of Brazil within the previous week. Check the requirements of any country you will travel to from Brazil.
Public hospitals tend to be crowded and not too good. Most cities of at least 60,000 inhabitants have good private healthcare.
Dentists abound and are cheaper than North America and Western Europe. However, the quality of their work is not always consistent, so ask a local for advice.
The emergency number is 190, but you must speak Portuguese.
Beware that air conditioning in airports, intercity buses etc. is often quite strong. Carry a long-sleeved garment for air-conditioned places.

Respect

Brazilians tend to be very open and talk freely about their problems, especially about political corruption and other problems. But don't imitate them, as they are likely to feel offended if you criticize their country or customs. In some small towns, local politics can be a sensitive issue and you should be careful when talking about it. Be polite, as always.
Be aware that racism is a very serious offense in Brazil. According to the Brazilian constitution of 1988, racism is a crime for which bail is not available, and must be met with imprisonment. This is taken very seriously.
Remember that Portuguese is not Spanish and Brazilians (as well as other Portuguese speakers) will appreciate if you know that. Both languages can be mutually intelligible to a wide extent, but they differ considerably in phonetics, vocabulary and grammar . Outside the major cities, it is not a good idea to mix Portuguese with Spanish, don't expect people to understand what you're saying if you (intentionally or unintentionally) insert Spanish words into Portuguese sentences.

Social Etiquette

  • Cheek-kissing is very common in Brazil, among women and between women and men. When two women, or opposite sexes first meet, it is not uncommon to kiss. Two men will shake hands. Kissing is suitable for informal ocasions, used to introduce yourself or being acquainted, specially to young people. Hand shaking it is more appropriate for formal ocasions or between women and men when is not intended any form of intimacy. Trying to shake hands when offered a kiss will be considered odd, but never rude. However, to refuse clearly a kiss is a disdain instance.
When people first meet, they will kiss one (eg: São Paulo), two (eg: Rio de Janeiro) or three times (eg: Florianópolis), depending where you are, alternating right and left cheeks. Observe that while doing this you should not kiss on the cheeks (like in Russia) but actually beside it in the air, placing your lips on a strangers cheek will be perceived as odd.
  • Almost everyone can dance and Brazilians are usually at ease with their own bodies. While talking, they may stand closer to each other than the regular American or Northern European, and also tend to touch each other more, e.g. on the shoulder or arm.
  • Brazilian like to drink, especially (very) cold beer (in pubs and in hot weather) and wine (in restaurants or in the winter). However to get drunk, even in a pub, is considered very unsuitable unless you are with very good friends and everybody is as drunk as you. People go to pubs to talk and tell jokes, not essentially to drink.

Contact

By phone

Brazil has international telephone code 55 and two-digit area codes, and phone numbers are eight digits long. Some areas used seven digits until 2006, meaning you might still find some old phone numbers which won't work unless you add another digit. (Mostly, try adding 2 or 3).
Eight-digit numbers beginning with digits 2 to 5 are land lines, while eight-digit numbers beginning with digits 6 to 9 are mobile phones.
All cities use the following emergency numbers:
  • 190 - Police
  • 192 - Ambulance
  • 193 - Firefighters
To dial to another area code or to another country, you must chose a carrier using a two-digit carrier code. Which carriers are available depends on the area you are dialing from and on the area you are dialing to. Carriers 21 (Embratel) and 23 (Intelig) are available in all areas.
The international phone number format for calls from other countries to Brazil is +55-(area code)-(phone number)
In Brazil:
  • To dial to another area code: 0-(carrier code)-(area code)-(phone number)
  • To dial to another country: 00-(carrier code)-(country code)-(area code)-(phone number)
  • Local collect call: 90-90-(phone number)
  • Collect call to another area code: 90-(carrier code)-(area code)-(phone number)
  • International Collect Call: 000111 or through Embratel at 0800-703-2111
Public payphones use disposable prepaid cards, which come with 20, 40, 60 or 75 credits. The discount for buying cards with larger denominations is marginal. Phone booths are nearly everywhere, and all cards can be used in all booths, regardless of the owner phone company. Cards can be bought from many small shops, and almost all news agents sell them. The Farmácia Pague Menos sells them at official (phone company) price, somewhat cheaper. Calls to cell phones (even local) will use up your credits very quickly (nearly as expensive as international calls). Calling the USA costs about one real per minute.

By mobile phone

Brazil has 4 national mobile operators: Vivo, Claro, OI and TIM, all of them running GSM networks (Vivo still runs a legacy CDMA network, which is being phased out). There are also smaller operators, like Nextel (iDEN Push-To-Talk), AEIOU (GSM in São Paulo city only), etc.
Pay-as-you-go (pré-pago) SIM cards for GSM phones are widely available in places like newsstands, drugstores, supermarkets, retail shops, etc. Vivo uses 850 MHz and 1900 MHz frequencies, while other operators uses 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequencies. 3G/HSDPA coverage is available mostly on big cities on the southeast states and capitals. Some states use 850 MHz but others use 2100 MHz for 3G/HSDPA. If you need to unlock a phone from a specific operator, this can be done for a charge in any phone shop.
So far, Vivo and TIM are the only operators that can send text messages to cell phones abroad.

By net

Internet cafes (Lan houses) are increasingly common, and even small towns often have at least one spot with more or less decent connections.
An increasing number of hotels, airports and shopping malls also offer hotspots for Wi-Fi with your laptop computer.
For general tips on internet while travelling, see our travel topic: Internet access

By mail

The Brazilian Correio [26] is fairly reliable and post offices are literally everywhere. Be sure to use PRIORITÁRIO (priority mail) or foreign letters and postcards will take a VERY long time to arrive. Rates are similar to first-class overseas airmail elsewhere. If mailing postcards, beware of the HUGE postage stamps which could cover your writing. Make it clear you want small stamps (selos pequenos) for postcards, not souvenirs for a stamp collection.
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Part of the Comparative law and justice Wikiversity Project

Contents

Basic Information

Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg
.Brazil is located in the Eastern part of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean.^ (AP, 5/6/09) 2009 May 7, Argentina and Brazil confirmed five swine flu cases within their borders as the virus affects more nations in South America.
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^ It covers more than 40% of South America, bordering every country on the continent except Chile and Ecuador.
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^ (NH, 7/96, p.74,75) 1865-1870 South America’s War of the Triple Alliance saw Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay aligned against Paraguay.
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[1]. .It is the largest country in South America and shares common boundaries with every country in South America except for Chile and Ecuador[2].^ It covers more than 40% of South America, bordering every country on the continent except Chile and Ecuador.
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^ It is Latin America's largest country and the world's fifth-largest.
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^ The South American summit was attended by the presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.
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.The total landmass in Brazil is 3,266,199.16 sq miles[3] Brazil is mostly flat to rolling lowlands in the north end, however, it does have some plains, hills, mountains and narrow coastal belt[4].^ (WSJ, 3/21/97, p.A17)(WSJ, 9/13/04, p.A8) 1994 In Brazil some 5,800 square miles were cleared by fire for agriculture and ranching in this year.
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^ (AP, 4/4/03) 2003 Apr 16, In Jahangir, Brazil, 4 young men were killed by police in the Borel shantytown on Rio's poor north side.
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The climate of Brazil is mostly tropical but temperate towards the south end of Brazil[5]. .The total population is 198,739,269. The age structures are 26,7% are 0 to 14 years old; 66.8% are 15 to 64 years; 6.4% are 65 years and over[6].^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities, to a person over sixty-five years of age, whose total income consists exclusively of work earnings.
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^ But if the woman is between the ages of 14 and 21 and if she consents to the abduction, then the punishment is reduced to detention of one to three years.
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^ If the same crime is committed against a woman between the ages of 14 and 18 who is a virgin, the penalty is increased to two to six years of imprisonment.
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The median ages for males are 27.8 years old and females are 29.3 years old[7]. .There are many different ethnic groups; 53% are Whites , 22% are Mulatto, 12% are Mestizo, 11% are Black, 1% are Japanese, and 1% are Others such as Arab and Amerindians[8] The religion groups are Roman Catholic (88%), Protestant (6%), Afro-American Spiritual (l2%), Spiritist (2%), Atheist (1%), and Others (1%)[9].^ (SFC, 11/22/99, p.A16) 1999 Dec 2, In Brazil riot police killed one person and wounded 9 others during a worker protest at the Bandeirantes television station in Brasilia (SFC, 12/3/99, p.D5) 2000 Jan 3, In Brazil flooding killed at least 11 people in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (HN, 12/2/98) 1964 The Brazilian film "Black God, White Devil" was directed by Glauber Rocha.
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^ (SFC,10/29/97, p.A10) 1997 Nov 7, It was reported that there are 12 blacks among the 594 federal lawmakers of Brazil.
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The most spoken language is Portuguese with 97%; Amerindian language with 1% and other languages. .The official languages are Portuguese and English.^ Portuguese is the official language of the Federative Republic of Brazil Paragraph 1.
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Economic Development, Health, and Education

Brazil is a politically stable country. Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is 1.5 trillion. It is ranked the 15th biggest in the world[10]. It is the second largest economy in America after the United States. .The GDP per capita in Brazil is 7,600. [11] The key industries are textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, agriculture, motor vehicles and parts.^ (Econ, 2/5/05, p.36) 2005 Jan 1, Brazil was forecast for 3.6% annual GDP growth with a population at 181.4 million and GDP per head at $3,200.
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[12] The key exports are aircraft, coffee, vehicles, soybean, iron ore, orange juice, steel, textiles, footwear and electrical equipment[13]. There partners for exports are the US, China, Argentina, Netherlands, and Germany[14]. .Brazil's key imports are machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, and electronics.^ (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10) 1973 The Arab oil embargo doubled Brazil’s import bill with a year.
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^ (AP, 6/30/02) 2002 Jul 3, Brazil and Mexico signed a trade agreement that reduced import duties on some 800 products.
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There partners for imports are the US, China, Argentina and Germany[15].
.
Its infant mortality rate is 22.58 per 1,000 live births which places Brazil below 97 other countries.
^ UN Special Representative Sergio Vieira de Mello (55) of Brazil and 22 other people were killed.
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^ Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva unveiled a program to provide cheap birth control pills at 10,000 drug stores across the country.
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^ (SFEC, 6/22/97, DB p.58) 1972 Brazil’s rubber-bearing Madeira-Mamore railway ceased running.
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.Its life expectancy for males is 68 years old while for females it is 76 years old putting Brazil below 121 other countries[16].^ "The purpose of this march, and of all the other ones we have organized over the years, is to conquer Brazil for Jesus Christ."
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^ According to a 1994 investigation on child prostitution by a special commission of the Chamber of Deputies, Brazil's lower house, prostitutes were found to be as young as five years old.
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^ Elsewhere in San Paulo 3 gunmen killed Wallace Ornelas Passos, a 17-year-old student with a police record for theft and other criminal activities.
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.The literacy rate for both men and female is 88.6%.^ Literacy rate: 88% (2005).
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The Brazilian Educational System is divided up into three levels: fundamental, intermediate, and higher. .The school year in Brazil is 180 days[17].^ (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10) 1973 The Arab oil embargo doubled Brazil’s import bill with a year.
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Fundamental School is for ages 7 to 14 which is from 1st grade to 8th grade. To go ahead to an intermediate school, the fundamental school must be completed. Intermediate schooling takes up to 2,200 hours of school work[18]. The next level of schooling is the higher school. Higher schooling is taught at universities.[19].

Brief History

.Brazil history can be divided up in five periods.^ (SFC, 7/1/00, p.B5) 1500-1800 "Chapters of Brazil Colonial History" by Joao Capistrano de Abreu (1853-1927) covered this period.
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.The first period is from 1500 to 1550. This period was the logging of Brazil wood.^ (SFC, 7/1/00, p.B5) 1500-1800 "Chapters of Brazil Colonial History" by Joao Capistrano de Abreu (1853-1927) covered this period.
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^ He later wrote "Chapters of Brazil Colonial History, 1500-1800," first published in 1907.
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The Brazil wood was a red dye that was important for the textile industry. This is how Brazil recieved its name known as "pau brasil."[20] The second period was the sugarcane period from 1530 to 1650. Slaves were the ones that provided the labor for the fields and mills. The sugarcane cultivation went from Sao Vincente in the South to Pernambuco in the Northeast. Sugar began the development of a capitalist system. [21]. The third period started from 1690 to 1750 which was removing of gold and diamonds. The colonial center shifted away from the Northeast coast into the interior (Minas Gerais). After the gold production went downward, the fourth period began. The fourth period was the coffee cultivation. It lasted until the late 1920's. .It went from the mountains behind Rio de Janeiro, to the Rio Pariba Valley, to the west across Sao Paulo State and out into Parana.^ Sao Paulo state.
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^ He was hung in Rio de Janeiro.
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^ As of 1994 the Brasilia federal capital district, 3 states: Bahia, Sergipe, Mato Grosso and 77 cities and towns: Salvador, Sao Paolo etc., also the state of Rio de Janeiro has a law imposing stiff fines against persons or institutions found guilty of anti-gay discrimination.
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.Coffee was Brazils best producer [22].^ (SFC, 8/31/01, p.D2) 2001 Aug 22, Brazil moved to produce a generic version of the anti-AIDS drug nelfinavir under int’l.
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The fifth period started in the 1930's to the 1990's. .This period was the triangle of Sao Paulo-Rio de Janerio-Belo Horizonte[23].^ São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, elsewhere.
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^ (SFC, 2/3/99, p.A9) 1999 Feb 23, The $5 billion Sergio Motta Dam on the Parana River, 370 miles northwest of Sao Paulo, was inaugurated.
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^ July 23, A handful of men shot and killed 6 children and teenagers at the Candelaria Cathedral and 2 more at the Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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This led to the import-substitution industrialization which attracted rural migrants throughout the country.
.Brazil was discovered in 1500 by a Portuguese man named Pedro Alvaros Cabral[24].^ Empire_of_Brazil) 1826 Dom Pedro IV, emperor of Brazil, attained the Portuguese throne.
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^ (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20) 1502 Jan 1, Portuguese navigator Pedro Cabral and Amerigo Vespucci sailed the into the harbor of Rio de Janeiro.
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^ (WUD, 1994 p.206)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm) 1500 Apr 22, Pedro Alvares Cabral (c1460-c1526), Portuguese explorer, discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal.
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The colony was ruled by Lisbon until 1808 [25]. .Brazil recieved its independence in 1822 by Dom Pedro I. Its government was a monarchical system until 1888 when they abolished slavery[26].^ Brazil's Emperor Dom Pedro was among the witnesses.
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^ Empire_of_Brazil) 1826 Dom Pedro IV, emperor of Brazil, attained the Portuguese throne.
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^ A government study said Blacks will outnumber whites in Brazil this year for the first time since slavery was abolished, but the income gap between the two groups may take another 50 years to bridge.
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.The capital of Brazil was Salvador.^ (AP, 2/7/06) 1763 The capital of Brazil was changed from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
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[27]. .Intermarriages were very common throughout Brazil between the Portuguese and other indigenous people or even slaves [28].^ (SSFC, 1/28/01, p.T1) 1828 May 18, The Battle of Las Piedras, ended the conflict between Uruguay and Brazil.
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^ UN Special Representative Sergio Vieira de Mello (55) of Brazil and 22 other people were killed.
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Governance

The eleven members of the Supreme Federal Court of Brazil and the attorney general.
.Brazil is governed by civil law.^ Paragraph 4 - A federal law shall provide for the use, by the Government of the Federal District, of the civil and military polices and the military fire brigade.
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Their legal system is based on Roman codes and federal legislative powers[29]. .Their constitution was made up on October 5th, 1988[30].Their constitution establishes the three branches of government; legislative, executive, and the judiciary branch.^ Penalty - fine of three to twenty reference wages; in the case of repetition, the judicial authority may determine the closing of the establishment for up to fifteen days.
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^ Brazilian Child Labor policies: In 1988, Brazil established 14 as the basic minimum age for work in Brazil in Article 227 of the 1988 Constitution.
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.The Congress involves the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate.^ Paragraph 3 - An amendment to the Constitution shall be promulgated by the Directing Boards of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate with the respective sequence number.
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^ The Directing Boards of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Federal Senate, under the terms of paragraph 3 of article 60.
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^ The Directing Boards of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Federal Senate, under the terms of paragraph 3 of article 60, of the Federal Constitution.
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They use their legislative power through the legislative process which are the Senate and Chambers of Deputies.[31]. .The executive branch is surrounded by the President of the Republic and the Ministers of State[32].^ President and Vice-President of the Republic for crime of malversation and the Ministers of State for crimes of the same nature relating to those; 2.
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^ The President of the Republic may call a State Minister to participate in the Council meeting, when the agenda includes a matter related to the respective Ministry.
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^ President of the Republic and to consider the reports on the execution of Government plans; 10.
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.The judiciary branch is made up by the Federal Supreme Court, National Council of Justice, Federal Justice, Labor Justice, State Justice and a couple more Justices[33].^ Supreme Federal Court; 11.
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^ Justices of the Federal Court of Accounts; 16.
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^ Federal Deputy, State or District Deputy, Mayor, Vice-Mayor and justice of the peace: 4.
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.The highest court is the Federal Supreme Court.^ Supreme Federal Court; 11.
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^ Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Courts and the Courts of Justice, to propose to the respective Legislative Power, with due regard for the provisions of article 169: 1.
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^ Justices of the Supreme Federal Court, the Attorney-General of the Republic and the Advocate-General of the Union for crimes of malversation; 3.
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.The president holds office for 4 years, with the right to re-election for an additional 4-year term, and appoints his own cabinet[34] There are 81 senators, three for each state and the federal district[35].^ Union, of the states, of the Federal District and of the municipalities; 7.
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^ The term of office of the temporary judges in all instances is three years.
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^ Union, the states, the Federal District and the municipalities: 2.
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.The senate has an 8 year term which is spread out so that 2/3rds of the upper house is up for election at one time and 1/3 after 4 years[36].^ Federal Deputies and Senators, in each legislative term, for the subsequent one, taking into account the provisions of articles 150, II, 153, III, and 153, paragraph 2, I; 8.
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^ Mayor, Vice-Mayor and Councilmen for a term of office of four years, by means of direct election held simultaneously throughout the country; 2.
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^ The election of the President and Vice-President of the Republic shall take place simultaneously, on the first Sunday of October, in the first round, and on the last Sunday of October, in the second round, as the case may be, of the year preceding the one in which the current presidential term of office ends.
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.There is a bicameral legislature consisting of an upper Federal Senate and a lower Chamber of Deputies[37].^ Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate of such decision; 11.
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^ Paragraph 3 - An amendment to the Constitution shall be promulgated by the Directing Boards of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate with the respective sequence number.
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^ The Directing Boards of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Federal Senate, under the terms of paragraph 3 of article 60.
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.
To vote in Brazil you have to be between the ages of 18 and 70 and it is mandatory.
^ If the same crime is committed against a woman between the ages of 14 and 18 who is a virgin, the penalty is increased to two to six years of imprisonment.
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^ (SSFC, 1/28/01, p.T1) 1828 May 18, The Battle of Las Piedras, ended the conflict between Uruguay and Brazil.
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^ Similarly, it is a crime to corrupt, or facilitate the corruption of, a person between the ages of 14 and 18 by engaging in sexual acts or persuading such a person to witness such acts.
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They have to be a citizen of Brazil[38]. Citizens of Brazil that are 16 years old and 70 years old and over are able to vote voluntarily. The military conscripts do not vote[39]. If a person does not vote it is difficult to access certain things, for example receiving a passport or bank account. Brazilian citizens are required to vote. .In 1996, Brazil began using an electronic voting system.^ (Econ, 6/12/04, p.35) 1996 Brazil introduced electronic voting.
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However, the entire country didn't begin using it until 2000[40]. .For a candidate who holds office in the executive branch that is interested in an elective office they must resign six months before the election [41] The requirements are a minister, governor, mayor or state enterprise director.^ In order to run for other offices, the President of the Republic, the State and Federal District Governors and the Mayors have to resign from their respective offices at least six months in advance of the election.
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^ The spouse and relatives by blood or marriage, up to the second degree or by adoption, of the President of the Republic, of the Governor of a State or Territory or of the Federal District, of a Mayor or of those who have replaced them within the six months preceding the election, are not eligible in the jurisdiction of the incumbent, unless they already hold an elective office and are candidates for re-election.
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^ Silva got 48.6% compared to 41.6% for Alckmin, the former governor of Sao Paulo state.
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These are benefical for their elections[42].

Judical Review

Brazil does have a judicial review. The judicial review that Brazil follows is the mixed model. The judges in the courts are allowed to ignore the constitution under certain circumstances. .Before the new constitution in 1988, Brazil used a diffuse model.^ Brazilian Child Labor policies: In 1988, Brazil established 14 as the basic minimum age for work in Brazil in Article 227 of the 1988 Constitution.
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^ República Federativa de Brasil/ Federative Republic of Brazil Constitución Política de 1988, con reformas de 1996, em inglês 1988 Constitution, with 1996 reforms in english .
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Brazil "judiciary had the duty of constitutional control with the potential inconsistency of decisions being lessened through stare decisis or a structural equivalent[43]

Courts and Criminal Law

The criminal law system in Brazil uses an adversary system. Evidence that are made unconstituionally are dismissed in the court. The criminal sentence has to be final and unappeasable to finally consider the criminal guilty. .The Federal Supreme Tribunal consists of judges and eleven justices.^ Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Courts and the Courts of Justice, to propose to the respective Legislative Power, with due regard for the provisions of article 169: 1.
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^ Justices of the Supreme Federal Court, the Attorney-General of the Republic and the Advocate-General of the Union for crimes of malversation; 3.
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^ Sole paragraph - The Justices of the Supreme Federal Court shall be appointed by the President of the Republic, after their nomination has been approved by the absolute majority of the Federal Senate.
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.The justices are appointed by the President of the Republic and they also have to be approved by the Federal Senate.^ Sole paragraph - The Justices of the Supreme Federal Court shall be appointed by the President of the Republic, after their nomination has been approved by the absolute majority of the Federal Senate.
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^ The Superior Military Court shall be composed of fifteen life Justices, appointed by the President of the Republic, after their nomination has been approved by the Federal Senate, three of which shall be chosen from among General officers of the Navy, four from among General officers of the Army, three from among General officers of the Air Force, all of them in active service and in the highest rank of the career, and five from among civilians.
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^ Sole paragraph - The Justices of the Superior Court of Justice shall be appointed by the President of the Republic, chosen from among Brazilians over thirty-five and under sixty-five years of age, of notable juridical learning and spotless reputation, after the nomination has been approved by the Federal Senate, as follows: 1.
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The justices must be between 35 and 65[44]. .The justices may retire after 30 years of service but they must retire at the age of 70. Ellen Gracie is the first woman to become one of the justices in the Supreme Court in 2005. Joaquin Barbosa was the first afro-Brazilian.^ Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Courts and the Courts of Justice, to propose to the respective Legislative Power, with due regard for the provisions of article 169: 1.
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^ But if the woman is between the ages of 14 and 21 and if she consents to the abduction, then the punishment is reduced to detention of one to three years.
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^ Justices of the Supreme Federal Court, the Attorney-General of the Republic and the Advocate-General of the Union for crimes of malversation; 3.
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.The Federal Supreme Tribunal is to safeguard the constitution [45].^ "Sole paragraph - A claim of noncompliance with a fundamental precept deriving from this Constitution shall be examined by the Supreme Federal Court, under the terms of the law."
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^ A claim of non-compliance with a fundamental precept deriving from this Constitution shall be examined by the Supreme Federal Court, under the terms of the law.
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^ Paragraph 1 - A claim of non-compliance with a fundamental precept deriving from this Constitution shall be examined by the Supreme Federal Court, under the terms of the law.
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.It makes peace between states and it also deals with complaints against higher authorities[46].^ Union, or between judicial authorities of one state and administrative authorities of another or of the Federal District, or between those of the latter and those of the Union; 8.
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The key actors in the courtrooms are the judges, plaintiff, victim, attorney, police, experts, clerks and auxiliary court personnel.
.There are state courts in every state.^ There shall be a Regional Electoral Court in the capital of each state and in the Federal District.
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^ Each state, as well as the Federal District, shall be a judicial session, which shall have its seat in the respective capital, and there shall be courts of first instance located where established in law.
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.The state courts have jurisdiction judges and at least one Appeal Court.^ Federal Regional Courts or by the courts of the states, of the Federal District and the Territories, when the decision appealed: 1.
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^ Supreme Federal Court, or in the case of a crime, subject to the same jurisdiction in one sole instance; 10.
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^ Federal Regional Courts and one-third from among judges of the Courts of Justice, nominated in a list of three names prepared by the Court itself; 2.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

They deal with the private individuals and many types of crimes except for the federal crimes which go to the Federal Courts. Trails are not averted by a plea of guilt[47]. Confessions may be admitted as evidence, however, the court is the only ones who determine guilt or not. Brazilian court trials uses an adversarial system. The trail process starts when a complaint is accepted by the judge. They then pick a date to question the defendant[48]. .The first step for the trial procedure is immediately after questioning; the defendant will fit out a claim and name the witnesses.^ He originally confessed but later claimed that his wife, Paula de Alameida Thomaz, carried out the stabbing in a fit of jealousy.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The second step is examining the witnesses, beginning by the state's witnesses. .Both parties may present evidence throughout the criminal process.^ The director of the entity will be summoned to present a written response within ten days and may include documents and indicate the evidence to be produced.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the judge is convinced that the defendant is found guilty, the prosecutor may ask to move it to a Jury Court.^ Judge, the first Public Prosecutor and the first Public Defender shall be appointed by the elected Governor after a public entrance examination of tests and presentation of academic and professional credentials; 8.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Jury Court consists of a judge and 21 jurors[49]. .The state's witnesses cannot hear the debates so they are taken away from the trial while seven out of twenty-one are selected to hear the case.^ Should it be deemed necessary, the judicial authority may determine the carrying out of a social or expert study by an interprofessional staff, as well as the hearing of witnesses.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ministers of State shall be chosen from among Brazilians over twenty-one years of age and in possession of their political rights.
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^ One police officer was killed, 7 people were injured and 2 guards beaten as they shot their way out.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The jury receives documents to hear the state's witnesses, judge, defense counsel, plaintiff, prosecutor and sometimes the defense's witnesses.^ Rainha argued that he was in another state with witnesses and that the squatters acted in self defense, but was still convicted in a 4-3 vote.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Rainha argued that he was in another state with witnesses and that the squatters acted in self defense but was still convicted in a 4-3 vote.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The President of the Republic may, after hearing the Council of the Republic and the National Defense Council request authorization from the National Congress to decree the state of seize in the event of: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

The verdict is decided from the decision of the majority of the jurors[50].

Punishment

.Persons older than 18 are under the Penal Code.^ Minor’s corruption’, Article 218 of the Brazilian Penal Code To corrupt or facilitate the corruption of a person older than fourteen (14) and younger than eighteen (18) years of age, practising with her a libidinous act, inducing her to practice it or to be present.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Juvenile offenders are between the ages of 12 and 17. They are under the Statute of Children and Adolescents.^ It is the duty of parents to assist, raise and educate their under- age children and it is the duty of children of age to help and assist their parents in old-age, need or sickness.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1994, the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics found that approximately 2 million or 14.3% children between 10 and 13 years of age are working.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the purposes of this Law, the child is considered as the person who has not yet completed twelve years of age and the adolescent as that between twelve and eighteen years of age .
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Instead of being sentenced to prison, they are sent to an institution or in custody under a training order.^ In 2000 rancher Jeronimo Alves Amorim was convicted for ordering the killing and was sentenced to 19 ½ years in prison.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The length of the sentences was largely symbolic because under Brazilian law no one can serve more than 30 years in prison.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Unless already under the custody or guardianship of the adopting party, the party being adopted must be no more than eighteen years of age at the time of the request.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Children under 12 years old cannot be tried on indictment[51].^ It is the duty of parents to assist, raise and educate their under- age children and it is the duty of children of age to help and assist their parents in old-age, need or sickness.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some 600 delegates from more than 100 political parties met under the 52-year-old Socialist International's motto: "For a more human society.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ According to gynecologist Carlos Alberto Digoli in an interview with Folha de So Paulo, girls in So Paulo are menstruating for the first time when they are around 12 years-old.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

Their main concern is returning the juveniles back to the community. They focus on rehabilitation for juveniles.
30 years is the maximum amount of time to be incarcerated. The penalties are all up to the kind of offense, behavior and personality of the offender. A couple other penalties are fines and deportation. However, most of the offenses are punished with imprisonment. Some typical punishments for offenses are:
  • intentional homicide (12 to 30 years)
  • major assault (1 to 12 years)
  • rape (6 to 10 years)
  • kidnapping (8 to 30 years)
  • theft (1 to 4 years)
  • violent robbery (4 to 30 years)
  • embezzlement (1 to 6 years)
  • arson (3 to 6 years)
  • Corruption (2 to 12 years)[52].
.Prisons in Brazil are one of the most human right problems.^ This seems to be one major problem in Brazil.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brizola, one of Brazil's most notable leftist politicians, created and armed the so-called "Groups of 11," cells designed to resist the military dictatorship.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 8/25/06) 2006 Aug 27, In Brazil archbishop Luciano Mendes de Almeida (75), an avid human rights defender, died.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The inmates are held in scandalously abusive conditions. .The population in prison is more than 360,000 even though the capacity is suppose to be 207,000[53]..^ The length of the sentences was largely symbolic because under Brazilian law no one can serve more than 30 years in prison.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ They sent more than 10,000 troops to crush the uprising in the proceeding years.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ He was sentenced to 450 years in prison but the law limited him to serve no more than 30 years.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Most of the Brazilian inmates are young, poor, male and uneducated.^ Many Brazilians see nothing wrong with adult males having sex with young girls, a practice that has been widespread since Portuguese explorers cohabited with young Indian girls.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.One- third of the inmates are around between the ages of 20 to 30[54].^ But if the woman is between the ages of 14 and 21 and if she consents to the abduction, then the punishment is reduced to detention of one to three years.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of willful homicide, the penalty is increased by one third, if the crime is practiced against a minor of less than fourteen years of age.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the cases specified in Law, this Statute applies exceptionally to persons between eighteen and twenty-one years of age.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

Brazil does not use capital punishment. .The only exception is in case of war declared by Congress and as a response to aggression by a foreign nation[55].^ Placement in a foreign foster family is an exceptional measure and is only permissible in the case of adoption.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President of the Republic to declare war, to make peace and to permit foreign forces to pass through the national territory or remain therein temporarily, with the exception of the cases provided by a supplementary law; 3.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Legal proceedings under the responsibility of the Juvenile Court are exempt from costs and fees, with the exception of the case of litigations brought out of bad faith.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

From 1995 to 1999, the numbers of inmates that were imprisoned increased by 30.5%. .By 2000, the prison population was 200,000[56].^ (SFC, 6/26/98, p.D4) 1998 Jul 6, The native population was estimated to be about 300,000 people in some 200 tribes.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The main problem for prisons in Brazil is the over crowdedness.
.Women that are in prison that have children are allowed to keep their children with them until they are complete with breast feeding.^ They ate the first Bishop of Bahia, two Canons, the Procurator of the Royal Portuguese Treasury, 2 pregnant women and several children.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Legal Personnel

The police forces organization differs from state to state. To become a lieutenant, sergeant, captain, majors and colonels, a four year program at the Police Academy is required. .The majors and colonels salaries are about the same as the state prosecutors[57] .^ The state’s economy was valued at around $130 billion, about the same as that of Venezuela.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Law enforcements are trained by the police academy.The curriculum trained depends on what the country is dealing with the most at that time. Soliders are chosen by a public selection. Candidates are required to have completed middle school and passed several exams. Also, the candidate must have a clean criminal record. After the candidate has been selected, they must train for about 10 to 12 months. .[58] There are 358,166 military police officers in Brazil which is 211.3 for every 100,000 people.^ (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T12) c1896 Police were sent to Canudos, Brazil, but were repelled by the settlement in what came to be call the First Military Expedition to Canudos.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The weekend gang fight in Rio de Janeiro left 3 police officers killed, and continued into the week leaving at least 32 people dead.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000 people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote Amazon areas.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Their salaries are between $2,950.00 to $5,350.00 annually. There are 7,403 federal police officers. .For beginner officers, there wages are $19,310.20 and police chiefs are $43,376.73. There requirements are a college degree and two exams which are psychological and intellectual exams.^ Police evidence revealed multi-million payoffs to congressmen, police chiefs, judges, businessmen, police officers and the former president Fernando Collor de Mello.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.After they pass those exams, they go to a training program which varies from 4 to 8 months at the National Police Department[59].^ Those born abroad, of a Brazilian father or a Brazilian mother, provided that they come to reside in the Federative Republic of Brazil and opt for the Brazilian nationality at any time; II - ....................................................................................
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]


Judges also have a process to go through to become a judge. They are selected by a screening process. .A judge must be at least 24 years old and must have at least two years of experience as a practicing attorney.^ The adopting party must be at least sixteen years older than the party being adopted.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We are reversing a centuries-old practice," says Arlinda Uzda, a CEDECA attorney.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Federal judges average age is 34. Candidate's selects which type of judge they would like to focus on and takes a test which is very difficult and most candidates thrive.^ The Federal Regional Courts are composed of a minimum of seven judges, selected, whenever possible, in the respective region and nominated by the President of the Republic from among Brazilians over thirty and under sixty-five years of age, as follows: 1.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These types of judges are state, federal, military, and labor judges[60].^ The provisions of article 40, paragraphs 4 and 5 apply to military of the States, of the Federal District and of the Territories, and to their pensioners, and the provision of article 40, paragraph 6 applies to the military of the Federal District and the Territories.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Courts and Judges of the states, of the Federal District and of the territories.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal Regional Court with its seat in the capital of a state or in the Federal District, or, in the absence thereof, of a federal judge chosen in any case by the respective Federal Regional Court; 3.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After two years of working as a judge, they have a life term commitment.^ The term of office of the temporary judges in all instances is three years.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mayor and Vice-Mayor on the first Sunday of October of the year preceding the end of the term of office of those they are to succeed, subject, in the case of municipalities with over two hundred thousand voters, to the provisions set forth in article 77; 3.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Paragraph 1 - If the vacancy occurs during the last two years of the President's term of office, the National Congress shall hold elections for both offices thirty days after the last vacancy.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

They have to work until they retire or if they commit a serious act. .There are around 14 thousand judges in Brazil with an income of $65,000,00 American dollars.^ (AP, 2/12/08) 2008 Feb 14, Brazil flew 50,000 doses of yellow fever vaccine to Paraguay following an outbreak there, the first in 34 years.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Law Enforcement

Policing in Brazil is centralized[61]. .Brazil has two state police forces.^ Police arrested 15 suspected traffickers, including two Rio de Janeiro state police officers.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Aug 5, In Brazil a 2-week police strike in Salvador, Bahia state, was reported to be over.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 8/26/03, p.A19) 2003 Aug 19, In northeastern Brazil federal police and government inspectors freed about 800 slave workers from two farms in Bahia state.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

These polices forces are the Military Police and the Civil Police. .There are Military Police in each state[62].^ As a result, there have been 3,343 denunciations and 204 police investigations, in which 113 cases were turned over to state prosecutors, according to Bahia police records.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The members of the Military Police and of the Military Fire Brigades, institutions whose organization is based on hierarchy and discipline, are military of the States, of the Federal District, and of the Territories.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They are responsible for keeping order within the States and Federal District.^ The policy of enforcing the rights of the child and adolescent will be implemented through a coordinated complex of governmental and nongovernmental actions of the Federal Government, states, Federal District and municipalities.
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^ The court's federal jurisdiction means that the order will extend to the entire country, not just the state.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The states and Federal District may create specialized and exclusive juvenile courts and the Judicial Branch has the responsibility for establishing their proportionality per number of inhabitants, provide them with infrastructure and define their operation, including standby operation.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Civil Police are responsible for the duties of a judical police force and investigating criminal offenses and also forensic work[63].^ Paragraph 4 - It is incumbent upon the civil police, directed by career police comissioners and except for the competence of the Union, to exercise the functions of criminal police and to investigate criminal offenses, with the exception of the military ones.
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.Each state has different rules and uniforms for each Military Police force.^ The members of the Military Police and of the Military Fire Brigades, institutions whose organization is based on hierarchy and discipline, are military of the States, of the Federal District, and of the Territories.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

Police chiefs are known as delegates and the force is commanded by the general delegate. .The general delegate has the same rank of the commandant of the Military Police.^ In cases in which the adolescent is not presented, the representative of the Office of the Attorney General will notify the parents or guardian for presentation of the adolescent and may petition the cooperation of the civilian and military police.
  • Brazil -- Age of Consent 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

To become a delegate, they must have a law degree, and must be selected by public examination. Officers with lower-ranking are known as investigators. The only way to get promoted is to receive a law degree[64].

Brazil also has three federal authorities: the Federal Police, the Federal Highway Police, and the Federal Railway Police[65]. .The Federal Police are responsible for investigating crimes that are against the Federal Government or its organs and companies.^ Paragraph 4 - A federal law shall provide for the use, by the Government of the Federal District, of the civil and military polices and the military fire brigade.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

They are also responsible for the international drug trafficking and terrorism[66]. The Federal Highway Police is responsible for fighting crimes on Brazilian federal roads and highways. The Federal Railway Police is responsible for patrols and securities on federal railways[67]. .The Federal Police chose there members from graduates of the National Police Academy.^ The members of the Military Police and of the Military Fire Brigades, institutions whose organization is based on hierarchy and discipline, are military of the States, of the Federal District, and of the Territories.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

To join the state police you must pass a test that happen periodically. Delegates must be bachelors of law and pass a three-phase test. If they are approved, they must undergo a formative course in the police academy[68].

Crime Rates and Public Opinion

Rates of Key Crimes
Homicide
28.4
Robbery
12.1
Aggrevated Assualt
36.2
Crime in Brazil is very high[69]. .The murder rate in Brazil is four times higher than the United States[70].^ Brazil is slightly smaller than the continental United States.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 8/12/05) 2005 Aug 12, Police detained four men in connection with one of the world's biggest heists and recovered more than $2 million of the $70 million stolen from Brazil's Central Bank.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ He was accused of shipping more than 70 tons of cocaine to the United States.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

. The most common crimes that occur in Brazil are theft, pick pocketing, cons and "quick napping[71]." Quick napping is when someone is kidnap for a small amount of time to receive a ransom[72]." Since Brazil is a country in which there is a lot of tourism, these types of crimes occur more often than a non tourism country. Theft occurs mostly at airports and tourist areas in Brazil. .Cons are also common to tourist because they notice that you are not from Brazil and will offer to take you around and they end up robbing you[73].^ (AP, 5/12/06) 2006 May 13, The presidents of Brazil and Bolivia said they patched things up after days of accusations and threats.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Police stepped up patrols but at least 22 tourists were robbed during the week.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The homicide rate in Brazil in 2002 was 28.4 per 100,000 people[74].^ Death rates in Brazil from gunshots had reached 25.78 per 100,000.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (WSJ, 6/2/00, p.A1) 2000 A UN study put the murder rate in Rio de Janeiro at 26.3 per 100,000, one of the highest in the world.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Brazil was nearly 100% Roman Catholic a century ago, but the percentage dropped to 84% in 1995 and is 74% today.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

In 2002, there were 49,570 homicides that were reported; 53.1 were males and 4.3 were females. Some crime reports do not have the population. For example, colleges, highway patrol, state police, and drug enforcement agencies[75]. The least reported crime is rape [76]. Citizens of Brazil favor the capital punishment. 51 percent of the people think that capital punishment should be reinstated[77].

Rights

Family Law

Marriage

Getting married in Brazil has requirements that need to be fulfilled. There has to be two people of the opposite sex. .They both have to be 18 years of age and if they are younger than 18, they need consent of their parents or legal guardian.^ It is the duty of parents to assist, raise and educate their under- age children and it is the duty of children of age to help and assist their parents in old-age, need or sickness.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They sent more than 10,000 troops to crush the uprising in the proceeding years.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Same sex marriage is illegal in Brazil[78].^ (SFC, 9/4/00, p.B10) 2000 Jun 9, In Brazil legal rights for same-sex couples were extended to include inheritance, pension and social security benefits.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

People cannot get married if a person was married before and has not completely finished the process of divorcing. Also marriage is not allowed if you are closely related to the other person, such as, siblings. [79]. There are documentation and procedure that you need to meet before you get marriage. You need to register to get married and you need proof of the documents. Also, publication of the banns and getting a marriage license. The place to register for marriage is in the Civil Registry Office. .They are responsible of finding out if on of the couple is a resident of Brazil.^ Brazilian father or a Brazilian mother, provided that they come to reside in the Federative Republic of Brazil and opt for the Brazilian nationality at any time; 2.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those born abroad, of a Brazilian father or a Brazilian mother, provided that they come to reside in the Federative Republic of Brazil and opt for the Brazilian nationality at any time; II - ....................................................................................
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.To fill out the document of registration, they must do it 30 days before the marriage date ceremony.^ The next day state officials said they might have been carried out by police incensed by investigations of brutality and corruption by "bad" cops.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

It could take up to 20 to 60 days to process[80].

Divorce

.Brazil was forbidden to divorce until 1977. Brazil had doubled their divorce rate since 1985 and most people believe that this is because the 1988 abolition.^ The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000 people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote Amazon areas.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Men were now able to divorce as many times as they please. Before the abolition, they could only divorce twice in their lifetime[81]. Sociologist believes that women are now ashamed if they stay with a man when they abused them while in the past, they would look down upon because the woman divorced her husband. .Brazil has a law that states, married couples must wait two years after their marriage to get a divorce and they must wait two years after their divorce to remarry[82].^ The states are organized and governed by the Constitutions and laws they may adopt, in accordance with the principles of this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Federative Republic of Brazil for over fifteen uninterrupted years and without criminal conviction, provided that they apply for the Brazilian nationality.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Federative Republic of Brazil for over thirty uninterrupted years and without criminal conviction, provided that they apply for the Brazilian nationality.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.
Local family courts handle divorce and custody in Brazil.
^ Brazil began construction of a rocket base at Alcantara, forcing some 300 local families to resettle elsewhere.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Brazilian Civil Code lets married parents have equal rights of custody though their minor child.^ Brazilian resident in a foreign State, as a condition for permanence in its territory, or for the exercise of civil rights.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

However, the U.S. Embassy of Brazil has gender discrimination[83]. Women are much more likely to receive custody of small children or girls. Also, Brazilian parents would get custody before a foreign pattern does. Parental abduction is only a crime when it happens in Brazil and both the parents are Brazilian. .However, if a Brazilian parent takes the child to Brazil without the foreign parent's custodial right, it becomes a crime[84].^ Brazilian resident in a foreign State, as a condition for permanence in its territory, or for the exercise of civil rights.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Federative Republic of Brazil for over fifteen uninterrupted years and without criminal conviction, provided that they apply for the Brazilian nationality.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Federative Republic of Brazil for over thirty uninterrupted years and without criminal conviction, provided that they apply for the Brazilian nationality.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

Adoption

.Brazil and the United States have an agreement with adoption called the Hague Adoption Convention.^ Brazil official visa fees for citizens of United States .
  • Brazil Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Brazilian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC brazil.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil visa requirements: 1-800-345-6541 Brazil visa for citizens of United States .
  • Brazil Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Brazilian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC brazil.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil business visa fees for citizens of United States .
  • Brazil Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Brazilian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC brazil.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The adoptive parent(s) from the United States much come to Brazil to adopt a child[85].^ Brazil official visa fees for citizens of United States .
  • Brazil Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Brazilian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC brazil.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil visa requirements: 1-800-345-6541 Brazil visa for citizens of United States .
  • Brazil Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Brazilian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC brazil.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil business visa fees for citizens of United States .
  • Brazil Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Brazilian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC brazil.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The child is not allowed to go to the United States to get adopted. Adopting a child is a long process. .People may adopt children from Brazil without the parent being a citizen; however, there are some consequences.^ The rights inherent to born Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Paragraph I - The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in the Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the children are five years and up; sibling groups; and special needs children's[86].^ The gang, made up of police officers, hired guns and businessmen, had carried out up to 200 killings a year over the past five years, most of them linked to loan sharking.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The adoptive parent(s) must be at least twenty-one years of age.^ The Ministers of State shall be chosen from among Brazilians over twenty-one years of age and in possession of their political rights.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

There are no marriage requirements to adopt a child from Brazil. .When the adoption papers are completed, the adoptive parent(s) must stay in Brazil for at least 15 days when the child is under two years old and 30 days when the child is over two years old[87].^ (AP, 4/1/07) 2007 Apr 7, In Brazil Martin Strel, a 52-year-old Slovenian, completed a 3,272 swim down the Amazon River that could set a world record for distance.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ It is the duty of parents to assist, raise and educate their under- age children and it is the duty of children of age to help and assist their parents in old-age, need or sickness.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The length of the sentences was largely symbolic because under Brazilian law no one can serve more than 30 years in prison.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Abortion

Overall, abortion is illegal in Brazil. .There are only two reason that make abortion legal.^ Paragraph 4 - Upon cessation of the reasons that caused the intervention, the authorities removed from their offices shall return to them, unless there is some legal impediment.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

The first reason is if the mother was rapped. The second is if the mother has to risk her life[88]. .There is a punishment for performing an abortion or consenting to one other than the reason said above which is three years of prison.^ Its funded debt for more than two consecutive years, except for reasons of force majeure; 2.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "The purpose of this march, and of all the other ones we have organized over the years, is to conquer Brazil for Jesus Christ."
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The length of the sentences was largely symbolic because under Brazilian law no one can serve more than 30 years in prison.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

If performing the abortion causes harm to the woman than the punishment increases by one-third and if the abortion causes the death of the woman than the punishment is double[89].

Social Inequality

.There are many ways of becoming a citizen in Brazil.^ The rights inherent to born Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Paragraph I - The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in the Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If one of your parents are a citizen of Brazil, then you are also a citizen of Brazil no matter where you were born.^ The rights inherent to born Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All children born in Brazil are also citizens, except if your parents are on the blue list[90].^ Steps that you can take: Check the current validity of your passport and the availability of blank visa pages All travelers will need a valid passport for their travels to Brazil.
  • Brazil Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Brazilian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC brazil.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women have the same equal right as men do to become a citizen of Brazil.^ The rights inherent to born Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14) 1998 Nov 4, Brazil set a minimum retirement age of 53 for men and 48 for women.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Paragraph I - The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in the Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.
Discrimination does occur in Brazil and it is mostly seen in the work area.
^ The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000 people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote Amazon areas.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Women and black Brazilians are the ones that are getting discriminated. This goes to back to when people received their jobs by hierarchies of race and gender, instead of receiving them by their education and skill. Men and women income per hour also are not equal. There are more men that have educated in universities which helps them receive higher pay in job. Brazilians consider childcare, grade school teachers and nursing as "women's work."[91] However, Brazil does have programs that fight for gender equality in Brazil.

Human Rights

.Article 5 in the Brazil constitution talks about equality among the people in Brazil it says "all persons are equal before the law, without any distinction whatsoever, and Brazilians and foreigners resident in Brazil are assured of inviolability of the rights of life, liberty, equality, security, and property."^ (Econ, 8/8/09, p.70) 1998 Jan 1, In Brazil the new law making all Brazilian adults potential organ donors went into effect.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The 12 subsidiaries were sold one by one while demonstrators protested saying that Telebras was the property of the Brazilian people.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 6/29/99, p.A10) 1999 Jul 26, Brazil said it would temporarily suspend all trade talks with Argentina after Argentina moved to curb certain Brazilian exports.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[92] .Men and women in Brazil are treated equally with equal rights.^ (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14) 1998 Nov 4, Brazil set a minimum retirement age of 53 for men and 48 for women.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Brazil has about 3,500 refugees and 25% are women. .Refugees are documented and have equal access to work, health care and education.^ Education, health, work, leisure, security, social security, protection of motherhood and childhood, and assistance to the destitute, are social rights, as set forth by this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

However, refugees do have a difficult time in finding homes and employments.
.
Brazil has had problems with violating other citizens of their human rights.
^ The rights inherent to born Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 8/25/06) 2006 Aug 27, In Brazil archbishop Luciano Mendes de Almeida (75), an avid human rights defender, died.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

."The following human rights problems were reported: beatings, abuse, and torture of detainees and inmates by police and prison security forces; inability to protect witnesses involved in criminal cases; poor prison conditions; prolonged pretrial detention and inordinate delays of trials; attacks on the media by local authorities and organized crime; violence and discrimination against women; violence against children, including sexual abuse; trafficking in persons; discrimination against indigenous people and minorities; significant obstacles to persons with disabilities; failure to either apply or enforce labor laws; and child labor in the informal sector."^ The law shall provide for the cases and conditions in which the Government shall give assistance to the needy heirs and dependants of victims of willful crimes, without prejudice to the civil responsibility of the perpetrator of the offense.
  • Brazil: 1988 Constitution with 1996 Reforms 15 September 2009 21:48 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 4/19/04) 2004 Apr 22, In Brazil inmates at Urso Branco State Prison ended a 5-day rebellion that left nine people dead at the overcrowded prison, after authorities agreed to improve conditions.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC,12/31/97, p.A8) 1997 Dec 31, Security forces ended the 3 day prison rebellion at Sorocaba Prison.
  • Timeline Brazil 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[93] These are all violations for Brazilian citizens.

Works Cited

  1. Central Intelligence Agency.September 30, 2009. "The World Factbook" WEBSITE accessed 10/26/09 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
  2. Central Intelligence Agency.September 30, 2009. "The World Factbook" WEBSITE accessed 10/26/09 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
  3. Central Intelligence Agency.September 30, 2009. "The World Factbook" WEBSITE accessed 10/26/09 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
  4. Central Intelligence Agency.September 30, 2009. "The World Factbook" WEBSITE accessed 10/26/09 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
  5. Central Intelligence Agency.September 30, 2009. "The World Factbook" WEBSITE accessed 10/26/09 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
  6. Central Intelligence Agency.September 30, 2009. "The World Factbook" WEBSITE accessed 10/26/09 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
  7. Central Intelligence Agency.September 30, 2009. "The World Factbook" WEBSITE accessed 10/26/09 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
  8. http://www.if.ufrj.br/general/brazil.html
  9. Roman Catholic 88%, Protestant 6%, Afro-Amer.Spirit.2%, Spiritist 2%, Atheist 1%, Other 1%.
  10. http://www.brazil-travel-guide.com/Brazil-Facts.html
  11. Embassy of Brazil in London. 2002-2009. "GDP, growth and employment."WEBSITE accessed 10/26/09 http://www.brazil.org.uk/economy/gdp.html
  12. BCC NEWS. 28 September 2006."Brazil: Key facts and figures" Website accessed 10/26/09 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/5379016.stm