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Breda
—  Municipality  —
Grote Kerk (Large Church) or Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk (Church of Our Lady)

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 51°34′N 4°48′E / 51.567°N 4.8°E / 51.567; 4.8
Country Netherlands
Province North Brabant
Area (2006)
 - Total 129.15 km2 (49.9 sq mi)
 - Land 126.87 km2 (49 sq mi)
 - Water 2.28 km2 (0.9 sq mi)
Population (31 mei 2009)
 - Total 172.219?
 - Density 1,358/km2 (3,517.2/sq mi)
  Source: CBS, Statline.
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Breda (About this sound pronunciation ) is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. The name Breda derived from brede Aa ('broad Aa') and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa. As a fortified city, the city was a strategic military and political significance. Although a direct Fiefdom of the Holy Roman Emperor, the city obtained a municipal charter; the acquisition of Breda, through marriage by the house of Nassau insured that Breda would be at the center of political and social life in the Lowlands.

Breda's urban area is home to an estimated 200,000 people (2008).

Contents

History

In the 11th century, Breda was a direct fief of the Holy Roman Emperor, its earliest known lord being Henry of Brunesheim (1080–1125). The city of Breda obtained a municipal charter in 1252. After that Breda had the rights to build fortifications. The city constructed brick walls and Roman-style gates.

In 1327 Adelheid of Gaveren Breda sold Breda to John III, Duke of Brabant. In 1350, the fief was resold to John II of Wassenaar (d. 1377). In 1403 the heiress of his line, Johanna of Polanen (1392–1445), married Engelbert I of Nassau (1370–1442). Through her, the city came into the possession of the house of Nassau, where it remained until 1795, passing to William I of Orange (1533–1584), stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht and leader of the Dutch revolt. Thus the baron of Breda was also count of Nassau, Germany, Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the Dutch Republic (from 1572–1650, 1672–1702, 1747–1795). Breda remained part of the barony Breda until it was taken by French revolutionary forces in 1795.[1]

Residence city

The acquisition of the city by the House of Orange-Nassau marked its emergence as a residenzstadt (residence city). The presence of the Orange-Nassau family attracted other of nobles, who built palatial residences in the old quarters of the city. The most impressive one, built by the Italian architect Thomas Vincidor de Bologna for the first Dutch prince, was the first renaissance style built palace north of the Alps. In the 15th century the city's physical, economic and strategic importance expanded rapidly. A great church was built in Brabantine Gothic style with a gallant 97 metres (318 ft) high tower, called Grote Kerk (main church) or also Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk (Church of Our Lady). In 1534 the modest medieval fortifications were impressively rebuilt by Henry III of Nassau-Breda.

This colorized 17th century copperplate depicts the destruction, rape, and pillage of Breda: soldiers are killing men and women and the city is burning.
Haultpenne's soldiers vent their fury on the citizens of Breda. in 1581.

In 1534, a fire destroyed over 90 percent of the city, close to 1300 houses, churches and chapels and the town hall. Only 150 houses and the main church remained. In 1581, during the Eighty Years' War Breda was captured by surprise by Spanish and Flemish troops under the command of Claude de Berlaymont, also known as Haultpenne. Although the city had surrendered upon the condition that it would not be plundered, the troops vented their fury on the inhabitants; in the resulting mayhem, known as Haultpenne's Fury, over 500 citizens were killed. In 1590 it fell again into the hands of Maurice of Nassau, as 68 hand-picked men, concealed under the turf in a peat-boat , contriving to enter the town, a daring plan devised by Adriaen van Bergen. The so-called Spaniards Hole marks the spot where the peat-boat allegedly lay, although this is not historically proven.

Surrender of Breda, by Diego Velázquez.

After a ten-month siege in 1624–25, the city surrendered to the Spaniards under Spinola was immortalized by Diego Velázquez. In 1637 Breda was recaptured by Frederick Henry of Orange after a four-month siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to the Dutch Republic by the Treaty of Westphalia.

Stuart exiles

The exiled Stuart pretender Charles II of England resided in Breda during most of his exile during the Cromwellian Commonwealth and Protectorate, thanks to the proximity of Charles's sister Mary, Princess Royal, the widow of Prince William II of Orange.

Based mostly on suggestions by Parliamentarian General George Monck, Charles II's Declaration of Breda (1660) made known the conditions of his acceptance of the crown of England which he was to accept/resume later in the same year.

The Treaty of Breda was signed in the city, July 31, 1667, bringing to an end the Second Anglo-Dutch War in which the Dutch faced the same Charles II who had been their guest. Between 1746 and 1748 it was the site of the Congress of Breda a series of talks between Britain and France aimed at bringing an end to the War of the Austrian Succession, which ultimately led to the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Van Slobbe, the Mayor of Breda, giving a welcome speech to the Polish 1st Armoured Division
'Freed by the Poles', poster printed after liberation of Breda.

World War II

During the World War II the city was under German occupation. It was liberated following a successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by forces of 1st Polish Armoured Division of Gen. Maczek on October 29, 1944. Each year during Liberation Day festivities, Breda is visited by a large Polish contingent and the city of Breda reserves a special portion of the festivities for the fallen Polish soldiers. A museum and a monument honoring General Stanisław Maczek and the Polish 1st Armoured Division stands at the city center. General Maczek and soldiers of his division are buried in a nearby Polish military cemetery.

Breda was the site of one of the first panopticon prison establishments. This prison housed the only German war criminals ever to be imprisoned in the Netherlands for their war crimes during the Second World War. They were known as the 'Breda Four (and later three)'. They were Willy Paul Franz Lages who was released in 1966 due to serious illness, Joseph Johann Kotälla who died in prison in 1979, Ferdinand Hugo aus der Fünten and Franz Fischer who both were released in 1989...

Administration

  • Breda (city) (~170,000)[2]
    • Ginneken (former village absorbed by city agglomeration)
    • Princenhage (former village absorbed by city agglomeration)
  • Prinsenbeek (~11,500) (added at the municipal reorganization in 1997)
  • Bavel (~7,000) (added at the municipal reorganization in 1997)
  • Teteringen (~6,500) (added at the municipal reorganization in 1997)
  • Ulvenhout (~4,700) (added at the municipal reorganization in 1997)

Administration

The city of Breda is divided in 7 city sectors:

  1. Breda Centrum (Centre)
  2. Breda West (West)
  3. Breda Noord-West (Haagse Beemden) (Northwest)
  4. Breda Noord ( North)
  5. Breda Oost (East)
  6. Breda Zuid-Oost (Southeast)
  7. Breda Zuid (South)

Economy

Economic activities were mainly industrial. Breda was a center of the food- and drinking industry. Companies like Hero (lemonade), Van Melle (Mentos), De Faam (liquorice) and Kwatta (chocolate) are famous throughout Western Europe. Breda also had a sugar factory, supplying its best-known products. BREDA beer is a world renowned drink that is made in this region.

Breda formerly housed the largest brewery in the Netherlands (Oranjeboom). Interbrew, the Belgian owner of the brewery, closed the brewery in 2004. The decline of industrial activity did not harm the city's economy. The main economic activities now are business and trade. When the new Central Station is built circa 2011, Breda will be connected by high-speed trains to the main European cities. After 2009, a high-speed shuttle connects Breda to Rotterdam - The Hague / Amsterdam and Antwerp - Brussels, on the HSL-Zuid line.

Transportation

Breda has two railway stations, Breda and Breda-Prinsenbeek, providing connections with Zuid-Holland (Dordrecht - Rotterdam - Den Haag) and Tilburg - Eindhoven, and from station Breda also to Roosendaal with connection to Vlissingen and Antwerp. In addition, trains also head north from Breda to Amsterdam and east to Den Bosch - Nijmegen.

Begijnhof (Béguinage).
Chassé Theater (Chassé Theatre) Breda.

Culture

The city center contains beautiful old buildings and portions of the singels (moats). The shops and a shopping mall are located here. Various historic buildings, especially the Beguinage and the Chasse Theater, offer examples of Renaissance and Baroque architecture. Breda's popular soccer club, NAC Breda, plays in the highest Dutch league, the Eredivisie. Breda's athletics club, A.V. Sprint, is the largest club of its kind in the Netherlands.

Museums

Breda hosts the following museums:

  • Breda's Museum
  • Begijnhof Breda Museum
  • Generaal Maczek Museum
  • Bier Reclame Museum
  • Graphic Design Museum
  • NAC Museum
  • Heemkundig Museum Paulus van Daesdonck
  • Lucifer Museum Latent
  • Museum Oorlog & Vrede
  • Nederlands Centrum voor Handwerken - HCH
  • Stichting Princenhaags Museum
  • Lokaal 01

Red Hair festival

Redheadday is a festival that takes place each first weekend of September. The two-day festival is a gathering of people with natural red hair, but is also focused on art related to the colour red. Activities during the festival are lectures, workshops and demonstrations. The festival attracts attendance from 20 countries and is free due to sponsorship of the local government.

Miscellaneous

  • "Colonel" Thomas Parker, the manager of Elvis Presley, was born in Breda as Andreas Cornelius van Kuijk.
  • Breda is also home to Tiësto, an international trance music artist.
  • Breda has one of the most famous Dutch choirs, the Sacramentskoor. It is a male choir (boys and men), semi-professional.
  • Breda is the birthplace of former Olympic swimmer Karin Brienesse and former field hockey player Remco van Wijk, who twice won the gold medal at the Summer Olympics with the Dutch National Team: 1996 and 2000.
  • Breda is the city where the Dutch composers Daan Manneke and Kristoffer Zegers live.
  • The Dutch soccer international Pierre van Hooijdonk played in Breda. Other formerly international Dutch football players from NAC Breda were Antoon (Rat) Verlegh, Kees Rijvers, Kees Kuijs, Leo Canjels, Daan Schrijvers, Frans Bouwmeester, Nico Rijnders, Ad Brouwers, Bertus Quaars, Martin Vreysen and Ton Lokhoff.
  • BREDA beer is a world renowned drink that is made in this region.
  • Peter Stuyvesant, (New Amsterdam), married Judith Bayard in the Walloon church in Breda on August 13, 1645

International relations

Twin towns - sister cities

Breda is twinned with:

References

  1. ^ The Prince of Orange and subsequently King or Queen of the Netherlands continued to use the title; today Queen Beatrix claims the title Baron of Breda.
  2. ^ CBS 2008 Wijkinformatie Breda
  3. ^ "Wrocław Official Website - Partnership Cities of Wrocław". Uk flag.gif Flag of Germany.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of Poland.svg (in English, German, French and Polish) © 2007 Wrocław Municipality. http://www.wroclaw.pl/p/964/. Retrieved 2008-10-23.  

External links

Coordinates: 51°34′N 4°48′E / 51.567°N 4.8°E / 51.567; 4.8


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Breda is a city in the Dutch province of North-Brabant.

Get in

By car

From Amsterdam, Breda can be reached by taking the A2 to Utrecht and then the A27.

By train

From Amsterdam and Schiphol Airport, Breda can be reached by train in about 90 minutes.

Get around

You can get around by bike (rent from Central Station) or Citybus. But almost everything in the city centre is walkable.

See

Some of Breda's medieval buildings have been demolished in the past, but much remains. On the Grote Markt, the city's main square, you can find the Church of our Lady, in Gothic style, and the 18th century city hall.

  • Visit the OLV Church
  • Get a tour through the old moats of Breda
  • Drink real Belgian and Brabants beer on Grote Markt or Havermarkt square.
  • Explore the nightlife on tuesdays, thursdays, fridays and saturdays around Havermarkt square.
  • You should visit the Wilhelminastraat. It is located just south of the city centre and hosts lots of exlusive shops. It has a very rich and nice atmosphere
  • It is also recommended to visit the old neighbourhood Zandberg and Ginneken, just south of the Wilhelminastraat. It has lots of old merchants' houses and on the south end you will find the Mastbos. One of the nicest forests in the Netherlands

Buy

Breda is a well known shopping city in the Netherlands. In the old city centre you can find lots of clothing shops.

  • Restaurant Chocolat, Torenstraat 9
  • Restaurant Dickens & Jones, Grote Markt 40
  • Restaurant Flinstering, Grote Markt 23
  • Restaurant Singaradja, Ginnekenweg 24
  • Cafe de Speeltuin, Visserstraat 14.  edit
  • Bliss Hotel, Torenstraat 9
  • Apollo Hotel, Stationsplein 14
  • Parc Breda, Grote Markt 20
  • Kerkplein, Torenstraat 17-19
  • Drie Gezusters, Grote Markt 45
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BREDA, a fortified town in the province of North Brabant, Holland, at the confluence of the canalized rivers Merk and Aa, 15 m. by rail E.N.E. of Roozendaal. Pop. (1900) 26,296. It is connected by steam tramway with Antwerp (3 o m. S.S.W.), and with Geertruidenberg in the north, and the island of Duiveland on the west. The fortress of Breda, which was once considered impregnable, has been dismantled, but the town is still protected by extensive lines of fortification and lies in the midst of a district which can be readily laid under water. It has a fine quay, townhall and park. There are several Roman Catholic and Protestant churches. The principal Protestant church is a Gothic building dating from the end of the 13th century, with a fine tower, and a choir of later date (1410). Among the many interesting monuments is the imposing tomb of the stadtholder Count Engelbert of Nassau and his wife. This is the work of Tomasino Vincenz of Bologna, who, though a pupil of Raphael in painting, in sculpture followed Michelangelo, to whom the work is sometimes ascribed. Since 1828 Breda has been the seat of a royal military academy for all arms of the service. It also possesses a Latin school, an arsenal, and a modern prison built on the isolated-cell principle. The prison is in the form of a rotunda, 58 yds. in diameter, and covered by a high dome. In the middle is the office of the administration, and on the top of this a small watch-tower. Round the walls of the rotunda are the cells, 208 in number, and arranged in four tiers with balconies reached by iron staircases. Each cell measures 35 cub. yds., is provided with an electric bell communicating with the warder in the tower, heated by hot-air pipes, and lighted by day through a window on the outer wall of the rotunda, and from sunset till ten o'clock by electric light. The industries of Breda comprise the 'manufacture of linen and woollen goods, carpets, hats, beer and musical instruments. In the neighbourhood of the town are the villages of Ginneken and Prinsenhage, situated in the midst of pretty pine woods. They form favourite places of excursion, and in the woods at Ginneken is a Kneipp sanatorium.

History

Breda was in the i i th century a direct fief of the Holy Roman Empire, its earliest known lord being Henry I. (1098-1125), in whose family it continued, though, from the latter part of the 13th century, in the female line, until Alix, heiress of Philip (d. 1323), sold it to Brabant. In 1350 the fief was resold to John (Jan) of Polanen (d. 1377), the heiress of whose line, Joanna (d. 1 445), married Engelbert of Nassau-Dillenburg (d. 1 4 42). Henceforth it remained in the house of Nassau, passing ultimately to William I. (1533-1584), the first stadtholder of the Netherlands. Breda obtained municipal rights in 1252, but was first surrounded with walls in 1534 by Count Henry of Nassau, who also restored the old castle, originally built by John of Polanen in 1350. From this period until late in the 19th century it remained the most important of the line of fortresses along the Meuse. Breda was captured by surprise by the Spaniards in 1581; but in 1590 it fell again into the hands of Maurice of Nassau, 68 picked men contriving to get into the town concealed under the turf in a peat-boat. The so-called "Spaniard's Hole" still marks the spot where the peat-boat lay. Its surrender in 1625, after a ten months' siege, to the Spaniards under Spinola is the subject of the famous picture by Velasquez in the Museo del Prado in Madrid. In 1637 Breda was recaptured by Frederick Henry of Orange after a four months' siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to Holland by the treaty of Westphalia. During the wars of the French Revolution, it was taken by Dumouriez in 1793, evacuated soon after and retaken by Pichegru in 1795, after the whole of Holland had already succumbed to the French. In 1813, a sally being made by the French garrison on an advanceguard of the Russians under Benckendorff, the citizens of Breda again made themselves masters of the town.

Breda was the residence, during his exile, of Charles II., who, by the declaration of Breda (1660), made known the conditions of his acceptance of the crown of England. In 1696 William, prince of Orange and king of England, built the new castle, one of the finest buildings of the period, which now serves as the military academy. Breda also derives some celebrity from the various political congresses of which it has been the scene. In 1 575 a conference was held here between the ambassadors of Spain and those of the United Provinces; in 1667 a peace was signed between England, Holland, France and Denmark; and in 1746-1747 the representatives of the same powers met in the town to discuss the terms of another treaty.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Breda

Plural
-

Breda

  1. A town in North Brabant, in the south of The Netherlands

Anagrams


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordo: Araneomorphae
Taxon: Neocribellatae
Series: Entelegynae
Sectio: Dionycha
Superfamilia: Salticoidea
Familia: Salticidae
Subfamilia: Marpissinae
Tribus: Marpissini
Genus: Breda
Species: B. apicalis - B. bicruciata - B. bistriata - B. flavostriata - B. jovialis - B. leucoprocta - B. lubomirskii - B. milvina - B. notata - B. oserictops - B. quinquedentata - B. spinimanu - B. tristis - B. variolosa

Name

Breda Peckham & Peckham, 1894

Type species: Breda milvina (C. L. Koch, 1846)

Synonyms

  • Oserictops Mello-Leitão, 1941
  • Thianioides Mello-Leitão, 1941
  • Bredops Mello-Leitão, 1944

References

  • Platnick, N. I. 2008. The World Spider Catalog, version 9.0. American Museum of Natural History. [1]

Vernacular names

English: Breda

Simple English

Breda is a city in the south of the Netherlands. It has about 170,000 inhabitants.








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