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.A bridge is a structure built to span a valley, road, body of water, or other physical obstacle, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.^ The body is usually carved or routed to accept the other elements, such as the bridge, pickup, neck, and other electronic components.
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^ Other large adobe structures are the Huaca del Sol in Peru, built using 100 million signed bricks, and the ciudellas of Chan Chan, also in Peru.
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^ Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water content that would kill most other animals.
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Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge and the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed. .But since the world has been making new types of bridges, more have been proven to be safer and to be more logical to use.^ Actually, there is no ongoing naming conflict on any of these bridges, which makes your actions even more mystifying.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the world "railways" should be used in names of categories by type of railway ("industrial railway" is a clear terminus technicus, "industrial rail transport" is an incompatible and obscure neologism) and in names of categories which categorize specific railways by type.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I think it will be confusing to new users and cause more category rename issues as new users will probably create new categories using the Category:ship name since it's the most obvious.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are even retracting bridges that are used for curfews.^ Actually, there is no ongoing naming conflict on any of these bridges, which makes your actions even more mystifying.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

History

The Arkadiko Bridge in Greece (13th century BC), one of the oldest arch bridges in existence.
The famous Broken Bridge, Chennai
Roman bridge of Córdoba, Spain, built in the 1st century BC.[1]
Ponte di Pietra in Verona, Italy.
An English 18th century example of a bridge in the Palladian style, with shops on the span: Pulteney Bridge, Bath
A Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) Chinese miniature model of two residential towers joined by a bridge
One of the most famous historical bridge in the world: Ponte Vecchio
The first bridges were made by nature itself — as simple as a log fallen across a stream. .The first bridges made by humans were probably spans of wooden logs or planks and eventually stones, using a simple support and crossbeam arrangement.^ Mattresses are usually used along with a foundation, which might include metal springs or torsion bars on a wooden frame, which supports the mattress.
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^ With time, humans probably also used straw to sleep on.
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.Some early Americans used trees or bamboo poles to cross small caverns or wells to get from one place to another.^ If some specific railway line is operated by the homonymic company, it is ordinarilly suitable to use one common category for both this railway and this company.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some specific cycle route can involve (use) one or more cycle paths, but all used roads and trails and paths are "bikeways" in broader meaning.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the way, I objected this categorization from the very beginning, so no one can say there used to be a consensus at some point.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The Arkadiko Bridge is one of four Mycenaean corbel arch bridges part of a former network of roads, designed to accommodate chariots, between Tiryns to Epidauros in the Peloponnese, in Greece. .Dating to the Greek Bronze Age (13th century BC), it is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence and use.^ However, there are only a few innerspring manufacturers and four general types: Bonnel coils These are the oldest ones and most commonly used.
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^ Water mills were still in commercial use well into the twentieth century, however.
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^ In the 4th century BC, the Greek-speaking Macedonians conquered Egypt and founded the city of Alexandria in 332.
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Several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese in southern Greece[2]
.The greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans.^ Category:Ancient Roman bridges .
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am currently ordering the Ancient Roman bridges .
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

[3] .The Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs.^ Anyway, if you would use Roman Bridge as category/article name, to be consistent, you have to write al the times Bridge with capital in the text when you refer to the bridge, which is obviously not done.
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  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Some stand today.[4] An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, in Spain. .The Romans also used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone.^ It is sometimes useful to include occasional pieces of wood as you lay a wall to give something to nail insulation onto, and stone can be used for additional strength.
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^ By using memoization or maintaining a table of subproblems already solved, dynamic programming reduces the exponential nature of many problems to polynomial complexity.
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^ Medicinal and non-food uses Cyanogenic glycosides (found in most stone fruit seeds, bark, and leaves) are found in high concentration in apricot seeds.
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[5] One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, lime, sand, and volcanic rock. Brick and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era, as the technology for cement was lost then later rediscovered.
The Arthashastra of Kautilya mentions the construction of dams and bridges.[6] A Mauryan bridge near Girnar was surveyed by James Princep.[7] The bridge was swept away during a flood, and later repaired by Puspagupta, the chief architect of emperor Chandragupta I.[7] The bridge also fell under the care of the Yavana Tushaspa, and the Satrap Rudra Daman.[7] .The use of stronger bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible in India by about the 4th century.^ Berber Period The use and forging of iron came about from trade with the Phoenicians (c.
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[8] A number of bridges, both for military and commercial purposes, were constructed by the Mughal administration in India.[9]
.Although large Chinese bridges of wooden construction existed at the time of the Warring States, the oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605 AD during the Sui Dynasty.^ It is thought that camphor was used as a flavouring in confections resembling ice cream in China during the Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907).
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This bridge is also historically significant as it is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. .European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the Alconétar Bridge (approximately 2nd century AD), while the enormous Roman era Trajan's Bridge (105 AD) featured open-spandrel segmental arches in wooden construction.^ The earliest known 'mummified' individual dates back to approximately 3300 BC, although it is not a 'true' mummy.
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^ Access from the city to the Alhambra Park is afforded by the Puerta de las Granadas (Gate of Pomegranates), a massive triumphal arch dating from the 15th century.
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.Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 1500s.^ Some of the best-preserved mummies date from the Inca period in Peru some 500 years ago, where children were ritually sacrificed and placed on the summits of mountains in the Andes.
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^ With the European colonization of the Americas, the Caribbean became the world's largest source of sugar.
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^ It is a staple in the South Indian diet, where it is used to prepare Sambhar (spicy lentil soup with lots of vegetables), Pulihora rice, and various types of chutneys.
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.During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich, Johannes Grubenmann, and others.^ The reason is that there are many other statues of Liberty in the world, as listed in category:Statues of Freedom .
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mummies in fiction During the 20th century, horror films and other mass media popularized the notion of a curse associated with mummies.
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.The first book on bridge engineering was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716. A major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Coalbrookdale, England in 1779. It used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn.^ Its use in England was first documented in 1551.
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^ Over time Egypt spread south and technologies such as iron working, and perhaps ideas such as that of monarchy spread into Nubia and further south.
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^ In the 19th century, Jean-Victor Poncelet worked on improving the efficiency of the undershot design using modern hydraulic physics for the first time.
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.With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron did not have the tensile strength to support large loads.^ In the 19th century the "dash" system was commonly used with cartridges.
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^ Cuba was a large producer of sugar in the 20th century until the collapse of the Soviet Union took away their export market and the industry collapsed.
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^ In the middle of the 19th century, muskets and muzzle-loading rifles were .58 cal or larger.
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With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel.
.In 1927 welding pioneer Stefan Bryła designed the first welded road bridge in the world which was later built across the river Słudwia Maurzyce near Łowicz, Poland in 1929. In 1995, the American Welding Society presented an Historic Welded Structure Award for the bridge to Poland.^ Further gains in fuel efficiency were achieved through the multiple-effect evaporator, designed by the African-American engineer Norbert Rillieux perhaps as early as the 1820s, although the first working model was not built until 1845.
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[10]

Etymology

.The Oxford English Dictionary traces the origin of the word bridge to an Old English word brycg, of the same meaning, derived from a hypothetical Proto-Germanic root brugjō.^ The OED notes that the word alcatraz was originally applied to the frigatebird; the modification to albatross was perhaps influenced by Latin alba meaning "white", in contrast to frigatebirds which are black.
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^ History The word "monsoon" appears to have originated from the Arabic word "موسم" ( mausem ), which means season .
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^ Blighty Wikipedia RSS Feed Blighty is a British English slang term for Great Britain, deriving from the Hindustani word bilāyatī (विलायती), meaning "foreign", related to the Arabic word wilayat , meaning a kingdom or province.
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There are cognates in other Germanic languages (for instance Brücke in German, brug in Dutch, brú in Icelandic, brúgv in Faroese or bro in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish).

Types of bridges

.There are six main types of bridges: beam bridges, cantilever bridges, arch bridges, suspension bridges, cable-stayed bridges and truss bridges.^ Coffee bean types —Brazil> > There are two main species of the coffee plant.
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^ There are three main types of foundations: Traditional wood foundation It is usually made of pine or similar hard wood.
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Beam bridges

Beam bridges are horizontal beams supported at each end by piers. The earliest beam bridges were simple logs that sat across streams and similar simple structures. In modern times, beam bridges are large box steel girder bridges. Weight on top of the beam pushes straight down on the piers at either end of the bridge.[11] They are made up mostly of wood or metal. Beam bridges typically do not exceed 250 feet long. The longer the bridge, the weaker. The world's longest beam bridge is Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in southern Louisiana, U.S.A., at 23.83 miles (38.35 km), with individual spans of 56 feet (17 m).[12]

Cantilever bridges

.Cantilever bridges are built using cantilevers—horizontal beams that are supported on only one end.^ However, there are only a few innerspring manufacturers and four general types: Bonnel coils These are the oldest ones and most commonly used.
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^ Some very high-end instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it.
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^ This goes only for Bantu verbs ending with -a , ones derived from Arabic follow more complex rules.
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Most cantilever bridges use two cantilever arms extending from opposite sides of the obstacle to be crossed, meeting at the center. The largest cantilever bridge is the 549-metre (1,801 ft) Quebec Bridge in Quebec, Canada.[13]

Arch bridges

Stone arch bridge in Shaharah, Yemen
Arch bridges are arch-shaped and have abutments at each end. .The earliest known arch bridges were built by the Greeks and include the Arkadiko Bridge.^ It is also known that Arabs have built many of their own version of the Greek-Roman baths they encountered following their conquests of Alexandria.
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.The weight of the bridge is thrust into the abutments at either side.^ Mughal mosques of this period divide the sanctuary hall into three areas: a main sanctuary with slightly smaller sanctuaries to either side.
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Dubai in the United Arab Emirates is currently building the Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Crossing which is scheduled for completion in 2012. When completed, it will be the largest arch bridge in the world.[14]

Suspension bridges

Suspension bridges are suspended from cables. The earliest suspension bridges were made of ropes or vines covered with pieces of bamboo. In modern bridges, the cables hang from towers that are attached to caissons or cofferdams. The caissons or cofferdams are implanted deep into the floor of a lake or river. The longest suspension bridge in the world is the 12,826 feet (3,909 m) Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan.[15] See simple suspension bridge, stressed ribbon bridge, underspanned suspension bridge, suspended-deck suspension bridge, and self-anchored suspension bridge.

Cable-stayed bridges

Like suspension bridges, cable-stayed bridges are held up by cables. However, in a cable-stayed bridge, less cable is required and the towers holding the cables are proportionately shorter. [16] The first known cable-stayed bridge was designed in 1784 by C.T. Loescher.[17] The longest cable-stayed bridge is the Sutong Bridge over the Yangtze River in China.

Truss bridges

Continuous under-deck truss bridge
Over-deck truss bridge with steel girders and wooden carriageway
Truss bridges are composed of connected elements. They have a solid deck and a lattice of pin-jointed or gusset-joined girders for the sides. .Early truss bridges were made of wood, and later of wood with iron tensile rods, but modern truss bridges are made completely of metals such as wrought iron and steel or sometimes of reinforced concrete.^ Others were also made of woods such as coconut, ebony or other hardwoods, or of ivory, bone, horn or tortoiseshell.
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^ The back and sides are made out of a variety of woods such as mahogany, Indian rosewood and highly regarded Brazilian rosewood ( Dalbergia nigra ).
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^ Most metals are soluble in mercury, but some (such as iron) are not.
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The Quebec Bridge, mentioned above as a cantilever bridge, is also the world's longest truss bridge.[18]

By use

A bridge is designed for trains, pedestrian or road traffic, a pipeline or waterway for water transport or barge traffic. An aqueduct is a bridge that carries water, resembling a viaduct, which is a bridge that connects points of equal height. A road-rail bridge carries both road and rail traffic.
Bridges are subject to unplanned uses as well. .The areas underneath some bridges have become makeshift shelters and homes to homeless people, and the undersides of bridges all around the world are spots of prevalent graffiti.^ For instance, in Brazil alone, where almost a third of all the world's coffee is produced, over 5 million people are employed in the cultivation and harvesting of over 3 billion coffee plants.
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^ In some areas, the title has been handed down the generations, and has become a family name.
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^ Some very high-end instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it.
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.Some bridges attract people attempting suicide, and become known as suicide bridges.^ Hajji has recently become an ethnic slur commonly used among some people to refer to Muslims and Middle-Eastern people in general.
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.To create a beautiful image, some bridges are built much taller than necessary.^ The stone could turn any metal into pure gold, and created an "Elixir of Life" that enabled the drinker to live much longer than usual.
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^ But I rather did spend that time creating them and sorting images into them than see a category be removed which I feel we would only have had to recreate soon again.
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^ Minarets are generally tall, graceful spires, with onion-shaped crowns, usually either free standing or much taller than any surrounding support structure.
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.This type, often found in east-Asian style gardens, is called a Moon bridge, evoking a rising full moon.^ The Taj (as it is often called) is generally considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements of Hindu and Islamic architectures.
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^ Another popular style was the "T-type" mosque which called from a slightly longer hall leading up to the mihrab at the front-center of the mosque.
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^ It is usually found in metamorphic rocks, often of a basic type due to the alteration of the minerals mentioned above.
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.Other garden bridges may cross only a dry bed of stream washed pebbles, intended only to convey an impression of a stream.^ But the outline of the ruins on the other river bank would extend the design of the Taj gardens to form a cross of proportions typical of other Mughal tombs.
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^ All other major Mughal tombs were sited in gardens that form a cross, with the tomb at the intersection of the vertical and horizontal pieces.
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.Often in palaces a bridge will be built over an artificial waterway as symbolic of a passage to an important place or state of mind.^ A narrow passage leads inward to the Plaza de los Aljibes (Place of the Cisterns), a broad open space which divides the Alcazaba from the Moorish palace.
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.A set of five bridges cross a sinuous waterway in an important courtyard of the Forbidden City in Beijing, the People's Republic of China.^ People's Republic of China .
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The central bridge was reserved exclusively for the use of the Emperor, Empress, and their attendants.

Differences and similarities in bridge structure

A bridge taxonomy showing evolutionary relationships
Bridges may be classified by how the forces of tension, compression, bending, torsion and shear are distributed through their structure. .Most bridges will employ all of the principal forces to some degree, but only a few will predominate.^ I moved all images and categories of bikeways from this category to category of bikeways and some few images of other objects to appropriate categories.
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  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there are only a few innerspring manufacturers and four general types: Bonnel coils These are the oldest ones and most commonly used.
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The separation of forces may be quite clear. In a suspension or cable-stayed span, the elements in tension are distinct in shape and placement. In other cases the forces may be distributed among a large number of members, as in a truss, or not clearly discernible to a casual observer as in a box beam. Bridges can also be classified by their lineage, which is shown as the vertical axis on the diagram to the right.

Efficiency

A bridge's structural efficiency may be considered to be the ratio of load carried to bridge mass, given a specific set of material types. .In one common challenge students are divided into groups and given a quantity of wood sticks, a distance to span, and glue, and then asked to construct a bridge that will be tested to destruction by the progressive addition of load at the center of the span.^ Another popular type of sherbet dip is the 'Double Dipper' where the packet is divided into three or four sections; one contains an edible stick which can be licked and then dipped into the other sections, each of which contains a different flavour of sherbet (for example strawberry, orange, cola).
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^ I agree that we shouldn't be dividing up topic categories into SVG and non-SVG, however I still think having a additional category system (that is by format) can be useful.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many cases that some railway (line) was divided into two or more lines or that several railways (railway lines) was joined into one railway (which can have more branches).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The bridge taking the greatest load is by this test the most structurally efficient. .A more refined measure for this exercise is to weigh the completed bridge rather than measure against a fixed quantity of materials provided and determine the multiple of this weight that the bridge can carry, a test that emphasizes economy of materials and efficient glue joints (see balsa wood bridge).^ Although I am not always completely satisfied with some of his naming conventions, at least he managed to bring a consistent naming in Italy, which is now more consistent than in most other countries.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the mime type is already stored in a table, it would be more efficient to change the interface/CatScan to use it, rather than to duplicate this into the category table.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pickguard is more often than not used in styles such as flamenco, which tends to use the guitar as a percussion instrument at times, rather than for instance, a classical guitar.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A bridge's economic efficiency will be site and traffic dependent, the ratio of savings by having a bridge (instead of, for example, a ferry, or a longer road route) compared to its cost. .The lifetime cost is composed of materials, labor, machinery, engineering, cost of money, insurance, maintenance, refurbishment, and ultimately, demolition and associated disposal, recycling, and replacement, less the value of scrap and reuse of components.^ In many less developed countries, hand sorting is still done because of the low cost of labor.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bridges employing only compression are relatively inefficient structurally, but may be highly cost efficient where suitable materials are available near the site and the cost of labor is low.^ In many less developed countries, hand sorting is still done because of the low cost of labor.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No other country had the industrial capacity, the high efficiency and low costs, or the complex distribution system needed to compete in the vast American market.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For medium spans, trusses or box beams are usually most economical, while in some cases, the appearance of the bridge may be more important than its cost efficiency.^ Although I am not always completely satisfied with some of his naming conventions, at least he managed to bring a consistent naming in Italy, which is now more consistent than in most other countries.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As an admin you should know better than most that the opinion of no single individual is more important than the health of the Commons community.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During a night's sleep, most people use more than one position.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The longest spans usually require suspension bridges.

Double-decker bridge

"Metrobridge" Vorobyovy Gory (ru:Метромост) double-deck bridge in Moscow carries the Moscow Metro.
.Double-decker bridges have two levels, such as the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge, with two road levels.^ The light small maneuverable feluccas were the mainstay of the fishing fleet of San Francisco Bay.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tsing Ma Bridge and Kap Shui Mun Bridge in Hong Kong have six lanes on their upper decks, and on their lower decks there are two lanes and a pair of tracks for MTR metro trains.^ Two balconies, the upper smaller than the lower, over projecting friezes of stalactite vaulting, surmounted by an elongated finial.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There may be some mechanism for raising or lowering the bridge to adjust the distance between the strings and the fretboard (action), and/or fine-tuning the intonation of the instrument.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Likewise, in Toronto, the Prince Edward Viaduct has four lanes of motor traffic on its upper deck and a pair of tracks for the Bloor–Danforth subway line. .Some double-decker bridges only use one level for street traffic; the Washington Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis reserves its lower level for automobile traffic and its upper level for pedestrian and bicycle traffic (predominantly students at the University of Minnesota).^ If some specific railway line is operated by the homonymic company, it is ordinarilly suitable to use one common category for both this railway and this company.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some specific cycle route can involve (use) one or more cycle paths, but all used roads and trails and paths are "bikeways" in broader meaning.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the way, I objected this categorization from the very beginning, so no one can say there used to be a consensus at some point.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Robert Stephenson's High Level Bridge across the River Tyne in Newcastle upon Tyne, completed in 1849, is an early example of a double-deck bridge. The upper level carries a railway, and the lower level is used for road traffic.
Another example is Craigavon Bridge in Derry, Northern Ireland. .The Oresund Bridge between Copenhagen and Malmö consists of a four-lane highway on the upper level and a pair of railway tracks at the lower level.^ There may be some mechanism for raising or lowering the bridge to adjust the distance between the strings and the fretboard (action), and/or fine-tuning the intonation of the instrument.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The George Washington Bridge between New Jersey and New York has two roadway levels. .It was built with only the upper roadway as traffic demands did not require more capacity.^ Not only did their job require knowledge of human anatomy, they also had to perform rituals at several stages during the process.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A truss work between the roadway levels provides stiffness to the roadways and reduced movement of the upper level when installed.
.Tower Bridge is different example of a double-decker bridge, with the central section consisting of a low level bascule span and a high level footbridge.^ Another popular type of sherbet dip is the 'Double Dipper' where the packet is divided into three or four sections; one contains an edible stick which can be licked and then dipped into the other sections, each of which contains a different flavour of sherbet (for example strawberry, orange, cola).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference is that "Cannabis" is the drug and "Hemp" (also Industrial Hemp ) is the industrial low-THC-level plant.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

More than just a bridge

  • Some bridges carry special installations such as the tower of Nový Most bridge in Bratislava which carries a restaurant.^ Perhaps the best-known species is the Lesser Egyptian Jerboa ( Jaculus jaculus ) which occupies some of the most hostile desert on the planet.
    • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sashes are traditionally part of formal military attire, and some decorations such as the Legion d'honneur are worn with a special sash.
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    ^ Most metals are soluble in mercury, but some (such as iron) are not.
    • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Other suspension bridge towers carry transmission antennas.
  • Costs and cost overruns in bridge construction have been studied by Flyvbjerg et al. (2003). The average cost overrun in building a bridge was found to be 34%.[19]
  • In railway parlance, an overbridge is a bridge crossing over the course of the railway. In contrast, an underbridge allows passage under the line.

Bridge failures

The failure of bridges is of special concern for structural engineers in trying to learn lessons vital to bridge design, construction and maintenance. .The failure of bridges first assumed national interest during the Victorian era when many new designs were being built, often using new materials.^ The term is often used to designate the market in any Arabized city.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The zarf was often made from metal, with silver, gold, copper and brass being the most common materials used.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 1,000 elephants were used to transport building materials during the construction.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Movable bridges

.Some bridges are not fixed crossings, but can move out of the way of boats or other kinds of traffic which, ideally, moves under them, but is sometimes too tall to fit.^ Some are springloaded and feature a "whammy bar", a removable arm which allows the player to modulate the pitch moving the bridge up and down.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A "bottomed out" mattress doe not easily move with the sleeper, causing aches after some time.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, animals which are exceptional in some way and therefore don't fit easily in the other classes may be placed in this class.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Visual index

Index to types

Index to related topics

See also

References

  1. ^ Roman Bridge in Cordoba ( 1st century B.C.)
  2. ^ T.H. Nielsen and J. Roy. Defining ancient Arkadia: symposium April 1-4 1998. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selska, 1998. p. 253. [1]
  3. ^ Context for World Heritage Bridges
  4. ^ History of BRIDGES
  5. ^ Lessons from Roman Cement and Concrete
  6. ^ Dikshitar, pg. 332
  7. ^ a b c Dutt, pg 46
  8. ^ "suspension bridge" in Encyclopaedia Britannica (2008). 2008 Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.
  9. ^ Nath, pg. 213
  10. ^ Sapp, Mark E. (February 22, 2008). "Welding Timeline 1900-1950". WeldingHistory.org. http://www.weldinghistory.org/whistoryfolder/welding/wh_1900-1950.html. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  11. ^ "Beam bridges". Design Technology. http://www.design-technology.org/beambridges.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  12. ^ "A big prefabricated bridge". Life 40 (22): 53–60. 28 May 1956. 
  13. ^ "The Quebec Bridge Disasters". http://filebox.vt.edu/users/aschaeff/quebec/quebec.html. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  14. ^ Glass, Amy. "Dubai to build world's longest arch bridge". Arabian Business. http://www.arabianbusiness.com/509621-worlds-longest-arch-bridge-for-dubai?ln=en. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  15. ^ Sigmund, Pete (2007-02-07). "The Mighty Mac: A Sublime Engineering Feat". Construction Equipment Guide. http://www.constructionequipmentguide.com/story.asp?story=8153&headline=The%20Mighty%20Mac:%20A%20Sublime%20Engineering%20Feat. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  16. ^ Johnson, Andy. "Cable Stay vs Suspension Bridges". U.S. Department of Energy. http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/eng99/eng99373.htm. 
  17. ^ "Bridges". NYCDOT. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/bridges/reconstruction.shtml. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 
  18. ^ World's Longest Bridge Spans
  19. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent, Nils Bruzelius, and Werner Rothengatter, 2003. Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Bibliography

  • Brown, David J. Bridges: Three Thousand Years of Defying Nature. Richmond Hill, Ont: Firefly Books, 2005. ISBN 1-55407-099-6.
  • Sandak, Cass R. Bridges. .An Easy-read modern wonders book.^ Generally speaking, most of his books are popular and relatively easy to read.
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    New York: F. Watts, 1983. ISBN 0-531-04624-9.
  • Whitney, Charles S. Bridges of the World: Their Design and Construction. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2003. ISBN 0-486-42995-4.
Unabridged republication of Bridges : a study in their art, science, and evolution. 1929.
  • Dikshitar, V. R. R. Dikshitar (1993). The Mauryan Polity. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120810236.
  • Dutt, Romesh Chunder (2000). .A History of Civilisation in Ancient India: Vol II.^ The Flora of British India , Vol II. London: L. Reeve & Co.
    • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Routledge. ISBN 0415231884.
  • Nath, R. (1982). History of Mughal Architecture. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 8170171598.
  • Kinney, A. R.; el al. (2003). Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824827791.
  • Buck, William; el al. (2000). Ramayana. University of California Press. ISBN 0520227034

External links

.

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Bridge article)

From Wikisource

The Bridge
by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
 :
The Bridge-Longfellow.ogg
(audio)
.I stood on the bridge at midnight,
As the clocks were striking the hour,
And the moon rose o'er the city,
Behind the dark church-tower.
^ Nearby, don't miss the Delacorte Musical Clock Tower, featuring a bronze menagerie that plays a tune every half hour.

.I saw her bright reflection
In the waters under me,
Like a golden goblet falling
And sinking into the sea.
^ I just saw a light like the sun...so bright and clear.
  • Near Death Experience Research Foundation (NDERF) with Evidence of the Afterlife 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.nderf.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference is that a Cathedral has a related congregation and a monastery has a related religious order or the like, and the congregations and orders are organizations that would obviously fall into the established organizations category tree (e.g.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Arriving at the boat ramp, which more looked like a deserted sloping driveway into the water, the hope of catching a ride was slim at best.

.And far in the hazy distance
Of that lovely night in June,
The blaze of the flaming furnace
Gleamed redder than the moon.
^ June 15, 2006 by caya I’m a 5.01 on the way to 5.2 ;) but more into css than xhtml… Love the article .
  • Levels of HTML knowledge | 456 Berea Street 20 November 2009 8:25 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

Among the long, black rafters
The wavering shadows lay,
And the current that came from the ocean
Seemed to lift and bear them away;
.As, sweeping and eddying through them,
Rose the belated tide,
And, streaming into the moonlight,
The seaweed floated wide.
^ I traveled into the bottom of the rose and through the green stem, where the thorns were shown to represent the crown of thorns.
  • Out of Body Experience Research Foundation (OBERF) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC oberf.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then I turned into a stream of air seemingly and went through something narrow like a tunnel.
  • Out of Body Experience Research Foundation (OBERF) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC oberf.org [Source type: Original source]

.And like those waters rushing
Among the wooden piers,
A flood of thoughts came o'er me
That filled my eyes with tears.
^ It's like an art museum filled with original Margaret Keane paintings (the famous "big eye" pictures) and a few other artists.
  • The Bridges :: The Official Website for The Bridges 10 February 2010 12:39 UTC thebridgesmusic.net [Source type: General]

^ I would like to share with you that your program has opened the eyes and touched the lives of those around them.

^ Frowning frowning night, O'er this desart bright, Let thy moon arise, While I close my eyes.
  • The Wm. Blake Page - Songs of Experience 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.gailgastfield.com [Source type: Original source]

How often, oh, how often,
In the days that had gone by,
I had stood on that bridge at midnight
And gazed on that wave and sky!
How often, oh, how often,
I had wished that the ebbing tide
Would bear me away on its bosom
O'er the ocean wild and wide!
.For my heart was hot and restless,
And my life was full of care,
And the burden laid upon me
Seemed greater than I could bear.
^ Everything in my life has lead me towards music, but upon receiving my degree, I have been pushed and pulled towards all different careers.

^ I particularly look for those of Cardinal-flowers, the giant lobelia, for they seem to prefer to seed in my paths rather than the beds where I want them to grow.
  • EzineArticles Submission - Submit Your Best Quality Original Articles For Massive Exposure, Ezine Publishers Get 25 Free Article Reprints 25 September 2009 8:46 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: General]

^ I was filling my days as best I could, but getting anxious to work and make money, and live the life I felt I was promised.

But now it has fallen from me,
It is buried in the sea;
And only the sorrow of others
Throws its shadow over me.
.Yet whenever I cross the river
On its bridge with wooden piers,
Like the odor of brine from the ocean
Comes the thought of other years.
^ East River tolls would raise somewhat over $500 million a year for city coffers and $100 million for the MTA, as some drivers switch to MTA crossings once the city bridges are also tolled.
  • East River - Factbites 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You've undoubtedly crossed a bridge at least once in your life, but you might not have thought much about its purpose at the time.
  • Dental Bridge, Dental Bridges Basics for Consumers - 1-800-DENTIST® 10 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.1800dentist.com [Source type: News]

^ The bridge was built with a single 458-foot-long steel arch to avoid putting any piers in the water that might interfere with river navigation.
  • Minn. bridge warning issued in 1990 - USATODAY.com 10 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.And I think how many thousands
Of care-encumbered men,
Each bearing his burden of sorrow,
Have crossed the bridge since then.
^ After all bridges have been completed, have students test their bridges by seeing how many pennies they will hold.

^ With only minor changes from the original, it is capable of handling the heaviest of loads and bridge engineers do not indicate how many years the future life span of this bridge might have.

^ All these have a bearing on our health and how we feel, men are not exempt either.

I see the long procession
Still passing to and fro,
The young heart hot and restless,
And the old subdued and slow!
And forever and forever,
As long as the river flows,
As long as the heart has passions,
As long as life has woes;
The moon and its broken reflection
And its shadows shall appear,
As the symbol of love in heaven,
And its wavering image here.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BRIDGE, a game of cards, developed out of the game of whist. The country of its origin is unknown. .A similar game is said to have been played in Denmark in the middle of the 19th century.^ In the middle of the 19th century, muskets and muzzle-loading rifles were .58 cal or larger.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A game in all respects the same as bridge, except that in " no trumps " each trick counted ten instead of twelve, was played in England about 1884 under the name of Dutch whist.^ If there is a small country called EXAMPLE and that country has no transport-related pictures except 3 images in "Roads in EXAMPLE", with that category listed under "Transport in EXAMPLE", then we would not delete "Transport in EXAMPLE" as a category name either, just because at that moment, "Roads in EXAMPLE" would do.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That's why I've suggested to merge the "IMO category" and the "name category" for each ship (so that each ship has exactly one category, which contains all the info about that ship).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a conclusion, it makes no sense to discuss if the (invented) castle name should be "xxx Castle" or "Castle yyy" as we are talking about inventing proper names while the commons rules are clear for such naming.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Some connect it with Turkey and Egypt under the name of " Khedive," or with a Russian game called " Yeralash." It was in Turkey that it first won a share of popular favour. .Under the synonyms of " Biritch," " Bridge," or " Russian whist," it found its way to the London clubs about 1894, from which date its popularity rapidly increased.^ Really though, I think your point about the need for category synonyms is a huge one- I just don't think the cat structure is the right way to do it.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Table of contents

Ordinary Bridge

.Bridge, in its ordinary form, differs from whist in the following respects: - Although there are four players, yet in each hand the partner of the dealer takes no part in the play of that particular hand.^ Quotations The art of playing the lute formed a major part of instrumental music making in the Renaissance before keyboard instruments assumed central significance.
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^ The majority said no (although there was a significant minority in favor), but there was also a strong voice in favor of changing the categorization of the image.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am proposing to merge the following categories for which there is no clear distinction.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

After the first lead his cards are placed on the table exposed, and are played by the dealer as at dummy whist; nevertheless the dealer's partner is interested in the result of the hand equally with the dealer. The trump suit is not determined by the last card dealt, but is selected by the dealer or his partner without consultation, the former having the first option. It is further open to them to play without a trump suit. The value of tricks and honours varies with the suit declared as trumps. Honours are reckoned differently from whist, and on a scale which is somewhat involved. The score for honours does not count towards winning or losing the rubber, but is added afterwards to the trick score in order to determine the value of the rubber. There are also scores for holding no trumps (" chicane "), and for winning all the tricks or all but one (" slam ") .
The score has to be kept on paper. .It is usual for the scoring block to have two vertical columns divided halfway by a horizontal line.^ There are many cases that some railway (line) was divided into two or more lines or that several railways (railway lines) was joined into one railway (which can have more branches).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The left column is for the scorers' side, and the right for the opponents'. Honours are scored above the horizontal line, and tricks below. The drawback to this arrangement is that, since the scores for each hand are not kept separately, it is generally impossible to trace an error in the score without going through the whole series of hands. .A better plan, it seems, is to have four columns ruled, the inner two being assigned to tricks, the outer ones to honours.^ Sometimes, "T-type" mosques would also be accompanied with more than one dome with the largest being at the intersection of the two segments of the "T".
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bactrian camels have two coats: the warm inner coat of down and a rough outer coat which is long and hairy.
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By this method a line can be reserved for each hand, and any discrepancy in the scores at once rectified.
The Portland Club, London, drew up a code of laws in 1895, and this code, with a few amendments, was in July 1895 adopted by a joint committee of the Turf and Portland Clubs. A revised code came into force in January 1905, the provisions of which are here summarized.
Each trick above 6 counts 2 points in a spade declaration, 4 in a club, 6 in a diamond, 8 in a heart, 12 in a no-trump declaration. The game consists of 30 points made by tricks alone. .When one side has won two games the rubber is ended.^ At the far end of the complex, two grand red sandstone buildings open to the sides of the tomb.
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^ Some very high-end instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it.
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The winners are entitled to add loo points to their score. Honours consist of ace, king, queen, knave, ten, in a suit declaration. If a player and his partner conjointly hold 3 (or " simple ") honours they score twice the value of a trick; if 4 honours, 4 times; if 5 honours, 5 times. .If a player in his own hand hold 4 honours he is entitled to score 4 honours in addition to the score for conjoint honours; thus, if one player hold 4 honours and his partner the other their total score is 9 by honours.^ It should be designed to minimize the transfer of movement from one sleeping partner to the other.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Similarly if a player hold 5 honours in his own hand he is entitled to score 10 by honours. If in a no-trump hand the partners conjointly hold 3 aces, they score 30 for honours; if 4 aces, 40 for honours. 4 aces in 1 hand count loo. .On the same footing as the score for honours are the following: chicane, if a player hold no trump, in amount equal to simple honours; grand slam, if one side win all the tricks, 40 points; little slam, if they win 12 tricks, 20 points.^ It is not right for one side to win by default.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A side sleeper will probably want a softer mattress, to minimize pressure points, especially if they have a very curved or rounded figure.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some very high-end instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the end of the rubber the total scores, whether made by tricks, honours, chicane, slam, or rubber points, are added together, and the difference between the two totals is the number of points won.^ Bhaskara II (1114 AD), who wrote the text Bijaganita (algebra), was the first to recognize that a positive number has two square roots.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A days-long battle between the two regiments ensued, which was brought to an end only by the intervention of the Sultan, who had the tellak hung.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether there is any direct connection between the two systems is an open question.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the opening of play, partners are arranged and the cards are shuffled, cut and dealt (the last card not being turned) as at whist; but the dealer cannot lose the deal by misdealing. After the deal is completed, the dealer makes the trump or notrump (sans atout) declaration, or passes the choice to his partner without remark. .If the dealer's partner make the declaration out of his turn, the adversary on the dealer's left may, without consultation, claim a fresh deal.^ This is important because when one person tosses and turns, it may not completely wake the other person, but, it can take them out of a deep sleep which is when the body does all of its regeneration.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do the opposite mentally crop out the extraneous detail until only the stairs are left, again if the image has a value without the background the category would be "stairs".
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Others include procedures that could run forever without stopping, arguing that some entity may be required to carry out such permanent tasks.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If an adversary make a declaration, the dealer may claim a fresh deal or disregard the declaration. Then after the declaration, either adversary may double, the leader having first option. The effect of doubling is that each trick is worth twice as many points as before; but the scores for honours, chicane and slam are unaltered. If a declaration is doubled, the dealer and his partner have the right of redoubling, thus making each trick worth four times as much as at first. The declarer has the first option. The other side 529 can again redouble, and so on; but the value of a trick is limited to zoo points. .In the play of the hand the laws are nearly the same as the laws of whist, except that the dealer may expose his cards and lead out of turn without penalty; after the second hand has played, however, he can only correct this lead out of turn with the permission of the adversaries.^ This is important because when one person tosses and turns, it may not completely wake the other person, but, it can take them out of a deep sleep which is when the body does all of its regeneration.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, there exist or are planned about hundred of numbered cycle routes of first or second class in Prague and times out of number of third class, which are numbered only in documentation.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Do the opposite mentally crop out the extraneous detail until only the stairs are left, again if the image has a value without the background the category would be "stairs".
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Dummy cannot revoke. The dealer's partner may take no part in the play of the hand beyond guarding the dealer against revoking.

Advice to Players

.In the choice of a suit two objects are to be aimed at: first, to select the suit in which the combined forces have the best chance of making tricks; secondly, to select the trump so that the value of the suit agrees with the character of the hand, i.e. a suit of high value when the hands are strong and of low value when very weak.^ They are also valued for crime prevention; being very dense, viciously spiny shrubs, they make very effective barriers impenetrable to burglars.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the surface, the monsoon is associated with a weak highs that form over the four corners region and the southern Great Plains and a thermal low that forms over Baja California.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the high volume of coffee grounds required to make strong coffee in this fashion, the brewing process is quite slow.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the deal is a great advantage it generally happens that a high value is to be aimed at, but occasionally a low value is desirable.^ Alfalfa requires a great deal of potash; soils low in fertility should be fertilized with manure or a chemical fertilizer.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The task of selection should fall to the hand which has the most distinctive features, that is, either the longest suit or unusual strength or weakness.^ Well, if we are making a distinction that subtle, then we should at least say something at the top of each page, so that either category can be found from the other and so that the distinction is clear.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.No consultation being allowed, the dealer must assume only an average amount of variation from the normal in his partner's hand.^ And on the other hand the fact, that Wikicommons categories must be used not not only by native English speakers but by anybody wanting to categorize media.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

If his own hand has distinctive features beyond the average, he should name the trump suit himself, otherwise pass it to his partner. It may here be stated what is the average in these respects.
.As regards the length of a suit, a player's long suit is rather more likely to be fewer than five than over five.^ Given that most albatross ringing projects are considerably younger than that, is seems likely that other species will prove to live that long and even longer.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the mime type is already stored in a table, it would be more efficient to change the interface/CatScan to use it, rather than to duplicate this into the category table.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pickguard is more often than not used in styles such as flamenco, which tends to use the guitar as a percussion instrument at times, rather than for instance, a classical guitar.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the dealer has in his hand a suit of five cards including two honours, it is probable that he has a better suit to make trumps than dummy; if the suit is in hearts, and the dealer has a fair hand, he ought to name the trump.^ This now makes consumers unambiguously worse off than under a free trade regime, but still better off than under a system without trade.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As regards strength, the average hand would contain ace, king, queen, knave and ten, or equivalent strength. .Hands stronger or weaker than this by the value of a king or less may be described as featureless.^ Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples..
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However the number given may be the barrel diameter (as described above), the bullet diameter (which is several thousandths larger than the barrel), or the cartridge diameter.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different algorithms may complete the same task with a different set of instructions in more or less time, space, or effort than others.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the dealer's hand is a king over the average, it is more likely than not that his partner will either hold a stronger hand, or will hold such a weak hand as will counteract the player's strength.^ The Pickguard is more often than not used in styles such as flamenco, which tends to use the guitar as a percussion instrument at times, rather than for instance, a classical guitar.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This holds for pistol and rifle calibers, such as the 9x19mm (more commonly knows as 9mm Luger) and the 5.56x45mm.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thick layers of padding are more likely than the springs to compress to the point of feeling like the mattress is sagging.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dealer would not generally with such a hand declare no trump, especially as by making a no-trump declaration the dealer forfeits the advantage of holding the long trumps.^ "Architectural plans" is slightly more general, because it would include landscape architecture where there is no floor, and would also include the "reverse plan" for a ceiling.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That makes no SENSE. Especially to then put that category "Railway lines".
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a conclusion, it makes no sense to discuss if the (invented) castle name should be "xxx Castle" or "Castle yyy" as we are talking about inventing proper names while the commons rules are clear for such naming.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Declarations by Dealer

In calculating the strength of a hand a knave is worth two tens, a queen is worth two knaves, a king is worth a queen and knave together, and an ace is worth a king and queen together. .A king unguarded is worth less than a queen guarded; a queen is not fully guarded unless accompanied by three more cards; if guarded by one small card it is worth a knave guarded..^ File:OeBB-RBe2-4.jpg an electric railcar, hardly able to pull more than one trailer, originally delvered without coupling.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But we call it rail transport anyways, because we are an archival project that needs a more rigorous structure than one that has grown organically with all its inconsistencies.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, an algorithm that verifies if there are more zeros than ones in an infinite random binary sequence must run forever to be effective.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An ace also loses in value by being sole.
.A hand to be strong enough for a no-trump declaration should be a king and ten above the average with all the honours guarded and all the suits protected.^ In the construction of the Alhambra, the Moors had no depictions of people at all excluding the human hand.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It must be a king and knave or two queens above the average if there is protection in three suits.^ A three-piece suite is composed of three couch pieces (generally, a two- or three-seater and two armchairs).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other types, including two-seater, three-seater, corner and chaise longue.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It must be an ace or a king and queen above the average if only two suits are protected. .An established black suit of six or more cards with a guarded king as card of entry is good enough for no trumps.^ While the name "black tabby" is more correct, the brown tabby moniker is firmly established in the US and any change is doubtful.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With three aces no trumps can be declared. .Without an ace, four kings, two queens and a knave are required in order to justify the declaration.^ Experts indicate that two adults sleeping nightly on a queen mattress will notice the padding, not the coils, breaking down after a period of four to six years.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the dealer has a choice of declarations, a sound heart make is to be preferred to a doubtful no-trump.^ Requester prefers "Ponte d'Augusto", no doubt with very good reasons.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have no preference: I think Daniel's and Foroa's arguments here are equally valid, so the choice is essentially arbitrary.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Four honours in hearts are to be preferred to any but a very strong no-trump declaration; but four aces counting 100 points constitute a no-trump declaration without exception.^ By the way, I objected this categorization from the very beginning, so no one can say there used to be a consensus at some point.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Requester prefers "Ponte d'Augusto", no doubt with very good reasons.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Another preference I have that there should be no priorities who carries or not a disambiguation term, except some exceptional famous exceptions, such as Rome, Paris, London.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Six hearts should be made trumps and five with two honours unless the hand is very weak; five hearts with one honour or four hearts with three honours should be declared if the hand is nearly strong enough for no trumps, also if the hand is very irregular with one suit missing or five of a black suit.^ Should a choice for one of them be made?
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the way, I objected this categorization from the very beginning, so no one can say there used to be a consensus at some point.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unless someone can say for sure, we should avoid potentially misleading users and simply say these are images of an arbitrary bakery (or bakeries - I can't even tell if the one image is the same bakery as the other two images).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Six diamonds with one honour, five with three honours or four all honours should be declared; weaker diamonds should be declared if the suits are irregular, especially if blank in hearts.^ Unlike most genera in the Oleaceae which have four corolla lobes ('petals'), jasmines often have five or six lobes.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For all albatrosses both parents incubate the egg, in stints that last between one day to three weeks.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If no agreement on all three names can be reached within that period, Drork and Adambro will then have 48 hours to nominate one panel member each (not themselves).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Six clubs with three honours or five with four honours should be declared.^ Unlike most genera in the Oleaceae which have four corolla lobes ('petals'), jasmines often have five or six lobes.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strings are paired in courses as in a modern 12 string guitar, but they only have four or five courses of strings rather than six.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spades are practically only declared with a weak hand; with only a king in the hand a suit of five spades should be declared as a defensive measure. .With nothing above a ten a suit of two or three spades can be declared, though even with the weakest hands a suit of five clubs or of six red cards will probably prove less expensive.^ A three-piece suite is composed of three couch pieces (generally, a two- or three-seater and two armchairs).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often these beans are blended with other, less expensive varieties and the suffix "blend" added to the labelling, such as "Blue Mountain blend" or "Kona blend" even though they only contain a small amount of the coffee mentioned.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are usually able to board ten-some passengers and the crew consists of two, three people.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Declarations by Dummy. - .From the fact that the call has been passed, the dealer's partner must credit the dealer with less than average strength as regards the rank of his cards, and probably a slightly increased number of black cards; he must therefore be more backward in making a high declaration whenever he can make a sound declaration of less value.^ The gamma 2 phase is weaker than the other phases so a high copper, low gamma-2 dental amalgam has superior strength.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less frothed milk makes it weaker than a cappuccino, and a traditional latte is served an average 10–20 degrees Celsius cooler than a black or white coffee or cappuccino.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different algorithms may complete the same task with a different set of instructions in more or less time, space, or effort than others.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, he has not the option of passing the declaration, and may be driven to declare on less strength because the only alternative is a short suit of spades.^ In many less developed countries, hand sorting is still done because of the low cost of labor.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different algorithms may complete the same task with a different set of instructions in more or less time, space, or effort than others.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only alternative I see is a regular poll but I think that MichaelMagg's proposal has more options in solving this and could be indeed the better approach.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

For example, with the hand: Hearts, ace, kv. 2; diamonds, qn.. 9, 7, 6, 3; clubs, kg. 10, 4; spades, 9, 2, the chances are in the dealer's favour with five trumps, but decidedly against with only two, and the diamond declaration is to be preferred to the spade. .Still, a hand may be so weak that spades should be declared with two or less, but five clubs or six diamonds would be preferable with the weakest of hands.^ In many less developed countries, hand sorting is still done because of the low cost of labor.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would keep both, because cannabis is not hemp and should may not be mixed.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Declarations to the Score

.When one's score is over twenty, club declarations should be made more frequently by the dealer.^ Should a choice for one of them be made?
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And one final word: To keep the category tree user-friendly, it should not normally have more than about 5 levels.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The more interesting one, in a manuscript that belonged to the scholar M. Caussin de Perceval, is a copy of a manuscript made in Baghdad in 1703.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spades should be declared with six at the score of twenty-six and with five at twenty-eight. .When much behind in the score a risky no-trumper such as one with an established suit of seven or eight cards without a card of entry, may be declared.^ I have no objection to renaming this one, but can Wikipedia be trusted as an authoritative source ;-) -- Tony Wills ( talk ) 22:23, 19 May 2009 (UTC) .
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One may say without exaggeration that this chamber is a work of jewelry .
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One problem may have multiple algorithms, and some problems may have no algorithms.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Declaring to the score is often overdone; an ordinary weak notrump declaration carries with it small chances of three by tricks unless dummy holds a no-trump hand.

Doubling

.Practically the leader only doubles a no-trump declaration when he holds what is probably an established suit of seven cards or a suit which can be established with the loss of one trick and he has good cards of re-entry.^ A consensus is a status quo to which no one objects, or in a less ideal state of affairs - none of those who object can bring good sound arguments against it.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A consensus is not "a status quo to which no one objects" nor a situation where no one can "bring good sound arguments against it".
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Shia interpretation is that the Quran clearly says that only God can appoint an Imam and no one else has the power to designate one.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Seven cards of a suit including the ace, king and queen make a sound double without any other card of value in the hand, or six cards including king, queen and knave with two aces in other suits.^ The Waved Albatross, on the other hand, makes no nest and will even move its egg around the pair's territory, as much as 50 m, sometimes causing it to lose the egg.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Size Twin & Double are 75 inches long; Queen & King are 80 inches long; California Queen & California King are 84 inches long.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Crimson King also makes appearances in other King works, such as the novel Insomnia .
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Doubling by the third hand is universally understood to mean that the player has a very strong suit which he can establish. .In response to the double his partner, according to different conventions, leads either a heart or his own shortest suit as the one most likely to be the third player's strongest.^ Millions of tourists have visited the site -- more than three million in 2004, according to the BBC -- making it one of the most popular international attractions in India.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the short suit convention, if the doubler holds six of a suit headed by the ace, king and queen, it is about an even chance that his suit will be selected; he should not double with less strength.^ Size Twin & Double are 75 inches long; Queen & King are 80 inches long; California Queen & California King are 84 inches long.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lake named after Queen Victoria is named en:Lake Victoria in English, so perhaps the lake named after King Sigismund Augustus should be called Lake Sigismund Augustus.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Under the heart convention it is not necessary to have such great strength; with a strong suit of six hearts and good cards of re-entry, enough tricks will be saved to compensate for the doubled value. A player should ascertain the convention followed before beginning to play.
Before doubling a suit declaration a player should feel almost certain that he is as strong as the declarer. .The minimum strength to justify the declaration is generally five trumps, but it may have been made on six.^ Suggestions may also be made as to how, in general, disparaging files relating to living individuals should be categorized.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this case the first six courses outline a d-minor triad, and an additional five to seven courses are tuned generally scalewise below them.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If, then, a player holds six trumps with an average hand as regards the rank of his cards, or five trumps with a hand of no-trump strength, it is highly probable that he is as strong as the declarer. .It must be further taken into account that the act of doubling gives much valuable information to the dealer, who would otherwise play with the expectation of finding the trumps evenly distributed; this is counterbalanced when the doubler is on the left of the declaring hand by the intimation given to his partner to lead trumps through the strong hand.^ In Sufi tariqah (orders), it is an honorific for an elder sufi who has been authorized by the order to teach, initiate Dervishes (monks) and otherwise lead a sufi circle in a Dargah (monastery).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Walkways then lead the viewer north through the charbagh (a formal Mughal garden divided into four parts).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The era also saw a flourishing of con artists who would use chemical tricks and sleight of hand to "demonstrate" the transmutation of common metals into gold, or claim to possess secret knowledge that ?
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this position, then, the player should double with the strength stated above. .When on the declarer's right, the player should hold much greater strength unless his hand is free from tenaces.^ The explanation above is given from the perspective of the more common right-handed player.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For right-handed players, the right hand plucks the strings with either the fingers or a plectrum (guitar pick), while the opposite applies for left handed players (in general).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many left-handed players learn to play on right-handed instruments by flipping the guitar upside down and using different chord fingerings.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When a spade declaration has been made by dummy, one trump less is necessary and the doubler need not be on the declarer's left. A spade declaration by the dealer can be doubled with even less strength. .A declaration can be rather more freely doubled when a single trick undoubted will take the dealer out, but even in this position the player must be cautious of informing the dealer that there is a strong hand against him.^ Most railway stations, however, consist of one main building (even where the station has accessory and out buildings, there is usually one main terminal building).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Commons categories with an single file are not supported, added extra information will give the IMO category even more reason to exist.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Redoubling.---When a declaration has been doubled, the declarer knows the minimum that he will find against him; he must be prepared to find occasionally strength against him considerably exceeding this minimum. Except in the case of a spade declaration, cases in which redoubling is justifiable are very rare.

The Play of the Hand

.In a no-trump declaration the main object is to bring in a long suit.^ A consensus is a status quo to which no one objects, or in a less ideal state of affairs - none of those who object can bring good sound arguments against it.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A consensus is not "a status quo to which no one objects" nor a situation where no one can "bring good sound arguments against it".
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In selecting the suit to establish, the following are favourable conditions: - One hand should hold at least five cards of the suit.^ Cathedrals should be named according to one the following patterns : .
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dysmorodrepanis ( talk ) 02:18, 7 August 2008 (UTC) I agree at least for the 1 category ones - these should be dealt with right now.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, that's true of all types of building, and if we follow that logic, we should therefore be collapsing Category:Establishments by year and Category:Buildings by year of completion into one category tree (which makes no sense).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The two hands, unless with a sequence of high cards, should hold between them eight cards of the suit, so as to render it probable that the suit will be established in three rounds.^ A three-piece suite is composed of three couch pieces (generally, a two- or three-seater and two armchairs).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The hand which contains the strong suit should be sufficiently strong in cards of re-entry. The suit should not be so full of possible tenaces as to make it disadvantageous to open it. As regards the play of the cards in a suit, it is not the object to make tricks early, but to make all possible tricks. .Deep finesses should be made when there is no other way of stealing a trick.^ Otherwise we have no way of organising, say agricultural or mining rail operations and separating them from other types like passenger rail operations or military rail operations.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The bony structure of the neck is essentially unchanged from that of other mammals: there are no extra vertebrae, but each of the seven bones is greatly enlarged.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the way, I objected this categorization from the very beginning, so no one can say there used to be a consensus at some point.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Tricks may be given away, if by so doing a favourable opening can be made for a finesse. .When, however, it is doubtful with which hand the finesse should be made, it is better to leave it as late as possible, since the card to be finessed against may fall, or an adversary may fail, thus disclosing the suit.^ Suggestions may also be made as to how, in general, disparaging files relating to living individuals should be categorized.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In following the logic of sexual selection, it is thus very possible that the giraffe's long neck may be a result of competition among males and female preferences.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, funeral prayers may not be held in the same location as the daily prayers, and thus they are held outside or in another area regardless of the climate.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is in general unsound to finesse against a card that must be unguarded. From a hand short in cards of re-entry, winning cards should not be led out so as to exhaust the suit from the partner's hand. Even a trick should sometimes be given away. .For instance, if one hand holds seven cards headed by ace, king, and the other hand holds only two of the suit, although there is a fair chance of making seven tricks in the suit, it would often be right to give the first trick to the adversaries.^ On the other hand, there are material differences.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being born into or marrying into a lineage holding family was often the only way to gain access to this knowledge.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Waved Albatross, on the other hand, makes no nest and will even move its egg around the pair's territory, as much as 50 m, sometimes causing it to lose the egg.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When one of the adversaries has shown a long suit, it is frequently possible to prevent its being brought in by a device, such as holding up a winning card, until the suit is exhausted from his partner's hand, or playing in other suits so as to give the player the lead whilst his partner has a card of his suit to return, and to give the latter the lead when he has no card to return.^ One possible origin is the Kaffa region in Ethiopia, where the plant originated (its native name there being bunna ).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The larger drum, played with the other hand, is called bāyā??
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until recently it was thought that albatross were predominantly surface feeders, swimming at the surface and snapping up squid and fish pushed to the surface by currents, other predators or death.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The dealer should give as little information as possible as to what he holds in his own hand, playing frequent false cards. .Usually he should play the higher or highest of a sequence; still, there are positions in which playing the higher gives more information than the lower; a strict adherence to a rule in itself assists the adversaries.^ As an admin you should know better than most that the opinion of no single individual is more important than the health of the Commons community.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During a night's sleep, most people use more than one position.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses in England.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With a suit declaration, if there is no chance of letting the weak hand make a trump by ruffing, it will generally be the dealer's aim to discard the losing cards in the declaring hand either to high cards or to the cards of an established suit in the other hand, sometimes after the adverse trumps have been taken out, but often before, there being no time for drawing trumps.^ On the other hand, there are material differences.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let's say there are others on each side.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, rail transport is too generic for smaller integrated "rail transport systems".
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.With no card of any value in a suit in one hand, the lead should come from that hand, but it is better, if possible, to let the adversaries open the suit.^ As an admin you should know better than most that the opinion of no single individual is more important than the health of the Commons community.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no possibility to open a new discussion on the talk page, because people have just expressed their opinion in a special lengthy and detailed discussion.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If no one objects in the next 7 days, we should move this back.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is generally useless to lead a moderately high card from the weaker hand in order to finesse it, when holding no cards in sequence with it in either hand.^ For right-handed players, the right hand plucks the strings with either the fingers or a plectrum (guitar pick), while the opposite applies for left handed players (in general).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes (especially in no-trumps) it is the better play to make the weak hand third player.^ That makes no SENSE. Especially to then put that category "Railway lines".
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Waved Albatross, on the other hand, makes no nest and will even move its egg around the pair's territory, as much as 50 m, sometimes causing it to lose the egg.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many classical guitars have no inlays at all; the player himself sometimes will make them with a marker pen or correction fluid.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, with king, 8, 7, 5, 2 in one hand, knave, 4 in the other, the best way of opening is from the hand that holds five cards.^ In my view, the two do not overlap in a way that allows us to conclusively merge, or place one of them under the other.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Payne Aldrich Tariff of 1909 actually changed little and had slight economic impact one way or the other, but the political impact was enormous.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One the other hand we see that consumers are now paying a lower price for the goods, which increases the consumer surplus from the area A, B and K to a new surplus of F, J and K .
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a no-trump declaration the opponents of the dealer should endeavour to find the longest suit in the two hands, or the one most easily established.^ One of its most widely advertised uses was as a hand-cleaner for industrial workers.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, that's true of all types of building, and if we follow that logic, we should therefore be collapsing Category:Establishments by year and Category:Buildings by year of completion into one category tree (which makes no sense).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As far as disaccharides are concerned, the most common are sucrose (cane or beet sugar - made from one glucose and one fructose), lactose (milk sugar - made from one glucose and one galactose) and maltose (made of two glucoses).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With this object the leader should open his best suit. .If his partner next obtains the lead he ought to return the suit, unless he himself has a suit which he considers better, having due regard to the fact that the first suit is already partially established.^ The current situation is leading people to talk about blocks, which we as a community ought to avoid if at all possible, particularly as both parties are good contributors here.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The opponents should employ the same tactics as the dealer to prevent the latter from bringing in a long suit; they can use them with special effect when the long suit is in the exposed hand.^ If another company arises with the same name, I guess they should get the disambiguation suffix (unless their apples are really good).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, within the same nations they should be consistent.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cats for the same place should use the same name.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Against no-trumps the leader should not play his winning cards unless he has a good chance of clearing the suit without help from his partner; in most cases it is advisable to give away the first trick, especially if he has no card of re-entry, in order that his partner on gaining the lead may have a card of the suit to return; but holding ace, king and queen, or ace, king with seven in the suit, or ace, king, knave, ten with six, the player may lead out his best.^ As an admin you should know better than most that the opinion of no single individual is more important than the health of the Commons community.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The lake named after Queen Victoria is named en:Lake Victoria in English, so perhaps the lake named after King Sigismund Augustus should be called Lake Sigismund Augustus.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise in 2000 he worked with Republicans to give China entry into WTO and "most favored nation" trading status ( i.e., low tariffs).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With three honours any two of which are in sequence (not to the ace) the player should lead the higher of the sequence. He should lead his highest card from queen, knave, ten; from queen, knave, nine; from knave, ten, nine; knave, ten, eight, and ten, nine, eight. .In other cases the player should lead a small card; according to the usual convention, the fourth best.^ Dots are usually inlaid into the upper edge of the fretboard in the same positions, small enough to be visible only to the player.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such, according to the english rules, "xxx castle" should be written with castle in lower case.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In either case, the other version should be in the category description.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.His partner, and also the dealer, can credit him with three cards higher than the card led, and can often place the cards of the suit: for instance, the seven is led, dummy holds queen and eight, playing the queen, the third player holds the nine and smaller cards; the unseen cards higher than the seven are ace, king, knave and ten of which the leader must hold three; he cannot hold both knave and ten or he would have led the knave; he must therefore hold the ace, king and either knave or ten.^ In your example, you would simply place the image both into heritage and passenger transport.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pickguard is more often than not used in styles such as flamenco, which tends to use the guitar as a percussion instrument at times, rather than for instance, a classical guitar.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Firm AND soft The brand Simmons currently produces King and Queen sized mattresses with a softer side and another firmer side, for the different tastes of the sleeping partners.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The " eleven " rule is as follows: the number of pips in the card led subtracted from eleven (i i - 7 =4 in the case stated) gives the number of cards higher than the one led not in the leader's hand; the three cards seen (queen, nine and eight) leave one for the dealer to hold.^ Right now you give the impression of following your own idiosyncratic rules.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Millions of tourists have visited the site -- more than three million in 2004, according to the BBC -- making it one of the most popular international attractions in India.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The floats tend to make the fabric look glossier as well as give it a smoother hand in most cases.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mental process is no shorter than assigning three out of the unseen cards to the leader, and by not noting the unseen cards much valuable information may be missed, as in the illustrative case given.^ Storage Spinach loses much of its nutritional value with storage of more than a few days.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With a suit declared the best opening lead is a singleton, failing which a lead from a strong sequence. A lead from a tenace or a guarded king or queen is to be avoided. .Two small cards may be led from, though the lead is objected to by some.^ Germany" may not exist at the moment (though I may spend some time later in creating just that and populating it) but it is "cycling infrastructure" yet is NOT a bikeway.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence, there may be some popular confusion between the two vegetables.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lute's strings are arranged in courses , usually of two strings each, though the highest-pitched course usually consists of only a single string, called the chantarelle , in some later lutes 2 upper courses are single.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A suit of three small cards of no great strength should not be opened. In cases of doubt preference should be given to hearts and to a less extent to diamonds.
To lead up to dummy's weak suits is a valuable rule. The converse, to lead through strength, must be used with caution, and does not apply to no-trump declarations. It is not advisable to adopt any of the recent whist methods of giving information. It is clear that, if the adversaries signal, the dealer's hand alone is a secret, and he, in addition to his natural advantage, has the further advantage of better information than either of the adversaries. .The following signals are, however, used, and are of great trickmaking value: playing an unnecessarily high card, whether to one's partner's suit or in discarding in a no-trump declaration, indicates strength in the suit; in a suit declaration a similar method of play indicates two only of the suit and a desire to ruff, - it is best used in the case of a king led by one's partner.^ The diminutive question, whether is to be in the category "bikeways" one element in addition or isn't to be, means no "chaos".
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there are only a few innerspring manufacturers and four general types: Bonnel coils These are the oldest ones and most commonly used.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The similarities in Ayurveda and alchemy are that both had methods used to treat people by putting oils over them.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The highest of a sequence led through dummy will frequently tell the third player that he has a good finesse. .The lowest of a sequence led through the dealer will sometimes explain the position to the third player, at the same time keeping the dealer in the dark.^ Dots are usually inlaid into the upper edge of the fretboard in the same positions, small enough to be visible only to the player.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When on dummy's left it is futile to finesse against a card not in dummy's hand. .But with ace and knave, if dummy has either king or queen, the knave should usually be played, partly because the other high card may be in the leader's hand, partly because, if the finesse fails, the player may still hold a tenace over dummy.^ The lake named after Queen Victoria is named en:Lake Victoria in English, so perhaps the lake named after King Sigismund Augustus should be called Lake Sigismund Augustus.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The larger drum, played with the other hand, is called bāyā??
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many less developed countries, hand sorting is still done because of the low cost of labor.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a player is with any chance of success trying to establish his long suit, he should keep every card of it if possible, whether it is a suit already opened or a suit which he wishes his partner to lead; when, however, the main object of the hand is to establish one's partner's suit, it is not necessary for a player to keep his own long suit, and he should pay attention to guarding the other suits.^ We should keep the bigger picture in mind, but concentrate on SVGs vectors and get that in shape to see how it works and then possibly extend it to other areas.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most railway stations, however, consist of one main building (even where the station has accessory and out buildings, there is usually one main terminal building).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It should be designed to minimize the transfer of movement from one sleeping partner to the other.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some circles a discard from a suit is always understood to indicate strength in the suit; this convention, while it makes the game easier for inferior players, frequently causes the player to throw away one of his most valuable cards.^ Millions of tourists have visited the site -- more than three million in 2004, according to the BBC -- making it one of the most popular international attractions in India.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some problems are naturally suited for one implementation to other.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Playing to the Score

At the beginning of the hand the chances are so great against any particular result, that at the score of love-all the advantage of getting to any particular score has no appreciable effect in determining the choice of suit. In the play of the hand, the advantage of getting to certain points should be borne in mind. .The principal points to be aimed at are 6, 18, and, in a less degree, 22. The reason is that the scores 24, 12 and 8, which will just take the dealer out from the respective points, can each be made in a variety of ways, and are the most common for the dealer to make.^ The back and sides are made out of a variety of woods such as mahogany, Indian rosewood and highly regarded Brazilian rosewood ( Dalbergia nigra ).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The zarf was often made from metal, with silver, gold, copper and brass being the most common materials used.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Really though, I think your point about the need for category synonyms is a huge one- I just don't think the cat structure is the right way to do it.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The 2 points that take the score from 4 to 6 are worth 4, or perhaps 5, average points; and the 2 points that take the score from 6 to 8 are worth I point. .When approaching game it is an advantage to make a declaration that may just take the player out, and, in a smaller degree, one that will not exactly take the adversaries out.^ It may also refer to the weekly market in some smaller towns where neutrality from tribal conflicts would be declared to permit the exchange of surplus goods.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sugar was a highly desired product, and the islands knew exactly how to take advantage of the situation.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Omitting the location just because the dedication may be unique for a cathedral is frankly crazy, and will make searches very difficult.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

When the score is 24 to 22 against the dealer, hearts and clubs are half a trick better relatively to diamonds than at the score of love-all. .In the first and second games of the rubber the value of each point scored for honours is probably about a half of a point scored for tricks - in a close game rather less, in a one-sided game rather more.^ A side sleeper will probably want a softer mattress, to minimize pressure points, especially if they have a very curved or rounded figure.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A secant ogive of sharpness E = 120/100= 1.2 The sharpness of this ogive is expressed by the ratio of its radius to the diameter of the cylinder; a value of one half being a hemispherical dome, and larger values being progressively more pointed.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, there exist or are planned about hundred of numbered cycle routes of first or second class in Prague and times out of number of third class, which are numbered only in documentation.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the deciding game of the rubber, on account of the importance of winning the game, the value of each point scored for honours sinks to one-third of a point scored for tricks.^ Jauza , the central one, initially referred to Gemini among the Arabs, but at some point they decided to refer to Orion by that name.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other Forms of Bridge

The following varieties of the game are also played :- Three-handed Bridge. - .The three players cut; the one that cuts the lowest card deals, and takes dummy for one deal: each takes dummy in turn.^ This is important because when one person tosses and turns, it may not completely wake the other person, but, it can take them out of a deep sleep which is when the body does all of its regeneration.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dummy's cards are dealt face downwards, and the dealer declares without seeing them. If the dealer declares trumps, both adversaries may look at their hands; doubling and redoubling proceeds as at ordinary bridge, but dummy's hand is not exposed till the first card has been led. If the dealer passes the declaration to dummy, his right-hand adversary, who must not have looked at his own hand, examines dummy's, and declares trumps, not, however, exposing the hand. .The declaration is forced: with three or four aces sans atout (no trumps) must be declared: in other cases the longest suit: if suits are equal in length, the strongest, i.e. the suit containing most pips, ace counting eleven, king, queen and knave counting ten each.^ Another popular type of sherbet dip is the 'Double Dipper' where the packet is divided into three or four sections; one contains an edible stick which can be licked and then dipped into the other sections, each of which contains a different flavour of sherbet (for example strawberry, orange, cola).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, Barbados and the British Leewards can be said to have been the most successful in the production of sugar because it counted for ninety-three and ninety-seven percent of the island’s exports, respectively.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most climates, alfalfa is cut three or four times a year.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If suits are equal in both length and strength, the one in which the trick has the higher value must be trumps.^ In Kashmir, for example, the thousands of growers must work continuously in relays over the span of one or two weeks throughout both day and night..
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the way: can exist two railway, that one of them belongs to a different type technically, but the rail transport in itself is absolutely equal at both of them.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

On the dummy's declaration the third player can"only double before seeing his own cards. When the first card has been led, dummy's hand is exposed, never before the lead. .The game is 30: the player wins the rubber who is the first to win two games.^ Bhaskara II (1114 AD), who wrote the text Bijaganita (algebra), was the first to recognize that a positive number has two square roots.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fifty points are scored for each game won, and fifty more for the rubber. .Sometimes three games are played without reference to a rubber, fifty points being scored for a game won.^ Your point about perceptions for example, so I won't repeat myself so as to prevent these discussions being any longer than needed.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.No tricks score towards game except those which a player wins in his own deal; the value of tricks won in other deals is scored above the line with honours, slam and chicane.^ This time it backfired, as Britain, Germany, France and other industrial countries retaliated with their own tariffs and special, bilateral trade deals.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A central marketplace, it was where textiles, jewelery, spices and other valuable goods as well as the money changers were arranged in a line.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the end of the rubber the totals are added up, and the points won or lost are adjusted thus.^ In this way permeation & totality of beginning and end was considered the supreme wholeness and thus the universal medicine.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Suppose A is credited with 212, B with 290, and C with 312, then A owes 78 to B and 100 to C; B owes 22 to C.

Dummy Bridge

The player who cuts the lowest card takes dummy. Dummy deals the first hand of all. .The player who takes dummy always looks at his own hand first, when he deals for himself or for dummy; he can either declare trumps or " leave it " to dummy.^ I agree that using the "name at the time" seems reasonable at first glance, but taking a closer look, things get murky very fast.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Dummy's declaration is compulsory, as in three-handed bridge. .When the dealer deals for dummy, the player on the dealer's left must not look at his cards till either the dealer has declared trumps or, the declaration having been left to dummy, his own partner has led a card.^ For right-handed players, the right hand plucks the strings with either the fingers or a plectrum (guitar pick), while the opposite applies for left handed players (in general).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The latter can double, but his partner can only double without seeing his hand. The dealer can only redouble on his own hand. .When the player of dummy deals for himself, the player on his right hand looks at dummy's hand if the declaration is passed, the positions and restrictions of his partner and himself being reversed.^ The explanation above is given from the perspective of the more common right-handed player.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For right-handed players, the right hand plucks the strings with either the fingers or a plectrum (guitar pick), while the opposite applies for left handed players (in general).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many left-handed players learn to play on right-handed instruments by flipping the guitar upside down and using different chord fingerings.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the player of dummy declares from his own hand, the game proceeds as in ordinary bridge, except that dummy's hand is not looked at till permission to play has been given.^ Look what happen with that HAGGER business when admins started playing regexp games with the blacklist.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.When the player on dummy's right deals, dummy's partner may look at dummy's hand to decide if he will double, but he may not look at his own till a card has been led by dummy.^ The explanation above is given from the perspective of the more common right-handed player.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For right-handed players, the right hand plucks the strings with either the fingers or a plectrum (guitar pick), while the opposite applies for left handed players (in general).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many left-handed players learn to play on right-handed instruments by flipping the guitar upside down and using different chord fingerings.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In another form of dummy bridge two hands are exposed whenever dummy's adversaries deal, but the game is unsuited for many players, as in every other hand the game is one of double-dummy.^ I just think that other factors mitigate the practice of lifting techniques that are standard practice from one problem domain and applying them to another.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In my view, the two do not overlap in a way that allows us to conclusively merge, or place one of them under the other.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But some deal more with one issue than the other.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Misery Bridge

This is a form of bridge adapted for two players. The non-dealer has the dummy, whilst the dealer is allowed to strengthen his hand by discarding four or fewer cards and taking an equal number from the fourth packet dealt; the rest of the cards in that packet are unused and remain unseen. .A novel and interesting addition to the game is that the three of clubs (called " Cato ") does not rank as a club but can be played to any trick and win it.^ In the Traveller role playing game, a planetary system near Vega is inhabited by aliens called Vegans.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dealer, in addition to his other calls, may declare " misery " when he has to make less than two tricks.^ For example, given two different recipes for making potato salad, one may have peel the potato before boil the potato while the other presents the steps in the reverse order, yet they both call for these steps to be repeated for all potatoes and end when the potato salad is ready to be eaten.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different algorithms may complete the same task with a different set of instructions in more or less time, space, or effort than others.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron's volatile fraction in some samples..
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Drawor Two-handed Bridge

This is the best form of bridge for two players. .Each player has a dummy, which is placed opposite to him; but the cards are so arranged that they cannot be seen by his opponent, a special stand being required for the purpose.^ The leaves are spirally arranged; they are usually pinnately compound, though some species have trifoliate or simple leaves.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The dealer makes the declaration or passes it to his dummy to make by the same rules as in three-handed or dummy bridge. The objection to this is that, since the opponent does not see the dealer's dummy, he has no chance of checking an erroneous declaration. This could be avoided by not allowing the dealer the option of passing.

Auction Bridge

.This variety of the game for four players, which adds an element characteristic of poker, appears to have been suggested about 1904, but was really introduced at the Bath Club, London, in 1907, and then was gradually taken up by a wider circle.^ Had we taken your approach, anyone could introduce any change anywhere, and claim there is no consensus about reverting it.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The laws were settled in August 1908 by a joint committee of the Bath and Portland clubs. .The scoring (except as below), value of suits, and play are as at ordinary bridge, but the variety consists in the method of declaration, the declaration not being confined in auction bridge to the dealer or his partner, and the deal being a disadvantage rather than otherwise.^ They also face the problem of transfer pricing where a company declares a value for goods being traded which differs from the market price, aimed at reducing overall taxes due.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DEF.T.||hit||PASSIVE||IND. |} :'They are being hit' Swahili time Swahili time runs from dawn to dusk, rather than midnight to midday.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dealer, having examined his hand, must declare to win at least one " odd " trick, and then each player in turn, beginning with the one on the dealer's left, has the right to pass the previous declaration, or double, or redouble, or overcall by making a declaration of higher value, any number of times till all are satisfied, the actual play of the combined hands (or what in ordinary bridge would be dealer and dummy) resting eventually with the partners making the final declaration; the partner who made the first call (however small) in the suit finally constituting the trump (or no-trump) plays the hands, the other being dummy.^ The larger drum, played with the other hand, is called bāyā??
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not right for one side to win by default.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Stained glass windows" and "Stained glass images" look almost like synonyms to me, or at least the ones will be difficult to distinguish from the others.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

A declaration of a greater number of tricks in a suit of lower value, which equals a previous call in value of points (e.g. two in spades as against one in clubs) is ." of higher value "; but doubling and redoubling only affect the score and not the declaration, so that a call of two diamonds overcalls one no-trump even though this has been doubled.^ These changes were not universally accepted; some of his splits have been rejected and for the most part 21 species is the number accepted by the IUCN and many others (though by no means not all?two authors have called for the number of species to be returned to 14).
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stairwell describes the space that the stairs are in, If you were to remove the stairs, for example for refurbishment, the space would still be a stairwell even though at that moment there would be no stairs in it.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Regarding "two" aspects, I can only repeat myself (again): The IMO number refers to one specific hull.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

The scoring in auction bridge has the additional element that when the eventual player of the two hands wins what was ultimately declared or more, his side score the full value below the line (as tricks), but if he fails the opponents score 50 points above the line (as honours) for each under-trick (i.e. trick short of the declaration), or loo or 200 if doubled or redoubled, nothing being scored by either side below the line; the loss on a declaration of one spade is limited, however, to a maximum of loo points. A player whose declaration has been doubled and who fulfils his contract, scores a bonus of 50 points above the line and a further 50 points for each additional trick beyond his declaration; if there was a redouble and he wins, he scores double the bonus. .The penalty for a revoke (unaffected by a double) is (I) in the case of the declarer, that his adversaries add 150 above the line; (2) in the case of one of his adversaries, that the declarer may either add 150 points above the line or may take three tricks from his opponents and add them to his own; in the latter case such tricks may assist him to fulfil his contract, but shall not entitle him to any bonus for a double or redouble.^ There are many cases that some railway (line) was divided into two or more lines or that several railways (railway lines) was joined into one railway (which can have more branches).
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If any category is defined by a small company which operate one or several railway lines and the railway line(s) have an identical name as the company, such a category should be included concurrently into category of companies and into category of railway lines.
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is important because when one person tosses and turns, it may not completely wake the other person, but, it can take them out of a deep sleep which is when the body does all of its regeneration.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A revoking side may score nothing either above or below the line except for honours or chicane.^ To either side of the main arch, additional pishtaqs are stacked above and below.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As regards the essential feature of auction bridge, the competitive declaration, it is impossible here to discuss the intricacies involved. .It entails, clearly, much reliance on a good partner, since the various rounds of bidding enable good players to draw inferences as to where the cards lie.^ However, since the tension across the head varies, this requires the player to vary the pressure applied to the head as he moves his thumb.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The game opens the door to much larger scores than ordinary bridge, and since the end only comes from scores made below the line, there are obvious ways of prolonging it at the cost of scores above the line which involve much more of the gambling element.^ There are also more exotic models involving multiple necks and pickups.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are substantially smaller and more delicate than the classical guitar, and generate a much quieter sound.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is much more specific than the genereic "freight rail transport", and as such far from "pointless" (what is the deal with opposition against more specific categories - if a file also applies to a more generic category, it can still be sorted there too!
  • Commons:Categories for discussion/Current requests/2009 - Wikimedia Commons 11 September 2009 10:34 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

It by no means follows that the winner of the rubber is the winner by points, and many players prefer to go for points (i.e. above the line) extorted from their opponents rather than for fulfilling a declaration made by themselves.
Authorities. - " Hellespont," Laws and Principles of Bridge; W. Dalton, Saturday Bridge, containing full bibliography (London, 1906); J. B. Elwell, Advanced Bridge: R. F. Foster, Bridge Tactics; " Badsworth," Laws and Principles of Bridge; E. Bergholt, DoubleDummy Bridge; Biritch, or Russian Whist, pamphlet in Brit. Mus.; W. Dalton, Auction Bridge (1908). (W. I-I. W.*)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also bridge

German

Noun

Bridge n. (genitive Bridge, no plural)
  1. bridge (card game)

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

  1. General Information
  2. How to Play
  3. Bidding Techniques
  4. Playing Techniques

Simple English

For other meanings of "bridge" see bridge (disambiguation)
A bridge is a structure to cross an open space or gap. Bridges are mostly useful for crossing rivers, valleys, or roads by vehicles but people have also used bridges for a long time for walking. Bridges called highway overpasses are used to avoid traffic control.
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Bridges also have uses in the military. Military bridges have to be portable, so that they may be easily moved to the front lines, and so they are much more complex than regular civilian bridges.

Types of bridges

There are five major structural types of bridges:

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bridge, which are similar to those in the above article.








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