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Brian Epstein

(Promotional photo of Epstein)
Background information
Birth name Brian Samuel Epstein
Born 19 September 1934(1934-09-19)
Origin Liverpool, UK
Died 27 August 1967 (aged 32)
London, UK
Occupations Personal manager, impresario
Years active 1961–67
Associated acts The Beatles, Gerry & The Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas, The Fourmost, and Cilla Black
Website http://www.brianepstein.com

Brian Samuel Epstein (pronounced /ˈɛpstaɪn/) (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967) was a British music entrepreneur, and the manager of The Beatles. He also managed several other musical artists such as Gerry & The Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas, Cilla Black and The Remo Four. His management company was named NEMS Enterprises, after his family's music stores, called NEMS (North End Music Stores).

Epstein paid for The Beatles to record a demo in Decca's studios, which Epstein later persuaded George Martin to listen to, as Decca was not interested in signing the band. Epstein was then offered a contract by Martin on behalf of EMI's small Parlophone label, even though they had previously been rejected by almost every other British record company. Martin later explained that Epstein's enthusiasm and his confidence that The Beatles would one day become internationally famous convinced him to sign them.

Epstein died of an accidental drug overdose at his home in London in August 1967. The Beatles' early success has been attributed to Epstein's management and sense of style. Paul McCartney said of Epstein: "If anyone was the Fifth Beatle, it was Brian."[1]

Contents

Family and early life

The Epstein family's shops in Walton Road, Liverpool

Epstein's grandfather, Isaac Epstein, was from Lithuania (part of Russia at that time) and arrived in England in the 1890s, at the age of eighteen.[2] His grandmother, Dinah, was the daughter of Joseph (whose occupation was draper) and Esther Hyman, who emigrated from Russia to England (c. 1871/72) with their eldest son, Jacob. The Hymans had six more children.

Isaac Epstein married Dinah Hyman in Manchester in 1900.[3] In 1901, Isaac and Dinah were living at 80 Walton Road, Liverpool, with Isaac's sister, Rachael Epstein, above the furniture dealership he had recently founded.[4] Dinah and Isaac's third son was Harry Epstein; the father of Brian Epstein.[5] After Harry and his brother Leslie had joined the family firm, Isaac Epstein founded "I. Epstein and Sons", and enlarged his furniture business by taking over adjacent shops (62/72 Walton Road) to sell a varied range of other goods, such as musical instruments and household appliances.[5][6] They called the expanding business NEMS (North End Music Stores) which offered lenient credit terms, and from which McCartney's father once bought a piano.[7][8][9]

Brian Epstein at four years of age

Brian's mother was formally named Malka (although always known by her family as Queenie, Malka translating as "queen" in Hebrew) and was a member of the Hyman furniture family, which owned the successful Sheffield Veneering Company.[5]

Epstein was born on 19 September 1934, in Rodney Street, Liverpool, England.[10] Harry and Queenie also had another son, Clive, who was born 22 months after Brian.[11] During WWII, the Epsteins moved to Southport—where two schools expelled Epstein for laziness and poor performance—but returned to Liverpool in 1945.[12] The Epsteins lived at 197 Queens Drive, Childwall, in Liverpool, and stayed there for 30 years.[13]

After his parents had moved him from one boarding school to another, the 14-year-old Epstein spent two years at Wrekin College in Shropshire. Shortly before his 16th birthday, he sent a long letter to his father, explaining that he wanted to become a dress designer, but Harry Epstein was adamantly opposed to this idea, and his son finally had to "report for duty" at the family's furniture shop.[2][11] On a £5 per week wage, selling furniture was not what Epstein wanted, but he was congratulated by his family on the first day of work after selling a £12 dining room table to a woman who had originally wanted to buy a mirror.[14]

In December, 1952, Epstein was drafted as a data entry clerk into the Royal Army Service Corps, and was posted to the Albany Street Barracks near Regent's Park, in London, where he was often reprimanded for not picking up his army pay.[15] After returning to Liverpool Epstein was put in charge of Clarendon Furnishing shop in Hoylake, and in 1955 was made a director of NEMS.[11] In September 1956, he took a trip to London to meet a friend, but after being there for only one day, he was robbed of his passport, birth certificate, chequebook, wristwatch, and all the money he had on him. As he did not want his parents to find out, he worked as a department store clerk until he had earned enough money to buy a train ticket back to Liverpool.[16] Back in Liverpool, he confessed his homosexuality to a psychiatrist—a friend of the Epstein family—who suggested to Harry Epstein that his son should leave Liverpool as soon as possible. During the sessions Epstein revealed his ambition of becoming an actor, so his parents allowed him go to London to study.[11][16]

Epstein attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in London. His RADA classmates included actors Susannah York, Albert Finney and Peter O'Toole, but Epstein dropped out after the third term.[17] Back in Liverpool, Harry Epstein put his son in charge of the record department of the newly-opened NEMS music store on Great Charlotte Street.[18] Epstein worked "day and night" at the store to make it a success, and it became one of the biggest musical retail outlets in the North of England.[19] The Epsteins opened a second store at 12–14 Whitechapel, and Epstein was put in charge of the entire operation. Epstein often walked across the road to the Lewis's department store (which also had a music section) where Peter Brown was employed. He watched Brown's sales technique and was impressed enough to lure Brown to work for NEMS with the offer of a higher salary and a commission on sales.[9] On 3 August 1961, Epstein started a regular music column in the Mersey Beat magazine, called 'Record Releases by Brian Epstein of NEMS'.[12]

The Beatles

Epstein at The Cavern Club (photo by David Steen)

The Beatles' name was supposedly first noticed by Epstein in issues of Mersey Beat, and on numerous posters around Liverpool, before he asked Bill Harry who they were, as Harry had previously convinced Epstein to sell the magazine at NEMS.[20] (The Beatles were featured on the front page of its second issue).[21][22] The Beatles had recorded the "My Bonnie" single with Tony Sheridan in Germany, and some months after its release Epstein asked Alistair Taylor about it in NEMS.[23] Epstein's version of the story was that a customer, Raymond Jones, walked into the NEMS shop and asked him for the "My Bonnie" single, which made Epstein curious about the group.[24] Taylor later claimed that he used the name of Jones (a regular customer) to order the single and paid the deposit himself, knowing that Epstein would notice it, and order further copies.[25 ] Harry and McCartney later repudiated Epstein's story, as Harry had been talking to Epstein about The Beatles for a long time (being the group he promoted the most in the Mersey Beat magazine) and by McCartney saying, "Brian [Epstein] knew perfectly well who The Beatles were—they were on the front page of the second issue of 'Mersey Beat'."[26]

The Beatles were due to perform a lunchtime concert in the Cavern Club on 9 November 1961.[17] Epstein asked Bill Harry to arrange for Epstein and his assistant Taylor to watch The Beatles perform, and Epstein and Taylor were allowed into the club without queuing, with a welcome message being announced over the club's public-address system by Bob Wooler, who was the resident DJ.[27] Epstein later talked about the performance:

I was immediately struck by their music, their beat, and their sense of humour on stage — and, even afterwards, when I met them, I was struck again by their personal charm. And it was there that, really, it all started.[28]

After the performance, Epstein and Taylor went into the dressing room—which he later called "as big as a broom cupboard"—to talk to them.[29] The Beatles, all regular NEMS customers, immediately recognised Epstein, but before Epstein could congratulate them on their performance, George Harrison said, "And what brings Mr. Epstein here?"[30] Epstein replied with, "We just popped in to say hello. I enjoyed your performance." He introduced Taylor, who merely nodded a greeting, and then said, "Well done, then. Goodbye," and left.[31] Epstein and Taylor went to Peacock's restaurant in Hackins Hey for lunch, and during the meal Epstein asked Taylor what he thought about the group. Taylor replied that he honestly thought they were "absolutely awful", but there was something "remarkable" about them. Epstein waited a long time before saying anything further, just sitting there smiling slightly, but eventually saying, "I think they're tremendous!" Later, when Epstein was paying the bill, he grabbed Taylor's arm and said, "Do you think I should manage them?"[32]

The Beatles played at The Cavern over the next three weeks, and Epstein was always there to watch them. Epstein contacted Allan Williams (their previous promoter/manager) to confirm that Williams no longer had any ties to them, but Williams advised Epstein "not to touch them with a barge pole", because of a Hamburg concert percentage the group had refused to pay him.[33][34]

Management contract

In a meeting with the group at NEMS on 3 December 1961, Epstein would propose the idea of managing them.[35] Lennon, Harrison and Best arrived late for the meeting—they had been drinking at the Grapes pub in Mathew Street—and Epstein was irritated to see that McCartney was not with them, because, as Harrison explained, he was "taking a bath". Lennon had invited Wooler to be at the meeting so he could later give his opinion of Epstein, but introduced him by saying, "This is me dad".[36] Epstein was reticent throughout the short meeting, only asking if they had a manager (to which they replied in the negative) and culminating with, "It seems to me that with everything going on, someone ought to be looking after you."[37] Epstein had further meetings with the group on 6 December and 10 December 1961.[38] On 13 December 1961, after Epstein's invitation, Mike Smith of Decca records travelled from London to Liverpool to watch The Beatles at the The Cavern Club, which led to an audition in London on 1 January 1962 (see The Decca Audition).[38]

Being under the age of 21, McCartney, Harrison and Best had to ask for consent. Best and his mother, (Mona Best, owner of The Casbah Coffee Club) were impressed with Epstein because of his office, expensive watch, suits and large car, as were the other Beatles, and Best’s mother thought Epstein "could be good for them [The Beatles]".[39] McCartney's father was sceptical about a Jewish manager, and warned his son to be careful about finances.[40] Lennon's guardian, Mimi Smith, refused, believing that Epstein had enough money to drop the group after a few months when something else came along that interested him, but as Lennon had just turned twenty-one, his Aunt's advice could be ignored.[40][41] The Beatles finally signed a five-year contract with Epstein on 24 January 1962,[22] which gave Epstein 25% of their gross income. The Beatles would then share any income after various expenses had been deducted.[38] Epstein then formed the management company NEMS Enterprises, telling his mother and father that managing The Beatles was only a part-time occupation, and would never interfere with the family business.[28]

The Beatles signed Epstein's first management contract, but Epstein did not sign it himself, thereby giving himself the option of withdrawing at any time (however, English law still would have enforced the contract through the doctrine of part performance), although he told his assistant Taylor the opposite by saying, "Well, if they ever want to tear it up, they can hold me but I can't hold them".[42] The contract was not legally binding on McCartney and Harrison in any case, as they were both still minors (the age of majority at that time was 21) and lacked the legal capacity to sign a binding contract. The contract stated that Epstein would receive a management commission of 25% of their gross income after a certain threshold had been reached.[22][43] The Beatles argued for a smaller percentage, but Epstein pointed out that he had been paying their expenses for months, without receiving anything in return.[44] After the release of "Love Me Do" in 1962, Epstein signed a second (and legally binding) contract.[6][45]

Appearance on stage

Although Epstein had had no prior experience of artist management, he had a strong influence on their early dress-code and attitude on stage.[42] When Epstein discovered the band, they wore blue jeans and leather jackets, performing at rowdy rock 'n' roll shows where they would stop and start songs when they felt like it, or when an audience member requested a certain song. Epstein encouraged them to wear suits and ties, insisted that they stop swearing, smoking, drinking or eating onstage, and also suggested the famous synchronised bow at the end of their performances.[46] McCartney was the first to agree with Epstein's ideas, believing it was—in part—due to Epstein's RADA training.[47] John Lennon was against the idea of wearing suits and ties, but later said, "Yeah, man, all right, I'll wear a suit. I'll wear a bloody balloon if somebody's going to pay me".[48] Epstein began seeking publicity by "charming and smarming... the newspaper people", as John Lennon said in 1972.[49] According to McCartney, "The gigs went up in stature and though the pay went up only a little bit, it did go up", and that the band was "now playing better places."[50] Another improvement Epstein made was that the group was now far more organised; having a single concert diary in which to record bookings, rather than using whoever's diary was to hand.[50]

Record contract

The telegram that Epstein sent to Mersey Beat newspaper in Liverpool to announce that he had secured The Beatles their first recording contract

Epstein made numerous trips to London to visit record companies with the hope of securing a record contract, but was rejected by many, including Columbia, Pye, Philips, Oriole, and most famously, Decca [see The Decca audition].[51] The Beatles later found out that Epstein had paid Decca producer Tony Meehan (ex-drummer of the Shadows) to produce the studio recordings.[51] While Epstein was negotiating with Decca, he also approached EMI marketing executive Ron White, who later contacted EMI producers Norrie Paramor, Walter Ridley, and Norman Newell, but they all declined to record the group.[52] White could not contact EMI's fourth staff producer, Martin, as he was on holiday.[53]

On 8 May 1962, Epstein visited the HMV (EMI) store at 363 Oxford Street, London, to have the Decca audition tape transferred to 78rpm acetates. A HMV disc-cutter named Jim Foy liked the recordings, and suggested that Epstein should contact Sid Coleman, the head of EMI's record publishing company, Ardmore & Beechwood, who had offices on the top floor. Coleman liked the recordings, and sent Epstein to George Martin, the A&R manager of Parlophone.[54] On 9 May 1962, Epstein meets George Martin at Abbey Road Studios,[54] and immediately sends a telegram to The Beatles in Hamburg confirming that they have been accepted. The Beatles were signed by EMI's small Parlophone label after the group had been rejected by almost every other British record company, and without Martin ever having seen them play live.[55] Martin later explained that Epstein's enthusiasm, and his conviction that The Beatles would one day become internationally famous, convinced him to sign them.[42]

The Beatles' recording contract that EMI offered Epstein gave them one penny for each record sold, which was split among the four members, meaning one farthing per group member. The royalty rate was further reduced for singles sold outside the UK, on which the group received half of one penny (again split between the whole band) per single.[56] Martin said later that EMI had "nothing to lose" by signing a contract with them.[57]

Martin scheduled an audition at Abbey Road Studios which convinced Martin that they were good enough, but with one exception: He felt the recording would be better served by an experienced session drummer in place of Pete Best.[55] When the news came that Martin wanted to replace Best on their recordings with a session drummer, Lennon, McCartney and Harrison asked Epstein to fire Best from the band.[42] Epstein agonised about the decision, and asked Bob Wooler if it was a good idea, to which Wooler replied that Best was very popular with the fans and they wouldn't like it at all.[58] Ringo Starr took his place, as Starr had previously played with Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, and had previously stepped in to drum with them when Best was ill or unable to play.[55]

Epstein renegotiated EMI's royalty rate, and on 27 January 1966, The Beatles signed a new nine-year contract with EMI, but with a clause stating that 25% would be paid to NEMS for the full nine years, even if The Beatles decided not to renew their management contract with Epstein, which was up for renewal the following year.[59]

After Candlestick Park

The Beatles' hectic schedule of touring, television, and film work between 1963–65 kept Epstein very busy. The Beatles' last live concert was at Candlestick Park in San Francisco on 29 August 1966, and Epstein's management duties changed to reflect the changing nature of their career. He wanted them to continue touring, but they adamantly refused.[60] The Beatles started to pay less attention to Epstein's advice on many issues after they stopped touring, such as the legally risky cover art of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

Business dealings

Epstein (standing) with some of his NEMS artists (Lennon, Starr, Harrison and McCartney are on the far left).

McCartney admitted that they signed all the contracts Epstein presented to them without reading them first, but when Lennon was asked for a comment about Epstein's business dealings after Epstein’s death, he said, "Well, he was alright. I've found out since, of course, that he wasn't quite as honest to us as he made out." Many other interviews with Lennon report him as being very loyal to Epstein, however, even saying, "We had complete faith in him when he was running us. To us, he was the expert".[61][62]

Epstein once offered the individual Beatles a fixed wage of £50-a-week for life, instead of receiving money from record sales. Harrison remembered that he was earning £25 a week at the time—which was more than the £10 a week his father was earning—but the group declined Epstein's offer, as they thought that they were worth much more than £50-a-week.[63]

The Beatles' concerts were booked by Epstein himself, and he also presented groups managed by NEMS as an opening act, thereby making money for NEMS as the promoter, booking agent, and manager for all the concerts.[64] The Beatles were constantly in demand by concert promoters, and Epstein took advantage of the situation to avoid paying some taxes by accepting "hidden" fees on the night of a performance, which he always kept in a brown paper bag.[65] Epstein also successfully managed Gerry & the Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas (who had three hits with Lennon-McCartney songs) the Fourmost (their first two singles were written by Lennon) the Cyrkle (Epstein's first American group) and Cilla Black (who was Epstein's only female artist) as well as other artists.

The Beatles toured the Philippines in July 1966, but Epstein unintentionally snubbed the nation's first lady, Imelda Marcos, when presented with an invitation to a breakfast party.[66] Epstein politely declined on behalf of the group, as it had been their policy never to accept such official invitations.[67] The Beatles and their entourage were ejected from their hotel the same day and were given a police escort to the airport. They boarded the plane to fly home, but Epstein and Mal Evans were ordered off, with both believing they would not be allowed back on the plane.[68] Epstein was forced to give the tax authorities £6,800 worth of Philippine peso notes from the Manila shows, and had to sign the tax bond verifying the exchange before being allowed back on the plane.[69]

Epstein later brought Robert Stigwood into the NEMS organisation, and wanted to sell the control of NEMS to him, but didn't tell any of the group about his decision.[70] McCartney had been taking a much more active interest in NEMS' finances, and the group was becoming aware that some artists with more ruthless managers—such as the Rolling Stones under Allen Klein—claimed to be receiving more commercially advantageous terms. After Epstein's death, Stigwood wanted to take over the management of NEMS, but all four Beatles vehemently opposed him, with Lennon saying, "We don't know you. Why would we do this?"[70]

Merchandising

Before The Beatles achieved nationwide success in Britain, Epstein had permitted a company (run by his cousins that catered initially to fan club members)[71] to produce Beatles' sweaters for 30 shillings and badges for 6 pence, eventually selling 15,000 sweaters and 50,000 badges as The Beatles' popularity grew.[72] When Beatlemania stormed the UK in November 1963, Epstein was besieged by novelty goods companies wanting to use The Beatles' name on plastic guitars, drums, disc racks, badges, belts and other merchandise. Epstein was adamant that The Beatles would not directly endorse any product, but through NEMS Enterprises he would grant discretionary licences to companies who were able to produce a quality product at a fair price, although many companies were already selling products without a licence.[73]

During the first Beatles' flight to America, Epstein was offered numerous samples of products by merchandisers, including clocks, pens, cigarette lighters, plastic wigs, bracelets, and games, but Epstein rejected all of them. David Jacobs, the lawyer for NEMS, had already given away 90% of merchandising rights to Nicky Byrne in England, which later turned out to be a financial disaster, as that left only 10% for Epstein, NEMS and The Beatles.[74] Byrne took over Epstein's Stramsact merchandising in the UK and set up Seltaeb (Beatles spelled backwards) in the US. While The Beatles were ensconced in the Plaza hotel in New York, Epstein was further besieged by calls and visits from merchandisers, promoters, television commentators, and hustlers—all demanding to talk to him.[75]

Mindful of the number of records the group were selling in America, Capitol records sent a well-spoken Yorkshire girl, Wendy Hanson, to the Plaza hotel to act as Epstein's secretary, and to filter his calls.[76] Hanson later worked solely with Epstein in his Albemarle Street office, which was separate from the NEMS office.[77] Lennon later said: "On the business end he [Epstein] ripped us off on the Seltaeb thing."[78] McCartney said years later: "He [Epstein] looked to his dad for business advice, and his dad knew how to run a furniture store in Liverpool."[79]

Lenmac

Epstein asked chartered accountant James Trevor Isherwood to set up a company to collect Lennon and McCartney's PRS payments—called Lenmac—which he did on 12 May 1964. When he first visited Epstein's office, Isherwood was surprised to learn that Epstein took 25% of the gross income, and not what he thought was the usual 10% other managers received at that time.[80] All of Epstein's expenses were also deducted from any of his artists' gross income, which meant office rental, staff wages, travel, telephone costs, and entertaining expenses.[81] Before his death, Epstein knew that the renegotiation of his management contract (up for renewal on 30 September 1967) would reduce his management fee from 25% to 10%, and would also mean a larger drop in NEMS income, as The Beatles' concert fees would be taken out of the equation.[82]

Publishing

The Beatles entered into a publishing agreement with Dick James Music (DJM) who set up a company called Northern Songs. Epstein agreed that James should receive 25% of the shares, and Charles Silver, his financial partner and accountant, should also receive 25%. Lennon and McCartney received 20% each, and Epstein held the remaining 10%.[83] The Beatles PRS income increased rapidly, and Epstein asked Isherwood to work out a way of avoiding the tax that Lennon and McCartney would have to pay. Isherwood suggested a Stock-market flotation for Northern Songs, and further advised Epstein that Lennon and McCartney should move to houses near his [Isherwood's] in Esher during the flotation, which Lennon, Harrison, and Starr did. Only Epstein and McCartney remained in London.[84]

Promoter and presenter

After moving to London, Epstein rented an office in Monmouth Street in 1965, and later leased the Saville Theatre on Shaftesbury Avenue.[85] He promoted new works by writers such as Arnold Wesker in productions that occasionally fell foul of the Lord Chamberlain by including "obscene" content or nudity. Epstein changed the programme to that of a music venue in 1966, presenting various US acts.[86] Epstein was asked to appear on several music-based TV programmes in Britain after the success of The Beatles, and also hosted a regular part of the US TV show Hullabaloo, by filming his appearances in the UK.[42]

Personal life

Throughout Epstein's life he was known to be kind and caring to his family, friends of his family, and business colleagues. When Lennon married Cynthia Powell, on 23 August 1962, Epstein attended the wedding as the best man and paid for their celebration lunch afterwards.[87][88] During Cynthia's pregnancy, Epstein paid for a private room in a hospital and offered the Lennons the sole use of his flat on Falkner Street when they needed somewhere to live. He also agreed to be the godfather to Lennon's son Julian.[89][90]

Sexual orientation

A Dezo Hoffmann photo of Epstein

Epstein's homosexuality was not publicly known until years after his death, although it had been an open secret among his friends and business associates.[22] While Epstein was in the Army, he had a tailor make an officer's uniform for him that he wore when cruising the bars of London, but was arrested one night (for impersonating an officer) at the Army and Navy Club on Piccadilly by the Military Police. Epstein managed to avoid a court martial by agreeing to see an army psychiatrist, who uncovered Epstein's sexuality.[91] He was discharged from the army after 10 months on the medical grounds of being "emotionally and mentally unfit", although Epstein later stated that his first homosexual experience was after he returned to Liverpool.[11][17][92]

Epstein spent a year studying acting at RADA, but dropped out shortly after his arrest for "persistent importuning" outside a men's public convenience in Swiss Cottage, London.[93] McCartney said that when Epstein started to manage The Beatles, they knew that Epstein was homosexual, but did not care, because Epstein encouraged them professionally and offered them access to previously off-limits social circles.[22]

Although Lennon often made sarcastic comments about Epstein's homosexuality to friends and to Epstein personally, nobody outside their closed circle was allowed to comment on it. Ian Sharp, one of Lennon's art school friends, once made a sarcastic remark about Epstein, saying, "Which one of you [The Beatles] does he fancy?" Sharp was sent a letter by Epstein's office within 48 hours that demanded a complete apology.[48] Sharp apologised but was then completely ostracised, and was told by McCartney in a letter to have no contact at all with any of them in the future.[94] Epstein used to go on holiday to places such as Amsterdam and Barcelona, or Manchester at weekends, as the attitude to homosexuals was not as unforgiving as in Liverpool, although there were several gay bars in Liverpool.[93]

In his biography, Best claims that Epstein drove them both to Blackpool one evening, and Epstein declared to Best his "very fond admiration" for him. Epstein is then supposed to have said, "Would you find it embarrassing if I ask you to stay in a hotel overnight?" Best replied that he was not interested, and the two never mentioned it again.[48] There were rumours of a brief sexual encounter between Lennon and Epstein when they both went on a four-day holiday together to Barcelona in April 1963. Lennon always denied the claims, telling Playboy in 1980: "It was never consummated, but we had a pretty intense relationship." Lennon's first wife Cynthia also maintains that Lennon's relationship with Epstein was platonic.[95] A fictionalised account of the Spanish holiday was portrayed in the 1991 film The Hours and Times. Lennon's friend and confidant, Pete Shotton, claimed in his book, The Beatles, Lennon and Me, that under provocation from Epstein, Lennon did partly give in: "I let him toss me off, and that was it." Biographer Hunter Davies also recalled Lennon telling him he had consented to an encounter "to see what it was like". Writer Albert Goldman expanded on both claims in his The Lives of John Lennon, alleging a longtime affair between the two men. Lennon later wrote "You've Got to Hide Your Love Away" about Epstein.[96]

In October 1964, Epstein's autobiography, A Cellarful of Noise, was published in the UK and later in the U.S. It was co-written by journalist Derek Taylor, who had served as Epstein's assistant that year, then later as the publicist for NEMS from 1968-1970.[42] (Lennon reportedly once quipped that the memoir should have been titled A Cellarful of Boys).[97] Male homosexual relations were illegal throughout the UK until September 1967 (only one month after Epstein's death) when gay sex was legalised in England and Wales (remaining illegal in Scotland and Northern Ireland until 1980 and 1982, respectively).[98]

Epstein's strongest relationship with a woman was with singer Alma Cogan, who was also Jewish and a part of the old-fashioned world of show business. Epstein always bought her presents when he was abroad, and even took her to Liverpool to meet his parents. Despite Epstein's preference for male company, some of his friends believed they would eventually marry.[99] Cogan died of ovarian cancer on 26 October 1966, aged 34.[100]

Drug use

Starr, McCartney, Lennon, Harrison and Epstein at the preview of A Hard Day’s Night in 1964

After the start of his management career, Epstein started taking stimulants—usually preludin, legal at that time—which Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, and Starr also took, and had previously taken in Hamburg. He explained his use of the drug as the only way of staying awake at night during numerous concert tours.[101] In 1964, Brown started to notice that Epstein was taking too many pills, because Epstein often had a cough at parties, which Brown knew was Epstein's way of secretly putting pills into his mouth without anyone noticing.[102] McCartney often met Epstein at late-night clubs in London, and remembered that Epstein would often grind his jaws, once saying, "Ugghhh, the pills" to McCartney.[103]

In 1964, after having been introduced to cannabis by Bob Dylan in New York, McCartney remembered Epstein standing in front of a mirror, pointing at himself and repeatedly saying "Jew!", and laughing loudly, which McCartney found hilarious and "very liberating".[104] Epstein later became heavily involved in the 1960s drug scene, and during the four months when the Sgt. Pepper album was being recorded, Epstein spent his time on holiday, or at the Priory Clinic in Putney, where he tried unsuccessfully to curb his drug use. He left the Priory for the party to launch Sgt. Pepper to selected journalists at his house at 24 Chapel Street, but went straight back to the Priory afterwards.[105][106]

Epstein added his name to an advertisement that appeared in The Times on 24 July 1967, asking for the legalisation of cannabis, the release of all prisoners imprisoned because of possession, and research into marijuana's medical uses. The advertisement was sponsored by a group called Soma and was signed by 65 people, including The Beatles, R. D. Laing, 16 doctors, and two members of parliament.[107] After McCartney's admission, on 19 June 1967, of his use of LSD, Epstein defended McCartney to the media, admitting that he had also taken it himself.[108]

Gambling

On 27 August 1965, The Beatles and Epstein visited Elvis Presley at Graceland, where Colonel Tom Parker and Joe Esposito set up a roulette wheel and several packs of playing cards. Epstein immediately wanted to play, as he was known for his love of gambling for high-stakes.[109] McCartney frequently visited gambling clubs in London, such as Curzon House, Epstein's favourite club,[110] and often saw Epstein gambling there.[103] He once saw Epstein put a Dunhill lighter on the table that was worth £100 (worth approximately £1,300, or $2,500 as of 2009) and then lose it during a game of cards.[111] Epstein would often lose thousands of pounds by playing baccarat or chemin de fer, but would stay at Curzon House the whole evening, eating an expensive meal and drinking fine wines. The club never presented Epstein with a bill, as they knew that he lost so much in their casino.[103]

Death

The Daily Mirror Headline: "EPSTEIN (The Beatle-Making Prince of Pop) DIES AT 32"

A few weeks before his own death, Epstein attended a traditional shiva in Liverpool after his father died, having just come out of the Priory clinic where he had been trying to cure his acute insomnia and his addiction to amphetamines.[112] Epstein made his last visit to a Beatles' recording session on 23 August 1967, at the Chappell Recording Studios on Maddox Street, London.[113]

On 24 August, Epstein asked Brown and Geoffrey Ellis down to Kingsley Hall (approx. 50 miles from his home in Chapel Street) which was Epstein's country home in Warbleton, East Sussex, for the Bank Holiday weekend. After they got there, Epstein decided to drive back to London by himself because an expected group of rent boys he had invited failed to arrive, although they did turn up after Epstein left.[82] Epstein phoned Brown the next day at 5 o'clock in the afternoon from his Chapel Street house in London. Brown thought that Epstein sounded "very groggy", and suggested that Epstein take a train back down to the nearest train station, in Uckfield, instead of driving under the influence of Tuinals. Epstein replied that he would eat something, read his mail and watch Juke Box Jury before phoning Brown to tell him which train to meet. He never called again.[82]

Epstein died of a drug overdose on 27 August 1967. The Beatles were in Bangor at the time, having a meeting with the Indian guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and Epstein had previously agreed to travel to Bangor after the August Bank Holiday.[114][115] A concert by Jimi Hendrix at the Saville Theatre (which Epstein leased) was cancelled out of respect on the same day that Epstein died.[114] At the statutory inquest, his death was officially ruled accidental, probably caused by a gradual buildup of Carbitral in his system, mixed with alcohol. It was revealed that he had taken six Carbitral pills in order to sleep, which was probably usual for Epstein, but meant that his tolerance was very close to becoming lethal.[82]

Brown claimed in his memoir, The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles, that he had once found a suicide note written by Epstein and spoke with him directly about it. According to Brown, the note read in part, "This is all too much and I can't take it anymore." Brown also found a will, in which Epstein left his house and money to his mother and his brother (Brown himself was a small beneficiary). When confronted with the notes, Epstein told Brown that he was grateful Brown had not told anyone about it, and told him that he was sorry he had made Brown worry. He explained that he had simply taken one pill too many and that he did not intend to overdose and promised to be more careful from then on. Brown later wrote that he wondered if he was really doing Epstein a favour by not showing the note to Epstein's doctor, Norman Cowan, who would have stopped prescribing drugs for Epstein.[116]

The Beatles did not attend Epstein's funeral, wishing to give his family privacy by not attracting the media and fans.[48] A few weeks later, on 17 October, all four attended a memorial service for Epstein at the New London Synagogue in St. John's Wood (near the Abbey Road studios) which was officiated by Rabbi Louis Jacobs, who said that Epstein was "a symbol of the malaise of our generation".[48] Epstein was buried in section A grave H12, in the Long Lane Jewish Cemetery, Aintree, Liverpool.[117] The coroner, Gavin Thurston, told the Westminster inquest that Epstein's death was caused by an overdose of Carbitral, and ruled it as an accidental death, although the pathologist, Dr. Donald Teare, stated that Epstein had been taking bromide in the form of Carbitral for some time, and that the barbiturate level in Epstein's blood was a "low fatal level".[118 ]

Legacy

Epstein was overlooked when Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr were honoured with the MBE in 1965 (Harrison once said that the MBE stood for "Mister Brian Epstein").[119] The Beatles were among the earliest entrants into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, but Epstein is not in the Hall's "Non-Performer's Section". Martin Lewis—previously Taylor's assistant—created The Official Brian Epstein Website, which includes a petition that Epstein be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[11] Lewis also organized the 1998 re-publication (in the U.S.) of Epstein's 1964 autobiography, A Cellarful of Noise.[11]

McCartney summarised the importance of Epstein when he was interviewed, in 1997, for a BBC documentary about Epstein by stating: "If anyone was the Fifth Beatle, it was Brian."[120] In his 1970 Rolling Stone interview, John Lennon commented that Epstein's death marked the beginning of the end for the group: "I knew that we were in trouble then ... I thought, We've fuckin' had it now".[29][121] Thirty years after Epstein's death, McCartney said, "Brian would really be happy to hear how much we loved him."[48] The first contract between The Beatles and Epstein was auctioned in London in 2008, and was sold for £240,000.[122 ]

Notes

  1. ^ Geller (1999) p. 49
  2. ^ a b Spitz (2005) pp. 258-259
  3. ^ 1881 census (England)
  4. ^ 1901 census (England)
  5. ^ a b c Spitz (2005) p. 255
  6. ^ a b "Actual Contract". Beatle Money. http://www.beatlemoney.com/epsteinactualcontract.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-18.  
  7. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 71
  8. ^ Miles (1997) pp. 23-24
  9. ^ a b Brown (2002) p. 63
  10. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 254
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "The Life of Brian". Springtime!. http://www.brianepstein.com/brian.html. Retrieved 2008-04-18.  
  12. ^ a b Spitz (2005) p. 257
  13. ^ The Rough Guide to the Beatles. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=htl2U1fPq8QC&pg=PA326&lpg=PA326&dq=rembrandt+mccartney&source=web&ots=Wm_6NQl0wz&sig=6nc0oRgcn8PxOVqoY7lXFoRJa70#PPA326,M1. Retrieved 2007-10-22.  
  14. ^ "Brian Epstein NEMS". Beatle money. http://www.beatlemoney.com/epsteinnems.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-19.  
  15. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 259
  16. ^ a b Spitz (2005) p. 261
  17. ^ a b c Frankel, Glenn (2007-08-26). "Nowhere Man". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/21/AR2007082101714.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19.  
  18. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 263
  19. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 264
  20. ^ Miles (1997) p84
  21. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 264–265
  22. ^ a b c d e Miles (1997) p. 88
  23. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 265
  24. ^ Miles (1997) pp84-85
  25. ^ "Alistair Taylor - Hello Goodbye". Liddypool. http://www.liddypool.com/alistair.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-08.  
  26. ^ "The Birth of Mersey Beat (p5)". Bill Harry/Mersey Beat Ltd.. http://www.triumphpc.com/mersey-beat/birth/birth5.shtml. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  
  27. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 266–268
  28. ^ a b "The Life of Brian (p.2)". Springtime!. http://www.brianepstein.com/brian2.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19.  
  29. ^ a b ”The Beatles Anthology” DVD 2003 (Episode 1 - 0:57:59) Epstein talking about his first meeting with The Beatles.
  30. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 268
  31. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 268–69
  32. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 269
  33. ^ Miles (1997) p. 75
  34. ^ Frankel, Glenn (2007-08-26). "Nowhere Man (p.3)". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/21/AR2007082101714_3.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19.  
  35. ^ Miles (1997) p. 85
  36. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 272
  37. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 273
  38. ^ a b c Miles (1998) p. 41
  39. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 273–74
  40. ^ a b The Beatles et al. (2000) p. 65
  41. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 274
  42. ^ a b c d e f "The Life of Brian (p3)". Springtime!. http://www.brianepstein.com/brian3.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19.  
  43. ^ Miles (1997) pp. 144–145
  44. ^ Cynthia Lennon (2006) p103
  45. ^ Lewisohn (2006) p. 61
  46. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 279–280
  47. ^ Miles (1997) p. 96
  48. ^ a b c d e f Frankel, Glenn (2007-08-26). "Nowhere Man (p4)". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/21/AR2007082101714_4.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19.  
  49. ^ The Beatles et al. (2000) p. 66
  50. ^ a b The Beatles et al. (2000) p. 67
  51. ^ a b Miles (1997) p. 89
  52. ^ Coleman (1989) pp. 88–89, 93
  53. ^ Coleman (1989) p. 93–94
  54. ^ a b Hill 2007, p. 17
  55. ^ a b c Miles (1997) p90
  56. ^ Brown (2002) p79
  57. ^ "George Martin and money". beatlemoney.com. http://www.beatlemoney.com/martingeneral.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-11.  
  58. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 329
  59. ^ Flippo (1988) p. 244
  60. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 666
  61. ^ Miles (1997) p. 146
  62. ^ McCabe and Schonfeld (1984) p. 90
  63. ^ "Epstein 'wanted Beatles fortune'". BBC News. 2000-10-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/955196.stm. Retrieved 2007-03-09.  
  64. ^ Brown (2002) p. 102
  65. ^ Brown (2002) p. 110
  66. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 619
  67. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 620
  68. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 624
  69. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 625
  70. ^ a b Spitz (2005) pp. 725–726
  71. ^ Mojo Magazine (2002). Special Limited Edition # M-04951 , p. 100
  72. ^ Coleman (1989) p. 35
  73. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 465
  74. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 465–466
  75. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 458–464
  76. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 464
  77. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 667
  78. ^ McCabe and Schonfeld (1984) p91
  79. ^ Robinson, John (2003-11-02). "Get Back and other setbacks". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2003/nov/22/popandrock.thebeatles. Retrieved 2008-08-08.  
  80. ^ Miles (1997) p. 144
  81. ^ Miles (1997) p. 145
  82. ^ a b c d Miles (1997) p. 405
  83. ^ Miles (1997) p. 147
  84. ^ Miles (1997) pp. 166–167
  85. ^ "Saville Theatre History". Arthur Lloyd. http://www.arthurlloyd.co.uk/SavilleTheatre.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-28.  
  86. ^ Spitz (2005). The Beatles: The Biography, pp. 648–49
  87. ^ Spitz (2005). The Beatles: The Biography, p348
  88. ^ Brown (2002) p. 83
  89. ^ Brown (2002). The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles, p. 93
  90. ^ Lennon (2006) p. 171
  91. ^ Miles (1997) p. 86
  92. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 260
  93. ^ a b Frankel, Glenn (2007-08-26). "Nowhere Man (p2)". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/21/AR2007082101714_2.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19.  
  94. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 302–303
  95. ^ Cynthia Lennon (2006) p. 104
  96. ^ Dowling, William J. (1989) Beatlesongs. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc. ISBN 0-671-68229-6
  97. ^ Cross (2004) p255
  98. ^ McLelland, Mark J. (2006-12-30). "Intersections issue 6". electronic journal of contemporary japanese studies. http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/articles/McLelland.html. Retrieved 2008-04-18.  
  99. ^ Miles (1997) p. 138
  100. ^ "Alma Cogan: The girl with a laugh in her voice". Alma Cogan International Fan Club Official Web Site. http://www.almacogan.com/. Retrieved 2008-04-18.  
  101. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 301–302
  102. ^ Spitz (2005) p. 518
  103. ^ a b c Miles (1997) p. 131
  104. ^ Miles (1997) pp. 188–189
  105. ^ "Location of Epstein’s Chapel Street house". multimap.com. http://www.multimap.com/map/browse.cgi?client=public&GridE=-0.15093&GridN=51.49997&lon=-0.15093&lat=51.49997&place=Chapel%20Street%2C%20CITY%20OF%20WESTMINISTER%2C%20SW1&db=GB&scale=5000&search_result=Chapel%20Street%2C%20CITY%20OF%20WESTMINISTER%2C%20SW1&lang=&db=GB&keepicon=true. Retrieved 2007-03-14.  
  106. ^ Miles (1997) pp. 337–338
  107. ^ "Paul McCartney's arrest in Japan". http://www.taima.org/en/hemplib3.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  108. ^ Spitz (2005) pp. 699–670
  109. ^ Lipack (1996) p. 57
  110. ^ "You Can Walk Across It On the Grass". Time Inc. 1966-04-15. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,835349-8,00.html. Retrieved 2008-09-05.  
  111. ^ These values were calculated using "Frink"
  112. ^ Miles (1997) pp. 404–405
  113. ^ Miles (1997) p. 355
  114. ^ a b "On This Day: 1967: Beatles' manager Epstein dies". BBC News. 1967-08-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/27/newsid_3767000/3767499.stm. Retrieved 2007-03-09.  
  115. ^ Miles (1997) p. 404
  116. ^ Brown (2002) pp. 199–200
  117. ^ Harry (2000) p. 391
  118. ^ "Epstein Death Accidental". The Times. 1967-09-09.  
  119. ^ "MBE Chronicle". Springtime!. 1999-09-01. http://www.brianepstein.com/news.html. Retrieved 2008-09-11.  
  120. ^ "McCartney's comments about the fifth Beatle". brianepstein.com. http://www.brianepstein.com/cellarful.html. Retrieved 2007-03-12.  
  121. ^ Miles (1997) p. 406
  122. ^ Weston, Alan (2008-09-05). "The Beatles’ first contract sells for £240,000". http://www.liverpooldailypost.co.uk/liverpool-news/regional-news/2008/09/05/the-beatles-first-contract-sells-for-240-000-64375-21679293/. Retrieved 2008-09-05.  

References

External links








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