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Breast cancer
Classification and external resources

Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast cancer (right).
ICD-10 C50.
ICD-9 174-175,V10.3
OMIM 114480
DiseasesDB 1598
MedlinePlus 000913
eMedicine med/2808 med/3287 radio/115 plastic/521
MeSH D001943
.Breast cancer refers to cancers originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.^ Most cancerous breast tumors are invasive.

^ Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue.

^ Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in women.
  • CCR Clinical Trials at NIH: Clinical Research: Clinical Trials by Cancer Site: Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC bethesdatrials.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas; those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas.^ Lobular carcinoma arises in the lobules.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lobular carcinoma in situ is not considered to be cancer.
  • Breast Cancer - Know Cancer Network: Cancer News and Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.knowcancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Invasive lobular carcinoma is a cancer that starts in the lobules and has spread.
  • Breast Cancer - Know Cancer Network: Cancer News and Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.knowcancer.net [Source type: Academic]

.There are many different types of breast cancer, with different stages (spread), aggressiveness, and genetic makeup; survival varies greatly depending on those factors.^ There are differences in the various types of invasive breast cancer, but the treatment options are similar for all of them.
  • National Breast Cancer Awareness Month: Celebrating 25 Years of Awareness, Education, and Empowerment 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nbcam.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The type of breast cancer.
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage I - Stage I is an early stage of invasive breast cancer.
  • National Breast Cancer Awareness Month: Celebrating 25 Years of Awareness, Education, and Empowerment 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nbcam.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] Computerized models are available to predict survival.[2] .With best treatment and dependent on staging, 10-year disease-free survival varies from 98% to 10%.^ The five-year survival rate for cancer diagnosed at this stage is 5 to 10%.
  • Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wellness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With best treatment, 10-year disease-free survival varies from 98% to 10%.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the cancer is limited to the breast, the five-year relative survival rate (percentage of people who survive at least five years after the cancer is detected, excluding those who die from other diseases) is 98%.
  • Breast Cancer | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

.Treatment includes surgery, drugs (hormonal therapy and chemotherapy), and radiation.^ For Breast Cancer, your treatment may include: - Radiation therapy - Surgery - Chemotherapy - Hormone therapy - Biological therapy Preventative Measures.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Your doctors will discuss chemotherapy or hormone treatment to follow your surgery.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stage IV -- Treatment may involve surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or a combination of such treatments.
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saint Thomas Health Services - Health Information - Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.dev-sths.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 10.4% of all cancer incidence among women, making it the second most common type of non-skin cancer (after lung cancer) and the fifth most common cause of cancer death.^ Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the United States.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The type of breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ View your profile Breast Cancer Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the United States.
  • Breast Cancer | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths).^ In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths).
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/breast_cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death in Hispanic women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death in women.

[4] .Breast cancer is about 100 times more common in women than in men, but survival rates are equal in both sexes.^ The survival rate for beating breast cancer is on the rise.
  • The Alternative Breast Cancer Treatment - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among American women.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.awarenessdepot.com [Source type: General]
  • Breast Cancer Awareness | Breast Cancer Awareness Pins | Pink Magnets 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.awarenessdepot.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Learn more about male breast cancer...
  • http://www.jamesline.com/cancertypes/breast/about/ 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.jamesline.com [Source type: Academic]

[5][6][7]
.Some breast cancers require the hormones estrogen and progesterone to grow, and have receptors for those hormones.^ Many breast cancers are helped to grow by the sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone .
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many breast cancers are sensitive to the hormone estrogen.
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Saint Thomas Health Services - Health Information - Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.dev-sths.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taking hormones such as estrogen and progesterone .

.After surgery those cancers are treated with drugs that interfere with those hormones, usually tamoxifen, and with drugs that shut off the production of estrogen in the ovaries or elsewhere; this may damage the ovaries and end fertility.^ R educed estrogen production in overactive ovaries .

^ Also, some anticancer drugs can damage the ovaries.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research shows that tamoxifen, which blocks the ability of estrogen to attach to cells and promote their growth, reduces the risk that women who have had a "receptor positive" breast cancer—meaning their cancer cells have hormone receptors—will experience a recurrence of the original cancer or a new cancer.
  • Managing Breast Cancer - US News and World Report 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.usnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After surgery, low-risk, hormone-sensitive breast cancers may be treated with hormone therapy and radiation alone.^ Breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy with or without tamoxifen.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After surgery, you may have radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC mills-peninsula.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Treatment options for breast cancer may involve surgery (removal of the cancer alone or, in some cases, mastectomy ), radiation therapy , hormonal therapy, and/or chemotherapy .
  • Breast Cancer Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, Treatments, Stages and Diagnosis Information on MedicineNet.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Breast cancers without hormone receptors, or which have spread to the lymph nodes in the armpits, or which express certain genetic characteristics, are higher-risk, and are treated more aggressively.^ Some axillary lymph nodes (lymph nodes in the armpit) are removed as well to see if the breast cancer has spread.
  • St. Vincent's Comprehensive Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.svccc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DCIS is a risk factor for breast cancer.

^ More information: Breast cancer - Risk Factors Summary .

.One standard regimen, popular in the U.S., is cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin (Adriamycin), known as CA; these drugs damage DNA in the cancer, but also in fast-growing normal cells where they cause serious side effects.^ These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ You may have none of these side effects, or one or more.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemotherapy A series of treatments using drugs that kill cancer cells .
  • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sometimes a taxane drug, such as docetaxel, is added, and the regime is then known as CAT; taxane attacks the microtubules in cancer cells.^ When cancer attacks the breast area, it is known as breast cancer.
  • Reproductive Health: Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.epigee.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This stage is sometimes referred to as a „non-evasive circoma‟ • In this stage there are abnormal cells present that might suggest that one is at higher risk for cancer.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New study raises the exciting possibility that bone-building drugs such as Fosamax and Actonel may help prevent breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer Treatment & Prevention Information - Third Age | ThirdAge 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: General]

.An equivalent treatment, popular in Europe, is cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF).^ Commonly used drugs include cyclophosphamide Some Trade Names LYOPHILIZED CYTOXAN , doxorubicin Some Trade Names DOXIL , epirubicin Some Trade Names ELLENCE , fluorouracil Some Trade Names CARAC , methotrexate Some Trade Names TREXALL , and paclitaxel Some Trade Names ABRAXANETAXOL (see Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Chemotherapy Drugs ).
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in premenopausal women with axillary node-positive operable breast cancer: results of a randomized trial.

^ FAC regimen, day 1, 21) versus methotrexate in combination with fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide (i.v.

[8] .Monoclonal antibodies, such as trastuzumab (Herceptin), are used for cancer cells that have the HER2 mutation.^ One such drug is trastuzumab (Herceptin).
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saint Thomas Health Services - Health Information - Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.dev-sths.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the effects of the growth factor protein HER2 , which transmits growth signals to breast cancer cells.

^ Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the effects of the growth factor protein HER2, which transmits growth signals to breast cancer cells.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Radiation is usually added to the surgical bed to control cancer cells that were missed by the surgery, which usually extends survival, although radiation exposure to the heart may cause damage and heart failure in the following years.^ After surgery, you may have radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC mills-peninsula.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breast-conserving surgery is usually followed by radiation therapy.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Radiotherapy may damage the heart.

[9]

Contents

Classification

.Breast cancers can be classified by different schemata.^ Q. Are there different types of breast cancer?
  • Breast Cancer - Know Cancer Network: Cancer News and Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.knowcancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ There are different types of breast cancer.
  • WebMD Breast Cancer Center: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Genes, Staging, Tests, and Treatments 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Types and differences of breast cancer .

They include stage (TNM), pathology, grade, receptor status, and the presence or absence of genes as determined by DNA testing:
  • Stage. .The TNM classification for breast cancer is based on the size of the tumor (T), whether or not the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes (N) in the armpits, and whether the tumor has metastasized (M) or spread to a more distant part of the body.^ This surgery is done when cancer cells have spread through the breast or into other parts of the body.
    • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some axillary lymph nodes (lymph nodes in the armpit) are removed as well to see if the breast cancer has spread.
    • St. Vincent's Comprehensive Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.svccc.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This system takes into account the tumor size and spread, whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes, and whether it has spread to distant organs (metastasis).
    • National Breast Cancer Awareness Month: Celebrating 25 Years of Awareness, Education, and Empowerment 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nbcam.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Larger size, nodal spread, and metastasis have a larger stage number and a worse prognosis.^ This system takes into account the tumor size and spread, whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes, and whether it has spread to distant organs (metastasis).
    • National Breast Cancer Awareness Month: Celebrating 25 Years of Awareness, Education, and Empowerment 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nbcam.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some of the stages are further sub-divided using the letters A, B, and C. In general, the lower the number, the less the cancer has spread.
    • National Breast Cancer Awareness Month: Celebrating 25 Years of Awareness, Education, and Empowerment 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nbcam.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The impression that male breast cancer has a worse prognosis may stem from the tendency toward diagnosis at a later stage.
    • Breast Cancer in Men - Breast Cancer - Stanford Cancer Center 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC cancer.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]


    .The main stages are:
    Stage Tis is Carcinoma In Situ (eg DCIS), a pre-malignant disease or marker.
    ^ Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an example of stage 0 breast cancer.

    ^ It is also used for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, called Stage 0).

    ^ Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).


    .Stages 1-3 are defined as 'early' cancer and potentially curable.^ Stage I - Stage I is an early stage of invasive breast cancer.
    • National Breast Cancer Awareness Month: Celebrating 25 Years of Awareness, Education, and Empowerment 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nbcam.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Regular breast exams are a key to preventative care and they are designed to catch Breast Cancer in early, treatable stages.

    ^ For women at all levels of risk to develop breast cancer, only mammography has been shown to be helpful in detecting breast cancer when it is still at an early stage.


    .Stage 4 is defined as 'advanced' cancer and incurable.
  • Pathology.^ But African-American women are more likely to die of this cancer because their cancers are often diagnosed later and at an advanced stage when they are harder to treat and cure.
    • St. Vincent's Comprehensive Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.svccc.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stage I • Stage II is when the cancer is anywhere from 1-2 cm across, and has spread into the surrounding areas including the lymph nodes (which must also be removed to prevent the further spread of the cancer) Stage II • • This is the stage for cancer in the advanced stages.
    • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even if the cancer is found at a more advanced stage, new treatments enable many people with breast cancer to experience the same quality of life as before their diagnosis.
    • Breast Cancer | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

    .Most breast cancers are' derived from the epithelium lining the ducts or lobules.^ Most cancerous breast tumors are invasive.

    ^ It is the most lethal form of breast cancer.

    ^ The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which begins in the lining of the ducts.
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    .(Cancers from other tissues are considered "rare" cancers.^ Rarely breast cancer can begin in the connective tissue that's made up of muscles, fat and blood vessels.
    • Breast cancer types: What your type means - MayoClinic.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that forms in the breast cells, usually in those that line the ducts, while others take shape in the lobules, and the rest in other breast tissue.
    • Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancer.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He suggested that people "might consider consuming more pomegranates to protect against cancer development in the breast and perhaps in other tissues and organs."
    • Pomegranate Inhibits Hormone-Dependent Breast Cancer Cell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.blogtalkradio.com [Source type: General]

    ) .Carcinoma in situ is proliferation of cancer cells within the epithelial tissue without invasion of the surrounding tissue.^ Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.

    ^ Lobular carcinoma in situ is not considered to be cancer.
    • Breast Cancer - Know Cancer Network: Cancer News and Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.knowcancer.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Carcinoma in situ A cancer that involves only the cells where it began.
    • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Invasive carcinoma invades the surrounding tissue.^ Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.

    ^ Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is not cancer, but rather a marker that identifies a woman at increased risk to develop invasive (cancer that has spread into surrounding tissues) breast cancer later in life.
    • Breast Cancer: What is Breast Cancer? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC oncolink.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Invasive breast cancer moves into the surrounding tissue; non-invasive breast cancer remains in the ducts or lobes.

    [10] .Cells that are dividing more quickly have a worse prognosis.^ Often the cells grow out of control, divide more than they should, and form masses known as tumors.

    ^ But if a cell changes into an abnormal, sometimes harmful form, it can divide quickly over and over again without dying, making many, many copies of itself.
    • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The body is made up of many types of cells, and normally, cells grow and divide to produce more cells only when the body needs them.
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    .One way to measure tumor cell growth is with the presence of protein Ki67, which indicates that the cell is in S phase, and also indicates susceptibility to certain treatments.^ Since radiation is used to kill cancer cells and to shrink tumors, special shields may be used to protect the tissue surrounding the treatment area.
    • Breast Cancer in Men - Breast Cancer - Stanford Cancer Center 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC cancer.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Even when a tumor in the breast seems to have been completely removed or destroyed, the disease may return due to undetected cancer cells that remained in the body following treatment.
    • Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wellness.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These extra cells form a mass of tissue, called a growth or tumor.
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    [11]
  • .
  • Grade (Bloom-Richardson grade).^ Grading System in Invasive Breast Cancer (Modified Bloom and Richardson) Open table in new window .
    • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    .When cells become differentiated, they take different shapes and forms to function as part of an organ.^ Often the cells grow out of control, divide more than they should, and form masses known as tumors.

    ^ The human body is made up of millions and millions of cells that are grouped together forming tissues and organs such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, muscles, bones, etc.
    • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Malignant, or cancerous tumors not only invade normal tissue, but their cells can travel to other parts of the body to form more malignant tumors.

    Cancerous cells lose that differentiation. .Cells that normally line up in an orderly way to make up the milk ducts become disorganized.^ Breast cancer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Breast cancer refers to cancers originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with ...
    • Breast Cancer - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC stanford.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In DCIS, cancer cells are located within a milk duct, but have not invaded breast tissue or spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.

    ^ To understand different types of cancer, it is helpful to know about normal cells and what happens when they become cancerous.
    • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Cell division becomes uncontrolled.^ These cells then spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body and have uncontrolled cell division creating more and more damaged cells.
    • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Breast cancer is the abnormal growth and uncontrolled division of cells in the breast.
    • St. Vincent's Comprehensive Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.svccc.org [Source type: Academic]

    Cell nuclei become less uniform. .Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low grade), moderately differentiated (intermediate grade), and poorly differentiated (high grade).^ Stage Average Survival (%) 0 Non invasive cancer 90 1 Small invasive cancer 75 2 Invasive cancer > 2 cm with lymph gland invasion 60 3 Large invasive cancer > 5cm with invasion of skin 50 4 Widespread or metastatic cancer 50 Grade is determined by examining the cancer cells under the microscope and labeling the cancer cells as grade 1 (well differentiated), least aggressive; grade 2 (moderately differentiated), moderately aggressive and grade 3 (poorly differentiated), most aggressive.
    • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Low risk: Oestrogen receptor positive Lymph node negative Grade 1 (well differentiated) tumour Tumour size less than 1cm High risk: The rest -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Women in the low risk group are offered tamoxifen or none while women in the high-risk group are offered systemic treatment.
    • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

    .Poorly-differentiated cancers have a worse prognosis.
  • Receptor status.^ Well-differentiated invasive cancers have a relatively good prognosis if they are tubular, mucinous, cribriform, or secretory.
    • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For practical purposes, breast cancer can be classified according to the stage (extent of spread), grade (index of aggressiveness of the cancer cells) and oestrogen receptor status (ER).
    • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Breast cancers with estrogen receptors, and possibly those with progesterone Some Trade Names CRINONEENDOMETRIN receptors, grow more slowly than those that do not have these receptors, and the prognosis is better.
    • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Cells have receptors on their surface and in their cytoplasm and nucleus.^ Estrogen receptors are markers found on the surface of breast cancer cells and their presence is determined by tests on the breast cancer.
    • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

    ^ All cells, including breast cancer cells, have molecules on their surfaces called receptors.
    • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Chemical messengers such as hormones bind to receptors, and this causes changes in the cell.^ Cancer is a group of diseases that cause cells in the body to change and grow out of control.

    ^ This drug binds with HER2 receptors and thus helps prevent cancer cells from multiplying.
    • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If tests show that the cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs, surgery, or radiation therapy are used to reduce the production of hormones or block them from working.

    .Breast cancer cells may or may not have three important receptors: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu.^ Estrogen receptor negative breast cancers .
    • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If tests show that the breast cancer cells have estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors, hormone therapy may be given.
    • Breast Cancer: What is Breast Cancer? 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.med.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Immunohistochemistry The most widely used tests are for the estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR).
    • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Cells with these receptors are called ER positive (ER+), ER negative (ER-), PR positive (PR+), PR negative (PR-), HER2 positive (HER2+), and HER2 negative (HER2-).^ Whether the cells have high levels of human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptors (HER2/neu).
    • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These extra cells form a mass of tissue, called a growth or tumor.
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some women have what's called HER2-positive breast cancer.
    • Saint Thomas Health Services - Health Information - Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.dev-sths.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Breast Cancer :: BestHealth.com :: Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.besthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Cells with none of these receptors are called basal-like or triple negative.^ The exact number of disease subtypes and molecular alterations from which these subtypes derive remains to be fully elucidated, but they generally align closely with the presence or absence of hormone receptor and mammary epithelial cell type (luminal or basal).

    ^ These extra cells form a mass of tissue, called a growth or tumor.
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These cells may form a mass of extra tissue called a growth or tumor .
    • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

    .ER+ cancer cells depend on estrogen for their growth, so they can be treated with drugs to reduce estrogen (eg tamoxifen), and generally have a better prognosis.^ Hormonal therapy prevents the growth of hormone dependent cancer cells.
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In general, anti-cancer drugs affect rapidly dividing cells.
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Research shows that tamoxifen, which blocks the ability of estrogen to attach to cells and promote their growth, reduces the risk that women who have had a "receptor positive" breast cancer—meaning their cancer cells have hormone receptors—will experience a recurrence of the original cancer or a new cancer.
    • Managing Breast Cancer - US News and World Report 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.usnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    .Generally, HER2+ had a worse prognosis,[12] however HER2+ cancer cells respond to drugs such as the monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, (in combination with conventional chemotherapy) and this has improved the prognosis significantly.^ Monoclonal antibodies are also used in combination with chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy .

    ^ Chemotherapy , wherein combination of therapeutics are used to kill the cancer cells.
    • Breast Cancer - Causes, Treatment, Prognosis 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ayushveda.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chemotherapy is the use of drugs, either alone or in combination, to kill cancer cells.
    • Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

    [13]
    All of these receptors are identified by immunohistochemistry.
    .Receptor status is used to divide breast cancer into four molecular classes: (1) Basal-like, which are ER-, PR- and HER2- (triple negative, TN).^ Share with others who have ER-/PR-/HER2- breast cancer.
    • Breastcancer.org Discussion Boards - breast cancer discussion forums 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC community.breastcancer.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Chemo drugs used in breast cancer .
    • Breast cancer symptoms : Information from MedicineWorld.Org 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC medicineworld.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stage IIIC breast cancer is divided into operable and inoperable stage IIIC. .
    • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
    • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Most BRCA1 breast cancers are basal-like TN. (2) Luminal A, which are ER+ and low grade (3) Luminal B, which are ER+ but often high grade (4) HER2+, which have amplified ERBB2.^ Share with others who have ER-/PR-/HER2- breast cancer.
    • Breastcancer.org Discussion Boards - breast cancer discussion forums 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC community.breastcancer.org [Source type: General]

    ^ It is the most lethal form of breast cancer.

    ^ Most breast cancer causes are unknown.

    [12]
    .Finally, receptor status has become a critical assessment for all breast cancers, as it determines the suitability of using targeted treatments eg tamoxifen and or trastuzumab.^ Breast cancer treatments have changed over time.

    ^ Chemo drugs used in breast cancer .
    • Breast cancer symptoms : Information from MedicineWorld.Org 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC medicineworld.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Treatment for breast cancer .
    • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These treatments are now some of the most effective adjuvant treatments of breast cancer.^ Most cancerous breast tumors are invasive.

    ^ Breast cancer treatments have changed over time.

    ^ It is the most lethal form of breast cancer.

    .Conversely, triple negative cancer (ie no positive receptors) is now thought to indicate a poor prognosis.^ Estrogen receptor negative breast cancers .
    • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hormone therapy helps manage a tumor that tests positive for either estrogen or progesterone receptors in both early-stage and metastatic cancer.
    • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It works in people whose cancers are oestrogen-receptor-positive and/or progesterone-receptor-positive .
    • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [14][15]
  • .
  • DNA microarrays have compared normal cells to breast cancer cells and found differences in hundreds of genes, but the significance of most of those differences is unknown.^ Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts.
    • Breast cancer - MayoClinic.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is the most lethal form of breast cancer.

    ^ Most lumps are not Breast Cancer.
    • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    .Several screening tests are commercially marketed, but the evidence for their value is limited.^ The evidence for CBE, although indirect, suggests that CBE may detect a substantial proportion of cases of cancer if it is the only screening test available.
    • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The only test supported by Level II evidence is Oncotype DX, which is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but is endorsed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology.^ Good news today, my oncotype-dx test (my big test 95% accurate) came back Estrogen Negative, Progesterone Negative.

    ^ American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer.

    ^ You may also contact your local chapter of the American Cancer Society to help you find a support group.
    • Breast Cancer - Breast cancer - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

    MammaPrint is approved by the FDA but is only supported by Level III evidence. .Two other tests have Level III evidence: Theros and MapQuant Dx.^ Stage III Breast Cancer Cancer confined to one breast that has spread to the lymph nodes, on the affected side, and no evidence of cancer spread to other areas of the body.
    • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

    .No tests have been verified by Level I evidence (in a prospective, randomized controlled trial, patients who used the test had a better outcome than those who did not).^ Oral contraceptive use A diet high in saturated fats Physical inactivity Alcohol (more than one alcoholic drink a day) Screening Tests .
    • Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Really…..someone who is diagnosed with breast cancer has a better chance of survival than someone with a benign brain tumor.
    • It's Ok - Breast Cancer is a Meme! - WEGO Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC community.wegohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Studies show that an aromatase inhibitor works even better than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women who are also estrogen receptor-positive (ER+).
    • Breast Cancer - Breast cancer - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

    .In a review, Sotirou concluded, "The genetic tests add modest prognostic information for patients with HER2-positive and triple-negative tumors, but when measures of clinical risk are equivocal (e.g., intermediate expression of ER and intermediate histologic grade), these assays could guide clinical decisions."^ Her2Status - Provides information about the activity of HER2, its effect on the prognosis of breast cancer, its use in predicting the outcome of therapy, and exciting new targeted therapies that improve the survival of HER2-positive breast cancer patients.
    • Breast Cancer, The Cancer Information Network 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Available in a few clinics for a very select group of patients, these techniques are used after a lumpectomy to deliver radiation to the tumor site rather than the entire breast.
    • Facts and information about radiation therapy for breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mproc.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tamoxifen use for 5 years reduces risk for at least 10 years in premenopausal women, particularly estrogen receptor (ER) – positive invasive tumors.

    [12]
.Breast cancer is usually, but not always, primarily classified by its histological appearance.^ While known primarily as a woman's disease, men also develop breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer | Cancer | UCSF Medical Center 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.ucsfhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of invasive breast cancer that is usually not detected by mammograms or ultrasounds .

^ As with other types of cancer, breast cancer usually develops without noticeable symptoms.
  • St. Vincent's Comprehensive Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.svccc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Rare variants are defined based on physical exam findings.^ To find out the cause of any of these signs or symptoms, a woman's doctor does a careful physical exam and asks about her personal and family medical history.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), a form of ductal carcinoma or malignant cancer in the ducts, is distinguished from other carcinomas by the inflamed appearance of the affected breast.^ Ductal carcinoma is the most common form of breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Ductal carcinoma in situ is confined to the milk ducts of the breast.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the most lethal form of breast cancer.

[16] .In the future, some pathologic classifications may be changed.^ A woman may be able to have this done at the same time as a mastectomy (immediate reconstruction) or at some point in the future (delayed reconstruction).
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ There are several types of DCIS. If not removed, some may change over time and become invasive cancers, while others may not.
  • Breast Cancer - Signs and Symptoms 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.ucsfhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

Signs and symptoms

Early signs of breast cancer.
.The first noticeable symptom of breast cancer is typically a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast tissue.^ Stages of Breast Cancer Stage 0 • The first stage is stage 0.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Definition: Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast.
  • Breast Cancer :: BestHealth.com :: Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.besthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Benign lumps often feel different from cancerous ones.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.More than 80% of breast cancer cases are discovered when the woman feels a lump.^ Dominant lumps are firmer than the rest of the breast and are of more concern.

^ More than two generations of relatives with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Most lumps are not Breast Cancer.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[17] .By the time a breast lump is noticeable, it has probably been growing for years.^ Mammography is believed to find 85% to 90% of breast cancers in women over 50, and can discover a lesion one to four years before a lump can be felt.
  • Reportlinker Adds Breast Cancer Market - An Analysis - Yahoo! Finance 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

^ It is thought that by the time a tumor is large enough to be felt as a lump, it may have been growing for as long as 10 years.

^ At this time, one year of trastuzumab is recommended for early-stage breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

.The earliest breast cancers are detected by a mammogram.^ It is the earliest stage of breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mammograms can often detect breast cancer before it can be felt.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It can also detect cancer before the traditional mammogram can.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Lumps found in lymph nodes located in the armpits[17] can also indicate breast cancer.^ Questions and Answers about Breast Lumps - Not all breast lumps indicate breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer, The Cancer Information Network 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Myth-A lump in the breast is breast cancer?
  • Breast Cancer - advice videos on Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lymph nodes Hormones Lobules Breast Ovarian Breast cancer (48) .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Indications of breast cancer other than a lump may include changes in breast size or shape, skin dimpling, nipple inversion, or spontaneous single-nipple discharge.^ Breast cancer treatments have changed over time.

^ Questions and Answers about Breast Lumps - Not all breast lumps indicate breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer, The Cancer Information Network 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Paget's disease of the nipple (see Skin Cancers: Paget's Disease of the Nipple ) is a ductal breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pain ("mastodynia") is an unreliable tool in determining the presence or absence of breast cancer, but may be indicative of other breast health issues.^ Is pain a sign of breast cancer?
  • Breast Cancer - advice videos on Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lump may be painful, but pain is an unreliable sign.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other breast cancer information .
  • Breast cancer symptoms : Information from MedicineWorld.Org 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC medicineworld.org [Source type: Academic]

[17][18][19]
.When breast cancer cells invade the dermal lymphatics—small lymph vessels in the skin of the breast—its presentation can resemble skin inflammation and thus is known as inflammatory breast cancer (IBC).^ Cancer tends to move into the lymphatic vessels in the breast.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammatory breast cancer accounts for about 1% of breast cancers.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The breasts also contain lymph vessels.
  • Breast Cancer Symptoms, Risk Factors, Causes, Treatments, Stages and Diagnosis Information on MedicineNet.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer include pain, swelling, warmth and redness throughout the breast, as well as an orange-peel texture to the skin referred to as peau d'orange.^ Inflammatory breast cancer of the left breast showing peau d’orange and inverted nipple.
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Is pain a sign of breast cancer?
  • Breast Cancer - advice videos on Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In inflammatory breast cancer, cancer has spread to the skin of the breast and the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm.
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.Another reported symptom complex of breast cancer is Paget's disease of the breast.^ Paget's disease of the nipple (see Skin Cancers: Paget's Disease of the Nipple ) is a ductal breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ From Medicineworld.org: Breast cancer symptoms Breast cancer symptoms .
  • Breast cancer symptoms : Information from MedicineWorld.Org 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC medicineworld.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is called metastatic breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.This syndrome presents as eczematoid skin changes such as redness and mild flaking of the nipple skin.^ Other symptoms include immobility, skin changes (ie, thickening, swelling, redness) or nipple abnormalities (ie, ulceration, retraction, spontaneous bloody discharge).

^ Look for changes in the size difference between the breasts and changes in the nipple, such as turning inward (an inverted nipple) or a discharge.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These changes may include redness, dimpling and puckering on nipples and other areas on the breast.
  • Breast Cancer - Causes, Treatment, Prognosis 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ayushveda.com [Source type: Academic]

.As Paget's advances, symptoms may include tingling, itching, increased sensitivity, burning, and pain.^ Symptoms of advanced breast cancer may include: .
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saint Thomas Health Services - Health Information - Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.dev-sths.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the cancer grows, symptoms may include: .
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saint Thomas Health Services - Health Information - Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.dev-sths.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This surgical procedure may produce lymphedema, a painful swelling of the arm due to fluid accumulation, and it may place a woman at increased risk for infection.
  • Breast Cancer - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Academic]

.There may also be discharge from the nipple.^ Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast, as well as nipple discharge.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Approximately half of women diagnosed with Paget's also have a lump in the breast.^ In 2009, an estimated 51,000 American women were diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ , an early breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer News - Topix 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]

^ Narrow by: Causes of Breast cancer • Symptoms of Breast cancer • Treatments for Breast cancer • Tests for Breast cancer • Alternative Treatments for Breast cancer Related WellPages: Breast carcinoma male • Breast reconstruction • Mastectomy • Paget's disease breast • Women health .
  • Breast Cancer Pics - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC stanford.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC stanford.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Websites - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mammography is believed to find 85% to 90% of breast cancers in women over 50, and can discover a lesion one to four years before a lump can be felt.
  • Reportlinker Adds Breast Cancer Market - An Analysis - Yahoo! Finance 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

[20]
.Occasionally, breast cancer presents as metastatic disease, that is, cancer that has spread beyond the original organ.^ The disease is called metastatic breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Can breast cancer be a chronic disease?
  • Breast Cancer - advice videos on Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast Cancer is a disease that honestly - hurts.
  • It's Ok - Breast Cancer is a Meme! - WEGO Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC community.wegohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Metastatic breast cancer will cause symptoms that depend on the location of metastasis.^ The disease is called metastatic breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage IV and metastatic breast cancer .
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Causes of breast cancer .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Common sites of metastasis include bone, liver, lung and brain.^ Even with aggressive and appropriate treatments, breast cancer often metastasizes to distant sites such as the lungs, liver, and bones.
  • BREAST CANCER : Edgar Cayce Health Remedies: Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.edgarcayce.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Examinations of the bones, liver or lungs may also be performed to because the breast cancer may spread to these areas.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The thing about breast cancer is that precisely because it’s in the breast and not a crucial organ like the liver, brain, lung etc., it can often go undetected for a long time.
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

[21] .Unexplained weight loss can occasionally herald an occult breast cancer, as can symptoms of fevers or chills.^ If a woman has possible symptoms of breast cancer , her healthcare provider will ask a number of questions and perform a physical exam looking for signs of the disease.

^ Bone pain Breast discomfort Skin ulcers Swelling on arms Weight loss Prognosis .
  • Breast Cancer - Causes, Treatment, Prognosis 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ayushveda.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narrow by: Causes of Breast cancer • Symptoms of Breast cancer • Treatments for Breast cancer • Tests for Breast cancer • Alternative Treatments for Breast cancer Related WellPages: Breast carcinoma male • Breast reconstruction • Mastectomy • Paget's disease breast • Women health .
  • Breast Cancer - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC stanford.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bone or joint pains can sometimes be manifestations of metastatic breast cancer, as can jaundice or neurological symptoms.^ Is pain a sign of breast cancer?
  • Breast Cancer - advice videos on Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is called metastatic breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage IV and metastatic breast cancer .
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These symptoms are "non-specific", meaning they can also be manifestations of many other illnesses.^ These decisions, like many other medical decisions, should fit each woman's particular needs.
  • Breast Cancer | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For breast cancer there most likely won't be many physical symptoms other than the presence of a lump.
  • breast cancer nursing diagnosis? - Nursing for Nurses 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC allnurses.com [Source type: General]

^ These symptoms can also be caused by other health problems, but to be sure it is recommended that you see your doctor to make the appropriate diagnosis.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[22]
.Most symptoms of breast disorder do not turn out to represent underlying breast cancer.^ Most cancerous breast tumors are invasive.

^ It is the most lethal form of breast cancer.

^ Most breast cancer causes are unknown.

.Benign breast diseases such as mastitis and fibroadenoma of the breast are more common causes of breast disorder symptoms.^ What are the most common benign conditions in the breast?
  • Breast Cancer - advice videos on Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hyperplasia, cysts, fibroadenomas, and calcifications are the common benign breast diseases.

^ Worldwide, breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer (10.4% of all cancer incidence, both sexes counted) and the fifth most common cause of cancer death.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/breast_cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The appearance of a new symptom should be taken seriously by both patients and their doctors, because of the possibility of an underlying breast cancer at almost any age.^ Does this patient have breast cancer?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast Cancer Patient A Patient diagnosed with Cancer that starts in the breast or is isolated to one or both breasts.
  • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

[23]

Risk factors

.The primary risk factors that have been identified are sex,[24] age,[25] lack of childbearing or breastfeeding,[26][27] and higher hormone levels,[28] [29].^ Risk factors Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors, which increase the chance of a woman developing breast cancer (see Table 1, below).

^ Certain risk factors, such as age, are beyond our control; whereas others, like drinking habits, can be modified.
  • What Causes Breast Cancer? 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45 years.
  • Breast cancer, oral contraceptives, abortion and lies (?) - Dennis Byrne's Barbershop 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: Academic]

.In a study published in 1995, well-established risk factors accounted for 47% of cases while only 5% were attributable to hereditary syndromes.^ Now, in 2009, Brinton is on record reiterating findings of the ABC link and reporting them as “consistent” with earlier studies that found induced abortion to be a risk factor.
  • Breast cancer, oral contraceptives, abortion and lies (?) - Dennis Byrne's Barbershop 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk factors Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors, which increase the chance of a woman developing breast cancer (see Table 1, below).

^ A comment from Breakthrough Breast Cancer on a study published in a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research that suggests pomegranate juice can reduce breast cancer risk...

[30] .Genetic factors usually increase the risk slightly or moderately; the exception is women and men who are carriers of the breast cancer susceptibility gene mutations, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are at a very high lifetime risk for breast and ovarian cancer, depending on the portion of the protein where the mutation occurs.^ Changes in certain genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, and others) make women more susceptible to breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Plasma protein carbonyls and breast cancer risk in sisters discordant...
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women with the following conditions have an increased risk for breast cancer: .
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Instead of a 12 percent lifetime risk of breast cancer, women with one of these genes has a risk of approximately 60 percent.^ Women with these defective genes have upto 80% chances of developing breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer - Causes, Treatment, Prognosis 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ayushveda.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lifetime risk The probability of developing cancer in the course of one's lifespan.
  • SEER Stat Fact Sheets - Cancer of the Breast 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC seer.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Women with the following conditions have an increased risk for breast cancer: .
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[31] .In more recent years, research has indicated the impact of diet and other behaviors on breast cancer.^ At least eight workers in the campus building have been diagnosed with breast cancer since 2000, and a handful of other cancers, including ovarian and salivary gland cancers, have also been reported.
  • BREAST CANCER - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers at the University of Southern California School of Medicine have reported that the risk of early breast cancer is reduced by more than 50% in women (aged 40 years and younger) who exercise for four hours a week.
  • What Causes Breast Cancer? 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The good news is that there are more than 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States, and the number of new breast cancer cases has declined in the early years of the 21 st century.
  • Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

.These additional risk factors include a high-fat diet,[32] alcohol intake,[33][34] obesity,[35] and environmental factors such as tobacco use, radiation[36], endocrine disruptors and shiftwork.^ However, in combination, these factors can place a woman at high risk.

^ Other risk factors include: .
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Saint Thomas Health Services - Health Information - Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.dev-sths.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer :: BestHealth.com :: Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.besthealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are called risk factors.
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC mills-peninsula.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .Although the radiation from mammography is a low dose, the cumulative effect can cause cancer.^ Causes of Breast Cancer Although there are no definite causes known, there have been certain discoveries that increase the risk factor of someone getting the illness.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Radiation exposure may increase the risk for breast cancer, but usually only at much higher doses than those used in mammography, although regular mammography could contribute to cumulative radiation doses from additional imaging for other reasons (7) .
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A small amount of the lung can be affected by the radiation, although the risk of pneumonitis, or a radiation-related inflammation of the lung tissue, is low.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

[38] [39]
In addition to the risk factors specified above, demographic and medical risk factors include:
.
  • Personal history of breast cancer: A woman who had breast cancer in one breast has an increased risk of getting cancer in her other breast.
  • Family history: A woman's risk of breast cancer is higher if her mother, sister, or daughter had breast cancer.^ Personal history of breast cancer -- Women who have had breast cancer face an increased risk of getting breast cancer in the other breast.
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Family History - if you have a family history of breast cancer, you are at a much higher risk of getting the disease.
    • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Family history of breast cancer -- You may also have a higher risk for breast cancer if you have a close relative who has had breast, uterine, ovarian, or colon cancer.
    • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Breast Cancer :: BestHealth.com :: Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.besthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The risk is higher if her family member got breast cancer before age 40. Having other relatives with breast cancer (in either her mother's or father's family) may also increase a woman's risk.
  • Certain breast changes: Some women have cells in the breast that look abnormal under a microscope.^ Age and gender -- Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older.
    • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Saint Thomas Health Services - Health Information - Breast cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.dev-sths.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the bottom of the page are other changes to look for in the breast besides lumps.
    • breast cancer nursing diagnosis? - Nursing for Nurses 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC allnurses.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Women with the following conditions have an increased risk for breast cancer: .
    • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

    Having certain types of abnormal cells (atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS]) increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Race: Breast cancer is diagnosed more often in Caucasian women than Latina, Asian, or African American women.
.Abortion has not been found to be a risk factor for breast cancer.^ DCIS is a risk factor for breast cancer.

^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk factors for breast cancer include the following: .
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The breast cancer abortion hypothesis, however, continues to be promoted by some pro-life groups.^ A game-changer on abortion & breast cancer?
  • Breast Cancer News - Topix 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]

^ However, some of the fear about breast cancer is based on misunderstanding.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Medical Groups Recognizing Link between abortion and breast cancer - .

[40][41][42]
.The United Kingdom is the member of International Cancer Genome Consortium that is leading efforts to map breast cancer's complete genome.^ You have a higher risk if a close family member, especially your mother or sister, has had breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ OCs, or one or more of their metabolites, actually act as primary carcinogens, i.e., cause mutations in breast cells that lead to cancer formation.
  • Breast cancer, oral contraceptives, abortion and lies (?) - Dennis Byrne's Barbershop 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the United States, breast cancer incidence is highest in White women, lower in African American and Hispanic population and lowest in American Indian and Alaskan native women.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Pathophysiology

.
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis.
^ Clark GJ, Der CJ. Aberrant function of the Ras signal transduction pathway in human breast cancer.

Mutations leading to loss of apoptosis can lead to tumorigenesis.
.Breast cancer, like other cancers, occurs because of an interaction between the environment and a defective gene.^ Breast cancer is more likely to occur in breasts that have a lot of dense tissue.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Should I have a gene test for breast cancer?
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC mills-peninsula.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Bilateral breast cancer Cancer that occurs in both breasts.
  • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

.Normal cells divide as many times as needed and stop.^ This condition falls between hyperplasia (too many normal cells) and carcinoma in situ (too many abnormal cells).

^ Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing.
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The information contained in our genes is needed for the normal function of our cells.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

.They attach to other cells and stay in place in tissues.^ Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lymphatic system The organs and tissues that produce, store, and carry the white blood cells which fight infections and other diseases in the body.
  • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues by a pathologist so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer.
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Cells become cancerous when mutations destroy their ability to stop dividing, to attach to other cells and to stay where they belong.^ It destroys the estrogen receptors in cancer cells.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herceptin stops cancer cells from growing and dividing.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues, although it is not known at this time how to predict which lesions will become invasive.
  • Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When cells divide, their DNA is normally copied with many mistakes.^ This condition falls between hyperplasia (too many normal cells) and carcinoma in situ (too many abnormal cells).

^ The body is made up of many types of cells, and normally, cells grow and divide to produce more cells only when the body needs them.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them.
  • Breast Cancer | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Error-correcting proteins fix those mistakes. .The mutations known to cause cancer, such as p53, BRCA1 and BRCA2, occur in the error-correcting mechanisms.^ The exact causes of breast cancer are not known.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OCs, or one or more of their metabolites, actually act as primary carcinogens, i.e., cause mutations in breast cells that lead to cancer formation.
  • Breast cancer, oral contraceptives, abortion and lies (?) - Dennis Byrne's Barbershop 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Causes of Breast Cancer Although there are no definite causes known, there have been certain discoveries that increase the risk factor of someone getting the illness.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.These mutations are either inherited or acquired after birth.^ Some altered genes related to breast cancer are more common in certain ethnic groups.Such gene mutations may be inherited from either parent's side.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Presumably, they allow the other mutations, which allow uncontrolled division, lack of attachment, and metastasis to distant organs.^ These cells then spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body and have uncontrolled cell division creating more and more damaged cells.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Distant-stage cancers have metastasized or spread to other organs.

[36][43] .Normal cells will commit cell suicide (apoptosis) when they are no longer needed.^ To understand different types of cancer, it is helpful to know about normal cells and what happens when they become cancerous.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the normal cell regulators malfunction and cells do not die at the proper rate, there is a failure of apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cell growth goes unchecked.

^ The information contained in our genes is needed for the normal function of our cells.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

.Until then, they are protected from cell suicide by several protein clusers and pathways.^ Xu W, Neckers L. Targeting the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 provides a multifaceted effect on diverse cell signaling pathways of cancer cells.

One of the protective pathways is the PI3K/AKT pathway; another is the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway. .Sometimes the genes along these protective pathways are mutated in a way that turns them permanently "on", rendering the cell incapable of committing suicide when it is no longer needed.^ Normally our cells will obey these orders from the genes and we remain healthy.
  • Breast Cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Breast cancer is sometimes caused by inherited gene mutations (changes).
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Based on these exams, the doctor may decide that no further tests are needed and no treatment is necessary.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is one of the steps that causes cancer in combination with other mutations.^ OCs, or one or more of their metabolites, actually act as primary carcinogens, i.e., cause mutations in breast cells that lead to cancer formation.
  • Breast cancer, oral contraceptives, abortion and lies (?) - Dennis Byrne's Barbershop 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death in Hispanic women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other cancers associated with BRCA2 mutations include prostate, pancreatic , fallopian tube , bladder , non-Hodgkin lymphoma , and basal cell carcinoma .

.Normally, the PTEN protein turns off the PI3K/AKT pathway when the cell is ready for cell suicide.^ Xu W, Neckers L. Targeting the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 provides a multifaceted effect on diverse cell signaling pathways of cancer cells.

.In some breast cancers, the gene for the PTEN protein is mutated, so the PI3K/AKT pathway is stuck in the "on" position, and the cancer cell does not commit suicide.^ Does this patient have breast cancer?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Estrogen and progesterone receptors: Some breast cancer cells have receptors for estrogen.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some women have what's called HER2-positive breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
.Mutations that can lead to breast cancer have been experimentally linked to estrogen exposure.^ Estrogen receptor negative breast cancers .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ OCs, or one or more of their metabolites, actually act as primary carcinogens, i.e., cause mutations in breast cells that lead to cancer formation.
  • Breast cancer, oral contraceptives, abortion and lies (?) - Dennis Byrne's Barbershop 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chicagonow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A family history of breast cancer, especially in a mother, sister, or daughter, or a particular genetic mutation can also place a woman at high risk.

[45]
.Failure of immune surveillance, the removal of malignant cells throughout one's life by the immune system.^ Systemic chemotherapy is delivered through the bloodstream, targeting cancer cells throughout the body.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It also helps the immune system recognise that a cancer cell is abnormal and should be destroyed.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monoclonal antibodies as adjuvant therapy Monoclonal antibody therapy is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell.
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[46]
.Abnormal growth factor signaling in the interaction between stromal cells and epithelial cells can facilitate malignant cell growth.^ Whether the cells have high levels of human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptors (HER2/neu).
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This condition falls between hyperplasia (too many normal cells) and carcinoma in situ (too many abnormal cells).

^ (HER stands for human epithelial growth factor receptor, which is involved in multiplication, survival, and differentiation of cells.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[47][48]
.People in less-developed countries report lower incidence rates than in developed countries.^ Worldwide, the incidence of breast cancer is highest in developed countries in North America and Western Europe, with lowest incidences seen in South America, Africa and parts of Asia.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fortunately the incidence of arm swelling is low, less than 5%.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ This report provides an overview of the breast cancer, its types and stages, and incidence rates.
  • Reportlinker Adds Breast Cancer Market - An Analysis - Yahoo! Finance 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

[citation needed]
.In the United States, 10 to 20 percent of patients with breast cancer and patients with ovarian cancer have a first- or second-degree relative with one of these diseases.^ Does this patient have breast cancer?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast Cancer Patient A Patient diagnosed with Cancer that starts in the breast or is isolated to one or both breasts.
  • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is called metastatic breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer Information from Drugs.com 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Mutations in either of two major susceptibility genes, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2), confer a lifetime risk of breast cancer of between 60 and 85 percent and a lifetime risk of ovarian cancer of between 15 and 40 percent.^ Changes in certain genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, and others) make women more susceptible to breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Spectrum of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53 in families at high risk of breast cancer.

^ DCIS is a risk factor for breast cancer.

.However, mutations in these genes account for only 2 to 3 percent of all breast cancers.^ However, women are not the only ones affected by breast cancer.

^ It accounts for 10 to 15% of breast cancers.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It accounts for 65 to 80% of breast cancers.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[49]

Diagnosis

.While screening techniques (which are further discussed below) are useful in determining the possibility of cancer, a further testing is necessary to confirm whether a lump detected on screening is cancer, as opposed to a benign alternative such as a simple cyst.^ Tests that examine the breasts are used to detect and diagnose breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tests that examine the breasts are used to detect (find) and diagnose breast cancer.
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If this procedure detects cancer, the diagnosis is confirmed.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.In a clinical setting, breast cancer is commonly diagnosed using a "triple test" of clinical breast examination (breast examination by a trained medical practitioner), mammography, and fine needle aspiration cytology.^ Mammography: For this test, x-rays are used to check for abnormal areas in the breast.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnosing breast cancer .
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can also diagnose noninvasive breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

.Both mammography and clinical breast exam, also used for screening, can indicate an approximate likelihood that a lump is cancer, and may also identify any other lesions.^ A firm, distinctive thickening that appears in one breast but not the other may indicate cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mammography may miss up to 15% of breast cancers.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduction in breast cancer mortality from organized service screening with mammography: 1.

.Fine Needle Aspiration and Cytology (FNAC), which may be done in a GP's office using local anaesthetic if required, involves attempting to extract a small portion of fluid from the lump.^ Fine-needle aspiration .
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These doctors may perform:   Fine needle aspiration .
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A thin needle is used to remove fluid from a breast lump.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.Clear fluid makes the lump highly unlikely to be cancerous, but bloody fluid may be sent off for inspection under a microscope for cancerous cells.^ A pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer | Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center | Georgetown 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC lombardi.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple -- for example, you may have redness, dimpling, or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange Fluid coming from the nipple -- may be bloody, clear-to-yellow, or green, and look like pus Men get breast cancer, too.
  • Breast Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Breast Cancer - NY Times Health Information 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Together, these three tools can be used to diagnose breast cancer with a good degree of accuracy.^ Tests that examine the breasts are used to detect and diagnose breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnosing breast cancer .
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can also diagnose noninvasive breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

.Other options for biopsy include core biopsy, where a section of the breast lump is removed, and an excisional biopsy, where the entire lump is removed.^ A mastectomy is the surgical removal of the entire breast.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In an excisional biopsy , the entire mass is removed.
  • Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The advantage of excision is that the lump is wholly removed from the woman’s breast.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

Screening

Invasive cell carcinoma in a 51 year old woman photographed with a thermographic camera
.Breast cancer screening refers to testing otherwise-healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.^ Screening for breast cancer: recommendations and rationale.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer: diagnosis & treatment .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer screening.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The assumption is that early detection will improve outcomes.^ Early detection and diagnosis, followed by the appropriate treatment, will improve the chances of being cancer -free.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.A number of screening test have been employed including: clinical and self breast exams, mammography, genetic screening, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.^ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Study Group Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The screening clinical breast examination: should it be done?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical breast exams are an important part of breast cancer screening.

.A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities.^ Clinical Breast Exam Clinical breast exams are physical examinations to check the appearance and "feel" of the breasts for signs of lumps.

^ Sometimes a woman finds a lump during a breast self-exam.
  • Breast Cancer - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ I wish people wrote status updates like, “Everyone, let’s do a breast self-exam tonight!” I wish there were more breast self-exam spots on TV news.
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

.Research evidence does not support the effectiveness of either type of breast exam, because by the time a lump is large enough to be found it is likely to have been growing for several years and will soon be large enough to be found without an exam.^ It is thought that by the time a tumor is large enough to be felt as a lump, it may have been growing for as long as 10 years.

^ Evidence supporting the effectiveness of breast self-examination and clinical breast examination are controversial and largely inferred.

^ If large enough, cysts may feel like lumps in the breast.

[50] .Mammographic screening for breast cancer uses x-rays to examine the breast for any uncharacteristic masses or lumps.^ Screening for breast cancer: recommendations and rationale.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer screening.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The screening clinical breast examination: should it be done?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Cochrane collaboration in 2009 concluded that mammograms reduce mortality from breast cancer by 15 percent but also result in unnecessary surgery and anxiety, resulting in their view that mammography screening may do more harm than good.^ More than two generations of relatives with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ It accounts for 10 to 15% of breast cancers.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Screening for breast cancer: recommendations and rationale.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

[51] .Many national organizations recommend regular mammography, nevertheless.^ Many cancers are found by regular mammography after age 40 – before any symptoms are felt.
  • Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 2009, the World Health Organization recommended mammography every 1 to 2 years for women aged 50 to 69 years, but does not recommend CBE or BSE (32) .
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Cancer Institute recommends that women in their forties and older have mammograms on a regular basis, every 1 to 2 years.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.For the average woman, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends mammography every two years in women between the ages of 50 and 74.[52] The Task Force points out that in addition to unnecessary surgery and anxiety, the risks of more frequent mammograms include a small but significant increase in breast cancer induced by radiation.^ In 2001, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommended mammography every 1 to 2 years beginning at the age of 40 years and recommended CBE as part of a periodic evaluation (every 1 to 3 years) for women aged 50 to 69 years (30) .
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Previous Abnormal Breast Biopsy A woman with a previous breast cancer is at an increased risk of developing cancer of her opposite breast.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Monthly self-examination, yearly breast examination by a doctor, and a yearly mammogram for women who are over 50 or at increased risk are recommended.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[53]
.In women at high risk, such as those with a strong family history of cancer, mammography screening is recommended at an earlier age and additional testing may include genetic screening that tests for theBRCA genes and / or magnetic resonance imaging.^ Some women may also have additional tests.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Magnetic resonance imaging is not currently used for screening women at average risk for breast cancer.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

Treatment

Chest appearance after right breast mastectomy.
.Breast cancer is treated first with surgery, and then with drugs, radiation, or both.^ They may have surgery or radiation therapy to control the cancer in the breast.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer surgery: lumpectomy, mastectomy .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bilateral breast cancer Cancer that occurs in both breasts.
  • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

.Treatments are given with increasing aggressiveness according to the prognosis and risk of recurrence.^ This focused part of the treatment, called a boost, is standard for women with invasive breast cancer to reduce the risk of a recurrence in the breast.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The presence of an artificial implant or a reconstructed breast has not been found to interfere with the detection of local recurrence of the cancer or to increase the risk of local recurrence.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy may be given before surgery to both shrink a large tumor and reduce the risk of recurrence or adjuvant therapy given after surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]


.Stage 1 cancers (and DCIS) have an excellent prognosis and are generally treated with lumpectomy with or without radiation.^ Lumpectomy and radiation therapy for the treatment of intraductal breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-17 .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stages of breast cancer may be described generally as in situ (not invasive) or invasive.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When a breast cancer is detected and treated at an early stage there are several advantages.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

[54] .Although the aggressive HER2+ cancers should also be treated with the trastuzumab (Herceptin) regime.^ Herceptin is a treatment for HER2 -positive breast cancer.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combination of lapatinib and capecitabine is approved for the treatment of women with advanced or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer who have previously been treated with chemotherapy and trastuzumab.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Although not yet approved for patients with breast cancer, recent studies have shown great promise of these drugs in treating breast cancer bone metastases and osteoporosis.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

[55]
.Stage 2 and 3 cancers with a progressively poorer prognosis and greater risk of recurrence are generally treated with surgery (lumpectomy or mastectomy with or without lymph node removal), radiation (sometimes) and chemotherapy (plus trastuzumab for HER2+ cancers).^ Lymph node removal and analysis .
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Radiation therapy after mastectomy reduces the risk of cancer recurring near the site and in nearby lymph nodes.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A reminder of where I got my cancer lymph nodes striped and removed.


.Stage 4, metastatic cancer, (ie spread to distant sites) is not curable and is managed by various combinations of all treatments from surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and targeted therapies.^ Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy are systemic treatments.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage IV (metastatic) cancer .
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After surgery and radiation therapy, additional chemotherapy is usually given.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.These treatments increase the median survival time of stage 4 breast cancer by about 6 months.^ It is the earliest stage of breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If I do have cancer, who will talk with me about treatment?
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

[56]

Medications

.Drugs used in addition to surgery are called adjuvant therapy.^ Ovarian ablation can be done using surgery, radiotherapy or drug therapy.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It must be used with surgery or radiation therapy.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is called adjuvant therapy.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

There are currently 3 main groups of medications used for adjuvant breast cancer treatment:

Hormone Blocking Therapy
Chemotherapy
Monoclonal Antibodies
One or all of these groups can be used.
.Hormone Blocking Therapy: Some breast cancers require estrogen to continue growing.^ Estrogen and progesterone receptors: Some breast cancer cells have receptors for estrogen.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many breast cancers are sensitive to the hormone estrogen.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some hormones can cause certain cancers to grow.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They can be identified by the presence of estrogen receptors (ER+) and progesterone receptors (PR+) on their surface (sometimes referred to together as hormone receptors, HR+).^ Taking hormones such as estrogen and progesterone .

^ Immunohistochemistry The most widely used tests are for the estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR).
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taking hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These ER+ cancers can be treated with drugs that block the production of estrogen or block the receptors, such as tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor).^ Estrogen receptor negative breast cancers .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors are also commonly used to treat metastatic recurrences.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Aromatase inhibitors after Tamoxifen .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Chemotherapy: Usually used for stage 2-4 disease.^ Women who have stage IV breast cancer receive chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy to destroy cancer cells and control the disease.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with stage III breast cancer usually have both local treatment to remove or destroy the cancer in the breast and systemic treatment to stop the disease from spreading.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

They are given in combinations. .One of the most common treatments is cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin (Adriamycin), known as CA; these drugs damage DNA in the cancer, but also in fast-growing normal cells where they cause serious side effects.^ Because healthy cells and tissues may also be damaged, treatment often causes unwanted side effects.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ You may have none of these side effects, or one or more.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Damage to the heart muscle is the most dangerous complication of doxorubicin.^ Modern techniques are now able to spare most of the heart from radiation damage.
  • Breast Cancer: Treatment | Cancer.Net 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

.Sometimes a taxane drug, such as docetaxel, is added, and the regime is then known as CAT; taxane attacks the microtubules in cancer cells.^ Radiation therapy, alone or with chemotherapy or hormone therapy, is sometimes used before surgery to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy A series of treatments using drugs that kill cancer cells .
  • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At this early period of cancer growth, the malignant cells are confined within the milk ducts and glands and have not invaded into the surrounding tissue known as the stroma.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

.Another common treatment, which produces equivalent results, is cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF).^ Commonly used drugs include cyclophosphamide Some Trade Names LYOPHILIZED CYTOXAN , doxorubicin Some Trade Names DOXIL , epirubicin Some Trade Names ELLENCE , fluorouracil Some Trade Names CARAC , methotrexate Some Trade Names TREXALL , and paclitaxel Some Trade Names ABRAXANETAXOL (see Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Chemotherapy Drugs ).
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil versus fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in premenopausal women with axillary node-positive operable breast cancer: results of a randomized trial.

^ FAC regimen, day 1, 21) versus methotrexate in combination with fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide (i.v.

.(Chemotherapy can literally refer to any drug, but it is usually used to refer to traditional non-hormone treatments for cancer.^ Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy are systemic treatments.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy A series of treatments using drugs that kill cancer cells .
  • The Breast Expert Dr. Corbin: Glossary of Terms Associated With Breast Cancer 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.thebreastexpert.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

)
.Monoclonal antibodies: A relatively recent and very exciting development in HER2+ breast cancer treatment.^ Herceptin is a treatment for HER2 -positive breast cancer.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment for breast cancer .
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breast cancer treatment .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cancer cells have a receptor called HER2 on their surface.^ It destroys the estrogen receptors in cancer cells.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All cells, including breast cancer cells, have molecules on their surfaces called receptors.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If cancer cells are detected, the sample is analyzed to determine the characteristics of the cancer cells, such as Whether the cancer cells have estrogen or progesterone Some Trade Names CRINONEENDOMETRIN receptors How many HER2 receptors are present How quickly the cancer cells are dividing .
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.This receptor is normally stimulated by a growth factor which causes the cell to divide, however in the absence of the growth factor, the cell will normally stop growing.^ HER2 (HER2/neu) receptors: Normal breast cells have HER2 receptors, which help them grow.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herceptin stops cancer cells from growing and dividing.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether the cells have high levels of human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptors (HER2/neu).
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In approx 20% of invasive breast cancers, the HER2 receptor is stuck in the "on" position.^ Herceptin is a treatment for HER2 -positive breast cancer.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estrogen receptor negative breast cancers .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In about 20 to 30% of breast cancers, cancer cells have too many HER2 receptors.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cell divides without stopping, producing an aggressive form of cancer.^ Herceptin stops cancer cells from growing and dividing.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mango effective in preventing, stopping certain colon, breast cancer cells, food scientists find .

^ High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant is a way of giving high doses of chemotherapy and replacing blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment.

.Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a monoclonal antibody to HER2, has dramatically improved the 5yr disease free survival of 'early' (stages 1-3) HER2+ breast cancers to about 87%.^ Herceptin is a treatment for HER2 -positive breast cancer.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stages I and II (early-stage) cancer .
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the earliest stage of breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[57] .Trastuzumab, however, is expensive, and approx 2% of patients suffer significant heart damage; it is otherwise well tolerated with far milder side effects than conventional chemotherapy.^ Side effects of chemotherapy .
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because healthy cells and tissues may also be damaged, treatment often causes unwanted side effects.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some treatments have troublesome side effects.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[58]Other monoclonal antibodies are also being trialled.
.Finally, a recent article has claimed that Aspirin may reduce mortality from breast cancer.^ Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables, as well as exercising and reducing your consumption of alcohol, may help to prevent breast cancer .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Moderate physical activity, like brisk walking, 3 times a week can reduce a young woman's risk of developing breast cancer by 33%, and the risk of breast cancer after menopause by 26%.

^ Walking as little as 30 minutes a day, especially after age 50 – even in the course of doing household-related chores – can significantly reduce a woman’s risk of contracting breast cancer, a recent study found.

[59]

Radiation

.Radiotherapy is given after surgery to the region of the tumor bed, to destroy microscopic tumors that may have escaped surgery.^ Radiation therapy, alone or with chemotherapy or hormone therapy, is sometimes used before surgery to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes, when the tumor is too large for breast-conserving surgery, chemotherapy is given before surgery to reduce the size of the tumor.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adjuvant therapy (treatment given after surgery to increase the chances of a cure) may include the following: .
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Radiation therapy can be delivered as external beam radiotherapy or as brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy).^ Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is the use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and stop them from growing.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For external radiation therapy, patients go to the hospital or clinic each day.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.Radiation can reduce the risk of recurrence by 50-66% (1/2 - 2/3rds reduction of risk) when delivered in the correct dose.^ Radiation therapy after mastectomy reduces the risk of cancer recurring near the site and in nearby lymph nodes.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The USPSTF estimates the benefit of mammography in women aged 50-74 years to be a 30% reduction in risk of death from breast cancer.

^ Read more about Exercising After 50 Reduces Breast Cancer Risk ) .

[60]

Prognosis

.A prognosis is a prediction of outcome, usually the probability of death (or survival), and the probability of progression-free survival (PFS) or disease-free survival (DFS).^ The doctor who takes care of the patient and knows her medical history is in the best position to talk with her about the probable outcome or course of her disease ( prognosis ).
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With best treatment, 10-year disease-free survival varies from 98% to 10%.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.These predictions are based on experience with breast cancer patients with similar classification.^ Does this patient have breast cancer?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The TNM classification of breast cancer is as follows: .
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the same time, we want to closely monitor these patients, because changes in ‘probably benign’ lesions occasionally mean cancer, and we want to detect the cancers as early as possible.” .
  • BREAST CANCER - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A prognosis is an estimate, as patients with the same classification will survive a different amount of time, and classifications are not always precise.^ At the same time, we want to closely monitor these patients, because changes in ‘probably benign’ lesions occasionally mean cancer, and we want to detect the cancers as early as possible.” .
  • BREAST CANCER - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prognosis deteriorates with increasing tumor size, which is an independent predictor of survival in node-negative patients and correlates with the incidence of nodal metastases.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Different forms of treatment may be given at the same time or one after another.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.Survival is usually calculated as an average number of months (or years) that 50% of patients survive, or the percentage of patients that are alive after 1, 5, 15 and 20 years.^ I breast cancer patient has a 80% chance of surviving 5 years compared to a 60% chance for a stage II breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials.

^ In women who have estrogen receptor-positive cancer, tamoxifen increases the likelihood of survival during the first 10 years after diagnosis by about 20 to 25%.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prognosis is important for treatment decisions because patients with a good prognosis are usually offered less invasive treatments, such as lumpectomy and radiation or hormone therapy, while patients with poor prognosis are usually offered more aggressive treatment, such as more extensive mastectomy and one or more chemotherapy drugs.^ Systemic chemotherapy or hormone therapy.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is usually one year after the Mastectomy.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy are systemic treatments.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prognostic factors include staging, (i.e., tumor size, location, grade, whether disease has traveled to other parts of the body), recurrence of the disease, and age of patient.^ It can also spread to other parts of the body.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Radiation may also be useful to control tumors in other parts of the body.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The stage is based on the size of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.Stage is the most important, as it takes into consideration size, local involvement, lymph node status and whether metastatic disease is present.^ The most important factor is the stage of the disease.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most lymphatic vessels in the breast drain into lymph nodes in the armpit (axillary lymph nodes).
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (In most cases, removal of underarm lymph nodes is not necessary.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

The higher the stage at diagnosis, the worse the prognosis. .The stage is raised by the invasiveness of disease to lymph nodes, chest wall, skin or beyond, and the aggressiveness of the cancer cells.^ The lymph nodes may be stuck together or adhere to the skin or chest wall.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If this node contains cancer cells, the other lymph nodes are removed.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nearby lymph nodes or the sentinel lymph node are sampled to help stage the cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.The stage is lowered by the presence of cancer-free zones and close-to-normal cell behaviour (grading).^ To understand different types of cancer, it is helpful to know about normal cells and what happens when they become cancerous.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women who have stage IV breast cancer receive chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy to destroy cancer cells and control the disease.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Size is not a factor in staging unless the cancer is invasive.^ In stage IIIB, the cancer may be any size and: .

^ Stages of breast cancer may be described generally as in situ (not invasive) or invasive.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when a breast cancer is diagnosed in a male it is often at an advanced stage because of the small size of the male breast.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

.For example, Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) involving the entire breast will still be stage zero and consequently an excellent prognosis with a 10yr disease free survival of about 98%.^ Ductal carcinoma in situ is confined to the milk ducts of the breast.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ductal carcinoma in situ .
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are 2 types of breast carcinoma in situ : .

[61]
Grading is based on how biopsied, cultured cells behave. .The closer to normal cancer cells are, the slower their growth and the better the prognosis.^ To understand different types of cancer, it is helpful to know about normal cells and what happens when they become cancerous.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Women with these types of breast cancer have a much better prognosis than women with other types of invasive breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.If cells are not well differentiated, they will appear immature, will divide more rapidly, and will tend to spread.^ Stage I means that cancer cells have not spread beyond the breast and the tumor is no more than about an inch across.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This information helps doctors estimate how rapidly the cancer may spread and which treatments are more likely to be effective.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More than anything, they want to tend to you and your family.

Well differentiated is given a grade of 1, moderate is grade 2, while poor or undifferentiated is given a higher grade of 3 or 4 (depending upon the scale used).
.Younger women tend to have a poorer prognosis than post-menopausal women due to several factors.^ The side effects they have are likely to be more severe than the effects of natural menopause.  Nutrition for Cancer Patients   Loss of appetite can be a problem for cancer patients.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such factors include (1) nulliparity, (2) first full pregnancy when older than 30 years, (3) menarche when younger than 13 years (2 times the risk), (4) menopause when older than 50 years, and (5) not breastfeeding.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women with these types of breast cancer have a much better prognosis than women with other types of invasive breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Their breasts are active with their cycles, they may be nursing infants, and may be unaware of changes in their breasts.^ If they do, this means the cancer may have spread away from the breast.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yesterday I get the text from my dear friend Michelle, Stage IV Terminal Breast Cancer, that her tumor markers are back to where they were in May.

^ However, in most women, the treated breast shrinks somewhat and may change in contour.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, younger women are usually at a more advanced stage when diagnosed.^ This is a forum for women who are braving more treatment and managing the ups and downs of a stage IV diagnosis.
  • Breastcancer.org Discussion Boards - breast cancer discussion forums 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC community.breastcancer.org [Source type: General]

^ However, when a breast cancer is diagnosed in a male it is often at an advanced stage because of the small size of the male breast.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Because this disease usually causes little discomfort, women may ignore it for a year or more before seeing a doctor.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.There may also be biologic factors contributing to a higher risk of disease recurrence for younger women with breast cancer.^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment options for recurrent breast cancer .
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women should talk with their doctor about factors that can increase the risk for breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

[62]
.The presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cancer cell is important in guiding treatment.^ Estrogen and progesterone receptors: Some breast cancer cells have receptors for estrogen.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Estrogen receptor negative breast cancers .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It destroys the estrogen receptors in cancer cells.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Those who do not test positive for these specific receptors will not be able to respond to hormone therapy, and this can affect their chance of survival depending upon what treatment options remain, the exact type of the cancer, and how advanced the disease is.^ Positive test results mean hormones help the cancer grow, and the cancer is likely to respond to hormonal therapy .
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy are systemic treatments.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment options for recurrent breast cancer .
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to hormone receptors, there are other cell surface proteins that may affect prognosis and treatment.^ (Other treatments may sometimes be appropriate.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead of only one or two options, today there's an overwhelming menu of treatment choices that fight the complex mix of cells in each individual cancer.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Types of Breast Cancer 1.1 Ductal carcinoma 1.2 Lobular carcinoma 1.3 Less Common Forms of Breast Cancer 2 Medullary carcinoma 3 Tubular carcinoma 4 Colloid carcinoma and others 5 Inflammatory breast cancer 5.1 Recurrent breast cancer 6 Anatomy of the Breast 7 Risk Factors 7.1 Diagnosis 8 Biopsy 9 Hormone Receptor Testing 10 Prognosis 11 Stages of Breast Cancer 12 Treatment 12.1 Treatment options by stage 12.2 Treatment options for inflammatory breast cancer 12.3 Treatment options for recurrent breast cancer 13 Additional Information 14 References .
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

HER2 status directs the course of treatment. .Patients whose cancer cells are positive for HER2 have more aggressive disease and may be treated with the 'targeted therapy', trastuzumab (Herceptin), a monoclonal antibody that targets this protein and improves the prognosis significantly.^ Herceptin is a treatment for HER2 -positive breast cancer.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The benefits of Herceptin therapy will vary from patient to patient.
  • Treatment - Breast cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may be used to treat patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that has progressed following treatment with trastuzumab.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Tumors overexpressing the Wnt signaling pathway co-receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) may represent a distinct subtype of breast cancer and a potential treatment target.^ Estrogen receptor negative breast cancers .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment options for recurrent breast cancer .
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer: diagnosis & treatment .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[63]

Psychological aspects

.The emotional impact of cancer diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and related issues can be severe.^ Breast cancer: diagnosis & treatment .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been suggested that improved treatment and early detection through mammography exams and related detection methods largely account for the decline in breast cancer deaths since 1990.
  • Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States - Population Reference Bureau 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (HealthDay News) -- Acupuncture is just as good as standard medication to ease hot flashes and other uncomfortable symptoms in women undergoing breast cancer treatment.

.Most larger hospitals are associated with cancer support groups which provide a supportive environment to help patients cope and gain perspective from cancer survivors.^ It also has information to help patients cope with breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer .

^ A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • National Cancer Alliance 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cancersociety.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Online cancer support groups are also very beneficial to cancer patients, especially in dealing with uncertainty and body-image problems inherent in cancer treatment.^ See: Cancer support group .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and trastuzumab in stage I-IIA breast cancer: Toxicity data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III trial N9831 .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Postoperative radiotherapy in high-risk postmenopausal breast-cancer patients given adjuvant tamoxifen: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group DBCG 82c randomised trial .
  • Breast Cancer Information and Resources | Oncolink 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cancer.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Not all breast cancer patients experience their illness in the same manner.^ Does this patient have breast cancer?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I breast cancer patient has a 80% chance of surviving 5 years compared to a 60% chance for a stage II breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ (SheChive) The 69 Steamiest Sex Songs of All Time (PopEater) Tags: health , facebook , breast cancer , breast cancer awareness , facebook bra color .
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

.Factors such as age can have a significant impact on the way a patient copes with a breast cancer diagnosis.^ Does this patient have breast cancer?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It also has information to help patients cope with breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Premenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer must confront the issues of early menopause induced by many of the chemotherapy regimens used to treat their breast cancer, especially those that use hormones to counteract ovarian function.^ Lymph nodes Hormones Lobules Breast Ovarian Breast cancer (48) .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Muslim women with breast cancer .
  • Breastcancer.org Discussion Boards - breast cancer discussion forums 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC community.breastcancer.org [Source type: General]

^ Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

[64]
.On the other hand, a recent study conducted by researchers at the College of Public Health of the University of Georgia showed that older women may face a more difficult recovery from breast cancer than their younger counterparts.^ More than two generations of relatives with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Fewer than 1% of women have the genes for breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In more than 80% of breast cancer cases, women discover the lump themselves.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[65] .As the incidence of breast cancer in women over 50 rises and survival rates increase, breast cancer is increasingly becoming a geriatric issue that warrants both further research and the expansion of specialized cancer support services tailored for specific age groups.^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer is not just a WOMEN’S issue just because it’s about breast, it’s a PEOPLE issue.
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

^ See: Cancer support group .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[65]

Epidemiology

Age-standardized death from breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[66]
     no data      less than 2      2-4      4-6      6-8      8-10      10-12      12-14      14-16      16-18      18-20      20-22      more than 22
.Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, after skin cancer, representing 16% of all female cancers.^ Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the United States (other than skin cancer).
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aside from non-melanoma skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery is the most common treatment for breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

[67] .The rate is more than twice that of colorectal cancer and cervical cancer and about three times that of lung cancer.^ And I have more to be thankful for than I could ever complain about.

^ Methods for conducting systematic reviews of evidence on effectiveness and economic efficiency of interventions to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer that begins in the lobes or lobules is called lobular carcinoma and is more often found in both breasts than are other types of breast cancer.

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Mortality worldwide is 25% greater than that of lung cancer in women.^ Thus, the absolute risk reduction from screening (as shown by the number needed to invite to screen) is greater for women aged 50 to 59 years than for those aged 40 to 49 years.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Women who had their first child after the age of 30 have a greater chance of developing breast cancer than women who had their children at a younger age.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the United States (other than skin cancer).
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths).^ In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths).
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/breast_cancer 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death in Hispanic women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death in women.

[4] .The number of cases worldwide has significantly increased since the 1970s, a phenomenon partly attributed to the modern lifestyles.^ Significantly, the number of women diagnosed with breast cancer is increasing at an average of 3% annually.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ The incidence rate of breast cancer has increased since the 1970s; however, recent data show that this rate seems to be decreasing, both overall and on an age-adjusted basis.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

[68][69]
.The incidence of breast cancer varies greatly around the world: it is lowest in less-developed countries and greatest in the more-developed countries.^ The longer this exposure, the more likely she is to develop breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Singapore woman developing breast cancer in her lifetime is about 5%.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Changes in certain genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, and others) make women more susceptible to breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

In the twelve world regions, the annual age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 women are as follows: in Eastern Asia, 18; South Central Asia, 22; sub-Saharan Africa, 22; South-Eastern Asia, 26; North Africa and Western Asia, 28; South and Central America, 42; Eastern Europe, 49; Southern Europe, 56; Northern Europe, 73; Oceania, 74; Western Europe, 78; and in North America, 90.[70]
.Breast cancer is strongly related to age with only 5% of all breast cancers occur in women under 40 years old.^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All recommendations are for women not at increased risk for breast cancer.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Women of all age groups are affected but are more common in women above 40 years old.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

[71] .However, it can occur in younger women.^ However, most breast cancers occur in women over the age of 50, and the risk is especially high for women over age 60.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Overdiagnosis can also occur in younger women if a detected DCIS or other early-stage lesion never progresses to invasive cancer.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, evidence may be harder to obtain because breast cancer is not common among younger women.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

United States

.The lifetime risk for breast cancer in the United States is usually given as 1 in 8 (12.5%) with a 1 in 35 (3%) chance of death.^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

[72] .A recent analysis however has called this estimate into question when it found a risk of only 6% in healthy women.^ Analysis from the Women's Health Initiative has found that women who took the bone saving drugs called bisphosphonates had fewer invasive breast cancers than women who didn't take the meds.

^ These trends appear to call into question the recommendations for women to wait until they are 50 to undergo regular mammography exams and then to do so only biennially.
  • Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States - Population Reference Bureau 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, no studies have been done on using MRI to screen women at average risk.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

[73]
.The United States has the highest annual incidence rates of breast cancer in the world; 128.6 per 100,000 in whites and 112.6 per 100,000 among African Americans.^ In 2006, breast cancer was diagnosed in about 213,000 women in the United States.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Women in North America have the highest incidence of breast cancer in the world.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[72][74] .It is the second-most common cancer (after skin cancer) and the second-most common cause of cancer death (after lung cancer).^ Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women after skin cancer and, of cancers, is the second most common cause of death among women after lung cancer.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women in the United States, not including skin cancer, and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer deaths.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among women, breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[72] .In 2007, breast cancer was expected to cause 40,910 deaths in the US (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths).^ Breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death in Hispanic women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Causes of breast cancer .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All women age 40 and older are at risk for breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] .This figure includes 450-500 annual deaths among men out of 2000 cancer cases.^ It was a good idea to start with but not everybody got the message, i figured out it was underwear related but until i read this i never knew it was about breast cancer.
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

^ Nevertheless, it is estimated that about 40,460 women and 450 men will die from breast cancer in the United States in 2007.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These changes include those that require a biopsy to rule out breast cancer or those that make the breasts appear dense on a mammogram.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[75]
.In the US, both incidence and death rates for breast cancer have been declining in the last few years in Native Americans and Alaskan Natives.^ This risk of cancer is increased for both breasts.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Note: The death rates refer to the number of deaths due to breast cancer per 100,000 persons in the particular age group (including both females and males).
  • Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States - Population Reference Bureau 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Worldwide, the incidence of breast cancer is highest in developed countries in North America and Western Europe, with lowest incidences seen in South America, Africa and parts of Asia.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[18][76] .Nevertheless, a US study conducted in 2005 indicated that breast cancer remains the most feared disease,[77] even though heart disease is a much more common cause of death among women.^ Breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death in Hispanic women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women are 100 times more likely to get breast cancer then men.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women.

[78] .Many doctors say that women exaggerate their risk of breast cancer.^ The risk for breast cancer increases with age.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Women should talk with their doctor about factors that can increase the risk for breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many women fear breast cancer, partly because it is common.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[79]
Racial disparities
.Several studies have found that black women in the U.S. are more likely to die from breast cancer even though white women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disease.^ The longer this exposure, the more likely she is to develop breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in women with recently diagnosed breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women are 100 times more likely to get breast cancer then men.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Even after diagnosis, black women are less likely to get treatment compared to white women.^ While whites have higher incidences of breast cancer compared with blacks, blacks are more likely to die from the disease than whites.
  • Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States - Population Reference Bureau 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All women who participate in a research study are treated because a new treatment is compared with other effective treatments.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the second most common cause of cancer death in white, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[80][81][82] .Scholars have advanced several theories for the disparities, including inadequate access to screening, reduced availability of the most advanced surgical and medical techniques, or some biological characteristic of the disease in the African American population.^ Within the United States, breast cancer incidence is highest in White women, lower in African American and Hispanic population and lowest in American Indian and Alaskan native women.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After a mastectomy, some women have some permanent loss of strength in these muscles, but for most women, reduced strength and limited movement are temporary.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast Screening is available as part of a general health check in Well Women Clinics found in most government outpatient clinics and Singapore Cancer Society.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

[83] .Some studies suggest that the racial disparity in breast cancer outcomes may reflect cultural biases more than biological disease differences.^ In addition, there are racial disparities associated with breast cancer.
  • Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States - Population Reference Bureau 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More than two generations of relatives with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables, as well as exercising and reducing your consumption of alcohol, may help to prevent breast cancer .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[84] .However, the lack of diversity in clinical trials for breast cancer treatment may contribute to these disparities, with recent research indicating that black women are more likely to have estrogen receptor negative breast cancers, which are not responsive to hormone treatments that are effective for most white women.^ The longer this exposure, the more likely she is to develop breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research has shown that ovarian ablation is as effective as chemotherapy in the systemic treatment of women with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ MRI evaluation of the contralateral breast in women with recently diagnosed breast cancer.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[85] Research is currently ongoing to define the contribution of both biological and cultural factors.[81][86]

UK

.45,000 cases diagnosed and 12,500 deaths per annum.^ Approximately 1,150,000 cases and 410,000 deaths from breast cancer occur annually worldwide, including 215,000 new cases and 41,000 deaths in the United States.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They represent the number of deaths due to breast cancer per 100,000 women assuming that all three groups of women had the same age structure.
  • Trends in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States - Population Reference Bureau 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The incidence rate in 2003 was 124.2 per 100 000 women, a 6.7% decrease from the previous year (12) .
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.60% of cases are treated with Tamoxifen, of these the drug becomes ineffective in 35%.^ In postmenopausal women, these drugs may be more effective than tamoxifen.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A recent study from America has shown that tamoxifen, an important anticancer drug can significantly reduce the risk of breast cancer in these women.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs may be given with tamoxifen or after tamoxifen has been used for 5 years.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[87]

Developing countries

.As developing countries grow and adopt Western culture they also accumulate more disease that has arisen from Western culture and its habits (fat/alcohol intake, smoking, exposure to oral contraceptives, the changing patterns of childbearing and breastfeeding, low parity).^ Worldwide, the incidence of breast cancer is highest in developed countries in North America and Western Europe, with lowest incidences seen in South America, Africa and parts of Asia.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prolonged Use of Oral Contraceptives or Estrogen Therapy Taking oral contraceptives increases the risk of later developing breast cancer, but only very slightly.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, as South America has developed so has the amount of breast cancer.^ Worldwide, the incidence of breast cancer is highest in developed countries in North America and Western Europe, with lowest incidences seen in South America, Africa and parts of Asia.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Singapore woman developing breast cancer in her lifetime is about 5%.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Age and gender -- Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

."Breast cancer in less developed countries, such as those in South America, is a major public health issue.^ Age and health history can affect the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Such a woman will have a 40 to 60% of developing breast cancer in her lifetime.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Worldwide, the incidence of breast cancer is highest in developed countries in North America and Western Europe, with lowest incidences seen in South America, Africa and parts of Asia.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil.^ Breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death in Hispanic women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Among women, breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the leading cause of death in women aged 44-50 years.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The expected numbers of new cases and deaths due to breast cancer in South America for the year 2001 are approximately 70,000 and 30,000, respectively."^ Breast cancer accounts for approximately 15% of female cancer deaths.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer death in Hispanic women.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer: new guidelines on screening .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.[88] However, because of a lack of funding and resources, treatment is not always available to those suffering with breast cancer.^ Different types of treatment are available for patients with breast cancer .

^ Different types of treatment are available for patients with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer treatment .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

History

.Breast cancer may be one of the oldest known forms of cancerous tumors in humans.^ Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables, as well as exercising and reducing your consumption of alcohol, may help to prevent breast cancer .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women without known deleterious genetic mutations (such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 ) may still have other demographic, physical, or historical risk factors for breast cancer, but none conveys a clinically important absolute increased risk for cancer.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues, although it is not known at this time how to predict which lesions will become invasive.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

The oldest description of cancer was discovered in Egypt and dates back to approximately 1600 BC. The Edwin Smith Papyrus describes 8 cases of tumors or ulcers of the breast that were treated by cauterization.The writing says about the disease, "There is no treatment."[89] For centuries, physicians described similar cases in their practises, with the same conclusion. .It was not until doctors achieved greater understanding of the circulatory system in the 17th century that they could establish a link between breast cancer and the lymph nodes in the armpit.^ Lymph nodes Hormones Lobules Breast Ovarian Breast cancer (48) .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methods of Treatment   Methods of treatment for breast cancer are local or systemic .
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bedard PL, Cardoso F. Recent advances in adjuvant systemic therapy for early-stage breast cancer.

.The French surgeon Jean Louis Petit (1674–1750) and later the Scottish surgeon Benjamin Bell (1749–1806) were the first to remove the lymph nodes, breast tissue, and underlying chest muscle.^ Underarm lymph nodes are not usually removed.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first lymph node to receive the substance or dye is removed.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The smaller of the two chest muscles is also taken out to help in removing the lymph nodes.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.Their successful work was carried on by William Stewart Halsted who started performing mastectomies in 1882. The Halsted radical mastectomy often involved removing both breasts, associated lymph nodes, and the underlying chest muscles.^ If these nodes are not involved with cancer, no complete removal of the axillary lymph nodes is performed.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In radical mastectomy (also called Halsted radical mastectomy), the surgeon removes the breast, the chest muscles, all of the lymph nodes under the arm, and some additional fat and skin.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In mastectomy, all breast tissue is removed.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.This often led to long-term pain and disability, but was seen as necessary in order to prevent the cancer from recurring.^ Removing the tumor with some normal tissue provides the best chance of preventing cancer from recurring within the breast.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is given to try to destroy any remaining cancer cells and prevent the cancer from recurring, or coming back.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevention is possible only by elimination of known risk factors and this is a difficult and long term goal, e.g.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

[90] .Radical mastectomies remained the standard until the 1970s, when a new understanding of metastasis led to perceiving cancer as a systemic illness as well as a localized one, and more sparing procedures were developed that proved equally effective.^ The longer this exposure, the more likely she is to develop breast cancer.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This procedure is sometimes called a Halsted radical mastectomy.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 20 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (HealthDay News) -- Acupuncture is just as good as standard medication to ease hot flashes and other uncomfortable symptoms in women undergoing breast cancer treatment.

.The French surgeon Bernard Peyrilhe(1737-1804) realized the first experimental transmission of cancer by injecting extracts of breast cancer into an animal.^ Cancer research has led to real progress against breast cancer--better survival and improved quality of life.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The model was subsequently revised (Gail Model 2) and validated to predict risk of invasive breast cancer including information on the history of first-degree affected family members.

^ In fact, when breast cancer first develops, there may be no symptoms at all.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prominent women who died of breast cancer include Empress Theodora, wife of Justinian; Anne of Austria, mother of Louis XIV of France; Mary Washington, mother of George, and Rachel Carson, the environmentalist.^ Women who have had breast cancer face an increased risk of getting breast cancer again.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A mother or sister with breast cancer.

^ Analysis from the Women's Health Initiative has found that women who took the bone saving drugs called bisphosphonates had fewer invasive breast cancers than women who didn't take the meds.

[91]
.The first case-controlled study on breast cancer epidemiology was done by Janet Lane-Claypon, who published a comparative study in 1926 of 500 breast cancer cases and 500 control patients of the same background and lifestyle for the British Ministry of Health.^ There are 3 methods of controlling breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Woman who develop breast cancer in both breasts at the same time (i.e.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients included 1,901 Life After Cancer Epidemiology Study participants diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 1997 and 2000 and recruited primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry.
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[92][93]

Society and culture

A pink ribbon, the universal symbol of breast cancer awareness.
.The widespread acceptance of second opinions before surgery, less invasive surgical procedures, support groups, and other advances in patient care have stemmed, in part, from the breast cancer advocacy movement.^ Does this patient have breast cancer?
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ See: Cancer support group .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Distant (metastatic): The cancer has spread from the breast to other parts of the body.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[94]
.October is recognized as National Breast Cancer Awareness Month by the media as well as survivors, family and friends of survivors and/or victims of the disease.^ Famous breast cancer survivors .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer .

^ Breast Cancer Awareness month is October.
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

[95] .A pink ribbon is worn to recognize the struggle that sufferers face when battling with the cancer.^ Pink Ribbons Project will be represented at the upcoming 2009 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS), which is presented by the CTRC, AACR, and the Baylor College of Medicine.

^ PINK TUX TUXEDO T SHIRT cancer ribbon breast vintage .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[96]
The patron saint of breast cancer is Agatha of Sicily.[97]
.In the fall of 1991, Susan G. Komen for the Cure handed out pink ribbons to participants in its New York City race for breast cancer survivors.^ PINK TUX TUXEDO T SHIRT cancer ribbon breast vintage .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Famous breast cancer survivors .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer: new guidelines on screening .
  • Breast Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[98]
.The pink and blue ribbon was designed in 1996 by Nancy Nick, President and Founder of the John W. Nick Foundation to bring awareness that "Men Get Breast Cancer Too!"^ Men can get breast cancer too, you know?
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

^ Breast Cancer Awareness month is October.
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

^ Then I comment, “Men can get breast cancer too, gentlemen.
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
  • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

[99]
In 2009 the male breast cancer advocacy groups Out of the Shadow of Pink, A Man's Pink and the Brandon Greening Foundation for Breast Cancer in Men joined together to globally establish the third week of October as "Male Breast Cancer Awareness Week"[100]

Research

.A considerable part of the current knowledge on breast carcinomas is based on in vivo and in vitro studies performed with breast cancer cell (BCC) lines.^ Current knowledge about the development of breast cancer is limited.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And knowledge about breast cancer is increasing.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the most common breast cancer occurs in the epithelial cells that line the duct system of the gland (ductal carcinoma), the sequence of development of invasive cancer is not entirely known.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.These provide an unlimited source of homogenous self-replicating material, free of contaminating stromal cells, and often easily cultured in simple standard media.^ These materials can also be ordered by telephone from the Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237), TTY at 1-800-332-8615.

^ When these cells reach a new site, they may form a new tumour, often referred to as a secondary or a metastasis.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

The first line described, BT-20, was established in 1958. Since then, and despite sustained work in this area, the number of permanent lines obtained has been strikingly low (about 100). Indeed, attempts to culture BCC from primary tumors have been largely unsuccessful. .This poor efficiency was often due to technical difficulties associated with the extraction of viable tumor cells from their surrounding stroma.^ At this early period of cancer growth, the malignant cells are confined within the milk ducts and glands and have not invaded into the surrounding tissue known as the stroma.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Often, technical difficulties with the liver scan (eg, due to patient body habitus) necessitate CT scans.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when cancer cells have broken out of the milk ducts and lobules and invaded the surrounding stroma, the cancer is called an invasive cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

Most of the available BCC lines issued from metastatic tumors, mainly from pleural effusions. .Effusions provided generally large numbers of dissociated, viable tumor cells with little or no contamination by fibroblasts and other tumor stroma cells.^ Stage I means that cancer cells have not spread beyond the breast and the tumor is no more than about an inch across.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The tumor in the breast is large (more than 2 inches across), the cancer is extensive in the underarm lymph nodes, or it has spread to other lymph nodes or tissues near the breast.
  • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of ultrasound allows assessment and biopsy of a large number of breast lumps in the office without the use of sedatives or general anesthesia.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Many of the currently used BCC lines were established in the late 1970s. .A very few of them, namely MCF-7 , T-47D, and MDA-MB-231, account for more than two-thirds of all abstracts reporting studies on mentioned BCC lines, as concluded from a Medline-based survey.^ More than two generations of relatives with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ Fortunately death resulting from chemotherapy is very uncommon with an incidence of 0.9% reported from one large chemotherapy study.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ MRI-based tumor size was within 1 cm of pathologic size in 44 tumors (72%), more than 1 cm above pathologic size in 6 tumors, and more than 1 cm below pathologic size in 11 tumors.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Non exhaustive list of breast cancer cell lines

.Treatments are constantly evaluated in randomized, controlled trials, to evaluate and compare individual drugs, combinations of drugs, and surgical and radiation techniques.^ Treatment usually involves surgery and may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone-blocking drugs.
  • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical trials of new combinations of lapatinib with anticancer drugs.

^ Clinical trials testing new anticancer drugs, new drug combinations, and new ways of giving treatment.
  • Breast cancer - Medpedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

The latest research is reported annually at scientific meetings such as that of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium,[101] and the St. Gallen Oncology Conference in St. Gallen, Switzerland.[102] .These studies are reviewed by professional societies and other organizations, and formulated into guidelines for specific treatment groups and risk category.^ Criteria for Systemic Treatment Based on the information obtained from microscopic analysis of the breast cancer and axillary lymph nodes and results of imaging studies, a woman is divided into the low risk and high-risk groups.
  • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

^ [Guideline] Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Brawley OW. Cancer screening in the United States, 2008: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and cancer screening issues.

^ Since that recommendation, 1 new trial and updated data from an older study have been published that specifically address screening in women in the younger age group.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

Mainly based on Lacroix and Leclercq (2004) [103]. .For more data on the nature of TP53 mutations in breast cancer cell lines, see Lacroix et al.^ For more information, see Medscape's Breast Cancer Resource Center.
  • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ See the section on Inflammatory Breast Cancer for more information.

^ Although the most common breast cancer occurs in the epithelial cells that line the duct system of the gland (ductal carcinoma), the sequence of development of invasive cancer is not entirely known.
  • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

(2006)[104].
Cell line Primary tumor Origin of cells Estrogen receptors Progesterone receptors ERBB2 amplification Mutated TP53 Tumorigenic in mice Reference
BT-20 Invasive ductal carcinoma Primary No No No Yes Yes [105]
BT-474 Invasive ductal carcinoma Primary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [106]
Evsa-T Invasive ductal carcinoma, mucin-producing, signet-ring type Metastasis (ascites) No Yes  ? Yes  ? [107]
Hs578T Carcinosarcoma Primary No No No Yes No [108]
MCF-7 Invasive ductal carcinoma Metastasis (pleural effusion) Yes Yes No No (wild-type) Yes (with estrogen supplementation) [109]
MDA-MB-231 Invasive ductal carcinoma Metastasis (pleural effusion) No No No Yes Yes [110]
SK-BR-3 Invasive ductal carcinoma Metastasis (pleural effusion) No No Yes Yes No [111]
T-47D Invasive ductal carcinoma Metastasis (pleural effusion) Yes Yes No Yes Yes (with estrogen supplementation) [112]

See also

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  86. ^ Demicheli R, Retsky MW, Hrushesky WJ, Baum M, Gukas ID, Jatoi I (2007). "Racial disparities in breast cancer outcome: insights into host-tumor interactions". Cancer 110 (9): 1880–8. doi:10.1002/cncr.22998. PMID 17876835. 
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  94. ^ http://www.crcfl.net/content/view/history-of-breast-cancer-advocacy.html
  95. ^ "Breast Cancer Awareness Month". http://www.nbcam.com/. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 
  96. ^ "Pink Ribbon". http://pinkribbon.com/. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 
  97. ^ "Index of Saints". Catholic Forum. http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/sainta04.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 
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  100. ^ "Male Breast Cancer Awareness Week". http://www.outoftheshadowofpink.com/Male-Breast-Cancer-Awareness-Week-Campaign.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  101. ^ San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium Abstracts, newsletters, and other reports of the meeting.
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  • "Breast Cancer Risk Assessment". DukeHealth.org. .http://www.dukehealth.org/HealthLibrary/CareGuides/Cancer/TreatmentInstructions/breast_cancer_risk_assessment.^ Accessed at www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_1X_How_many_people_get_breast_cancer_5.asp on 25 September 2009.
    • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Available at http://www.acog.org/from_home/Misc/uspstfResponse.cfm .

    ^ Mary Ann Breast Cancer Kickin’ Survivor & Health Activist, Executive Director & Founder, The Get In Touch Foundation http://www.GetInTouchFoundation.org .
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2008-07-08
    .
     
  • Arthur, Joyce (2002-03). ."Abortion and Breast Cancer — A Forged Link".^ Why Breast Cancer and Infertility are Linked: How Your Genes ...

    ^ Researchers at the Westchester Medical Center have discovered a link between breast cancer genes and infertility in women.

    ^ I posted a link to this article as my way to promote breast cancer awareness.
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

    The Humanist. .http://www.abortion.org.au/breastcancer.htm.^ Available at http://www.acog.org/from_home/Misc/uspstfResponse.cfm .

    ^ Mary Ann Breast Cancer Kickin’ Survivor & Health Activist, Executive Director & Founder, The Get In Touch Foundation http://www.GetInTouchFoundation.org .
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Available at http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/F861009_final%209-08-09.pdf .

    .Retrieved 2007-11-03.
     
  • "Female Breast Cancer —".^ Breast cancer accounts for approximately 15% of female cancer deaths.
    • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Nevertheless, it is estimated that about 40,460 women and 450 men will die from breast cancer in the United States in 2007.
    • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Breast cancer incidence Breast cancer is one of the most important diseases for women in the United States and constitutes one fourth of all cancers in females, making it the most common cancer in females.
    • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    NHS Choices. .http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Cancer-of-the-breast-female/Pages/Introduction.aspx.^ Breast cancer accounts for approximately 15% of female cancer deaths.
    • Breast Cancer Evaluation: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Accessed at http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html on 25 September 2009.
    • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Introduction · Breast Cancer · Breast Cysts · Breast Infection and Abscess · Fibroadenomas · Fibrocystic Changes .
    • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2009-12-14
    . 
  • Ressler, Kelly-Anne (2002-08). ."Information for GPs – Alcohol and cancer risk" (PDF).^ The model was subsequently revised (Gail Model 2) and validated to predict risk of invasive breast cancer including information on the history of first-degree affected family members.

    ^ There is less controversy regarding alcohol as a risk factor for breast cancer.
    • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Based on information from Feuer EJ et al.: The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer.
    • Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    Cancer Control Program. South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra Area Health Service. .http://www.sesiahs.health.nsw.gov.au/publications/cancerControl/26%20Alcohol.PDF.^ Mary Ann Breast Cancer Kickin’ Survivor & Health Activist, Executive Director & Founder, The Get In Touch Foundation http://www.GetInTouchFoundation.org .
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The National Cancer Institute also has a Web site at http://cancertrials.nci.nih.gov that offers detailed information about clinical trials for patients, health professionals, and the public.
    • Each year, more than 180,000 women in this country learn they have breast cancer. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tjclarkdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2007-11-03
    .
     
  • Napieralski, Julie A.; Carol Devine (1988-03). ."Alcohol and the Risk of Breast Cancer".^ This may explain why Asian women have a lower risk from breast cancer compared to American women.
    • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Studies of the use of contrast-enhanced MRI for breast cancer screening have been conducted only in very high-risk populations.
    • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Risk factors Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors, which increase the chance of a woman developing breast cancer (see Table 1, below).

    .Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors in New York State.^ This may explain why Asian women have a lower risk from breast cancer compared to American women.
    • Breast cancer screening | prevention, early detection by mammogram, ca 153 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscreening.sg [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Risk factors Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors, which increase the chance of a woman developing breast cancer (see Table 1, below).

    ^ The model was subsequently revised (Gail Model 2) and validated to predict risk of invasive breast cancer including information on the history of first-degree affected family members.

    Cornell University. http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/FactSheet/Diet/fs13.alcohol.cfm. .Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  • "Radiology Info - Breast Cancer".^ Proceedings of the 2007 Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

    ^ American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 update of recommendations for the use of tumor markers in breast cancer.

    ^ The 10-year risk for breast cancer is 1 in 69 for a woman at age 40 years, 1 in 42 at age 50 years, and 1 in 29 at age 60 years (11) .
    • Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement — Ann Intern Med 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

    Radiological Society of North America. Radiological Society of North America. .http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=breastcancer&bhcp=1.^ Available at http://www.acog.org/from_home/Misc/uspstfResponse.cfm .

    ^ Mary Ann Breast Cancer Kickin’ Survivor & Health Activist, Executive Director & Founder, The Get In Touch Foundation http://www.GetInTouchFoundation.org .
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]
    • Facebook? Your Bra Color? Something About Breast Cancer Awareness? I'm Confused | The Frisky 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thefrisky.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Available at http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/F861009_final%209-08-09.pdf .

    Retrieved 2007-11-03
    . 

External links


Simple English

Breast cancer is a type of cancer that happens to the breast.

In the world, breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death. The first four are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer. In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) in the world.[1] Among all women in the world, breast cancer is the most common cancer.[1]

In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death in women (after lung cancer). In 2007, breast cancer caused about 40,910 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths) in the U.S.[2][3] Women in the United States have a 1 in 8 chance of getting breast cancer in their lives. They have a 1 in 33 chance of death from breast cancer.[3]

There are many more people getting breast cancer since the 1970s. This is because of how people in the Western world live.[4][5] Because the breast is composed of identical tissues in males and females, breast cancer also occurs in males, though it is less common.[6]

When a person gets breast cancer, they can try to cure it in three ways. Doctors can cut out the cancer in the breast (mastectomy). They can give the person drugs (chemotherapy). They can also try to kill the cancer with energy (radiation). Sometimes they do more than one of these cures.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 WHO (February 2006). "Fact sheet No. 297: Cancer". http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/index.html. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  2. American Cancer Society (2007). "Cancer Facts & Figures 2007". http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2007PWSecured.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 American Cancer Society (2006-09-18). "What Are the Key Statistics for Breast Cancer?". http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1X_What_are_the_key_statistics_for_breast_cancer_5.asp. Retrieved 2007-05-22. 
  4. Laurance, Jeremy (2006-09-29). "Breast cancer cases rise 80% since Seventies". The Independent. http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/health_medical/article1771835.ece. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  5. "Breast Cancer: Statistics on Incidence, Survival, and Screening". Imaginis Corporation. 2006. http://imaginis.com/breasthealth/statistics.asp. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  6. "Male Breast Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute". National Cancer Institute. 2006. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/malebreast/healthprofessional. Retrieved 2006-10-16. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Breast cancer, which are similar to those in the above article.








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