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Breadfruit
Breadfruit at Tortuguero, Costa Rica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Tribe: Artocarpeae[1]
Genus: Artocarpus
Species: A. altilis
Binomial name
Artocarpus altilis
(Parkinson) Fosberg

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry family, Moraceae, that is native to the Malay Peninsula and western Pacific islands. It has also been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere.

Contents

Description

Breadfruit tree planted in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi.

Breadfruit trees grow to a height of 22 meters (85 ft). The large and thick leaves are deeply cut into pinnate lobes. All parts of the tree yield latex, a milky juice, which is useful for boat caulking.

The trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. The male flowers emerge first, followed shortly afterward by the female flowers, which grow into a capitulum, which are capable of pollination just three days later. The pollinators are Old World fruit bats in the family Pteropodidae. The compound, false fruit develops from the swollen perianth and originates from 1,500-2,000 flowers. These are visible on the skin of the fruit as hexagon-like disks.

Breadfruit is one of the highest-yielding food plants, with a single tree producing up to 200 or more fruits per season. In the South Pacific, the trees yield 50 to 150 fruits per year. In southern India, normal production is 150 to 200 fruits annually. Productivity varies between wet and dry areas. In the Caribbean, a conservative estimate is 25 fruits per tree. Studies in Barbados indicate a reasonable potential of 6.7 to 13.4 tons per acre (16-32 tons/ha). The grapefruit-sized ovoid fruit has a rough surface, and each fruit is divided into many achenes, each achene surrounded by a fleshy perianth and growing on a fleshy receptacle. Some selectively-bred cultivars have seedless fruit.

The breadfruit is closely related to the breadnut and the jackfruit.

Habitat

Breadfruit is an equatorial lowland species that grows best below elevations of 650 metres (2,100 ft), but is found at elevations of 1,550 metres (5,100 ft). Its preferred rainfall is 1,500–3,000 millimetres (59–120 in) per year. Preferred soils are neutral to alkaline (pH of 6.1-7.4) and either sand, sandy loam, loam or sandy clay loam. Breadfruit is able to grow in coral sands and saline soils.[2]

Uses

Breadfruit is a staple food in many tropical regions. They were propagated far outside their native range by Polynesian voyagers who transported root cuttings and air-layered plants over long ocean distances. They are very rich in starch, and before being eaten they are roasted, baked, fried or boiled. When cooked the taste is described as potato-like, or similar to fresh-baked bread (hence the name).

The fruit of the breadfruit tree - whole, sliced lengthwise and in cross-section

Because breadfruit trees usually produce large crops at certain times of the year, preservation of the harvested fruit is an issue. One traditional preservation technique is to bury peeled and washed fruits in a leaf-lined pit where they ferment over several weeks and produce a sour, sticky paste. So stored, the product may last a year or more, and some pits are reported to have produced edible contents more than 20 years later.[3] Fermented breadfruit mash goes by many names such as mahr, ma, masi, furo, and bwiru, among others.

Bread fruit in early stages.jpg
Drawing of breadfruit by Sydney Parkinson

Most breadfruit varieties also produce a small number of fruits throughout the year, so fresh breadfruit is always available, but somewhat rare when not in season.

Breadfruit can be eaten once cooked, or can be further processed into a variety of other foods. A common product is a mixture of cooked or fermented breadfruit mash mixed with coconut milk and baked in banana leaves. Whole fruits can be cooked in an open fire, then cored and filled with other foods such as coconut milk, sugar and butter, cooked meats, or other fruits. The filled fruit can be further cooked so that the flavor of the filling permeates the flesh of the breadfruit.

The Hawaiian staple food called poi made of mashed taro root is easily substituted or augmented with mashed breadfruit. The resulting “breadfruit poi” is called poi ʻulu. In Puerto Rico, it is called "panapen" or "pana", for short. Pana is often served with a mixture of sauteed bacalao (salted cod fish), olive oil and onions. In Dominican Republic, it is known by the name "buen pan" or "good bread".

Breadfruit is roughly 25% carbohydrates and 70% water. It has an average amount of vitamin C (20 mg/100g), small amounts of minerals (potassium and zinc) and thiamin (100 μg).[4]

Breadfruit was widely and diversely used among Pacific Islanders. Its lightweight wood (specific gravity of 0.27)[5] is resistant to termites and shipworms, consequently used as timber for structures and outrigger canoes.[6] Its wood pulp can also be used to make paper, called breadfruit tapa.[6] It is also used in traditional medicine to treat illnesses that range from sore eyes to sciatica.[6] Native Hawaiians used its sticky sap to trap birds, whose feathers were made into cloaks.[7]

In history

In a late-18th-century quest for cheap, high-energy food sources for British slaves in the Caribbean, William Bligh, commanding lieutenant of the HMS Bounty, collected and distributed botanical samples of breadfruit.[8] Other sources say Captain James Cook was the first to introduce the South Pacific native plant to the Caribbean islands.

In culture

According to an etiological Hawaiian myth, the breadfruit originated from the sacrifice of the war god . After deciding to live secretly among mortals as a farmer, Kū married and had children. He and his family lived happily until a famine seized their island. When he could no longer bear to watch his children suffer, Kū told his wife that he could deliver them from starvation, but to do so he would have to leave them. Reluctantly she agreed, and at her word, Kū descended into the ground right where he had stood until only the top of his head was visible. His family waited around the spot he had last been day and night, watering it with their tears until suddenly a small green shoot appeared where Kū had stood. Quickly, the shoot grew into a tall and leafy tree that was laden with heavy breadfruits that Kū's family and neighbors gratefully ate, joyfully saved from starvation.[9]

Though they are widely distributed throughout the Pacific, many breadfruit hybrids and cultivars are seedless or otherwise biologically incapable of naturally dispersing long distances. Therefore, their distribution in the Pacific was clearly enabled by humans, specifically prehistoric groups who colonized the Pacific Islands. To investigate the patterns of human migration throughout the Pacific, scientists have used molecular dating of breadfruit hybrids and cultivars in concert with anthropological data. Results support the west-to-east migration hypothesis, in which the Lapita people are thought to have traveled from Melanesia to numerous Polynesian islands.[10]

The world’s largest collection of breadfruit varieties has been established by botanist Diane Ragone, from over 20 years' travel to 50 Pacific islands, on a 10-acre plot outside of Hana, Hawaii, on the isolated east coast of Maui.[11]

The wood of the breadfruit tree was one of the most valuable timbers in the construction of traditional houses in Samoan architecture.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Artocarpus altilis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-07-03. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?4319. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  2. ^ Ragone, Diane (April 2006) (PDF). Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit). The Traditional Tree Initiative. http://www.agroforestry.net/tti/A.altilis-breadfruit.pdf. 
  3. ^ Balick, M. & Cox, P. (1996). Plants, People and Culture: The Science of Ethnobotany. New York: Scientific American Library HPHLP, p.85
  4. ^ Nutrition Facts for Breadfruit
  5. ^ Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989) (PDF). ʻUlu, breadfruit. United States Forest Service. http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/data/CommonTreesHI/CFT_Artocarpus_altilis.pdf. 
  6. ^ a b c The Breadfruit Institute
  7. ^ Morton, Julia F. (1987). "Breadfruit". Fruits of Warm Climates (Miami, Florida): 50–58. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/breadfruit.html. 
  8. ^ http://www.bioversityinternational.org/index.php?id=21&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=531&tx_ttnews%5BbackPID%5D=%7Bpage:uid%7D&no_cache=1
  9. ^ Loebel-Fried, C. (2002)
  10. ^ Zerega, N. J. C.; Ragone, D. & Motley, T.J. (2004). "The complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): Implications for human migrations in Oceania". American Journal of Botany 91 (5): 760–766. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/abstract/91/5/760. 
  11. ^ Julia Steele, photos by Jack Wolford (August/September 2009). "Tree of Plenty". Hana Hou! (Vol.12, No. 4). http://www.hanahou.com/pages/Magazine.asp?Action=DrawArticle&ArticleID=801&MagazineID=51. 

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