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E Minas Geraes 1910 altered.jpg
Minas Geraes sailing in early 1910, soon after her commissioning
Career (Brazil) Brazilian Naval Ensign
Name: Minas Geraes
Namesake: Minas Gerais[1]
Ordered: 1906[1]
Builder: Armstrong Whitworth[1]
Cost: $8,863,842[2]
Yard number: 791[3]
Laid down: 17 April 1907[1]
Launched: 10 September 1908[1][4]
Commissioned: 5 January 1910[3][5]
Struck: 31 December 1952[6]
Fate: Scrapped 1954[6]
General characteristics
Class and type: Minas Geraes class battleship
Displacement: 19,281 tonnes (18,976 LT; 21,254 ST) normal
21,200 t (20,900 LT; 23,400 ST) full load
Length: 543 ft (165.5 m) overall
530 ft (161.5 m) at waterline
Beam: 83 ft (25.3 m)
Draft: 25 ft (7.6 m)
Propulsion: 2-shaft Vickers VTE
18 Babcock and Wilcox boilers
23,500 shp
Speed: 21 knots (24 mph; 39 km/h)
Range: 10,000 nm (12,000 mi; 19,000 km) at 10 knots (12 mph; 19 km/h)
Complement: 900[A 1]
Armament:

(as built)
12 × 12 in (305 mm)/45 cal guns (6 × 2)

22 × 4.7 (120 mm)/50 cal guns
8 × 3 pdr (37 mm) guns
Armor: Belt: 9 in (229 mm)
Belt extremities: 6–4 in (152–102 mm)
Casemate: 9 in (230 mm)
Turrets: 12–9 in (305–229 mm)
Conning tower: 12 in (300 mm)

Minas Geraes,[A 2] spelled Minas Gerais in modern sources,[A 3] was an encouraçado (English: battleship) built for the Brazilian Navy. Named in honor of the state of Minas Gerais, the ship was laid down in April 1907 as the lead ship of her class, making the country the third to have a dreadnought under construction. She was launched in 1908.

Two months after her commissioning in January 1910, Minas Geraes was featured in Scientific American, which described her as "the last word in heavy battleship design and the ... most powerfully armed warship afloat".[7] In November 1910, Minas Geraes was the focal point of the Revolta da Chibata (English: Revolt of the Whip). The mutiny spread from Minas Geraes to other ships in the Navy, including her sister São Paulo, the elderly coastal defense ship Deodoro, and the recently commissioned cruiser Bahia. Led by the "Black Admiral" João Cândido Felisberto, the mutineers threatened to bombard the Brazilian capital of Rio de Janeiro if their demands were not met. As it was not possible to end the situation militarily—the only loyal troops nearby being small torpedo boats and army troops confined to land—the National Congress of Brazil gave in and the rebels disbanded.

When Brazil entered the First World War in 1917, Britain's Royal Navy declined Brazil's offer of Minas Geraes for duty with the Grand Fleet because the ship was outdated; she had not been refitted since entering service, so range-finders and a fire-control system had not been added. São Paulo underwent modernization in the United States in 1920; in 1921, Minas Geraes received the same treatment. A year later, Minas Geraes sailed to counter the first of the Revolução Tenentista (English: Tenente revolts). São Paulo shelled the rebels' fort, and they surrendered shortly thereafter; Minas Geraes did not fire her guns. In 1924, mutineers seized São Paulo and attempted to persuade the crews of Minas Geraes and several other ships to join them, but were unsuccessful.

Minas Geraes was modernized at the Rio de Janeiro Naval Yard in the 1930s, and underwent further refitting from 1939 to 1943. During the Second World War, she was anchored in Salvador as the main defense of the port, as she was too old to play an active part in the war. For the last nine years of her service life, Minas Geraes remained largely inactive, and was towed to Italy for scrapping in March 1954.

Contents

Background

In the years following the 1889 revolution, where Emperor Pedro II was deposed in favor of the República Velha (English: Old Republic), the nation's navy fell into disrepair. By the turn of the 20th century it was lagging behind those of rivals Chile and Argentina; the only relatively new Brazilian ships larger than 3,000 t (3,000 LT; 3,300 ST) were two cruisers and two coastal defense battleships of the Deodoro class.[8][9][A 4]

Soaring demand for coffee and rubber brought the Brazilian economy an influx of revenue,[8][9] some of which was used to finance a 1904 Naval rearmament program.[1] Approved by the Brazilian Congress in 1905, the program authorized the construction of twenty-eight ships, including three battleships and three armored cruisers.[8] The battleships' design was derived from the Norwegian coastal defense ship Norge and the British (originally ordered by Chile) Triumph; the new vessels were intended to be 19-knot (22 mph; 35 km/h), 12,000-tonne (11,800 LT; 13,200 ST) displacement ships, each armed with twelve 10-inch (25 cm) guns mounted in six twin turrets and protected by belt armor of 9 inches (23 cm) and deck armor of 1.5 in (3.8 cm).[10]

All three battleships were ordered from British shipbuilder Armstrong Whitworth, which subcontracted parts of the work to Vickers. However, shortly after their keels had been laid down, construction was halted, prompted by the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906.[11] The dreadnought concept had rendered all previous battleship designs outmoded.[12] The keels were torn down and the plans redrafted in favor of a mostly new design,[11] although some components—such as the 9-inch belt armor—were reused to save costs.[13] With the new plans completed, another contract was drawn up and signed on 20 February 1907. The new design was for a modern dreadnought with twelve 12 in (30 cm)/45 caliber guns—a heavier armament than any other battleship afloat[14]—and a top speed of 21 knots (24 mph; 39 km/h). The modifications resulted in much more expensive ships, so only two could be started immediately.[11][13] Minas Geraes was laid down by Armstrong (Elswick) on 17 April 1907, and her sister, São Paulo, followed thirteen days later at Vickers (Barrow).[1]

The start of work on Minas Geraes meant that Brazil had become the third country—behind the United Kingdom and the United States but ahead of major powers such as Germany, France and Russia—to have a dreadnought under construction.[8][9][15][A 5] The two dreadnoughts came as a shock to Brazil's neighbors, especially to Argentina—according to Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921, they "outclassed the entire Argentinian fleet".[16] They sparked a minor naval arms race in South America; Chile ordered Almirante Latorre and Almirante Cochrane from Britain and Argentina ordered Rivadavia and Moreno from the United States.[17] Meanwhile, the United States began to actively attempt to court Brazil as an ally; caught up in the spirit, U.S. naval journals began using terms like "Pan Americanism" and "Hemispheric Cooperation".[18]

Minas Geraes soon after her launch in September 1908

British and German professional journals speculated that Brazil was acting as a proxy for a larger naval power, and was planning to hand over the ships once completed.[1][17] These suspicions were echoed by The New York Times, which reported on 1 August 1908:

The rumor is that the three warships ... which were ordered [in Britain] two years ago will be launched from English shores only to fly the German flag. It is asserted that these ships, which are named the Sao Paulo, the Minas Geras [sic] and the Rio de Janeiro, and all of which will be completed by next fall, will be conveyed to the German government on the payment of $30,000,000.
It may be recalled that when orders were placed for the ships ..., there was much speculation as to the destiny of the vessels, as no naval expert could understand how a second-rate power like Brazil needed such formidable engines of war which would represent absolutely the latest stages of naval construction and armament. Meanwhile, it had been reported that the ships were being built for the Japanese government, which had a secret understanding with Brazil. But this theory was soon discarded by the fact that relations between these two countries were not extremely cordial on account of the attitude of Brazil toward the immigration of Japanese laborers. Then it was semi-officially stated that would never leave the ways except to fly the British flag, but the money for such a purpose could only be raised by a loan or the Admiralty getting the sum from the sinking fund.[14]

Early career

Minas Geraes' superstructure and fore main guns in 1910; note the presence of wing turrets on either side of the superstructure

Minas Geraes was christened by Senhora Regis de Oliveira, the wife of the Brazilian minister to Great Britain,[19] and launched at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 10 September 1908.[4] After the ship completed fitting-out, she was handed over by Armstrong's to the Brazilian Commission on behalf of the Brazilian government, while the ship's company was mustered on deck.[5] The British Royal Navy carried out her gunnery trials at the request of Armstrong's and with the agreement of the Brazilian government.[20] Although the idea of having superfiring turrets was not new—the American South Carolina class battleships of 1908 had fore and aft turrets mounted in that fashion—the trials attracted interest from a few nations, who sent representatives to observe. They wanted to resolve two major questions: the effect that firing the upper superfiring turrets would have on the crewmen in the lower guns, and whether smoke from the discharge of the lower guns would hinder the targeting capabilities of the upper turret. The tests resolved both questions satisfactorily.[7]

On Minas Geraes' 1910 maiden voyage, she steamed from Britain to Norfolk, Virginia, where she met the American armored cruiser North Carolina. The latter carried the body of Joaquim Nabuco, the Brazilian ambassador to the United States (who had died in Washington, D.C. on 17 January), and was escorted by Minas Geraes to Rio de Janeiro.[A 6] Thick fog initially prevented North Carolina from picking up the body,[21][22] but the two ships got underway on 17 March 1910 and reached Rio de Janeiro one month later.[23]

Soon after Minas Geraes' arrival in Brazil, the country's prosperity began to wane, and a severe depression hit the Brazilian economy.[1] The economic hardship, the racism prevalent in all branches of the Brazilian armed forces,[24] and the severe discipline enforced on all navy ships spawned a mutiny known as the Revolta da Chibata (English: Revolt of the Whip)[A 7] among sailors on the most powerful ships.[24][25]

João Cândido Felisberto with reporters, officers and sailors on aboard Minas Geraes on 26 November 1910, the final day of the Revolta da Chibata

Many of the black sailors on Minas Geraes were slaves freed under the Lei Áurea or their sons. Forced to enter the navy, they were widely discriminated against. It was common for officers to target black crewmen with "racial abuse and physical violence"; the sailors could not escape this abuse because they were required to serve for 15 years. Officers were quick to administer punishment with "leather whips tipped with metal balls" for even minor infractions.[24] Unhappy with the treatment, black sailors began planning an uprising early in 1910, and chose João Cândido Felisberto—an experienced sailor later known as the "Black Admiral"—as their leader. In mid-November,[24] a sailor was sentenced to be flogged 250 times[26] in front of his fellow sailors,[24] even though the practice had been banned by law.[25] The punishment continued even after the sailor fainted.[24] The incident infuriated the nascent mutineers; they were not ready and could not revolt immediately, but they quickened their preparations and rebelled earlier than originally planned, on 21–22 November. They murdered several officers and the captain; other officers were forced off the ship. British engineers who had sailed with the ship since its completion were kept as hostages. The mutineers then spread the revolt to São Paulo, the older coastal defense ship Deodoro, and the new cruiser Bahia. During this time, discipline on the rebelling ships was not relaxed; daily drills were conducted and Felisberto ordered all liquor to be thrown overboard.[25]

Minas Geraes' gun trials; this picture was taken when ten 12-inch guns were trained to port to fire a full broadside. A Scientific American article of 1910 remarked that this was "the greatest broadside ever fired from a battleship".[7]

The crews of the torpedo boats remained loyal to the government,[25] and army troops moved to the presidential palace and the coastline, but neither group could stop the mutineers;[24] a major problem for the authorities was that many of the men who manned Rio de Janeiro's harbor defenses were sympathetic to the mutineers' cause.[25] The additional possibility of the capital being bombarded forced the National Congress of Brazil to give in to the rebels' demands.[24] The demands included the abolition of flogging, improved living conditions, and the granting of amnesty to all mutineers.[24][25] The government also issued official pardons and a statement of regret. Its submission resulted in the rebellion's end on 26 November, when control of the four ships was handed back to the navy.[24]

In 1913, Minas Geraes took the Brazilian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lauro Severiano Müller, to the United States, reciprocating the visit U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root had paid to Brazil seven years earlier.[27][28]

First World War

Even though the First World War did not touch Brazilian soil, it had crushing effects on Brazil's economy.[29] Prices for rubber and coffee plummeted; the war had only a small need for rubber, and Britain allowed no coffee into Europe as space on merchant ships was reserved for "essential items". In addition, coffee was declared to be contraband, so every Brazilian shipment to the Central Powers was subject to search and seizure; even shipments to some neutral countries were barred to ensure that no coffee would get through. Despite these restrictions, neutral[A 8] Brazil was pro-Allied for the first three years of the war because of its sizable merchant fleet; as merchantmen from Allied countries were sunk, Brazilian ships were able to take over routes that had been vacated. This policy exposed them to attack by German submarines, and after the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917, several Brazilian ships were sunk, driving the country closer to declaring war on the Central Powers.[29]

The main deck of Minas Geraes, seen from the stern prior to her 1921 refit

Brazil revoked its neutrality in the war between the United States and Germany on 1 June 1917, but did not declare war. At the same time, all German merchant ships interned in Brazilian harbors, 45 in all, were boarded and seized; most were unusable due to neglect or sabotage. On 28 June, Brazil revoked its neutrality between all of the Allied and Central Powers but again stopped short of declaring war; this move allowed Brazilian merchantmen to travel in Allied convoys.[30]

The Brazilian Navy was sent out to patrol the South Atlantic with French, British and American naval units, even though none of its ships had anti-submarine capabilities and, not being at war with the Central Powers, its ships were not supposed to engage any threat outside territorial waters.[31] However, another Brazilian merchant ship, Macao,[32][33] was sunk off Spain on 18 October, and eight days later Brazil declared war.[31]

Brazil offered to send Minas Geraes and São Paulo to serve with the British Grand Fleet, but this offer was declined because both ships were in poor condition and lacked modern fire-control systems. Indicative of their poor condition, fourteen of São Paulo's eighteen boilers failed when she sailed to New York for a modernization in June 1918.[34]

Inter-war period

Sketches of a Minas Geraes-class ship from the 1923 Brassey's Naval and Shipping Annual, depicting the ships after their 1920s refits in the United States

São Paulo's refit was finished on 17 January 1920 and she returned to Brazil; on 15 July Minas Geraes departed for New York for her own refit.[35][36] Beginning on 22 August,[37] the day she arrived,[38] and finishing on 4 October 1921,[37] the battleship was dramatically modernized, with Sperry fire-control equipment and Bausch and Lomb range-finders for the two superfiring turrets fore and aft. A vertical armor bulkhead was fitted inside the main turrets, and the secondary battery of 4.7 in (120 mm) guns was reduced from 22 to 12; five guns in casemates were removed from each side. A few modern AA guns were fitted: two 3"/50 caliber guns from Bethlehem Steel were added on the aft superstructure, 37 mm (1.5 in) guns were added near each turret, and 3-pounder guns were removed from the tops of turrets.[35]

In July 1922, Minas Geraes joined São Paulo in helping to quash the first of the Revolução Tenentista (English: Tenente revolts), in which the garrison of Rio de Janeiro's Copacabana Fort rebelled and began bombarding the city. São Paulo shelled the fort, and the rebels surrendered shortly thereafter; Minas Geraes did not fire her guns.[39]

In 1924, Minas Geraes was involved in another mutiny, but remained on the side of the government. First Lieutenant Hercolino Cascardo, seven second lieutenants and others commandeered São Paulo in Rio de Janeiro's harbor on 4 November 1924. Their goal was to force the government to release prisoners who had participated in the 1922 Tenente revolts from confinement aboard the prison ship Cuibaba; however, the mutineers' demands were not met. São Paulo's boilers were then fired, and she "steamed menacingly" around Minas Geraes in an attempt to entice her and other ships to join the rebellion. However, São Paulo was only able to sway one old torpedo boat to her cause. Her crew, angry that Minas Geraes would not join them, shot a six-pounder at Minas Geraes, wounding a cook. The mutineers then sailed out of the harbor, exchanging shots with forts at the entrance along the way, and set course for Montevideo, Uruguay. The condensers failed along the way, and they reached Montevideo on 10 November making only 9 knots (10 mph; 17 km/h). The rebellious members of the crew disembarked and were granted asylum, while the remainder re-hoisted the colors of Brazil.[6][13][40]

Between June 1931 and 1935, Minas Geraes was totally reconstructed and modernized at the Rio de Janeiro Naval Yard. She was converted from her old coal–oil combination to all-oil firing. All eighteen of the original Babcock and Wilcox boilers were removed in favor of six new John I. Thornycroft & Company boilers. The former No. 1 boiler room and all twelve of the side coal bunkers were converted to fuel oil storage tanks; the upper coal bunkers were removed. In addition, Minas Geraes' dynamos were replaced with new turbogenerators. The most striking aesthetic change was the trunking of the boiler uptakes into a single funnel. The fire-control systems that had been fitted after the First World War were also modernized in favor of Zeiss-Jena range-finders. The guns were overhauled; two extra 4.7 in (120 mm) guns were added (making 14 total), and six 20 mm (0.79 in) Madsen guns were installed, including two on the top of 'X' turret. The maximum elevation of the 12-inch guns was upped from 13° to 18°.[35][41]

Second World War and later career

Minas Geraes in Salvador during 1942, after her major refit

As in the First World War, Brazil was neutral during the early years of the Second World War. However, German attacks on Brazilian merchant ships pushed the country into war on the Allied side; Brazil declared war on 21 August 1942, taking effect on 31 August.[42]

Apart from three destroyers launched in 1940 and four submarines from the inter-war years,[43][A 9] Brazil's warships were old and mostly obsolete pre-First World War vessels.[43] The mainstays of the fleet, Minas Geraes, São Paulo, Bahia, and Rio Grande do Sul, were all over thirty years old.[43][44] Although Minas Geraes had been further refitted from 1939 to 1943, she was still too old and in too poor a condition to "play an active role" in the Second World War; instead, the dreadnought was anchored as a floating battery in the port of Salvador for the duration.[6][43]

Minas Geraes was inactive for much of the rest of her career. Although she was decommissioned on 16 May 1952, the battleship was used as a stationary headquarters for the Commander-in-Chief of the Brazilian Navy until 17 December of that year. She was removed from the naval register on 31 December,[6] and sold to the Italian ship breaking company SA Cantiere Navale de Santa Maria.[12] Minas Geraes was taken under tow on 1 March 1954 and arrived in Genoa on 22 April;[6] the old dreadnought, which had been in service for more than forty years, was broken up for scrap later that year.[3]

Notes

  1. ^ This is the number of crewmen the ship carried early in her career; with subsequent modifications, refits and modernizations, the figure would have varied.
  2. ^ Pronounced [ˈmĩnɐʃ ʒeˈɾäɪʃ] in Portuguese.
  3. ^ Geraes was the spelling when the ship was commissioned, but later changes to Portuguese orthography deprecated it in favor of Gerais.
  4. ^ Two other coastal defense ships, Riachuelo and Aquidabã, had been rebuilt in 1893–1895 and 1897–1898, respectively. See: Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 404.
  5. ^ Although Germany laid down Nassau two months after Minas Geraes, Nassau was commissioned first. See: Gardiner and Gray (1984), pp. 145 and 403
  6. ^ Contrary to contemporary New York Times articles, Whitley (1999) pp. 27–28 states that Minas Geraes carried the body and North Carolina was the escort.
  7. ^ In English, the name of the rebellion is also translated as "The Revolt of the Lash" or "The Revolt against the Lash".
  8. ^ Brazil officially declared its neutrality on 4 August 1914. See: Scheina (2003), pp. 35–36.
  9. ^ Of the four modern submarines, there was a mine-laying submarine (Humaita) completed in 1927 and three submarines (Tupi, Tamoio and Timbira) completed in 1937; all were built by Italy. However, according to author Robert Schenia, these "were of limited operational value". See: Schenia (2003), p. 164. In addition, five Juruena class destroyers were laid down in Britain in 1939, but were appropriated for use by the Royal Navy at the start of the war. Another three destroyers, of the Marcilio Dias class, were built in Brazil (and so were not appropriated); these were launched in 1940. See: Gardiner and Chesneau (1980), pp. 416–417.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 404
  2. ^ Office of Naval Intelligence (1912). Information Concerning Some of the Principal Navies of the World; A Series of Tables Compiled to Answer Popular Inquiry. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 21. http://books.google.com/books?id=LLtBAAAAIAAJ. 
  3. ^ a b c ""6103887" (Minas Gerais)" (subscription required). Miramar Ship Index. R.B. Haworth. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 
  4. ^ a b "Launch of a Brazilian Battleship" (News). The Times. Friday, 11 September 1908. Issue 38749, col B, p. 8.
  5. ^ a b "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 6 January 1910. Issue 39162, col D, p. 4.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Whitley (1999), p. 29
  7. ^ a b c "The Brazilian Battleship "Minas Geraes"". Scientific American (New York: Munn & Co., Inc.) 102: 240–241. 19 March 1910. ISSN 0036-8733. 
  8. ^ a b c d Sondhaus (2001), p. 216
  9. ^ a b c Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 403
  10. ^ Whitley (1999), pp. 23–24
  11. ^ a b c Whitley (1999), p. 24
  12. ^ a b Paulo de Oliveira Ribeiro (1997). "Os Dreadnoughts Da Marinha Do Brasil: Minas Geraes e São Paulo" (in Portuguese). Poder Naval Online. http://www.naval.com.br/historia/dreadnought/dreadnought-port1.htm. Retrieved 16 April 2009. 
  13. ^ a b c Bennighof, Mike (October 2006). "Brazil's Dreadnoughts". Avalanche Press. http://www.avalanchepress.com/Brazil_Dreadnoughts.php. Retrieved 16 April 2009. 
  14. ^ a b "Germany may buy English warships" (PDF). The New York Times: p. C8. 1 August 1908. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E0CE4D9123EE233A2575AC0A96E9C946997D6CF. 
  15. ^ Whitley (1999), p. 13
  16. ^ Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 400
  17. ^ a b Miller (2001), p. 84
  18. ^ Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 404
  19. ^ "Launch Greatest Warships" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 5. 11 September 1908. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D06E6DB133EE233A25752C1A96F9C946997D6CF. 
  20. ^ Tupper (1929), p. 185
  21. ^ "Minas Geraes Fogbound" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 13. 3 March 1910. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D03EFDA1E30E333A25750C0A9659C946196D6CF. 
  22. ^ "Society of Fort Monroe" (PDF). The New York Times: p. X12. 6 March 1910. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C0CE0DC1430E233A25755C0A9659C946196D6CF. 
  23. ^ Whitley (1999), pp. 27–28
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Smallman (2002), p. 28
  25. ^ a b c d e f Scheina (2003), p. 74
  26. ^ Andrews (2004), p. 148
  27. ^ "Brazilian Envoy Host on Warship" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 7. 12 July 1913. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D02EEDE163DE633A25751C1A9619C946296D6CF. 
  28. ^ "Tell Brazil's Envoy of Trade Problems; Exporters Give Loving Cup to Dr. Muller and Welcome Him to Country." (PDF). The New York Times: p. 14. 18 June 1913. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9406E4DF153FE633A2575BC1A9609C946296D6CF. 
  29. ^ a b Scheina (2003), pp. 35–36
  30. ^ Scheina (2003), p. 36
  31. ^ a b Scheina (2003), pp. 35, 37–38
  32. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Macao". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. http://uboat.net/wwi/ships_hit/3798.html. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 
  33. ^ ""5603380" (Macao)" (subscription required). Miramar Ship Index. R.B. Haworth. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 12 June 2009. 
  34. ^ Whitley (1999), p. 28
  35. ^ a b c Whitley (1999), p. 27
  36. ^ "Brazilian Dreadnought Coming Here" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 3. 17 July 1920. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9506EEDD1131E433A25754C1A9619C946195D6CF. 
  37. ^ a b Whitley (1999), p. 26
  38. ^ "Brazilian Battleship Arrives" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 11. 23 August 1920. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=990DE3DA1F31E03ABC4B51DFBE66838B639EDEF. 
  39. ^ Guilherme Poggio (n.d.). "Um encouraçado contra o forte: 2ª Parte" (in Portuguese). Poder Naval Online. http://www.naval.com.br/historia/SP_x_Copacabana/SP_x_Copacabana_p2.htm. Retrieved 10 June 2009. 
  40. ^ Scheina (2003), p. 129
  41. ^ Gardiner and Chesneau (1980), p. 416
  42. ^ Scheina (2003), pp. 162–164
  43. ^ a b c d Scheina (2003), p. 164
  44. ^ Gardiner and Gray (1984), pp. 404–405

Bibliography

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File:E Minas Geraes 1910
Minas Geraes sailing in early 1910, soon after her commissioning
Career (Brazil) File:Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg
Name:

Minas Geraes

Namesake: Minas Gerais[1]
Ordered: 1906[1]
Builder: Armstrong Whitworth[1]
Cost: $8,863,842[2]
Yard number: 791[3]
Laid down: 17 April 1907[1]
Launched: 10 September 1908[1][4]
Commissioned: 5 January 1910[3][5]
Struck: 31 December 1952[6]
Fate: Scrapped 1954[6]
General characteristics

Class and type: Minas Geraes class battleship
Displacement: 19,281 tonnes (18,976 LT; 21,254 ST) normal
21,200 t (20,900 LT; 23,400 ST) full load
Length: 543 ft (165.5 m) overall
530 ft (161.5 m) at waterline
Beam: 83 ft (25.3 m)
Draft: 25 ft (7.6 m)
Propulsion: 2-shaft Vickers VTE
18 Babcock and Wilcox boilers
23,500 shp
Speed: 21 knots (24 mph; 39 km/h)
Range: 10,000 nm (12,000 mi; 19,000 km) at 10 knots (12 mph; 19 km/h)
Complement: 900[A 1]
Armament: (as built)
12 × 12 in (305 mm)/45 cal guns (6 × 2)
22 × 4.7 (120 mm)/50 cal guns
8 × 3 pdr (37 mm) guns
Armor: Belt: 9 in (229 mm)
Belt extremities: 6–4 in (152–102 mm)
Casemate: 9 in (230 mm)
Turrets: 12–9 in (305–229 mm)
Conning tower: 12 in (300 mm)

Minas Geraes,[A 2] spelled Minas Gerais in modern sources,[A 3] was an encouraçado (English: battleship) built for the Brazilian Navy. Named in honor of the state of Minas Gerais, the ship was laid down in April 1907 as the lead ship of her class, making the country the third to have a dreadnought under construction and igniting a naval arms race between Brazil, Argentina, and Chile.

Two months after her commissioning in January 1910, Minas Geraes was featured in Scientific American, which described her as "the last word in heavy battleship design and the ... most powerfully armed warship afloat".[7] In November 1910, Minas Geraes was the focal point of the Revolta da Chibata (English: Revolt of the Whip). The mutiny spread from Minas Geraes to other ships in the Navy, including her sister São Paulo, the elderly coastal defense ship Deodoro, and the recently commissioned cruiser Bahia. Led by the "Black Admiral" João Cândido Felisberto, the mutineers threatened to bombard the Brazilian capital of Rio de Janeiro if their demands were not met. As it was not possible to end the situation militarily—the only loyal troops nearby being small torpedo boats and army troops confined to land—the National Congress of Brazil gave in and the rebels disbanded.

When Brazil entered the First World War in 1917, Britain's Royal Navy declined Brazil's offer of Minas Geraes for duty with the Grand Fleet because the ship was outdated; she had not been refitted since entering service, so range-finders and a fire-control system had not been added. São Paulo underwent modernization in the United States in 1920; in 1921, Minas Geraes received the same treatment. A year later, Minas Geraes sailed to counter the first of the Revolução Tenentista (English: Tenente revolts). São Paulo shelled the rebels' fort, and they surrendered shortly thereafter; Minas Geraes did not fire her guns. In 1924, mutineers seized São Paulo and attempted to persuade the crews of Minas Geraes and several other ships to join them, but were unsuccessful.

Minas Geraes was modernized at the Rio de Janeiro Naval Yard in the 1930s, and underwent further refitting from 1939 to 1943. During the Second World War, she was anchored in Salvador as the main defense of the port, as she was too old to play an active part in the war. For the last nine years of her service life, Minas Geraes remained largely inactive, and was towed to Italy for scrapping in March 1954.

Contents

Background

In the years following the 1889 revolution, where Emperor Pedro II was deposed in favor of the República Velha (English: Old Republic), the nation's navy fell into disrepair. By the turn of the 20th century it was lagging behind those of rivals Chile and Argentina; the only relatively new Brazilian ships larger than 3,000 t (3,000 LT; 3,300 ST) were two cruisers and two coastal defense battleships of the Deodoro class.[8][9][A 4]

Soaring demand for coffee and rubber brought the Brazilian economy an influx of revenue,[8][9] some of which was used to finance a 1904 Naval rearmament program.[1] Approved by the Brazilian Congress in 1905, the program authorized the construction of twenty-eight ships, including three battleships and three armored cruisers.[8] The battleships' design was derived from the Norwegian coastal defense ship Norge and the British (originally ordered by Chile) Triumph; the new vessels were intended to be 19-knot (22 mph; 35 km/h), 12,000-tonne (11,800 LT; 13,200 ST) displacement ships, each armed with twelve 10-inch (25 cm) guns mounted in six twin turrets and protected by belt armor of 9 inches (23 cm) and deck armor of 1.5 in (3.8 cm).[10]

All three battleships were ordered from British shipbuilder Armstrong Whitworth, which subcontracted parts of the work to Vickers. However, shortly after their keels had been laid down, construction was halted, prompted by the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906.[11] The dreadnought concept had rendered all previous battleship designs outmoded.[12] The keels were torn down and the plans redrafted in favor of a mostly new design,[11] although some components—such as the 9-inch belt armor—were reused to save costs.[13] With the new plans completed, another contract was drawn up and signed on 20 February 1907. The new design was for a modern dreadnought with twelve 12 in (30 cm)/45 caliber guns—a heavier armament than any other battleship afloat[14]—and a top speed of 21 knots (24 mph; 39 km/h). The modifications resulted in much more expensive ships, so only two could be started immediately.[11][13] Minas Geraes was laid down by Armstrong (Elswick) on 17 April 1907, and her sister, São Paulo, followed thirteen days later at Vickers (Barrow).[1]

The start of work on Minas Geraes meant that Brazil had become the third country—behind the United Kingdom and the United States but ahead of major powers such as Germany, France and Russia—to have a dreadnought under construction.[8][9][15][A 5] The two dreadnoughts came as a shock to Brazil's neighbors, especially to Argentina—according to Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921, they "outclassed the entire Argentinian fleet".[16] They sparked a minor naval arms race in South America; Chile ordered Almirante Latorre and Almirante Cochrane from Britain and Argentina ordered Rivadavia and Moreno from the United States.[17] Meanwhile, the United States began to actively attempt to court Brazil as an ally; caught up in the spirit, U.S. naval journals began using terms like "Pan Americanism" and "Hemispheric Cooperation".[1]

File:Minas Geraes
Minas Geraes soon after her launch in September 1908

British and German professional journals speculated that Brazil was acting as a proxy for a larger naval power, and was planning to hand over the ships once completed.[1][17] These suspicions were echoed by The New York Times, which reported on 1 August 1908:

The rumor is that the three warships ... which were ordered [in Britain] two years ago will be launched from English shores only to fly the German flag. It is asserted that these ships, which are named the Sao Paulo, the Minas Geras [sic] and the Rio de Janeiro, and all of which will be completed by next fall, will be conveyed to the German government on the payment of $30,000,000.
It may be recalled that when orders were placed for the ships ..., there was much speculation as to the destiny of the vessels, as no naval expert could understand how a second-rate power like Brazil needed such formidable engines of war which would represent absolutely the latest stages of naval construction and armament. Meanwhile, it had been reported that the ships were being built for the Japanese government, which had a secret understanding with Brazil. But this theory was soon discarded by the fact that relations between these two countries were not extremely cordial on account of the attitude of Brazil toward the immigration of Japanese laborers. Then it was semi-officially stated that would never leave the ways except to fly the British flag, but the money for such a purpose could only be raised by a loan or the Admiralty getting the sum from the sinking fund.[14]

Early career

File:Minas Geraes from
Minas Geraes' superstructure and fore main guns in 1910; note the presence of wing turrets on either side of the superstructure

Minas Geraes was christened by Senhora Regis de Oliveira, the wife of the Brazilian minister to Great Britain,[18] and launched at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 10 September 1908.[4] After the ship completed fitting-out, she was handed over by Armstrong's to the Brazilian Commission on behalf of the Brazilian government, while the ship's company was mustered on deck.[5] The British Royal Navy carried out her gunnery trials at the request of Armstrong's and with the agreement of the Brazilian government.[19] Although the idea of having superfiring turrets was not new—the American South Carolina class battleships of 1908 had fore and aft turrets mounted in that fashion—the trials attracted interest from a few nations, who sent representatives to observe. They wanted to resolve two major questions: the effect that firing the upper superfiring turrets would have on the crewmen in the lower guns, and whether smoke from the discharge of the lower guns would hinder the targeting capabilities of the upper turret. The tests resolved both questions satisfactorily.[7]

On Minas Geraes' 1910 maiden voyage, she steamed from Britain to Norfolk, Virginia, where she met the American armored cruiser North Carolina. The latter carried the body of Joaquim Nabuco, the Brazilian ambassador to the United States (who had died in Washington, D.C. on 17 January), and was escorted by Minas Geraes to Rio de Janeiro.[A 6] Thick fog initially prevented North Carolina from picking up the body,[20][21] but the two ships got underway on 17 March 1910 and reached Rio de Janeiro one month later.[22]

Soon after Minas Geraes' arrival in Brazil, the country's prosperity began to wane, and a severe depression hit the Brazilian economy.[1] The economic hardship, the racism prevalent in all branches of the Brazilian armed forces,[23] and the severe discipline enforced on all navy ships spawned a mutiny known as the Revolta da Chibata (English: Revolt of the Whip)[A 7] among sailors on the most powerful ships.[23][24]

File:Joao
João Cândido Felisberto with reporters, officers and sailors on aboard Minas Geraes on 26 November 1910, the final day of the Revolta da Chibata

Many of the black sailors on Minas Geraes were slaves freed under the Lei Áurea or their sons. Forced to enter the navy, they were widely discriminated against. It was common for officers to target black crewmen with "racial abuse and physical violence"; the sailors could not escape this abuse because they were required to serve for 15 years. Officers were quick to administer punishment with "leather whips tipped with metal balls" for even minor infractions.[23] Unhappy with the treatment, black sailors began planning an uprising early in 1910, and chose João Cândido Felisberto—an experienced sailor later known as the "Black Admiral"—as their leader. In mid-November,[23] a sailor was sentenced to be flogged in front of his fellow sailors,[23] even though the practice had been banned by law.[24] The punishment continued even after the sailor fainted.[23] The incident infuriated the nascent mutineers; they were not ready and could not revolt immediately, but they quickened their preparations and rebelled earlier than originally planned, on 21 November. They murdered several officers and the captain; other officers were forced off the ship. British engineers who had sailed with the ship since its completion were kept as hostages. The mutineers then spread the revolt to São Paulo, the older coastal defense ship Deodoro, and the new cruiser Bahia. During this time, discipline on the rebelling ships was not relaxed; daily drills were conducted and Felisberto ordered all liquor to be thrown overboard.[24]

File:E Minas Geraes
Minas Geraes' gun trials; this picture was taken when ten 12-inch guns were trained to port to fire a full broadside. A Scientific American article of 1910 remarked that this was "the greatest broadside ever fired from a battleship".[7]

The crews of the torpedo boats remained loyal to the government,[24] and army troops moved to the presidential palace and the coastline, but neither group could stop the mutineers;[23] a major problem for the authorities was that many of the men who manned Rio de Janeiro's harbor defenses were sympathetic to the mutineers' cause.[24] The additional possibility of the capital being bombarded forced the National Congress of Brazil to give in to the rebels' demands.[23] The demands included the abolition of flogging, improved living conditions, and the granting of amnesty to all mutineers.[23][24] The government also issued official pardons and a statement of regret. Its submission resulted in the rebellion's end on 26 November, when control of the four ships was handed back to the navy.[23]

In 1913, Minas Geraes took the Brazilian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lauro Severiano Müller, to the United States, reciprocating the visit U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root had paid to Brazil seven years earlier.[25][26]

First World War

Even though the First World War did not touch Brazilian soil, it had crushing effects on Brazil's economy.[27] Prices for rubber and coffee plummeted; the war had only a small need for rubber, and Britain allowed no coffee into Europe as space on merchant ships was reserved for "essential items". In addition, coffee was declared to be contraband, so every Brazilian shipment to the Central Powers was subject to search and seizure; even shipments to some neutral countries were barred to ensure that no coffee would get through. Despite these restrictions, neutral[A 8] Brazil was pro-Allied for the first three years of the war because of its sizable merchant fleet; as merchantmen from Allied countries were sunk, Brazilian ships were able to take over routes that had been vacated. This policy exposed them to attack by German submarines, and after the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917, several Brazilian ships were sunk, driving the country closer to declaring war on the Central Powers.[27]

File:Deck scene aboard Minas
The main deck of Minas Geraes, seen from the stern prior to her 1921 refit

Brazil revoked its neutrality in the war between the United States and Germany on 1 June 1917, but did not declare war. At the same time, all German merchant ships interned in Brazilian harbors, 45 in all, were boarded and seized; most were unusable due to neglect or sabotage. On 28 June, Brazil revoked its neutrality between all of the Allied and Central Powers but again stopped short of declaring war; this move allowed Brazilian merchantmen to travel in Allied convoys.[28]

The Brazilian Navy was sent out to patrol the South Atlantic with French, British and American naval units, even though none of its ships had anti-submarine capabilities and, not being at war with the Central Powers, its ships were not supposed to engage any threat outside territorial waters.[29] However, another Brazilian merchant ship, Macao,[30][31] was sunk off Spain on 18 October, and eight days later Brazil declared war.[29]

Brazil offered to send Minas Geraes and São Paulo to serve with the British Grand Fleet, but this offer was declined because both ships were in poor condition and lacked modern fire-control systems. Indicative of their poor condition, fourteen of São Paulo's eighteen boilers failed when she sailed to New York for a modernization in June 1918.[32]

Inter-war period

File:Minas Gerais class battleship diagrams Brasseys
Sketches of a Minas Geraes-class ship from the 1923 Brassey's Naval and Shipping Annual, depicting the ships after their 1920s refits in the United States

São Paulo's refit was finished on 17 January 1920 and she returned to Brazil; on 15 July Minas Geraes departed for New York for her own refit.[33][34] Beginning on 22 August,[35] the day she arrived,[36] and finishing on 4 October 1921,[35] the battleship was dramatically modernized, with Sperry fire-control equipment and Bausch and Lomb range-finders for the two superfiring turrets fore and aft. A vertical armor bulkhead was fitted inside the main turrets, and the secondary battery of 4.7 in (120 mm) guns was reduced from 22 to 12; five guns in casemates were removed from each side. A few modern AA guns were fitted: two 3"/50 caliber guns from Bethlehem Steel were added on the aft superstructure, 37 mm (1.5 in) guns were added near each turret, and 3-pounder guns were removed from the tops of turrets.[33]

In July 1922, Minas Geraes joined São Paulo in helping to quash the first of the Revolução Tenentista (English: Tenente revolts), in which the garrison of Rio de Janeiro's Fort Copacabana rebelled and began bombarding the city. São Paulo shelled the fory, and the rebels surrendered shortly thereafter; Minas Geraes did not fire her guns.[37]

In 1924, Minas Geraes was involved in another mutiny, but remained on the side of the government. First Lieutenant Hercolino Cascardo, seven second lieutenants and others commandeered São Paulo in Rio de Janeiro's harbor on 4 November 1924. Their goal was to force the government to release prisoners who had participated in the 1922 Tenente revolts from confinement aboard the prison ship Cuibaba; however, the mutineers' demands were not met. São Paulo's boilers were then fired, and she "steamed menacingly" around Minas Geraes in an attempt to entice her and other ships to join the rebellion. However, São Paulo was only able to sway one old torpedo boat to her cause. Her crew, angry that Minas Geraes would not join them, shot a six-pounder at Minas Geraes, wounding a cook. The mutineers then sailed out of the harbor, exchanging shots with forts at the entrance along the way, and set course for Montevideo, Uruguay. The condensers failed along the way, and they reached Montevideo on 10 November making only 9 knots (10 mph; 17 km/h). The rebellious members of the crew disembarked and were granted asylum, while the remainder re-hoisted the colors of Brazil.[6][13][38]

Between June 1931 and 1935, Minas Geraes was totally reconstructed and modernized at the Rio de Janeiro Naval Yard. She was converted from her old coal–oil combination to all-oil firing. All eighteen of the original Babcock and Wilcox boilers were removed in favor of six new John I. Thornycroft & Company boilers. The former No. 1 boiler room and all twelve of the side coal bunkers were converted to fuel oil storage tanks; the upper coal bunkers were removed. In addition, Minas Geraes' dynamos were replaced with new turbogenerators. The most striking aesthetic change was the trunking of the boiler uptakes into a single funnel. The fire-control systems that had been fitted after the First World War were also modernized in favor of Zeiss-Jena range-finders. The guns were overhauled; two extra 4.7 in (120 mm) guns were added (making 14 total), and six 20 mm (0.79 in) Madsen guns were installed, including two on the top of 'X' turret. The maximum elevation of the 12-inch guns was upped from 13° to 18°.[33][39]

Second World War and later career

File:E Minas Geraes
Minas Geraes in Salvador during 1942, after her major refit

As in the First World War, Brazil was neutral during the early years of the Second World War. However, German attacks on Brazilian merchant ships pushed the country into war on the Allied side; Brazil declared war on 21 August 1942, taking effect on 31 August.[40]

Apart from three destroyers launched in 1940 and four submarines from the inter-war years,[41][A 9] Brazil's warships were old and mostly obsolete pre-First World War vessels.[41] The mainstays of the fleet, Minas Geraes, São Paulo, Bahia, and Rio Grande do Sul, were all over thirty years old.[41][42] Although Minas Geraes had been further refitted from 1939 to 1943, she was still too old and in too poor a condition to "play an active role" in the Second World War; instead, the dreadnought was anchored as a floating battery in the port of Salvador for the duration.[6][41]

Minas Geraes was inactive for much of the rest of her career. Although she was decommissioned on 16 May 1952, the battleship was used as a stationary headquarters for the Commander-in-Chief of the Brazilian Navy until 17 December of that year. She was removed from the naval register on 31 December,[6] and sold to the Italian ship breaking company SA Cantiere Navale de Santa Maria.[12] Minas Geraes was taken under tow on 1 March 1954 and arrived in Genoa on 22 April;[6] the old dreadnought, which had been in service for more than forty years, was broken up for scrap later that year.[3]

Notes

  1. ^ This is the number of crewmen the ship carried early in her career; with subsequent modifications, refits and modernizations, the figure would have varied.
  2. ^ Pronounced [ˈminɐʃ ʒeˈɾajʃ] in Portuguese.
  3. ^ Geraes was the spelling when the ship was commissioned, but later changes to Portuguese orthography deprecated it in favor of Gerais.
  4. ^ Two other coastal defense ships, Riachuelo and Aquidabã, had been rebuilt in 1893–1895 and 1897–1898, respectively. See: Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 404.
  5. ^ Although Germany laid down Nassau two months after Minas Geraes, Nassau was commissioned first. See: Gardiner and Gray (1984), pp. 145 and 403
  6. ^ Contrary to contemporary New York Times articles, Whitley (1999) pp. 27–28 states that Minas Geraes carried the body and North Carolina was the escort.
  7. ^ In English, the name of the rebellion is also translated as "The Revolt of the Lash" or "The Revolt against the Lash".
  8. ^ Brazil officially declared its neutrality on 4 August 1914. See: Scheina (2003), pp. 35–36.
  9. ^ Of the four modern submarines, there was a mine-laying submarine (Humaita) completed in 1927 and three submarines (Tupi, Tamoio and Timbira) completed in 1937; all were built by Italy. However, according to author Robert Schenia, these "were of limited operational value". See: Schenia (2003), p. 164. In addition, five Juruena class destroyers were laid down in Britain in 1939, but were appropriated for use by the Royal Navy at the start of the war. Another three destroyers, of the Marcilio Dias class, were built in Brazil (and so were not appropriated); these were launched in 1940. See: Gardiner and Chesneau (1980), pp. 416–417.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 404
  2. ^ Office of Naval Intelligence (1912). Information Concerning Some of the Principal Navies of the World; A Series of Tables Compiled to Answer Popular Inquiry. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 21. http://books.google.com/?id=LLtBAAAAIAAJ. 
  3. ^ a b c ""6103887" (Minas Gerais)" (subscription required). Miramar Ship Index. R.B. Haworth. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 
  4. ^ a b "Launch of a Brazilian Battleship" (News). The Times. Friday, 11 September 1908. Issue 38749, col B, p. 8.
  5. ^ a b "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 6 January 1910. Issue 39162, col D, p. 4.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Whitley (1999), p. 29
  7. ^ a b c [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Brazilian Battleship "Minas Geraes""]. Scientific American (New York: Munn & Co., Inc.) 102: 240–241. 19 March 1910. ISSN 0036-8733. 
  8. ^ a b c d Sondhaus (2001), p. 216
  9. ^ a b c Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 403
  10. ^ Whitley (1999), pp. 23–24
  11. ^ a b c Whitley (1999), p. 24
  12. ^ a b Paulo de Oliveira Ribeiro (1997). "Os Dreadnoughts Da Marinha Do Brasil: Minas Geraes e São Paulo" (in Portuguese). Poder Naval Online. Archived from the original on June 8, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080608045038/http://www.naval.com.br/historia/dreadnought/dreadnought-port1.htm. Retrieved 16 April 2009. 
  13. ^ a b c Bennighof, Mike (October 2006). "Brazil's Dreadnoughts". Avalanche Press. http://www.avalanchepress.com/Brazil_Dreadnoughts.php. Retrieved 16 April 2009. 
  14. ^ a b "Germany may buy English warships" (PDF). The New York Times: p. C8. 1 August 1908. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E0CE4D9123EE233A2575AC0A96E9C946997D6CF. 
  15. ^ Whitley (1999), p. 13
  16. ^ Gardiner and Gray (1984), p. 400
  17. ^ a b Miller (2001), p. 84
  18. ^ "Launch Greatest Warships" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 5. 11 September 1908. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D06E6DB133EE233A25752C1A96F9C946997D6CF. 
  19. ^ Tupper (1929), p. 185
  20. ^ "Minas Geraes Fogbound" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 13. 3 March 1910. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D03EFDA1E30E333A25750C0A9659C946196D6CF. 
  21. ^ "Society of Fort Monroe" (PDF). The New York Times: p. X12. 6 March 1910. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C0CE0DC1430E233A25755C0A9659C946196D6CF. 
  22. ^ Whitley (1999), pp. 27–28
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Smallman (2002), p. 28
  24. ^ a b c d e f Scheina (2003), p. 74
  25. ^ "Brazilian Envoy Host on Warship" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 7. 12 July 1913. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D02EEDE163DE633A25751C1A9619C946296D6CF. 
  26. ^ "Tell Brazil's Envoy of Trade Problems; Exporters Give Loving Cup to Dr. Muller and Welcome Him to Country." (PDF). The New York Times: p. 14. 18 June 1913. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9406E4DF153FE633A2575BC1A9609C946296D6CF. 
  27. ^ a b Scheina (2003), pp. 35–36
  28. ^ Scheina (2003), p. 36
  29. ^ a b Scheina (2003), pp. 35, 37–38
  30. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Macao". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. http://uboat.net/wwi/ships_hit/3798.html. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 
  31. ^ ""5603380" (Macao)" (subscription required). Miramar Ship Index. R.B. Haworth. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 12 June 2009. 
  32. ^ Whitley (1999), p. 28
  33. ^ a b c Whitley (1999), p. 27
  34. ^ "Brazilian Dreadnought Coming Here" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 3. 17 July 1920. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9506EEDD1131E433A25754C1A9619C946195D6CF. 
  35. ^ a b Whitley (1999), p. 26
  36. ^ "Brazilian Battleship Arrives" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 11. 23 August 1920. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=990DE3DA1F31E03ABC4B51DFBE66838B639EDEF. 
  37. ^ Guilherme Poggio (n.d.). "Um encouraçado contra o forte: 2ª Parte" (in Portuguese). Poder Naval Online. http://www.naval.com.br/historia/SP_x_Copacabana/SP_x_Copacabana_p2.htm. Retrieved 10 June 2009. [dead link]
  38. ^ Scheina (2003), p. 129
  39. ^ Gardiner and Chesneau (1980), p. 416
  40. ^ Scheina (2003), pp. 162–164
  41. ^ a b c d Scheina (2003), p. 164
  42. ^ Gardiner and Gray (1984), pp. 404–405

Bibliography

External links

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