From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brisbane and the Story Bridge.
||1,945,639 (2008) (3rd)
||918/km² (2,377.6/sq mi) (2006)
||27°28′04″S 153°01′40″E / 27.46778°S 153.02778°ECoordinates: 27°28′04″S 153°01′40″E / 27.46778°S 153.02778°E
||5904.8 km² (2,279.9 sq mi) 
||AEST (No Daylight Saving) (UTC+10)
- Blair, Bonner, Bowman, Brisbane
- Dickson, Fadden, Forde, Griffith
- Lilley, Longman, Moreton, Oxley
- Petrie, Ryan
|Mean Max Temp
||Mean Min Temp
) is the state capital
of the Australian state of Queensland
and is the largest city in that state. The statistical division of Brisbane has an estimated population of approximately 2 million, along with its LGA
registering a bit over a million, it is also the third most populous city
The Old Windmill
in Wickham Park
in Brisbane. Built by convicts in 1824, it is one of Brisbane's most significant and oldest heritage landmarks.
Brisbane was inhabited before it was settled by Europeans by the Turrbal
whose ancestors migrated to the region from across the Torres Strait
. They knew the area as Mian-jin, meaning 'place shaped as a spike'.
Oxley discovered, named and sailed up the Brisbane River
as far as Goodna
, some 20 km upstream from the Brisbane central business district
Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore.
The party settled in Redcliffe
on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers, some with wives and children, and 29 convicts.
However, this settlement was abandoned after one year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay
, 28 km south, that offered a more reliable water supply. Chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie
before it was named Brisbane.
Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838.
German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah
, as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of two ministers, Christopher Eipper
(1813–1894) and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt
, and lay missionaries whose names were Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Niquet, Hartenstein, Zillman, Franz, Rode, Doege and Schneider.
They were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as German Station.
Free settlers entered the area over the following five years and by the end of 1840 Robert Dixon
began work on the first plan of Brisbane Town in anticipation of future development.
Queensland was proclaimed a separate colony on 6 June 1859 
with Brisbane chosen as its capital, although it was not incorporated as a city until 1902.
Over twenty small municipalities and shires were amalgamated in 1925, to form the City of Brisbane which is governed by the Brisbane City Council
American Fleet Marching Down Queen Street, March 1941
MacArthur had previously rejected using the University of Queensland complex as his HQ, as the distinctive bends in the river at St Lucia could have aided enemy bombers. Also used as a Headquarters by the American troops during World War II was the T & G Building
Approximately 1,000,000 US troops passed through Australia during the war, as the primary coordination point for the South West Pacific
In 1942 Brisbane was the site of a violent clash between visiting US military personnel and Australian servicemen and civilians which resulted in one death and several injuries. This incident became known colloquially as the Battle of Brisbane
Postwar Brisbane had developed a "big country town" stigma, an image which the city's politicians and marketers were very keen to shake
. Despite growing steadily, Brisbane was punctuated by infrastructure problems.
The State government under Joh Bjelke-Petersen
began a major program of change and urban renewal
beginning with the CBD and inner suburbs. Trams in Brisbane
were a popular mode of public transport and Brisbane and the city became the last Australian city to completely close its tram network in 1969. The 1974 Brisbane flood
was a major disaster which temporarily crippled the city.
During this era Brisbane grew and modernised rapidly becoming a destination of interstate migration. Some of Brisbane's much loved landmarks were lost including the Bellevue Hotel in 1977 and Cloudland
in 1982, demolished in controversial circumstances by the infamous Deen Brothers demolition crew. Major public works included the Riverside Expressway
, the Gateway Bridge
and later the redevelopment of South Bank
starting with the Queensland Art Gallery
Brisbane staged the successful 1982 Commonwealth Games
and the 1988 World Exposition (known locally as World Expo '88
) during 1988. These events were accompanied by a scale of public expenditure, construction and development not previously seen in the state of Queensland.
Brisbane's population growth has exceeded the national average every year since 1990 at an average rate of around 2.2% per year.
Brisbane is in the southeast corner of Queensland, Australia. The city is centred along the Brisbane River, and its eastern suburbs line the shores of Moreton Bay. The greater Brisbane region is on the coastal plain east of the Great Dividing Range
The Brisbane central business district (CBD) lies in a curve of the Brisbane river. The CBD covers only 2.2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) and is walkable.
The city has retained some heritage buildings dating back to 1820s. The Old Windmill
, in Wickham Park
, built by convict labour in 1824,
is the oldest surviving building in Brisbane. The Old Windmill was originally used for the grinding of grain and a punishment for the convicts who manually operated the grinding mill. The Old Windmill tower’s other significant claim to fame, largely ignored, is that the first television signals in the southern hemisphere were transmitted from it by experimenters in April 1934 — long before TV commenced in most places. These experimental TV broadcasts continued until World War II.
The Old Commissariat Store, on William Street, built by convict labour in 1828, was originally used partly as a grainhouse, has also been a hostel for immigrants and used for the storage of records. Built with Brisbane tuff
from the nearby Kangaroo Point Cliffs and sandstone from a quarry near today's Albion Park Racecourse, it is now the home of the Royal Historical Society of Brisbane. It contains a museum and can also be hired for small functions.
||Victoria Park Golf Course
||Floating pedestrian concourse
||Indooroopilly Golf Course (Long Pocket)
The city has a density of 379.4 people per square kilometre, which is high for an Australian city and comparable to that of Sydney. However like many western cities, Brisbane sprawls into the greater metropolitan area. The lower population density reflects the fact that most of Brisbane's housing stock consists of detached houses.
View of Western Side of CBD from William Jolly Bridge
Early legislation decreed a minimum size for residential blocks resulting in few terrace houses
being constructed in Brisbane. Recently the density of the city and inner city
neighbourhoods has increased with the construction of apartments, with the result that the population of the central business district has doubled over the last 5 years
and closing the gap on Sydney and Melbourne
Brisbane has a lower inner city population density
than Australia's two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne
, although constant population growth
. The high density housing that existed came in the form of miniature Queenslander
-style houses which resemble the much larger traditional styles but are sometimes only one quarter the size. These miniature Queenslanders are becoming scarce but can still be seen in the inner city suburbs.
Multi residence accommodations (such as apartment blocks) are relatively new to Brisbane, with few such blocks built before 1970, other than in inner suburbs such as New Farm
. Pre-1950 housing was often built in a distinctive architectural style known as a Queenslander, featuring timber construction with large verandahs
and high ceilings. The relatively low cost of timber in South-East Queensland meant that until recently most residences were constructed of timber, rather than brick or stone. Many of these houses are elevated on stumps (also called "stilts"), that were originally timber, but are now frequently replaced by steel or concrete.
Currently, Brisbane has only two buildings
greater than 200 metres in height. The tallest is a residential tower, Aurora Tower
and the second is a mixed use tower Riparian Plaza
. There is also a further three buildings over 200 metres which are either under construction or have had construction put on hold.
Brisbane has a humid subtropical climate
(Koppen climate classification Cfa
) with hot, humid summers and dry, mild winters.
From November through March, thunderstorms are common over Brisbane, with the more severe events accompanied by large damaging hail stones, torrential rain and destructive winds.
The city's highest recorded temperature was 43.2 °C (110 °F) on 26 January 1940. On 19 July 2007, Brisbane's temperature fell below the freezing point for the first time since records began, registering −0.1 °C (31.8 °F) at the airport.
Brisbane's wettest day was 21 January 1887, when 465 millimetres (18.3 in) of rain fell on the city, the highest maximum daily rainfall of Australia's capital cities.
From 2006, Brisbane and surrounding temperate areas have experienced the most severe drought in over a century, with dam levels dropping below one quarter of their capacity. Residents were mandated by local laws to observe level 6
water restrictions on gardening and other outdoor water usage. Per capita water usage is below 140 litres per day, giving Brisbane one of the lowest per capita usages of water of any Western city in the world.
/ Despite this, Brisbane's water storage is currently 97% of full capacity with permanent water conservation measures.
in Brisbane are extremely rare; on 23 September 2009, however, a severe dust storm
blanketed Brisbane, as well as other parts of eastern Australia.
Climate data for Brisbane
|Record high °C (°F)
|Average high °C (°F)
|Average low °C (°F)
|Record low °C (°F)
|Precipitation mm (inches)
|Avg. precipitation days
Unlike other Australian capital cities, a large portion of the greater metropolitan area of Brisbane is controlled by a single local government
entity, the Brisbane City Council
. Since the creation of the Brisbane City Council in 1925 the urban areas of Brisbane have expanded considerably past the City Council boundaries
. Prior to that, a far smaller area (comprising the inner suburbs of Brisbane today) was controlled by the Brisbane Municipal Council
The City of Brisbane is divided into 26 wards, with each ward electing a Councillor as their community representative. The Lord Mayor of Brisbane
and Councillors are elected every four years by popular vote, in which all residents must participate. The current Lord Mayor of Brisbane is Campbell Newman
, who was elected to the position in March 2004
and re-elected in 2008.
Brisbane City Council is the largest local government body (in terms of population and budget) in Australia. The Council, formed by the merger of twenty smaller councils in 1925, has jurisdiction over an area of 1,367 km2
(528 sq mi). The Council's annual budget is approximately $1.6 billion, and it has an asset base of $13 billion.
Brisbane City Skyline viewed from the Riverside Walkway
Blue-collar industries, including petroleum
railway workshops, tend to be located on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River and in new industrial zones on the urban fringe. Tourism
is an important part of the Brisbane economy, both in its own right and as a gateway to other areas of Queensland.
Brisbane is one of the major business hubs in Australia.
Most major Australian companies, as well as numerous international companies, have contact offices in Brisbane, while numerous electronics
businesses have distribution hubs in and around the city. DHL Global
's Oceanic distribution warehouse is located in Brisbane, as is Asia Pacific Aerospace
's headquarters. Home grown major companies include Suncorp-Metway Limited
, Flight Centre
, Credit Union Australia
, Boeing Australia
, Donut King
, PIPE Networks
, Krome Studios
, NetBox Blue
, Mincom Limited
and Virgin Blue
Port of Brisbane
The Port of Brisbane
is on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River and on Fisherman's Island at the rivers mouth, and is the 3rd most important port in Australia for value of goods. Container freight
and bulk liquids are the major exports. Most of the port facilities are less than three decades old and some are built on reclaimed mangroves
The Port is a part of the Australia TradeCoast
, the country's fastest-growing economic development area.
Geographically, Australia TradeCoast occupies a large swathe of land around the airport and port. Commercially, the area has attracted a mix of companies from throughout the Asia Pacific region.
|Significant overseas born populations
|Country of Birth
|People's Republic of China
|Papua New Guinea
The statistical division of Brisbane includes much of Brisbane's Local Government Area as well as the cities of Ipswich
and Logan City
and Redland City
which demographically are part of a single conurbation
. The 2006 census reported 1,763,131 residents within the Brisbane Statistical Division, making it the third largest city
Brisbane recorded the largest growth rate of all capital cities in the last Census, with an annual growth rate of 2.2%.
The median age
across the city was 35 years.
The 2006 census showed that 1.7% of Brisbane's population were of indigenous origin and 21.7% were born overseas
. Of those born outside of Australia, the three main countries of birth were New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.
Approximately 16.1% of households spoke a language other than English, with the most common languages being Mandarin 1.1%, Vietnamese 0.9%, Cantonese 0.9%, Italian 0.6% and Samoan 0.5%. Areas of significant overseas populations were in the southern region of Moorooka
where those of African
descent reside. Most of the Vietnamese population reside in the suburbs of Darra
while those from Mainland China
are often found not in one particular area but all around Brisbane. Sunnybank
is where most of the majority of the Chinese
population reside, comprising mainly of people from Taiwan
and Hong Kong
. Brisbane has the highest population of Republic of China (Taiwanese)
citizens in Australia. It has been estimated that the population has grown to an estimated 35 000+, making them the highest Asian population in Brisbane. Consequently, Sunnybank and its surrounding suburbs have often been dubbed as the 'Real Chinatown' and 'Taiwan Town'.
Arts and entertainment
Brisbane has a growing live music scene, both popular and classical. The Queensland Performing Arts Centre
(QPAC), which is located at South Bank
, consists of the Lyric Theatre, a Concert Hall, Cremorne Theatre and the Playhouse Theatre. The Queensland Ballet
, Opera Queensland
, Queensland Theatre Company
and other performance art groups stage performances in the different venues. It is also the major performing venue for The Queensland Orchestra
, Brisbane's only professional symphony orchestra and Queensland's largest performing arts company. The Queensland Conservatorium
, in which professional companies and Conservatorium students also stage performances, is located within the South Bank Parklands
The Queensland Gallery of Modern Art
(GOMA), opened in December 2006, is one of the latest additions to the South Bank
precinct and houses some of the most well-known pieces of modern art from within and outside Australia. GOMA is the largest modern art gallery in Australia. GOMA holds the Asia Pacific Triennial (APT) which focuses on contemporary art from the Asia and Pacific in a variety of media from painting to video work. In Addition, its size enables the gallery to exhibit particularly large shows — the Andy Warhol
exhibition being the largest survey of his work in Australia. GOMA also boasts Australia's largest purpose-built Cinémathèque. The Gallery of Modern Art is located next to the State Library of Queensland
and the Queensland Art Gallery
The La Boite Theatre
Company performs at the Roundhouse Theatre at Kelvin Grove. Twelfth Night Theatre
at Bowen Hills is also a professional theatre. The Powerhouse complex stages a range of productions.
There are numerous amateur theatre groups in Brisbane. The oldest is the Brisbane Arts Theatre
which was founded in 1936. It has a regular adult and children's theatre and is located in Petrie Terrace.
Major cultural events in Brisbane include the Ekka
(the Royal Queensland Show), held each August, and the Riverfestival
, held each September at South Bank Parklands
and surrounding areas. Warana, (meaning Blue Skies
), was a former spring festival which began in 1961 and was held in September each year. Run as a celebration of Brisbane, Warana was similar to Melbourne's Moomba
festival. In 1996 the annual festival was changed to a biennial
The Brisbane International Film Festival
(BIFF) is held in July/August in a variety of venues around Brisbane including the Regent Cinema in Queen Street Mall. BIFF features new films and retrospectives by domestic and international filmmakers along with seminars and awards.
The Paniyiri festival at Musgrave Park
(corner of Russell and Edmondstone Streets, South Brisbane
) is an annual Greek cultural festival held on the first weekend in May. The Brisbane Medieval Fayre and Tournament is held each June in Musgrave Park
The Valley Fiesta is an annual three-day event organised by the Valley Chamber of Commerce. It was launched by Brisbane Marketing in 2002 to promote Fortitude Valley as a hub for arts and youth culture. It features free live music, market stalls, food and drink from many local restaurants and cafés, and other entertainment.
Tourism and recreation
The main newspapers of Brisbane are The Courier-Mail
and The Sunday Mail
, both owned by News Corporation
. Brisbane receives the national daily, The Australian
, and the Weekend Australian
, together with Fairfax
papers Australian Financial Review
, the Sydney Morning Herald
and The Age
, and Fairfax website Brisbane Times
. There are community and suburban newspapers throughout the metropolitan and regional areas, including Brisbane News
and City News
, many of which are produced by Quest Community Newspapers
, a free daily commuter newspaper, was launched in 2007, following the newspaper's success in Melbourne and Sydney.
Brisbane is served by all five major television networks in Australia, which broadcast from the summit of Mount Coot-tha
. The three commercial stations, Seven
, and Ten
, are accompanied by two government networks, ABC
, with all five providing digital television
, a community station, also broadcasts in Brisbane. Optus
all operate PayTV services in Brisbane, via cable
transmits all five of its radio networks to Brisbane; 612 ABC Brisbane
, ABC Classic FM
, ABC NewsRadio
, Radio National
, and Triple J
broadcasts its national radio network. Brisbane is serviced by major commercial radio stations, including 4KQ
, 4BC, 4BH
, 97.3 FM
, B105 FM
, Nova 106.9
, and Triple M
. Brisbane is also serviced by major community radio stations such as 96five Family FM
, 4MBS Classic FM 103.7, 4EB FM and 4ZZZ 102.1.
Brisbane has an extensive transportation network within the city, as well as connections to regional centres, interstate and to overseas destinations.
The use of urban public transport is still only a small component of total passenger transport, the largest component being travel by private car.
The Brisbane River has created a barrier to some road transport routes. In total there are ten road bridges
, mostly concentrated in the inner city area. This has intensified the need for transport routes to focus on the inner city. There are also three railway bridges and two pedestrian bridges. The Eleanor Schonell Bridge
(originally named The Green Bridge) between the University of Queensland and Dutton Park
is for use by buses, pedestrians and cyclists. There are currently multiple tunnel and bridge projects underway as part of the TransApex
Brisbane is served by several freeways
. The Pacific Motorway
connects the central city with the Gold Coast
to the south. The Ipswich Motorway
connects the city with Ipswich to the west via the southern suburbs, while the Western Freeway
and the Centenary Freeway
provide a connection between Brisbane's inner-west and the outer south-west, connecting with the Ipswich Motorway south of the Brisbane River. The Bruce Highway
is Brisbane's main route north of the city to the rest of the State. The Bruce Highway terminates 1,700 km (1,056 mi) away in Cairns
and passes through most major cities along the Queensland coast. The Gateway Motorway
is a private toll road
which connects the Gold Coast and Sunshine Coasts by providing an alternate route via the Gateway Bridge
avoiding Brisbane's inner city area. The Port of Brisbane Motorway links the Gateway to the Port of Brisbane, while Inner City Bypass and the Riverside Expressway act as the inner ring freeway system to prevent motorists from travelling through the city's congested centre.
Brisbane's population growth placed strains on South East Queensland's transport system. The State Government and Brisbane City Council have responded with infrastructure plans and increased funding for transportation projects, such as the South East Queensland Infrastructure Plan and Program
. Most of the focus has been placed on expanding current road infrastructure, particularly tunnels and bypasses, as well as improving the public transport system.
Water storage, treatment and delivery for Brisbane is handled by SEQ Water
, which sells on to Queensland Urban Utilities (previously Brisbane Water) for distribution to the greater Brisbane area. Water for the area is stored in one of three dams; Wivenhoe
and North Pine
. As of 13 May 2005, Brisbane has enforced water restrictions
due to drought.
This has also led to the State Government announcing that recycled sewage will be pumped into the dams once the pipeline is complete in 2009.
grids in Brisbane are handled by Energex
(electricity), and Origin Energy
(gas), with each company previously holding a monopoly on domestic retail supply. Since 1 July 2007 Queensland regulation changes have opened up the retail energy market, allowing multiple companies to resell both gas and electricity.
Metropolitan Brisbane is serviced by all major and most minor telecommunications companies and their networks. Brisbane has the largest number of enabled DSL
telephone exchanges in Queensland. An increasing number are also enabled with special hardware (DSLAMs
) which enable high speed ADSL2+
internet access. The Brisbane CBD also features a complete underground fibre optics
network, with numerous connections to the inner suburbs provided by various service providers.
provide both high speed internet as well as Pay TV
through their cable services for the bulk of the city's metropolitan area. Both of these providers also host wireless networks with hotspots
within both the inner and suburban areas. In addition, 3 Mobile
all operate both 2.5G
mobile phone networks citywide.
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