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Brazilian Army
Exército Brasileiro
Coat of arms of the Brazilian Army.svg
Brazilian Army Seal
Active 1822 - today
Country  Brazil
Branch Army
Size 235,978 active personnel[1]
1.115.000 reserve[2]
Part of Ministry of Defence
Command Headquarters Brasília
Patron Duke of Caxias
Motto Braço Forte, Mão Amiga
(Strong arm, friendly hand)
Colors Olive drab & Yellow         
March Canção do Exército
Anniversaries August 25 (Soldier's Day)
April 19 (Brazilian Army Day)
Equipment 1,472 armored vehicles
6,676 military vehicles
482 artillery pieces
82 helicopters[2]
Engagements Brazilian War of Independence
Argentina-Brazil War
Platine War
Uruguayan War
War of the Triple Alliance
World War I
World War II
U.N. peacekeeping missions
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Commander General Enzo Martins Peri
Notable
commanders
Duke of Caxias
Eurico Gaspar Dutra
Artur da Costa e Silva

The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Military. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts, mostly in South America and during the 19th century, such as the Brazilian War of Independence (1822-25), Argentina-Brazil War (1825-28), Platine War (1851-52), Uruguayan War (1864-65) and the War of the Triple Alliance (1864-70). It has also participated on the side of the Allies at the First World War and Second World War.

Contents

History

Origins

After the Brazilian declaration of independence from Portugal in 1822, the Brazilian Army was created to defeat the Portuguese resistance (especially in Bahia) but also to avoid a fragmentation of the new Brazilian Empire.

19th century

It destroyed any separatist tendencies of the early years, supporting the authority of Emperor Dom Pedro I across his vast country and was complemented by the National Guard, a paramilitary militia supported by the big slave and land owners, aka as Colonels.

In the Regency Era period, after the abdication of the first Emperor the Army had to repress a host of popular movements for political autonomy and/or against the slavery and colonels' power across Brazil.

On May 1, 1865, Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina signed the Triple Alliance to defend themselves against aggression from Paraguay, which was ruled by the dictator Francisco López, whose troops after had invaded Brazilian territory through the state of Mato Grosso and the north of Argentina was heading for south of Brazil and north of Uruguay. Many slaves had been incorporated into the Brazilian forces to face the increasingly serious situation. As a result of their solid performance during the conflict, the Armed Forces developed a strong sense against slavery. After 5 years of a terrible warfare (the largest in South American history), the Alliance lead by Brazil defeated Lopez.

Between 1893 and 1926, the first Republican Period, the Army had to deal with various movements: some were derived from Navy and Army corps who were unsatisfied with the regime and clamoring for democratic changes, while others had popular origins without conventional political intentions guided by messianic leaders like Canudos War.

20th century

M20 Armored Utility Car - 1944.
Brazilian Expeditionary Force in the Apennines -Italy - 1945

During World War I the Brazilian government sent three small military groups to Europe soon after declaring war upon Central Powers in October 1917. The first two units were from the Army; one consisted of medical staff and the other of a sergeants-officers corps, and both were attached to the French Army in the Western Front in 1918.

From October 1930 to 1945, the Army give the necessary support for the Getulio Vargas regime against its opposition, defeating the Constitutionalist Revolt in 1932 and two separate coup d’état attempts: by Communists in 1935 and by Fascists in 1938. The Army also helped to formalize the dictatorship in 1937.

In August 1942, after German and Italian submarines sunk many Brazilian merchant ships, popular mobilization forced the Brazilian government to declare war on Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. In July 1944, after almost two years of public pressure, one expeditionary force, called Força Expedicionária Brasileira (FEB), was sent to Europe to join the Allied forces in the Italian campaign. The FEB was integrated for more than 25.000 men and was commanded by the Major-General (later Marshal) João Baptista Mascarenhas de Morais.

In March 31, 1964, the Brazilian Army, then led by General Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco, seized power through a coup d’état, beginning the Military Dictatorship in Brazil, which lasted 21 years. This was the first of a series of coups d’état that discharged elected liberal governments by force, setting military regimes in their place, that would rule the South American Political scene until 1980's. President Ernesto Geisel begun a political opening process and the democracy came back in 1985.

Internationally, in 1965 the Brazilian Army joined forces with US marines intervening in the Dominican Republic, in Operation Powerpack, along with cooperation with armies from other South American countries giving and receiving advisement about counter-guerrilla and counter-insurgency methods as well as information about political dissidents.

With the promulgation of the 1988 new Brazilian Constitution, the Army returned to its professional affairs.

21st century

Bodies of Brazilian soldiers killed in the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
Haitian civilians receive assistance in a camp set up by the Brazilian Army in Port-au-Prince.


Since the 1950s it has taken part in some United Nations missions as for example: Suez 1956-67, East Timor 1999-2004, Angola 1995-1997 and Haiti since 2004, being the latest, the most recent outside intervention in Haiti.


In the great earthquake that occurred in Haiti on January 12th 2010, eighteen Brazilian soldiers died. The Brazilian Army has now about 1.250 troops in Haiti and will envoy more 900 until March 2010, to help the reconstruction of that country.


The Brazilian Army is trying to renew its equipments and making a redistribution of its barracks in all the Brazilian Regions, prioritizing the Amazon. After the promulgation of Brazilian National Defense Strategy, in December 2008, the Brazilian Government appears to be interessed in the Armed Forces modernization.

Strength

Active troops: 235,978
Reserves: 1,740,000

  • Trained first-line: 1,115,000
  • Subject to immediate recall: 400,000
  • Second-line: 225,000

Organization

Structure of the Brazilian Army

High Command

  • Army General Headquarters (Quartel-General do Exército) - Brasília
  • Terrestrial Operations Command (Commando de Operações Terrestres) - Brasília
  • Army General Staff (Estado Maior do Exército) - Brasília
Cadets during the "Small Sword" ceremony at the Academia Militar de Agulhas Negras.

Military Commands

The Army is structured into seven military commands. Each of the seven military commands is responsible for one or more military regions.

Military Regions

Brazilian Army soldiers, part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti.

The Brazilian territory is further divided into twelve military regions. Each military region has jurisdiction over one or more states and is subordinate to a military command.

Main units

Airmobile Infantry.
Brazilian Army soldiers during the 2003 Independence Day Parade in Brasília.

Brigades:

Jungle Warfare

The Brazilian Army has five Jungle Infantry Brigades (1st, 2nd, 16th, 17th, and 23rd Jungle Infantry Brigades) and a Jungle Warfare Training Center.[3]

Special Forces

Brazilian Army SOF during the 2003 Independence Day Parade in Brasília.

The Special Operations Brigade is Brazil's special operations force. Although administratively assigned to the Plateau Military Command, the brigade's operations are under the direct control of the Land Operations Command.[4]

Special Forces were initially formed in 1957 as a parachute trained rescue unit, which specialized in conducting deep jungle rescues along the Amazon basin. After conducting its initial selection, a US Army Special Forces Mobile Training Team (MTT) conducted the unit's first training course.[5]

Conditions of Service

According to Article 143 of the 1988 constitution, military service is obligatory for men, but conscientious objection is allowed. Women and clergymen are exempt from compulsory military service. At age seventeen, men are required to register for the draft and are expected to serve when they reach age eighteen. About 75 percent of those registering receive deferments.

Generally, those from the upper class and upper middle class find ways to defer, and as a result the ranks are made up primarily of lower-class and lower-middle-class recruits. A growing number of recruits are volunteers, accounting for about one-third of the total. Those who serve generally spend one year of regular enlistment at an army garrison near their home. Some are allowed six-month service terms but are expected to complete high school at the same time. These are called "Tiros de Guerra," or "shooting schools," which are for high school boys in medium-sized interior towns, run by army sergeants. The army is the only service with a large number of conscripts; the navy and air force have very few.

The conscript system is primarily a means of providing basic military training to a sizable group of young men who then return to civilian life and are retained on the reserve rolls until age forty-five. The army recognizes that it provides a public service by teaching large numbers of conscripts basic skills that can be valuable to the overall economy when the young men return to civilian life.

Equipment

Overview of the Army's equipment, it also includes other vehicles such as trucks and cars.

Army equipment in inventory [6]
Armored vehicles Other military vehicles Artillery pieces Regular helicopters
Quantity 1,472 6,676 482 82

Main Equipment

Equipment Origin Type Versions In service[7] Notes Picture
tank
Leopard Tank  Germany tank 1A1
1A5
128
250
Ex-Belgian Army. Being withdrawn, replaced by Leopard 1A5
Ex-German Army
Leopard1 Bundeswehr 1983.jpg
M-60  United States tank A3 TTS 91 Ex-US Army
DA-ST-97-00078.JPEG
M-41  United States light tank M-41B/C 112 Being withdrawn, replaced by Leopard 1A5
M41-walker-bulldog-tank.jpg
AIFV
EE-9 Cascavel  Brazil armored car/recon EE-9 409 45 being upgraded
Ee9.jpg
EE-11 Urutu  Brazil armoured personnel carrier EE-11 213 121 being upgraded
Urutuhaiti.jpg
M-113  United States armoured personnel carrier M-113 584
M113.jpg
self-propelled artillery
M108  United States self-propelled artillery 105 mm 72
M108-105-mm-howitzer-vietnam.jpg
M-109  United States self-propelled artillery 155 mm 38
M190 houwitser.png
Multiple rocket launcher
ASTROS II  Brazil multiple rocket launcher 108/180/300 mm 20 Being upgraded
ASTROS-2.JPEG
towed howitzer
M114  United States towed howitzer 155 mm 92
USArmy M114 howitzer.jpg
L118  United Kingdom towed howitzer 105 mm 36
One OClock Gun.jpg
OTO Melara Mod 56  Italy towed howitzer 105 mm  ?
Hellenic Army - Airmobile gun - 7220.jpg
M101  United States towed howitzer 105 mm 320
M101-105mm-howitzer-camp-pendleton-20050326.jpg
Oerlikon 35mm  Switzerland Italy towed aa artillery 35 mm 38
35 mm Oerlikon.jpg
Bofors 40mm L/70  Sweden towed aa artillery 40 mm 24 Being upgraded
Bofors-40-L70-hatzerim-2-1.jpg
Bofors 40mm L/60  Sweden towed aa artillery 40 mm 103 Being withdrawn
Bofors 40mm AAgun manege suomenlinna 1.jpg
Towed mortar
120mm M2 RAIADO  Brazil towed mortar 120 mm 60 More 90 ordered
M30  United States towed mortar 107 mm 209
M30 mortar schematic.gif
M936 AGR  Brazil towed mortar 81 mm  ?
L16 81mm Mortar  United Kingdom towed mortar 81 mm  ?
M949 AGR  Brazil light mortar 60 mm  ?
Brandt 60  France light mortar 60 mm  ?
Recoiless Rifle
M40  United States recoiless rifle 106 mm 105
106mm land rover.JPG
Carl Gustav  Sweden recoiless rifle 84 mm 127
Carl Gustaf. recoilless.rifle.jpg
Rocket laucher
AT4  Sweden rocket laucher 84 mm 1500 Being replaced by ALAC
AT4 rocket launcher.jpg
ALAC  Brazil rocket laucher 84 mm 200 First units placed in 2008.
ALAC2.JPG
Anti-tank guided missile
ERYX  France anti-tank guided missile
ERYX P1220772.jpg
MILAN  European Union anti-tank guided missile 20
MILAN P1220770.jpg
MSS-1.2  Brazil anti-tank guided missile First units placed in 2009.
Brazilian anti-tank missile system.png
SAM missile
Igla  Russia SAM missile SA-18 118 More ordered in 2008. Version Igla-1S
Igla-Super.jpg

Individual Weapons and Equipment

Name Notes Picture
FN M2HB
Machine gun M2 1.jpg
FN MAG M971 general purpose machine gun.
MAG-latrun-exhibition-1.jpg
FN MINIMI SPW used by SOF units
M249 FN MINIMI DA-SC-85-11586 c1.jpg
Milkor MGL Grenade launcher used by Jungle Infantry Brigades
M-32 Grenade Launcher.jpg
M79 Grenade launcher used by Jungle Infantry Brigades
Grenade launcher M79 1.jpg
M964 FAL a license-built FN FAL SAW
German FAL-G1.jpg
IMBEL M964 a license-built FN FAL
Century Arms FN FAL.jpg
IMBEL M964A1 MD1 a updated license-built of FN PARA-FAL, All M964 will be updated to M964A1 MD1 standard
5064-04.jpg
IMBEL MD97 externally similar to FN FAL but in 5.56 × 45 mm NATO now used by SOF Imbel md2.jpg
Heckler & Koch G36C used by some SOF units
M4 carbine used by some SOF units
M4-Transparent.png
Taurus M972 submachinegun M972 SMG, a license-built Beretta Model 12. Beretta M12.jpg
IMBEL M973 pistol a license-built M1911 modified to 9 mm Luger Parabellum.
Colt Series 70 - pic3.jpg
Taurus M975 pistol a license-built Beretta 92.
Beretta 92 FS.gif
Glock 19 used by SOF units
Criminologygunglock.jpg
Heckler & Koch USP used by SOF units
HKUSP.png
SPAS 15 shotgun used by SOF units
Benelli shotgun used by SOF units
Benelli m4 2.jpg
Mossberg 590 shotgun used by Jungle Infantry Brigades
Shotgun Mossberg 590.jpg
Barrett M82A1 in 12.7 x 99 mm NATOsniper rifle used by SOF units.
M82A1 afmil.jpg
Heckler & Koch PSG1 sniper rifle used by SOF units.
Evers PSG-1.PNG
PGM 338 sniper rifle used by SOF units
Mini Hecate 338.jpg
Sig-Sauer SSG 3000 sniper rifle used by SOF units
M24 Sniper Weapon System sniper rifle used by SOF units
M24-latrun-exhibition-1.jpg
ACGL sniper rifle in 7.62 x 51 mm NATO used by regular sniper teams.
Rifle Alex.jpg
Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun used by SOF units
Heckler Koch MP5.jpg
Interceptor Protective Vest
Interceptor body armor.jpg
PASGT Helmet
US soldiers wearing the PASGT helmet, Hawaii.jpg

Aircraft inventory

The Brazilian Army Aviation Command operates 79 helicopters, of which the 16 Helibrás HB 350 represent some of the Brazilian-made aircraft.

Aircraft Type Versions In service[8] Notes pictures
Eurocopter AS 532 Cougar transport helicopter AS 532UE 8
Bulgarian cougar.jpg
Eurocopter AS 550 Fennec scout/liaison/attack helicopter AS 550A-2 18 050618-Fennec-03.jpg
Eurocopter AS 365 Panther transport/attack helicopter AS 365K 34 Upgrade ordered at 24/12/2009 [9]. Possibly to Gunships
Dauphin Panther (Mexican Navy).jpg
Helibras HB 350 utility/attack helicopter HB 350-1 15
Helicopter rescue sancy takeoff.jpg
Sikorsky S-70 Black Hawk transport helicopter S-70A 4
ÖBH BlackHawk Zams Boden2st.jpg
Eurocopter EC 725 transport helicopter EC 725 16 Ordered
Caracal2552.jpg

Future plans

Name Type Informations/Notes/Orders[10] pictures
COBRA (COmbatente BRAsileiro) (Brazilian Fighter) Based on FÉLIN[11][12] In development
FELIN 501585 fh000035.jpg
Eurocopter EC 725 transport helicopter Atleast one already in service[13],possibly more (unconfirmed).16 Ordered.
Caracal2552.jpg
IMBEL A2 New individual weapons 200.000 units being ordered. In development
Gaucho Light recon vehicle In development with Argentine Army
VLEGA Gaucho.JPG
VBTP-MR Guarani APC, AIFV and armored recon vehicle family. 16 + 2,044 ordered in 18/12/2009
Agrale Marruá 4x4 light for patrol and recognition (Agrale) ~ 200 ordered
Tor missile system Air defense system, "Tor M2E"[14] Studying possible buys.
Tor M2E maks2009.jpg
Igla Man-portable air-defense systems. National system in development, same Igla More 20 Igla-S
Igla-Super.jpg

See also

Units

References

  1. ^ Decreto Nº 5.670 de 10 de Janeiro de 2006. Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. (Portuguese)
  2. ^ a b Os pés de barro de um gigante Revista Época. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. (Portuguese)
  3. ^ Jungle Warfare Training Center Brazilian Army, accessed on May 8, 2008.
  4. ^ Land Operations Command Brazilian Army, accessed on May 8, 2008.
  5. ^ Special Operations Brigade Brazilian Army, accessed on May 8, 2008.
  6. ^ Uma Nova Agenda Militar Revista Época. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. (Portuguese)
  7. ^ Armamentos e Munições Exército Brasileiro. Centro de Comunicação Social do Exército. Retrieved on May 4, 2007. (Portuguese)
  8. ^ Brazilian military aviation OrBat
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Brazilian military aviation OrBat
  11. ^ http://defesabrasil.com/site/noticias/exercito/reuniao-de-reuniao-de-cooperacao-tecnologica-brasil-franca-discute-projeto-cobra.php
  12. ^ http://www.aereo.jor.br/2009/11/05/sagem-felin/
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ http://www.defesanet.com.br/ru1/tor.htm

External links


Brazilian Army
Exército Brasileiro
Active 1822 - today
Country  Brazil
Branch Army
Size 235,978 active personnel[1]
1.115.000 reserve[2]
Part of Ministry of Defence
Command Headquarters Brasília
Patron Duke of Caxias
Motto Braço Forte, Mão Amiga
(Strong arm, friendly hand)
March Canção do Exército
Anniversaries August 25 (Soldier's Day)
April 19 (Brazilian Army Day)
Equipment 1,472 armored vehicles
6,676 military vehicles
482 artillery pieces
82 helicopters[2]
Engagements Brazilian War of Independence
Argentina-Brazil War
Platine War
Uruguayan War
War of the Triple Alliance
World War II
Cold War
U.N. peacekeeping missions
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Commander Army General Enzo Martins Peri
Notable
commanders
Duke of Caxias
Eurico Gaspar Dutra
Artur da Costa e Silva

The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Military. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts, mostly in South America and during the 19th century, such as the Brazilian War of Independence (1822-25), Argentina-Brazil War (1825-28), Platine War (1851-52), Uruguayan War (1864-65) and the War of the Triple Alliance (1864-70). It has also participated on the side of the Allies at the First World War, Second World War and the Cold War.

Contents

History

Origins

After the Brazilian declaration of independence from Portugal in 1822, the Brazilian Army was created to defeat the Portuguese resistance (especially in Bahia) but also to avoid a fragmentation of the new Brazilian Empire.

19th century

It destroyed any separatist tendencies of the early years, supporting the authority of Emperor Dom Pedro I across his vast country and was complemented by the National Guard, a paramilitary militia supported by the big slave and land owners, aka as Colonels.

In the Regency Era period, after the abdication of the first Emperor the Army had to repress a host of popular movements for political autonomy and/or against the slavery and colonels' power across Brazil.

On May 1, 1865, Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina signed the Triple Alliance to defend themselves against aggression from Paraguay, which was ruled by the dictator Francisco López, whose troops after had invaded Brazilian territory through the state of Mato Grosso and the north of Argentina was heading for south of Brazil and north of Uruguay. Many slaves had been incorporated into the Brazilian forces to face the increasingly serious situation. As a result of their solid performance during the conflict, the Armed Forces developed a strong sense against slavery. After 5 years of a terrible warfare (the largest in South American history), the Alliance lead by Brazil defeated Lopez.

Between 1893 and 1926, the first Republican Period, the Army had to deal with various movements: some were derived from Navy and Army corps who were unsatisfied with the regime and clamoring for democratic changes, while others had popular origins without conventional political intentions guided by messianic leaders like Canudos War.

20th century

).]]

File:Feb
Brazilian Expeditionary Force in the Apennines -Italy - 1945

During World War I the Brazilian government sent three small military groups to Europe soon after declaring war upon Central Powers in October 1917. The first two units were from the Army; one consisted of medical staff and the other of a sergeants-officers corps, and both were attached to the French Army in the Western Front in 1918.

From October 1930 to 1945, the Army give the necessary support for the Getulio Vargas regime against its opposition, defeating the Constitutionalist Revolt in 1932 and two separate coup d’état attempts: by Communists in 1935 and by Fascists in 1938. The Army also helped to formalize the dictatorship in 1937.

In August 1942, after German and Italian submarines sunk many Brazilian merchant ships, popular mobilization forced the Brazilian government to declare war on Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. In July 1944, after almost two years of public pressure, one expeditionary force, called Força Expedicionária Brasileira (FEB), was sent to Europe to join the Allied forces in the Italian campaign. The FEB was integrated for more than 25.000 men and was commanded by the Major-General (later Marshal) João Baptista Mascarenhas de Morais.

In March 31, 1964, the Brazilian Army, then led by General Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco, seized power through a coup d’état, beginning the Military Dictatorship in Brazil, which lasted 21 years. This was the first of a series of coups d’état that discharged elected liberal governments by force, setting military regimes in their place, that would rule the South American Political scene until 1980's. In this period the Army employed all means it judged necessary to speak a decisive word over any group that tried to object the dictatorship: legally; changing the law, first abolishing and repealing civil and political rights little by little, after harassing and pursuing those who tried to make democratic demands, and militarily; with support of police forces and militias, proceeding with methods of counter-guerrilla and counter-insurgency warfare to defeat the guerrilla movements that tried to combat the regime by force. The urban guerrillas were active in Brazil between 1968 and 1971 while in the rural areas the 2 main movements subdued by the Army were respectively, one in the region where are today the Caparaó National Park (1967) and the other in the region of Araguaya River (1972–74).

Internationally, in 1965 the Brazilian Army joined forces with US marines intervening in the Dominican Republic, in Operation Powerpack, along with cooperation with armies from other South American countries giving and receiving advisement about counter-guerrilla and counter-insurgency methods as well as information about political dissidents.

With the promulgation of the 1988 new Brazilian Constitution, the Army returned to its professional affairs.

21st century

[[File:|thumb|left|150px|Bodies of Brazilian soldiers killed in the 2010 Haiti earthquake.]]

File:Soldiers aid 2010 Haiti earthquake
Haitian civilians receive assistance in a camp set up by the Brazilian Army in Port-au-Prince.

Since the 1950s it has taken part in some United Nations missions as for example: Suez 1956-67, East Timor 1999-2004, Angola 1995-1997 and Haiti since 2004, being the latest, the most recent outside intervention in Haiti.

In the great earthquake that occurred in Haiti on January 12, 2010, eighteen Brazilian soldiers died. The Brazilian Army has now about 1.250 troops in Haiti and will envoy more 900 until March 2010, to help the reconstruction of that country.

The Brazilian Army is trying to renew its equipments and making a redistribution of its barracks in all the Brazilian Regions, prioritizing the Amazon. After the promulgation of Brazilian National Defense Strategy, in December 2008, the Brazilian Government appears to be interested in the Armed Forces modernization.

Strength

Active troops: 235,978
Reserves: 1,740,000

  • Trained first-line: 1,115,000
  • Subject to immediate recall: 400,000
  • Second-line: 225,000

Organization

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Structure of the Brazilian Army

High Command

  • Army General Headquarters (Quartel-General do Exército) - Brasília
  • Terrestrial Operations Command (Commando de Operações Terrestres) - Brasília
  • Army General Staff (Estado Maior do Exército) - Brasília
File:Agulhas
Cadets during the "Small Sword" ceremony at the Academia Militar de Agulhas Negras.

Military Commands

The Army is structured into seven military commands. Each of the seven military commands is responsible for one or more military regions.

Military Regions

File:EB
Brazilian Army soldiers, part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti.

The Brazilian territory is further divided into twelve military regions. Each military region has jurisdiction over one or more states and is subordinate to a military command.

Main units

File:CFS Patr
Airmobile Infantry.

Brigades:

Jungle Warfare

The Brazilian Army has five Jungle Infantry Brigades (1st, 2nd, 16th, 17th, and 23rd Jungle Infantry Brigades) and a Jungle Warfare Training Center.[3]

Special Forces

.]] The Special Operations Brigade is Brazil's special operations force. Although administratively assigned to the Plateau Military Command, the brigade's operations are under the direct control of the Land Operations Command.[4]

Special Forces were initially formed in 1957 as a parachute trained rescue unit, which specialized in conducting deep jungle rescues along the Amazon basin. After conducting its initial selection, a US Army Special Forces Mobile Training Team (MTT) conducted the unit's first training course.[5]

Conditions of Service

According to Article 143 of the 1988 constitution, military service is obligatory for men, but conscientious objection is allowed. Women and clergymen are exempt from compulsory military service. At age seventeen, men are required to register for the draft and are expected to serve when they reach age eighteen. About 75 percent of those registering receive deferments.

Generally, those from the upper class and upper middle class find ways to defer, and as a result the ranks are made up primarily of lower-class and lower-middle-class recruits. A growing number of recruits are volunteers, accounting for about one-third of the total. Those who serve generally spend one year of regular enlistment at an army garrison near their home. Some are allowed six-month service terms but are expected to complete high school at the same time. These are called "Tiros de Guerra," or "shooting schools," which are for high school boys in medium-sized interior towns, run by army sergeants. The army is the only service with a large number of conscripts; the navy and air force have very few.

The conscript system is primarily a means of providing basic military training to a sizable group of young men who then return to civilian life and are retained on the reserve rolls until age forty-five. The army recognizes that it provides a public service by teaching large numbers of conscripts basic skills that can be valuable to the overall economy when the young men return to civilian life.

Equipment

Overview of the Army's equipment, it also includes other vehicles such as trucks and cars.

Army equipment in inventory [1]
Armored vehicles Other military vehicles Artillery pieces Regular helicopters
Quantity 1,472 6,676 482 82

Main Equipment

Equipment Origin Type Versions In service[2] Notes
Tanks
Leopard Tank  Germany Tank 1A1
1A5
128
250
Ex-Belgian Army. Being withdrawn, replaced by ex-German Army Leopard 1A5
M-60  United States Tank A3 TTS 91 Ex-US Army
M-41  United States Light tank M-41B/C 112 Retired, replaced by Leopard 1A1
Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicles
EE-9 Cascavel  Brazil Armored car/reconnaissance EE-9 409 45 being upgraded
EE-11 Urutu  Brazil Armored personnel carrier EE-11 213 121 being upgraded
M-113  United States Armoured personnel carrier M-113 584
Self-propelled artillery
M108  United States Self-propelled artillery 105 mm 72
M-109  United States Self-propelled artillery 155 mm 38
Multiple rocket launchers
ASTROS II  Brazil Multiple rocket launcher 108/180/300 mm 20 Being upgraded
AV-SS 12/36  Brazil Multiple rocket launcher 12/36 mm
Astros hawk  Brazil Multiple rocket launcher 12/36 mm
Towed artillery
M114  United States Towed howitzer 155 mm 92
L118  United Kingdom Towed howitzer 105 mm 36
M777  United States Towed howitzer 155 mm Being ordered
OTO Melara Mod 56  Italy Towed howitzer 105 mm  ?
M101  United States Towed howitzer 105 mm 320
Oerlikon 35mm  Switzerland
 Italy
Towed aa artillery 35 mm 38
Bofors 40mm L/70  Sweden Towed anti-aircraft artillery 40 mm 24 Being upgraded
Bofors 40mm L/60  Sweden Towed anti-aircraft artillery 40 mm 103 Being withdrawn
Towed mortars
120mm M2 RAIADO  Brazil Towed mortar 120 mm 60 More 90 ordered
M30  United States Towed mortar 107 mm 209
M936 AGR  Brazil Towed mortar 81 mm  ?
L16 81mm Mortar  United Kingdom Towed mortar 81 mm  ?
M949 AGR  Brazil Light mortar 60 mm  ?
Brandt 60  France Light mortar 60 mm  ?
Recoilless rifles
M40  United States recoilless rifle 106 mm 105
Carl Gustav  Sweden recoilless rifle 84 mm 127
Light anti-tank weapons
AT4  Sweden single-shot recoilless weapon 84 mm 1500 Being replaced by ALAC
ALAC  Brazil single-shot recoilless weapon 84 mm 200 First units ordered in 2008.
Anti-tank guided missiles
ERYX  France anti-tank guided missile
MILAN  European Union anti-tank guided missile 20
MSS-1.2  Brazil anti-tank guided missile 66 First units ordered in 2009.
Anti-aircraft missiles
Igla  Russia Anti-aircraft missile SA-18 +120 More ordered in 2008 of the Igla-1S version

Individual Weapons and Equipment

Name Notes
FN M2HB
FN MAG M971 general purpose machine gun.
FN MINIMI SPW used by SOF units
Milkor MGL Grenade launcher used by Jungle Infantry Brigades
M79 Grenade launcher used by Jungle Infantry Brigades
M964 FAL a license-built FN FAL SAW
IMBEL M964 a license-built FN FAL
IMBEL M964A1 MD1 a updated license-built of FN PARA-FAL, All M964 will be updated to M964A1 MD1 standard
IMBEL MD97 externally similar to FN FAL but in 5.56 × 45 mm NATO now used by SOF
Heckler & Koch G36C used by some SOF units
M4 carbine used by some SOF units
Taurus M972 submachinegun M972 SMG, a license-built Beretta Model 12.
IMBEL M973 pistol a license-built M1911 modified to 9 mm Luger Parabellum.
Taurus M975 pistol a license-built Beretta 92.
Glock 19 used by SOF units
Heckler & Koch USP used by SOF units
SPAS 15 shotgun used by SOF units
Benelli shotgun used by SOF units
Mossberg 590 shotgun used by Jungle Infantry Brigades
Barrett M82A1 in 12.7 x 99 mm NATOsniper rifle used by SOF units.
Heckler & Koch PSG1 sniper rifle used by SOF units.
PGM 338 sniper rifle used by SOF units
Sig-Sauer SSG 3000 sniper rifle used by SOF units
M24 Sniper Weapon System sniper rifle used by SOF units
ACGL sniper rifle in 7.62 x 51 mm NATO used by regular sniper teams.
Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun used by SOF units
Interceptor Protective Vest
PASGT Helmet

Aircraft inventory

The Brazilian Army Aviation Command operates 79 helicopters, of which the 16 Helibrás HB 350 represent some of the Brazilian-made aircraft.

Aircraft Type Versions In service[3] Notes
Eurocopter AS 532 Cougar transport helicopter AS 532UE 8
Eurocopter AS 550 Fennec scout/liaison/attack helicopter AS 550A-2 18
Eurocopter AS 365 Panther transport/attack helicopter AS 365K 34 Upgrade ordered at 24 December 2009.[4] Possibly to Gunships.
Helibras HB 350 utility/attack helicopter HB 350-1 15
Sikorsky S-70 Black Hawk transport helicopter S-70A 4
Eurocopter EC 725 transport helicopter EC 725 16 Ordered

Vehicles

Name Type Quantity Origin Notes
Land Rover Defender Light Utility Vehicle 850  United Kingdom
VBL (inbrafiltro) Light Utility Vehicle 20  Brazil developing.
AV-VB4 RE 4x4 GUARÁ Light Utility Vehicle 20  Brazil pilot lot, this one in Haiti to test real
JPX Light Utility Vehicle 750  Brazil
Marrua Light Utility Vehicle 200  Brazil
Gaucho 4x4 Light Utility Vehicle 06  Brazil /  Argentina developing in test

Trucks

Name Type Quantity Origin Notes
M8 Octopus Armored truck Light -  Brazil developing.
MERCEDES-BENZ 1720A Light Utility Vehicle 1200  Brazil commissioned
MERCEDES-BENZ L-1519 6x6 Utility Vehicle +1000  Brazil
VW 15.210 4X4 Light Utility Vehicle 450+372  Brazil
EE-25 Light Utility Vehicle 200  Brazil
Ural-375 Utility Vehicle 6  Russia
REO 6x6 Utility Vehicle -  United States

Missile

Name Type Quantity Origin Notes
AVMT-300 cruise missile  Brazil developing therapeutic range of 300 km
FOG-MPM Fiber Optics Guided Multiple Purpose Missile  Brazil developing 60 km range
SKYFIRE-70 Multiple launcher  Brazil in use in helicopters 70mm

Radar

Name Type Quantity Origin Notes
M-60 Radar 06  Brazil in test Purchased pilot lot with range of 60 km to 75 km
M-200 Radar -  Brazil Evolving from entering into service in 2012
EDT-FILA Radar -  Brazil radar for artillery

Future plans

Name Type Informations/Notes/Orders[3]
COmbatente BRAsileiro (COBRA) (Brazilian Fighter) Based on FÉLIN[5][6] In development
Eurocopter EC 725 transport helicopter At least one already in service,[7] possibly more (unconfirmed). 16 Ordered.
IMBEL IA2 New individual weapons 200.000 units being ordered. In development
Gaucho Light recon vehicle In development with Argentine Army
VBTP-MR Guarani APC, AIFV and armored recon vehicle family. 16 + 2,044 ordered in 18 December 2009
Agrale Marruá 4x4 light for patrol and recognition (Agrale) ~ 200 ordered
Tor missile system Air defense system, "Tor M2E"[8] Studying possible buys.
Igla Man-portable air-defense systems. National system in development, same Igla More 20 Igla-S
MSA 3.1 with an anti aereo reach 5 km, to replace the Igla

See also

Units

References

  1. ^ Uma Nova Agenda Militar Revista Época. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. (Portuguese)
  2. ^ Armamentos e Munições Exército Brasileiro. Centro de Comunicação Social do Exército. Retrieved on May 4, 2007. (Portuguese)
  3. ^ a b Brazilian military aviation OrBat
  4. ^ Modernization of Aeronaves Pantera (in Portuguese)
  5. ^ http://defesabrasil.com/site/noticias/exercito/reuniao-de-reuniao-de-cooperacao-tecnologica-brasil-franca-discute-projeto-cobra.php
  6. ^ http://www.aereo.jor.br/2009/11/05/sagem-felin/
  7. ^ Desaparecimento de aeronave da FAB
  8. ^ http://www.defesanet.com.br/ru1/tor.htm

External links








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