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Breast
Closeup of female breast.jpg
The breast of a pregnant woman
Latin mamma (cf. mammal from Latin mammalis "of the breast"[1])
Artery internal thoracic artery
Vein internal thoracic vein
.The breast is the upper ventral region of an animal’s torso, particularly that of mammals, including human beings.^ The word bosom is used 41 times in the Bible and always means the same thing - the area of the chest or breast of the human being.
  • Abraham's Bosom 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.hisremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

The breasts of a female primate’s body contain the mammary glands, which secrete milk used to feed infants.
.Both men and women develop breasts from the same embryological tissues.^ I believe it is through society that men are taught to objectify womens breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This objectificaion of breasts by women does as much damage as the trained responses my father and other men in society taught me.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My mind said it was stupid, but not seeing "normal" breasts and bodies in the outside world really has an impact on boys, girls, and men and women's body expectations.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, at puberty, female sex hormones, mainly estrogen, promote breast development which does not occur in men.^ To date sight has yet to be developed in females of which we are aware, but could simulate the visual sensuality that men respond to equally in the realm of sexual excitement.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A drug that decreases the production of sex hormones (estrogen or testosterone) and slows the growth of tumors that need sex hormones to grow.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This objectificaion of breasts by women does as much damage as the trained responses my father and other men in society taught me.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a result, women's' breasts become far more prominent than those of men.^ Womens breasts are not that much different than mens.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would go so far as to say that a woman has more right to bare her chest than a man does.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe it is through society that men are taught to objectify womens breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Anatomy

Breast schematic diagram (adult human female cross section) - Legend: 1. Chest wall 2. Pectoralis muscles 3. Lobules 4. Nipple 5. Areola 6. Duct 7. Fatty tissue 8. Skin
.Anatomically, breasts are modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands which produce milk in women, and in some rare cases, in men.^ Is that bad and does it have some thing to do with breast milk?
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Practically all women have some degree of nipple hair, yet this is rarely demonstrated even on the breasts on your site.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the United States, an estimated 192,370 new cases of invasive breast cancer will occur in women in 2009, along with 1,910 cases in men.

[2] .Each breast has one nipple surrounded by the areola.^ Thank you for showing me and other women how normal our "imagined" abnormal breasts, nipples, and areolas are.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My one nipple is shaped like a kidney bean and I do not think that there is an opening for breast milk to come out of.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See, breasts, nipple, and areola grow and develop a lot during pregnancy.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.The color of the areola varies from pink to dark brown and has several sebaceous glands.^ Therefore, the resulting areola color can be various shades of pink and brown till very dark brown.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I prefer small to flat A-cup breasts with large nipples AND I prefer large (D and up) NATURAL pendulous breasts with large nipples and large dark areola's and Montgomery glands and can see blue veins.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, areola size and color varies with women.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

In women, the larger mammary glands within the breast produce the milk. .They are distributed throughout the breast, with two-thirds of the tissue found within 30 mm of the base of the nipple.^ A Engorgement when the milk first comes in (transitions from colostrum to mature milk) on the third or fourth day after birth can be a significant first hurdle when breastfeeding after breast or nipple surgery.
  • BFAR - Frequently Asked Questions 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.bfar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the excessive accumulation or proliferation of normal cells typically found on the inside of the lobules or the ducts in the breast tissue.
  • Breast Cancer - Carcinoma, Inflammatory Breast Cancer - Life Extension Health Concern 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .These are drained to the nipple by between 4 and 18 lactiferous ducts, where each duct has its own opening.^ Intraepidermal CK7+ cells in the non-neoplastic nipple can be a manifestation of interepithelial extension of benign lactiferous duct cells.

^ Nipple Discharge Normally, ten to fifteen ducts open on the surface of the nipple.

^ The lactiferous duct epithelium in Paget's disease and in histologically unremarkable nipple was CK7+ in all specimens when this element was present.

The network formed by these ducts is complex, like the tangled roots of a tree. It is not always arranged radially, and branches close to the nipple. .The ducts near the nipple do not act as milk reservoirs; Ramsay et al. have shown that conventionally described lactiferous sinuses do not, in fact, exist.^ This is because any cuts near the nipple area cut the nerves to the nipple and can cut the milk ducts too.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Intraepidermal CK7+ cells in the non-neoplastic nipple can be a manifestation of interepithelial extension of benign lactiferous duct cells.

^ The lactiferous duct epithelium in Paget's disease and in histologically unremarkable nipple was CK7+ in all specimens when this element was present.

.Instead, most milk is actually in the back of the breast, and when suckling occurs, the smooth muscles of the gland push more milk forward.^ I have never been pregnant but my breasts look more like the photos of someone who has breastfed, as I have large areolas and have fairly prominent montgomery glands.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

The remainder of the breast is composed of connective tissue (collagen and elastin), adipose tissue (fat), and Cooper's ligaments. .The ratio of glands to adipose tissues rises from 1:1 in nonlactating women to 2:1 in lactating women.^ Within the mammary gland, there are 15-20 lobes or compartments separated by adipose tissue.
  • Breast Cancer - Carcinoma, Inflammatory Breast Cancer - Life Extension Health Concern 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ From the general lactation perspective, engorgement is not a result of a large volume of milk so much as it is swelling of the tissues that surround the glands and ducts in response to a rapid influx of mature milk.
  • BFAR - Frequently Asked Questions 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.bfar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, there is no such thing as growing "breast tissue" all women have the same amount of mammary glands and connective tissue.
  • Breast Pills - Breast Pills Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.bountifulbreast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
The breasts sit over the pectoralis major muscle and usually extend from the level of the 2nd rib to the level of the 6th rib anteriorly. The superior lateral quadrant of the breast extends diagonally upwards towards the axillae and is known as the tail of Spence. A thin layer of mammary tissue extends from the clavicle above to the seventh or eighth ribs below and from the midline to the edge of the latissimus dorsi posteriorly. (For further explanation, see anatomical terms of location.)
The arterial blood supply to the breasts is derived from the internal thoracic artery (formerly called the internal mammary artery), lateral thoracic artery, thoracoacromial artery, and posterior intercostal arteries. The venous drainage of the breast is mainly to the axillary vein, but there is some drainage to the internal thoracic vein and the intercostal veins. Both sexes have a large concentration of blood vessels and nerves in their nipples. .The nipples of both women and men can become erect in response to sexual stimuli,[4] to touch, and to cold.^ And, not all women's nipples become erect during sexual arousal; it varies.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This objectificaion of breasts by women does as much damage as the trained responses my father and other men in society taught me.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Female breast as a taboo 007b.com HOME Breast taboo explained Reasons why women wean early Breast obsession Are breasts and nipples sexual organs?
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.The breast is innervated by the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the fourth through sixth intercostal nerves.^ Anterior and lateral views of female breast development, Upper left ...
  • Breast Stock Photo Images. 7290 Breast royalty free images and photography available to buy from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

The nipple is supplied by the T4 dermatome.

Lymphatic drainage

.About 75% of lymph from the breast travels to the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes.^ Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in premenopausal women with axillary node-positive operable breast cancer: results of a randomized trial.

^ Predictive probability of four different breast cancer nomograms for nonsentinel axillary lymph node metastasis in positive sentinel node biopsy.

.The rest travels to parasternal nodes, to the other breast, or abdominal lymph nodes.^ In a radical nephrectomy, an entire kidney, nearby adrenal gland and lymph nodes, and other surrounding tissue are removed.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The surgical management is the same as for other types of breast cancer except axillary node sampling is not done, as only 1% of these lesions will have axillary metastasis.

^ Predictive probability of four different breast cancer nomograms for nonsentinel axillary lymph node metastasis in positive sentinel node biopsy.

.The axillary nodes include the pectoral, subscapular, and humeral groups of lymph nodes.^ Of the 28 patients with an associated BC in group 2, 10 (36%) had invasive cancer, 18 (64%) had DCIS, and 6 (21%) had positive axillary nodes.

^ Predictive probability of four different breast cancer nomograms for nonsentinel axillary lymph node metastasis in positive sentinel node biopsy.

^ Lymph Nodes N0 = no metastasis to axillary nodes N1 = Metastasis to moveable axillary nodes N2 = Metastasis to fixed or matted axillary nodes N3 = Metastasis to supraclavicular, infraclavicular or internal mammary nodes .

These drain to the central axillary lymph nodes, then to the apical axillary lymph nodes. .The lymphatic drainage of the breasts is particularly relevant to oncology, since breast cancer is a common cancer and cancer cells can break away from a tumour and spread to other parts of the body through the lymph system by metastasis.^ Cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer that has not spread from the primary site (place where it started) to other places in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Shape and support

Breasts vary in size, density, shape and position on a woman's chest, and their external appearance is not predictive of their internal anatomy or lactation potential. .The natural shape of a woman's breasts is primarily dependent on the support provided by the Cooper's ligaments and the underlying chest on which they rest (the base).^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have small, less-than-A-cup breasts but they are nicely shaped.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The myths men have regarding breasts play a negative role and make woman do un natural and sometime unhealthy things with their breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

Cooper's ligaments, also known as the suspensory ligaments of Cooper, suspend the breasts from the clavicle and the clavi-pectoral fascia. .As their fibers run around and through the breast, these ligaments support the breasts in its position on the chest wall and maintain their normal shape.^ I just want y'all to know for each and every size and shape of breast there are, there are men who like them and THAT IS NORMAL. I myself have a conundrum for you ladies.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thank you for opening my eyes to the fact that I am normal and my breasts did actually develop, they are just shaped differently.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These pictures are here to let you see some of the normal variations in nipple shape and areola size/shape.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

The breast is also attached at its base to the chest wall by the deep fascia over the pectoral muscles. .In a small number of women, the frontal ducts (ampullae) in the breasts are not flush with the surrounding breast tissue, which causes the sinus area to visibly bulge outward.^ A procedure used to mark a small area of abnormal tissue so it can be removed by surgery.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In anatomy, the small raised area in the center of the breast through which milk can flow to the outside.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In pregnancy women often get kind of "bulging" veins on their breasts, but not always.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

Relatively round breasts which protrude almost horizontally.
Some breasts are high and rounded, and protrude almost horizontally from the chest wall. .Such high breasts are common for girls and women in early stages of development.^ Bedard PL, Cardoso F. Recent advances in adjuvant systemic therapy for early-stage breast cancer.

^ I cannot put into words how wonderful it is to see that so many women have such beautiful and different breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Female breast as a taboo 007b.com HOME Breast taboo explained Reasons why women wean early Breast obsession Are breasts and nipples sexual organs?
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.The protruding or high breasts are anchored to the chest at the base, and the weight is distributed evenly over the area of the base of the approximately dome- or cone-shaped breasts.^ The word bosom is used 41 times in the Bible and always means the same thing - the area of the chest or breast of the human being.
  • Abraham's Bosom 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.hisremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the “low” breast, a proportion of the breasts' weight is actually supported by the chest against which the lower breast surface comes to rest, as well as the deep anchorage at the base.^ Bountiful Breast® will also help prevent breast shrinkage while you are dieting, so your breasts retain their size or increase while the rest of your body loses weight.
  • Breast Pills - Breast Pills Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.bountifulbreast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women have practically a flat chest , some have small breasts , some have much bust that the mere weight of them can cause them backaches.
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, we might consider what is normal, when it comes to breasts?
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

The weight is thus distributed over a larger area, which has the effect of reducing the strain. .In both males and females, the thoracic cavity slopes progressively outwards from the thoracic inlet (at the top of the breastbone) above to the lowest ribs which mark its lower boundary, allowing it to support the breasts.^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.The inframammary fold (or line, or crease) is an anatomic structure created by adherence between elements in the skin and underlying connective tissue[5] and represents the inferior extent of breast anatomy.^ This will create a large contrast between the areola and the rest of the breast.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some teenagers may develop breasts whose skin comes into contact with the chest below the fold at an early age, and some women may never develop such breasts; both situations are perfectly normal.^ Breast reconstruction in women of any age.
  • Breast Implants FAQ, Breast Augmentation FAQ, Silicone Breast Implants FAQ, Frequently Asked Questions at Breast Implants USA 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.breastimplantsusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The extra nipple usually develops just below the normal breast.
  • Nipple symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some girls are delayed in breast development.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

.The relationship of the nipple position to the fold is described as ptosis, a term also applied to other body parts and which refers in general to drooping or sagging.^ Third, the nutrients travel through the bloodstream to different parts of the body where they are used as "fuel" and for many other purposes.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In medicine, nanoparticles can be used to carry antibodies, drugs, imaging agents, or other substances to certain parts of the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nonmalignant tumors may grow larger but do not spread to other parts of the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Due to breast weight and relaxation of support structures, the nipple-areola complex and breast tissue may eventually hang below the fold, and in some cases the breasts may extend as far as, or even beyond, the navel.^ The latter are especially important in some extraordinary cases in which there may be an associated intraepithelial melanocytic hyperplasia.

^ Breast reconstruction includes: primary reconstruction to replace breast tissue that has been removed due to cancer or trauma or that has failed to develop properly; and revision-reconstruction to correct or improve the result of breast reconstruction surgery.
  • Breast Implants FAQ, Breast Augmentation FAQ, Silicone Breast Implants FAQ, Frequently Asked Questions at Breast Implants USA 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.breastimplantsusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this account, disappearance of a dislike for enlarged breasts and attraction to enlarged breasts is partially a device for extending male provisioning beyond a short run purchase of sexual access.

.The length from the nipple to the sternal notch (central, upper border) in the youthful breast averages 21 cm and is a common anthropometric figure used to assess both breast symmetry and ptosis.^ A 21-year old; had breast reduction 7 months ago so nipple shows scars.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lengthening of both this measurement and the distance between the nipple and the fold are both characteristic of advancing grades of ptosis.^ Nanometers are used to measure wavelengths of light and distances between atoms in molecules.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A biopsy taken from the lesion showed the characteristic histologic features of both pemphigus and Paget's disease of the nipple.

.The end of the breast, which includes the nipple, may either be flat (a 180° angle) or angled (angles lower than 180°).^ Also, I have soft nipples, "flat breast" where my nipple barely pops out until I take my shirt off in the cold.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a nipple that was an "outie" suddenly inverts, this along other symptoms such as itching and pain may be a sign of inflammatory breast cancer.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I prefer small to flat A-cup breasts with large nipples AND I prefer large (D and up) NATURAL pendulous breasts with large nipples and large dark areola's and Montgomery glands and can see blue veins.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

Breast ends are rarely angled sharper than 60°. .Angling of the end of the breast is caused in part by the ligaments that suspend it, such that the breast ends often have a more obtuse angle when a woman is lying on her back.^ Now back to more normal breasts: .
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certain medications Estrogen Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride Ormazine Chlorprothixine Taractan more causes...» See full list of 50 medications causing Breast pain .
  • Breast pain - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

^ I hope that more women can be happy or at least content with their bodies the way they are and stop having breast implants and such.
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

Breasts exist in a range of ratios between length and base diameter, usually ranging from ½ to 1.

Development

Male with severe gynecomastia
.Girls develop breasts during puberty, as a result of changing sex hormones, chiefly estrogen, which also has been demonstrated to cause the development of woman-like, enlarged breasts in men, a condition called gynecomastia.^ The myths men have regarding breasts play a negative role and make woman do un natural and sometime unhealthy things with their breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When I was 13, I lost a lot of weight (like 50 pounds) and it has caused my breasts to sag really badly.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But seriously girls, your boyfriends just love your breasts, it doesn't matter what they are like!
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.In most cases, the breasts fold down over the chest wall during Tanner stage development.^ Well those stages of development just describe the outer appearance in general, of most girls.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See, breasts, nipple, and areola grow and develop a lot during pregnancy.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] .It is typical for a woman's breasts to be unequal in size particularly while the breasts are developing.^ Risk factors Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors, which increase the chance of a woman developing breast cancer (see Table 1, below).

^ Body image & breasts Normal Breasts Gallery 1 2 3 4 5 Normal Breasts Gallery A B C D E Normal Nipples pictures Breast development & teenagers worries Teenage girls, breast size & body image Who needs breast implants?
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: I am a 54 woman who has noticed a sizeable shrinkage in my left breast.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

.Statistically it is slightly more common for the left breast to be the larger.^ Women with larger boobs (mammary glands) seem to suffer breast rash conditions more severely.
  • Breast Rashes - Treatment and Cures for Breast Rash 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.hoskingspharmacy.com [Source type: General]

^ Breast cancer is three times more common than all gynecologic malignancies put together.

^ Most women have one breast slightly larger than the other.
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] .In rare cases, the breasts may be significantly different in size, or one breast may fail to develop entirely.^ There are different shapes of breast implants (round vs. There are different surfaces on breast implants (smooth vs. There are different profiles of breast implants (moderate, moderate plus, and high profile).  There are also different volume sizes in the breast implants.
  • Most Beautiful Breast Implants and Breast Augmentation Before and After Photos (Pictures) 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC surgbreastaugmentation.com [Source type: General]

^ If the discharge is only on one side, it may be due to something going on in the breast itself.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most important distinctions to understand is the difference between invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ.
  • Breast Cancer - Carcinoma, Inflammatory Breast Cancer - Life Extension Health Concern 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.A large number of medical conditions are known to cause abnormal development of the breasts during puberty.^ The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Breast lump.

^ Medical Conditions associated with Breast lump: Breast symptoms (214 causes), Lump (313 causes) .

^ A study that follows a group of people over time who have, or are at risk of developing, a specific medical condition or disease.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Virginal breast hypertrophy is a condition which involves excessive growth of the breasts, and in some cases the continued growth beyond the usual pubescent age. Breast hypoplasia is a condition where one or both breasts fail to develop.

Changes

Breast with visible stretchmarks.
.As breasts are mostly composed of adipose tissue, their size can change over time.^ At times, a growth in the breast can cause the tissues to pull in or up and make it look as if the breast is smaller or more dense.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You can clearly see the contour of the breast tissue, and the "gap" between the two breasts on the chest wall is of normal size.
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a long time my mind was set on large breasts but as my love and care for my girlfriend grew, size never seemed to bother me anymore.
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.This occurs for a number of reasons, most obviously when a girl grows during puberty and when a woman becomes pregnant.^ This puffy or flat appearance may stay as it is until a woman becomes pregnant.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.The breast size may also change if she gains (or loses) weight for any other reason.^ Other women who used to have large, full breasts may be dismayed to find them sagging after childbirth.

^ It is also a procedure that can restore breast volume lost after weight reduction or pregnancy.  In addition, breast implants can also be used for reconstructive purposes to restore a breast that is lost due to breast cancer, injury to the breast, congenital breast deformities, and other reasons.  .
  • Most Beautiful Breast Implants and Breast Augmentation Before and After Photos (Pictures) 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC surgbreastaugmentation.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: What are the reasons for breast tenderness and pain other than PMS and pregnancy?
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

Any rapid increase in size of the breasts can result in the appearance of stretchmarks.
.It is typical for a number of other changes to occur during pregnancy: in addition to becoming larger, the breasts generally become firmer, mainly due to hypertrophy of the mammary gland in response to the hormone prolactin.^ For most women with flat nipples, the nipples evert (poke out) during pregnancy as the elasticity of the skin changes.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They often become more prominent during pregnancy.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During pregnancy, the fat gives way for milk gland development.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.The size of the nipples may increase noticeably and their pigmentation may become darker.^ I also have been noticing a size increase with them also.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I was pregnant by nipples were nice and pink and a good firm size, but now their darker and bigger and saggier.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I noticed my nipples becoming very sore so purchased larger bras.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

These changes may continue during breastfeeding. .The breasts generally revert to approximately their previous size after pregnancy, although there may be some increased sagging and stretchmarks.^ There are different shapes of breast implants (round vs. There are different surfaces on breast implants (smooth vs. There are different profiles of breast implants (moderate, moderate plus, and high profile).  There are also different volume sizes in the breast implants.
  • Most Beautiful Breast Implants and Breast Augmentation Before and After Photos (Pictures) 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC surgbreastaugmentation.com [Source type: General]

^ The latter are especially important in some extraordinary cases in which there may be an associated intraepithelial melanocytic hyperplasia.

^ Q: Last night an area on my breast approximately 2 inches in size became red and itchy.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

The size of a woman's breasts may fluctuate during the menstrual cycle, particularly with premenstrual water retention. .An increase in breast size is a common side effect of use of the combined oral contraceptive pill.^ Reproductive history Early age at menarche ( <12 y) Late age of menopause Late age of first term pregnancy (> 30 y)/nulliparity Use of combined estrogen/progesterone HRT Current or recent use of oral contraceptives .

^ I don't know where to get the hormones that transsexuals use; however please see Our questions page for more info on the side effects of that.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alesse is a combination contraceptive pill containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel.
  • Nipple Problems | LIVESTRONG.COM 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Breasts sag if the ligaments become elongated, a natural process that can occur over time and is also influenced by the breast bouncing while exercising (see Sports bra).^ I prefer small to flat A-cup breasts with large nipples AND I prefer large (D and up) NATURAL pendulous breasts with large nipples and large dark areola's and Montgomery glands and can see blue veins.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since seeing this website she has become more comfortable with her own body including her breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.Breasts can decrease in size at menopause if estrogen levels decline.^ Early menarche, nulliparity, and late menopause increase lifetime exposure to estrogen in premenopausal women, while obesity and hormone replacement therapy increase estrogen levels in postmenopausal women.

^ Conversely, late menarche, anovulation, and early menopause (spontaneous or induced) are protective, owing to their effect on lowering endogenous estrogen levels or shortening the duration of estrogenic exposure.

^ Schairer C, Lubin J, Troisi R, Sturgeon S, Brinton L, Hoover R. Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk.

Function

Breastfeeding

An infant breastfeeding
The primary function of mammary glands is to nurture young by producing breast milk. The production of milk is called lactation. .(While the mammary glands that produce milk are present in the male, they normally remain undeveloped.^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With weaning, the milk glands atrophy as they're no longer needed.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am 37 yrs old and am barely finding out that the ugly bumps on my breasts are Montgomery Glands and that they are normal.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

) .The orb-like shape of breasts may help limit heat loss, as a fairly high temperature is required for the production of milk.^ There are different shapes of breast implants (round vs. There are different surfaces on breast implants (smooth vs. There are different profiles of breast implants (moderate, moderate plus, and high profile).  There are also different volume sizes in the breast implants.
  • Most Beautiful Breast Implants and Breast Augmentation Before and After Photos (Pictures) 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC surgbreastaugmentation.com [Source type: General]

^ Please help A: A 'lump' associated with sores may indicate a skin infection of the breast.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I have never been pregnant but my breasts look more like the photos of someone who has breastfed, as I have large areolas and have fairly prominent montgomery glands.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.Alternatively, one theory states that the shape of the human breast evolved in order to prevent infants from suffocating while feeding.^ One of the sisters agreed with my theory that I have always had sensitive nipples, so the stimulus of feeding caused initial soreness.
  • Breastfeeding: Nipple Soreness FAQ 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.madrone.com [Source type: General]

^ My one nipple is shaped like a kidney bean and I do not think that there is an opening for breast milk to come out of.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inverted nipples may make breast feeding an infant difficult, but a special exercise can be used to prepare the nipple for feeding an infant.
  • Nipple symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Since human infants have a small jaw (not protruding, like other primates), the infant's nose might be blocked if the mother's chest was too flat.^ Like any other part of the skin surface of humans, any part can be made to respond to a sensual touch by such attention, and is a part of the gift of sensuality that humans are capable of, male or female.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Being small-breasted Being large-breasted Being flat-chested Normal breast development and teen girls' worries What causes sagging of breast?
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some women have practically a flat chest , some have small breasts , some have much bust that the mere weight of them can cause them backaches.
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] .According to this theory, as the human jaw receded, the breasts became larger to compensate.^ According to the in situ transformation theory, the Paget's cells arise as malignant cells in the nipple epidermis independent from any other pathologic process within the breast parenchyma.

[8]
Milk production unrelated to pregnancy can also occur. .This condition, called galactorrhea, may be an adverse effect of some medicinal drugs (such as some antipsychotic medications), extreme physical stress or endocrine disorders.^ Neurofeedback may help cancer patients deal with the stress and mental side effects of chemotherapy.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In medicine, a substance used as a drug to treat certain heart conditions and to widen the openings in blood vessels.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Not enough niacin can cause a disease called pellagra (a condition marked by skin, nerve, and digestive disorders).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.If it occurs in men it is called male lactation, and is often classified as a pathological symptom due to its strong correlation to pituitary disorders.^ If a woman has excessive hair growing in typical male hair pattern, the symptom is called hirsutism.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.Newborn babies are often capable of lactation because they receive the hormones prolactin and oxytocin via the mother's bloodstream, filtered through the placenta.^ Third, the nutrients travel through the bloodstream to different parts of the body where they are used as "fuel" and for many other purposes.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Milky white discharge may be due to lactation, lactation cysts, elevated prolactin hormone or drugs.
  • Nipple symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I have had so much self-consciousness and pain, because not only are they different, but not sensitive and I always wondered if they would feed my baby.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

This neonatal liquid is known colloquially as witch's milk.

Sexual role

.In some cultures, breasts play an important part in human sexual behavior; they are also important female secondary sex characteristics.^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like any other part of the skin surface of humans, any part can be made to respond to a sensual touch by such attention, and is a part of the gift of sensuality that humans are capable of, male or female.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Body parts have multiple functions, and breasts ARE sexual objects as well as baby feeders."
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Compared to other primates, human breasts are proportionately large throughout adult females' lives and may have evolved as a visual signal of sexual maturity and fertility.^ To date sight has yet to be developed in females of which we are aware, but could simulate the visual sensuality that men respond to equally in the realm of sexual excitement.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like any other part of the skin surface of humans, any part can be made to respond to a sensual touch by such attention, and is a part of the gift of sensuality that humans are capable of, male or female.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tumours in other parts of the body can sometimes produce hormones that make the breasts grow and may also cause erection problems and/or oozing of milk from the breast.

[10] .On sexual arousal breast size increases, venous patterns across the breasts become more visible, and nipples harden.^ Female breast as a taboo 007b.com HOME Breast taboo explained Reasons why women wean early Breast obsession Are breasts and nipples sexual organs?
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And, not all women's nipples become erect during sexual arousal; it varies.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some women can be stimulated to sexual climax by nipple arousal alone; does this seem like a function of feeding a baby?
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.Breasts are sensitive to touch as they have many nerve endings, and it is common to press or massage breasts with hands during sexual intercourse (as it is with other bodily areas representing feminine secondary sex characteristics as well).^ Breast enlargement is considered to be a secondary sexual characteristic of females.
  • Nipple Problems | LIVESTRONG.COM 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Lazarus, on the other hand, represents the people lying at Judah's gate who were recipients of none of the blessings so lavishly bestowed upon them - the "Gentile" nations.
  • Abraham's Bosom 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.hisremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, a significant number of patients with PD and no associated breast mass will be found to have a peripherally located tumor (29% in this series).

Oral stimulation of nipples and breasts is also common. .Some women can achieve breast orgasms.^ Practically all women have some degree of nipple hair, yet this is rarely demonstrated even on the breasts on your site.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra, light scratching of the breasts with nails and biting with teeth are considered erotic.[11]
Breasts are also regarded as aesthetically pleasing as well as erotic. .Research conducted at the Victoria University of Wellington showed that breasts are often the first thing men look at, and for a longer time than other body parts.^ Third, the nutrients travel through the bloodstream to different parts of the body where they are used as "fuel" and for many other purposes.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The myths men have regarding breasts play a negative role and make woman do un natural and sometime unhealthy things with their breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thank you for showing me and other women how normal our "imagined" abnormal breasts, nipples, and areolas are.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

The writers of the study had initially speculated that the reason for this is due to endocrinology with larger breasts indicating higher levels of estrogen and a sign of greater fertility, but the researchers said that "Men may be looking more often at the breasts because they are simply aesthetically pleasing, regardless of the size." [12]

Other suggested functions

.Zoologists point out that no female mammal other than the human has breasts of comparable size, relative to the rest of the body, when not lactating and that humans are the only primate that has permanently protuberant breasts.^ I would point out that the vast majority of the people in the United States today has as much or more than the rich man possessed.
  • Abraham's Bosom 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.hisremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It includes the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), the peripheral nervous system (nerves that extend from the spinal cord to the rest of the body), and other nerve tissue.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Like any other part of the skin surface of humans, any part can be made to respond to a sensual touch by such attention, and is a part of the gift of sensuality that humans are capable of, male or female.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.This suggests that the external form of the breasts is connected to factors other than lactation alone.^ Q: What are the reasons for breast tenderness and pain other than PMS and pregnancy?
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Our Breast rash cream is totally water free, unlike any other antifungal products often suggested for treatment.
  • Breast Rashes - Treatment and Cures for Breast Rash 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.hoskingspharmacy.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of these factors form the basis for breast cancer risk assessment tools.

[citation needed]
.Some zoologists (notably Desmond Morris) believe that the shape of female breasts evolved as a frontal counterpart to that of the buttocks, the reason being that while other primates mate in the rear-entry position, humans, because of their upright posture, are more likely to successfully copulate by mating face to face, the so-called missionary position.^ An extract from the fruit is being studied as a treatment for cancer, and extracts from the fruit, leaves, or roots have been used in some cultures to treat other diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer that develops in BRCA1 mutation carriers are more likely to be high-grade, and ER, PR, and HER-2/neu negative (triple negative) or basal-like subtype.

^ Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually.

.Morris suggested in 1967 that a secondary sexual characteristic on a woman's chest would have encouraged this in more primitive incarnations of the human race, and a face on encounter may have helped found a relationship between partners beyond merely a sexual one.^ I would go so far as to say that a woman has more right to bare her chest than a man does.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, these breasts do fit the characteristics otherwise (tubular shape, small, and a large gap between them at the chest wall).
  • Normal Breasts Gallery, part 1 - pictures of different size and shape breasts. Women who have not been pregnant. 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Rosy" would be more likely a woman who has not had any children.
  • Nipple beauty standards - Feministing 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .However, this theory has since been generally disregarded due to the discovery that other primates, such as orangutans, routinely mate in the face-to-face position even though the females do not have prominent breasts.^ Like any other part of the skin surface of humans, any part can be made to respond to a sensual touch by such attention, and is a part of the gift of sensuality that humans are capable of, male or female.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other rare genetic disorders, such as Peutz-Jeghers and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC), are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

^ I love my friends but even to this day I won't go topless in front of my roommate because of the insecurities I've felt in front of other females.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

The female gelada monkey in estrus presents swollen breasts to signal her reproductive status to the males. .Based on that, evolutionary psychologists suggest that human female breasts may have evolved to permanently indicate to human males that the female is apt for reproduction.^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like any other part of the skin surface of humans, any part can be made to respond to a sensual touch by such attention, and is a part of the gift of sensuality that humans are capable of, male or female.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

History

A "Snake Goddess" statuette of ancient Minoan Civilization, c. 1600 BC.
In European pre-historic societies, sculptures of female figures with pronounced or highly exaggerated breasts were common. A typical example is the so-called Venus of Willendorf, one of many Paleolithic Venus figurines with ample hips and bosom. .Artifacts such as bowls, rock carvings and sacred statues with breasts have been recorded from 15,000 BC up to late antiquity all across Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.^ BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for 3-8% of all cases of breast cancer and 15-20% of familial cases.

.Many female deities representing love and fertility were associated with breasts and breast milk.^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Female breasts come in so many shapes that even this mound on mound shape isn't that unusual.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

Figures of the Phoenician goddess Astarte were represented as pillars studded with breasts. .Isis, an Egyptian goddess who represented, among many other things, ideal motherhood, was often portrayed as suckling pharaohs, thereby confirming their divine status as rulers.^ Lazarus, on the other hand, represents the people lying at Judah's gate who were recipients of none of the blessings so lavishly bestowed upon them - the "Gentile" nations.
  • Abraham's Bosom 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.hisremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These simple statements portray as nothing else can the great truth that all men who have ever lived ARE INCLUDED IN THESE TWO MEN. These two men are corporate men , many-membered men.
  • Abraham's Bosom 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.hisremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even certain male deities representing regeneration and fertility were occasionally depicted with breast-like appendices, such as the river god Hapy who was considered to be responsible for the annual overflowing of the Nile.^ Like any other part of the skin surface of humans, any part can be made to respond to a sensual touch by such attention, and is a part of the gift of sensuality that humans are capable of, male or female.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It echoes the language of him who thanked "the God within" that he was not as other men, "not even as this publican."
  • Abraham's Bosom 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.hisremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have never been pregnant but my breasts look more like the photos of someone who has breastfed, as I have large areolas and have fairly prominent montgomery glands.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

Female breasts were also prominent in the Minoan civilization in the form of the famous Snake Goddess statuettes. In Ancient Greece there were several cults worshipping the "Kourotrophos", the suckling mother, represented by goddesses such as Gaia, Hera and Artemis. .The worship of deities symbolized by the female breast in Greece became less common during the first millennium.^ My breasts grew a LOT during pregnancy, ending up a G cup, and even an H for the first few weeks.
  • Breastfeeding: Nipple Soreness FAQ 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.madrone.com [Source type: General]

^ However, during the first 3 months on the pill, I experienced little or no breast pain.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rare type of breast cancer without a lump : There is a less common form of breast cancer called inflammatory breast cancer .
  • Nipple symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

The popular adoration of female goddesses decreased significantly during the rise of the Greek city states, a legacy which was passed on to the later Roman empire.[14]
.During the middle of the first millennium BC, Greek culture experienced a gradual change in the perception of female breasts.^ My breasts grew a LOT during pregnancy, ending up a G cup, and even an H for the first few weeks.
  • Breastfeeding: Nipple Soreness FAQ 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.madrone.com [Source type: General]

^ However, during the first 3 months on the pill, I experienced little or no breast pain.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Paget's disease of the breast generally affects middle-aged and older females.

Women in art were covered in clothing from the neck down, including female goddesses like Athena, the patron of Athens who represented heroic endeavor. There were exceptions: Aphrodite, the goddess of love, was more frequently portrayed fully nude, though in postures that were intended to portray shyness or modesty, a portrayal that has been compared to modern pin ups by historian Marilyn Yalom.[15] .Although nude men were depicted standing upright, most depictions of female nudity in Greek art occurred "usually with drapery near at hand and with a forward-bending, self-protecting posture".[16] A popular legend at the time was of the Amazons, a tribe of fierce female warriors who socialized with men only for procreation and even removed one breast to become better warriors.^ I see I'm not the only one who worries!
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have one, on my right breast, and most of my warts were on my right hand, so I had thought it was a wart.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

The legend was a popular motif in art during Greek and Roman antiquity and served as an antithetical cautionary tale.

Cultural status

In religion

Some religions afford the breast a special status, either in formal teachings or in symbolism. Islam forbids public exposure of the female breasts.[17] In Christian iconography, some works of art depict women with their breasts in their hands or on a platter, signifying that they died as a martyr by having their breasts severed; one example of this is Saint Agatha of Sicily. In Silappatikaram, Kannagi tears off her left breast and flings it on Madurai, cursing it, causing a devastating fire.

In practice

A Himba woman wearing traditional clothing in northern Namibia. A small number of societies have no cultural proscriptions on women going bare-breasted.
.Breasts are secondary sex characteristics and sexually sensitive.^ Breast enlargement is considered to be a secondary sexual characteristic of females.
  • Nipple Problems | LIVESTRONG.COM 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Bare female breasts can elicit heightened sexual desires from men in certain cultures. .Cultures that associate the breast primarily with sex (as opposed to with breastfeeding) tend to designate bare breasts as indecent, and they are not commonly displayed in public, in contrast to male chests.^ So: nipple hair is normal, nipple hair is OK, and anyone (male or female) who suggests otherwise is simply revealing that they haven't seen many natural breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am 37 yrs old and am barely finding out that the ugly bumps on my breasts are Montgomery Glands and that they are normal.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In contrast to BRCA probability tools, risk prediction models are designed to derive individual risk estimates for the development of breast cancer over time.

.Other cultures view female toplessness as acceptable, and in some countries women have never been forbidden to bare their chests; in some African cultures, for example, the thigh is highly sexualised and never exposed in public, but the breast is not taboo.^ Practically all women have some degree of nipple hair, yet this is rarely demonstrated even on the breasts on your site.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Female breast as a taboo 007b.com HOME Breast taboo explained Reasons why women wean early Breast obsession Are breasts and nipples sexual organs?
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I love my friends but even to this day I won't go topless in front of my roommate because of the insecurities I've felt in front of other females.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.Opinion on the exposure of breasts often depends on the place and context, and in some Western societies exposure of breasts on a beach may be acceptable, although in town centres, for example, it is usually considered indecent.^ It may block the effects of the hormone estrogen, which causes some breast cancer cells to grow, or block the blood flow to tumors.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In some areas the prohibition against the display of a woman's breasts only restricts exposure of the nipples.^ Seeing this gallery and reading about how different nipples and breasts can be from woman to woman has reassured me that I'm not weird, and that there is nothing to be ashamed of!
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Im so concious of my breasts, not only is the left bigger than the right, but my nipples arn't centralised.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nipple of a woman who has stretch marks on her breasts .
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.Women in some areas and cultures are approaching the issue of breast exposure as one of sexual equality, since men (and pre-pubescent children) may bare their chests, but women and teenage girls are forbidden.^ To date sight has yet to be developed in females of which we are aware, but could simulate the visual sensuality that men respond to equally in the realm of sexual excitement.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am training to become a midwife and have encountered many women who, like men wihin our culture, have been conditioned to think that their breasts are purely for sex and for their men; I will be directing them right towards your site from now on!
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Practically all women have some degree of nipple hair, yet this is rarely demonstrated even on the breasts on your site.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

In the United States, the topfree equality movement seeks to redress this imbalance. .This movement won a decision in 1992 in the New York State Court of Appeals—People v Santorelli, where the court ruled that the state's indecent exposure laws do not ban women from being barebreasted.^ In the United States, an estimated 192,370 new cases of invasive breast cancer will occur in women in 2009, along with 1,910 cases in men.

^ Washington state has a law that allows women to go shirtless (nude from waist up) anywhere men are allowed to do so.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

A similar movement succeeded in most parts of Canada in the 1990s. .In Australia and much of Europe it is acceptable for women and teenage girls to sunbathe topless on some public beaches and swimming pools, but these are generally the only public areas where exposing breasts is acceptable.^ Some women do not have much of an areola...
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some girls are delayed in breast development.
  • Breast Care FAQ - Breast Symptoms 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.obgyn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This objectificaion of breasts by women does as much damage as the trained responses my father and other men in society taught me.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

When breastfeeding a baby in public, legal and social rules regarding indecent exposure and dress codes, as well as inhibitions of the woman, tend to be relaxed. .Numerous laws around the world have made public breastfeeding legal and disallow companies from prohibiting it in the workplace.^ "For the promise that Abraham should be heir of the world, was NOT made to Abraham, NOR to those who are his seed through the law, but rather, to those who are His seed through the righteousness of faith !"
  • Abraham's Bosom 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.hisremnant.org [Source type: Original source]

.Yet the public reaction at the sight of breastfeeding can make the situation uncomfortable for those involved.^ Dermatitis is not a breastfeeding problem, per se, but nipple dermatitis can make breastfeeding very uncomfortable for the mother.
  • Breastfeeding: Nipple Soreness FAQ 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.madrone.com [Source type: General]

Clothing

Since the breasts are flexible, their shape may be affected by clothing, and foundation garments in particular. A brassiere (bra) may be worn to give additional support and to alter the shape of the breasts. There is some debate over whether such support is desirable. .A long term clinical study showed that women with large breasts can suffer Myalgia, or shoulder pain as a result of bra straps,[18] although a well fitting bra should support most of the breasts' weight with proper sized cups and back band rather than on the shoulders.^ After showing her the site she now knows women are all differant shapes and sizes gary .
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A phase II study of paclitaxel plus carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy for women with metastatic breast carcinoma.

^ I prefer small to flat A-cup breasts with large nipples AND I prefer large (D and up) NATURAL pendulous breasts with large nipples and large dark areola's and Montgomery glands and can see blue veins.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

Plastic surgery

Breast implant patient, pre-operative (left) and post-operative (right)
Bilateral breast reduction
.Plastic surgical procedures of the breast include those for both cosmetic and reconstructive surgery indications.^ Both breast self-examination and clinical breast examination involve inexpensive and noninvasive procedures for the regular examination of breasts (ie, monthly for breast self-examination and annually for clinical breast examination).

.Some women choose these procedures as a result of the high value placed on symmetry of the human form, and because they identify their femininity and sense of self with their breasts.^ Both breast self-examination and clinical breast examination involve inexpensive and noninvasive procedures for the regular examination of breasts (ie, monthly for breast self-examination and annually for clinical breast examination).

^ The ACOG notes, however, that because of the USPSTF downgrading, some insurers may no longer cover some of these studies.

^ For women younger than 40 years, monthly breast self-examination practices and clinical breast exams every 3 years are recommended, beginning at age 20 years.

.After mastectomy (the surgical removal of a breast, usually to treat breast cancer) some women undergo breast reconstruction, either with breast implants or autologous tissue transfer, using fat and tissues from the abdomen (TRAM flap) or back (latissiumus muscle flap).^ This term is usually used to describe the ability of viruses to infect nerve tissue.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Practically all women have some degree of nipple hair, yet this is rarely demonstrated even on the breasts on your site.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A treatment being studied to improve brain function in certain brain disorders and in patients treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Breast reduction surgery is a common procedure which involves removing excess breast tissue, fat, and skin with repositioning of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC).^ Both breast self-examination and clinical breast examination involve inexpensive and noninvasive procedures for the regular examination of breasts (ie, monthly for breast self-examination and annually for clinical breast examination).

^ A type of surgery that attempts to save the nerves near the tissues being removed.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A procedure used to mark a small area of abnormal tissue so it can be removed by surgery.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Cosmetic procedures include breast lifts (mastopexy), breast augmentation with implants, and procedures that combine both elements. Implants containing either silicone gel or saline are available for augmentation and reconstructive surgeries. Surgery can repair inverted nipples by releasing ductal tissues which are tethering. .Breast lift with or without reduction can be part of upper body lift after massive weight loss body contouring.^ Warren Lent a Diplomate of both the American Board of Plastic Surgery and the American Board of Surgery specializes in nasal reshaping, treatment of facial aging, and breast and body contouring.

^ Freeman also specializes in full body rejuvenation procedures following the impact of pregnancy ("Mommy Makeovers") or significant weight loss.

^ Steinwald's area of specialization is in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction utilizing the patient's own tissues, as well as breast implants, breast reduction, and breast lifts.

.Any surgery of the breast carries with it the potential for interfering with future breastfeeding,[19][20][21] causing alterations in nipple sensation, and difficulty in interpreting mammography (xrays of the breast).^ However you would probably lose all sensation in the nipple, and you will not be able to breastfeed after such a surgery.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A 21-year old; had breast reduction 7 months ago so nipple shows scars.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

.A number of studies have demonstrated a similar ability to breastfeed when breast reduction patients are compared to control groups where the surgery was performed using a modern pedicle surgical technique.^ On the other hand, a significant number of patients with PD and no associated breast mass will be found to have a peripherally located tumor (29% in this series).

^ Phase II study of sunitinib malate, an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane.

^ North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0432: phase II trial of docetaxel with capecitabine and bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer.

[22][23][24][25] .Plastic surgery organizations have generally discouraged elective cosmetic breast augmentation surgery for teenage girls as the volume of their breast tissue may continue to grow significantly as they mature and because of concerns about understanding long-term risks and benefits of the procedure.^ Information provided is for general education about breast augmentation, saline and silicone breast implants, and other cosmetic surgery procedures.

^ The surgeons and staff at The Plastic Surgery Center of the South work hard to deliver high-quality care for each patient and offer the latest innovations in the field of cosmetic plastic surgery.

^ To help you make the right decision for you, Smart Breast Augmentation.com provides information on: • Average Costs • Saline and Silicone Breast Implants • Preparation • Procedures • Recovery after Breast Surgery • Risk and Complications • Tools to do a Credential Check • Before and After Pictures • Cosmetic Surgery Financing • Referrals for Board Certified Plastic Surgeons Our goal at Smart Breast Augmentation.com is to provide you with the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding breast augmentation and breast implants.

Breast surgery in teens for reduction of significantly enlarged breasts or surgery to correct hypoplasia and severe asymmetry is considered on a case by case basis by most surgeons.

Health

Breast health factors

.Factors that appear to be implicated in decreasing the risk of, or early diagnosis of breast cancer are regular breast examinations by health care professionals, regular mammograms, self examination of breasts, healthy diet, and exercise to decrease excess body fat.^ BRCA2 is also a risk factor for male breast cancer .

^ Both breast self-examination and clinical breast examination involve inexpensive and noninvasive procedures for the regular examination of breasts (ie, monthly for breast self-examination and annually for clinical breast examination).

^ Bedard PL, Cardoso F. Recent advances in adjuvant systemic therapy for early-stage breast cancer.

.Healthy diet appears to reduce the risk of breast cancer, and includes limiting dietary fat, eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of nutrients, and dietary fibre such as are found in fruits and vegetables, and restricting intake of alcohol to a maximum of two drinks per day or less.^ Culver J, Lowstuter K, Bowling L. Assessing breast cancer risk and BRCA1/2 carrier probability.

^ Risk factors Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors, which increase the chance of a woman developing breast cancer (see Table 1, below).

^ The model was subsequently revised (Gail Model 2) and validated to predict risk of invasive breast cancer including information on the history of first-degree affected family members.

[26]

Breast disease

Numerous abnormal breast conditions or diseases are documented. A majority are not cancerous.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ mammal - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  2. ^ Introduction to the Human Body, fifth ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 2001. 560.
  3. ^ a b Ramsay DT, Kent JC, Hartmann RA, Hartmann PE (June 2005). "Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging". J. Anat. 206 (6): 525–34. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2005.00417.x. PMID 15960763. 
  4. ^ "www.mckinley.uiuc.edu/Handouts/female_function_dysfunction.html". http://www.mckinley.uiuc.edu/Handouts/female_function_dysfunction.html. 
  5. ^ Boutros S, Kattash M, Wienfeld A, Yuksel E, Baer S, Shenaq S (September 1998). "The intradermal anatomy of the inframammary fold". Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 102 (4): 1030–3. doi:10.1097/00006534-199809040-00017. PMID 9734420. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0032-1052&volume=102&issue=4&spage=1030. 
  6. ^ Greenbaum AR, Heslop T, Morris J, Dunn KW (April 2003). "An investigation of the suitability of bra fit in women referred for reduction mammaplasty". Br J Plast Surg 56 (3): 230–6. doi:10.1016/S0007-1226(03)00122-X. PMID 12859918. 
  7. ^ C.W. Loughry, et al. (1989). "Breast volume measurement of 598 women using biostereometric analysis". Annals of Plastic Surgery 22 (5): 380 – 385. doi:10.1097/00000637-198905000-00002. PMID 2729845. 
  8. ^ a b c Bentley, Gillian R. (2001). "The Evolution of the Human Breast". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 32 (38): 30. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1033. 
  9. ^ secondary sex characteristics
  10. ^ Anders Pape Møller, et al. (1995). "Breast asymmetry, sexual selection, and human reproductive success". Ethology and Sociobiology 16 (3): 207–219. doi:10.1016/0162-3095(95)00002-3. 
  11. ^ Sir Richard Burton's English translation of Kama Sutra
  12. ^ Scientific proof that men look at women's breasts first and their face is almost last The Daily Telegraph
  13. ^ Morris (1967), pp. 64-68.
  14. ^ Yalom (1998) pp. 9-16; see Eva Keuls (1993), Reign of the Phallus: Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens for a detailed study of male-dominant rule in ancient Greece.
  15. ^ Yalom (1998), p. 18.
  16. ^ Hollander (1993), p. 6.
  17. ^ “They shall cover their chests” or “they should draw their khimar (veils) over their bosoms”, depending on the translation, Quran (24:31). Available online
  18. ^ Ryan EL (December 2000). "Pectoral girdle myalgia in women: a 5-year study in a clinical setting". Clin J Pain 16 (4): 298–303. doi:10.1097/00002508-200012000-00004. PMID 11153784. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0749-8047&volume=16&issue=4&spage=298. 
  19. ^ Neifert, M; DeMarzo S, Seacat J, Young D, Leff M, Orleans M (1990). "The influence of breast surgery, breast appearance and pregnancy-induced changes on lactation sufficiency as measured by infant weight gain". Birth 17 (1): 31–38. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.1990.tb00007.x. PMID 2288566. 
  20. ^ "FAQ on Previous Breast Surgery and Breastfeeding". La Leche League International. 2006-08-29. http://www.lalecheleague.org/FAQ/surgery.html. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  21. ^ West, Diana. "Breastfeeding After Breast Surgery". Australian Breastfeeding Association. http://www.breastfeeding.asn.au/bfinfo/surgery.html. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  22. ^ Cruz-Korchin N, Korchin L (September 2004). "Breast-feeding after vertical mammaplasty with medial pedicle". Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 114 (4): 890–4. doi:10.1097/01.PRS.0000133174.64330.CC. PMID 15468394. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0032-1052&volume=114&issue=4&spage=890. 
  23. ^ Brzozowski D, Niessen M, Evans HB, Hurst LN (February 2000). "Breast-feeding after inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty". Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 105 (2): 530–4. doi:10.1097/00006534-200002000-00008. PMID 10697157. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0032-1052&volume=105&issue=2&spage=530. 
  24. ^ Witte, PM; van der Lei B, van der Biezen JJ, Spronk CA (2004-06-26). "Successful breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 148 (26): 1291–93. PMID 15279213. 
  25. ^ Kakagia, D; Tripsiannis G, Tsoutsos D (2005-10). "Breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty: a comparison of 3 techniques". Ann Plast Surg 55 (4): 343–45. doi:10.1097/01.sap.0000179167.18733.97. PMID 16186694. 
  26. ^ Mctiernan, Anne, M.D., Ph.D., Gralow, Julie.M.D., Talbot, Lisa, MPH. Breast Fitness: An OptimalExercise and Health Plan for Reducing Your Risk of Breast Cancer. St Martin's Griffin, October, 2001. pg 135-137.

References

  • Hollander, Anne Seeing through Clothes. University of California Press, Berkeley. 1993 ISBN 0-52008-231-1
  • Morris, Desmond The Naked Ape: a zoologist's study of the human animal Bantam Books, Canada. 1967
  • Yalom, Marilyn A History of the Breast. Pandora, London. 1998 ISBN 0-86358-400-4

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BREAST (a word common to Teutonic languages, cf. the Ger. Brust, possibly connected with an O. Sax. .brustian, to bud), the term properly confined to the external projecting parts of the thorax in females, which contain the mammary glands (for anatomy, and diseases, see Mammary Gland); more generally it is used of the external part of the thorax in animals, including man, lying between the neck and the abdomen.^ I don't know where to get the hormones that transsexuals use; however please see Our questions page for more info on the side effects of that.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Breasts are a part of the female anatomy as are knees, ankles, and hips.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since seeing this website she has become more comfortable with her own body including her breasts.
  • Pictures of normal nipples. The bumps on areola are Montgomery glands. Hair on nipples is normal, too. Links to resources about flat or inverted nipples. 22 January 2010 23:42 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]



Simple English

File:Closeup of female
Close-up of the breast of a woman. The part sticking out is the nipple, which is erect. The darker ring around the nipple is called areola


The breast is an organ on the lower chest region of humans and other primates. Humans have two breasts. Both boys and girls have breasts at birth, but during puberty, the breasts on women become larger and visible. The breasts have mammary glands that produce milk. Breastfeeding is letting an infant drink breast milk.

Men also have breasts. They are built the same way as those of women but are much smaller and underdeveloped. Men cannot use their breast for breastfeeding. Their breasts will usually not produce milk, but might become larger and produce milk during some diseases or with some hormonal medical treatments.[1]

Contents

Growth and form

Girls develop breasts during puberty due to sex hormones, mainly estrogen.

The appearance and size of the breasts of a woman may vary due to genetic factors, and the amount of fatty and connective tissue.[2] Hormones also play a role.[3]

Estrogen promotes the growth of mammary glands and ducts, while progesterone induces milk-producing cells to develop. Prolactin and oxytocin stimulate milk production. Oxytocin also causes milk to be spurted from a lactating breast.[4]

The two breasts usually are not equal in size — one may be larger than the other, but this is common.[5]

During menopause, as levels of estrogen decrease, tissue in the breasts reduce as well, and the breasts may start sagging.[3] A study showed that breastfeeding does not cause sagging. Factors that do influence sagging are the size of the breast (before the first pregnancy), number of pregnancies, body mass index, smoking, and age.[6]

Structure

File:Cassatt Mary Maternite
A woman breast-feeding her child; image painted by Mary Cassatt, 1890

The center of the breast is the nipple. The areola is a circular area around the nipple. The breast contains mammary glands. Ducts carry the milk produced by these glands to the nipples. After a woman has a baby, her breasts undergo lactation — the production of natural milk.

Feeding babies milk is called breastfeeding or nursing.[7]

Purposes

The breasts of a woman also play a role in human sexual behaviour. They are one of the most visible or obvious female secondary sex characteristics.[8] They play an important role in sexual attraction of partners. They can also give pleasure to the individual. When sexually stimulated, the size of the breasts increases, venous patterns across the breasts become more visible, and nipples grow harder. During sexual intercourse, it is common practice to press or massage breasts with hands. Breasts are sensitive to touch as they have many nerve endings.[9] Oral stimulation of nipples and breasts is also common. Some women can achieve breast orgasms. In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra, marking breasts with nails and biting with teeth are explained as erotic.[10]

References

Other pages

bjn:Susu

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Nipple, which are similar to those in the above article.








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