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Bristol
—  Unitary, City, Ceremonial county  —
A view from above of office blocks and church spires adjacent to a river which is crossed by a road bridge. In the right foreground a city park and a ruined church. A small boat is moving on the river and a larger barge is moored against a wooded quay. In the distance on the right wooded hills and on the left a mass of predominantly red brick housing.
Bristol Bridge and the Floating Harbour
A coat of arms, with a shield showing a sailing ship and a castle with maned lions on either side, surmounted by the helmet from a suit of arms and two hands holding a snake and scales of justice. The motto at the bottom is "Virtute et Industria"
Coat of Arms of the City Council
A map showing the location of Bristol in South West England.
Coordinates: 51°27′N 2°35′W / 51.45°N 2.583°W / 51.45; -2.583
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region South West England
Ceremonial county Bristol
(County corporate)
Admin HQ Bristol
Royal Charter 1155
County status 1373
Government
 - Type Unitary authority, City
 - Governing body Bristol City Council
 - Leadership Leader & Cabinet
 - Executive Lib Dem
 - MPs Roger Berry (L)
Stephen Williams (LD)
Area
 - Unitary, City, Ceremonial county 42.5 sq mi (110 km2)
Elevation [1] 36 ft (11 m)
Population (2008 est.)
 - Unitary, City, Ceremonial county 421,300 (Ranked 7th amongst English Districts / 43rd amongst Ceremonial Counties)
 Density 9,425/sq mi (3,639/km2)
 Urban 587,400 (2,006 ONS estimate)
 Metro 1,006,600 (LUZ 2,004)
 - Ethnicity[2] 88.8% White (83.5% White British)
4.2% S. Asian
1.9% Black
2.2% Mixed Race
1.9% E. Asian or Other
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
Postcode BS
Area code(s) 0117
ISO 3166-2 GB-BST
ONS code 00HB
OS grid reference ST5946972550
NUTS 3 UKK11
Website bristol.gov.uk/
Bristol (pronounced /ˈbrɪstəl/ ( listen)) is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, 105 miles (169 km) west of London, and 24 miles (39 km) east of Cardiff.
With an estimated population of 421,300 for the unitary authority in 2008,[3] and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) with an estimated 1,006,600 residents,[4] it is England's sixth, and the United Kingdom's eighth most populous city, one of the group of English Core Cities and the most populous city in South West England. It received a Royal Charter in 1155 and was granted County status in 1373. From the 13th century, for half a millennium, it ranked amongst the top three English cities after London, alongside York and Norwich, on the basis of tax receipts,[5] until the rapid rise of Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester during the Industrial Revolution in the latter part of the 18th century. It borders the counties of Somerset and Gloucestershire, and is also located near the historic cities of Bath to the south east and Gloucester to the north. The city is built around the River Avon, and it also has a short coastline on the Severn Estuary, which flows into the Bristol Channel.
Bristol is the largest centre of culture, employment and education in the region. Its prosperity has been linked with the sea since its earliest days. The commercial Port of Bristol was originally in the city centre before being moved to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth; Royal Portbury Dock is on the western edge of the city boundary. In more recent years the economy has depended on the creative media, electronics and aerospace industries, and the city centre docks have been regenerated as a centre of heritage and culture.[6] There are 34 other populated places on Earth named Bristol, most in the United States, but also in Peru, Canada, Jamaica and Costa Rica, all presumably commemorating the original.[7][8]

Contents

History

Archaeological finds believed to be 60,000 years old, discovered at Shirehampton and St Annes, provide "evidence of human activity" in the Bristol area from the Palaeolithic era.[9] There are Iron Age hill forts near the city, at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down on the side of the Avon Gorge, and on Kingsweston Hill, near Henbury.[10] During the Roman era there was a settlement, Abona,[11] at what is now Sea Mills, connected to Bath by a Roman road, and another at the present-day Inns Court. There were also isolated Roman villas and small Roman forts and settlements throughout the area.[12] The town of Brycgstow (Old English, "the place at the bridge")[13] existed by the beginning of the 11th century, and under Norman rule acquired one of the strongest castles in southern England.[14]
A yellow water taxi on the water between stone quaysides. The far bank has large buildings and in the distance is a three arch bridge.
Bristol Bridge seen across the harbour
The area around the original junction of the River Frome with the River Avon, adjacent to the original Bristol Bridge and just outside the town walls, was where the port began to develop in the 11th century.[15] By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland. In 1247 a new stone bridge was built, which was replaced by the current Bristol Bridge in the 1760s,[16] and the town was extended to incorporate neighbouring suburbs, becoming in 1373 a county in its own right.[17] .During this period Bristol also became a centre of shipbuilding and manufacturing.^ Bristol has manufacturers of glass, soap, and earthenware; shipbuilding, tanning, and sugar-refining; and extensive chemical and engineering works.
  • GENUKI: Bristol, Gloucestershire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hot wells became fashionable in the reign of Anne (who granted a charter in 1710), and a little later Bristol was the centre of the Methodist revival of Whitefield and Wesley .

^ During the American Revolution , American troops were quartered in Bristol in December 1776; the Episcopal church was used as a stable, and the Friends Meeting House became a hospital.
  • Bristol (Pennsylvania, United States) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bristol was the starting point for many important voyages, notably John Cabot's 1497 voyage of exploration to North America.[18]
A stone built Victorian Gothic building with two square towers and a central arched entrance underneath a circular ornate window. A Victorian street lamp stands in front of the building and on the right part of a leafless tree, with blues skies behind.
The west front of Bristol Cathedral
By the 14th century Bristol was one of England's three largest medieval towns after London, along with York and Norwich, with perhaps 15,000–20,000 inhabitants on the eve of the Black Death of 1348–49.[19] The plague resulted in a prolonged pause in the growth of Bristol's population, with numbers remaining at 10,000–12,000 through most of the 15th and 16th centuries. The Diocese of Bristol was founded in 1542,[20] with the former Abbey of St. Augustine, founded by Robert Fitzharding in 1140,[21] becoming Bristol Cathedral. .Traditionally this is equivalent to the town being granted city status.^ Another charter of the same year granted the city of Dublin to the men of Bristol as a colony with the same liberties as their own town.

During the 1640s English Civil War the city was occupied by Royalist military, after they overran Royal Fort, the last Parliamentarian stronghold in the city.[22]
Renewed growth came with the 17th century rise of England's American colonies and the rapid 18th century expansion of England's part in the Atlantic trade in Africans taken for slavery in the Americas. Bristol, along with Liverpool, became a centre for the Triangular trade. In the first stage of this trade manufactured goods were taken to West Africa and exchanged for Africans who were then, in the second stage or middle passage, transported across the Atlantic in brutal conditions.[23] The third leg of the triangle brought plantation goods such as sugar, tobacco, rum, rice and cotton[23] and also a small number of slaves who were sold to the aristocracy as house servants, some eventually buying their freedom.[24] During the height of the slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slaving ships were fitted out at Bristol, carrying a (conservatively) estimated half a million people from Africa to the Americas and slavery.[25] The Seven Stars public house,[26] where abolitionist Thomas Clarkson collected information on the slave trade, still exists.
 An engraving showing at the top a sailing ship and paddle steamer in a harbour, with sheds and a church spire. On either side arched gateways, all above a scroll with the word "Bristol". Below a street scene showing pedestrians and a horse drawn carriage outside a large ornate building with a colonnade and arched windows above. A grand staircase with two figures ascending and other figures on a balcony. A caption reading "Exterior, Colston Hall" and Staircase, Colston Hall". Below, two street scenes and a view of a large stone building with flying buttresses and a square tower, with the caption "Bristol cathedral". At the bottom views of a church interior, a cloister with a man mowing grass and archways with two men in conversation.
An 1873 engraving showing sights around Bristol
Fishermen from Bristol had fished the Grand Banks of Newfoundland since the 15th century[27] and began settling Newfoundland permanently in larger numbers in the 17th century establishing colonies at Bristol's Hope and Cuper's Cove. Bristol's strong nautical ties meant that maritime safety was an important issue in the city. During the 19th century Samuel Plimsoll, "the sailor's friend", campaigned to make the seas safer; he was shocked by the overloaded cargoes, and successfully fought for a compulsory load line on ships.[28]
Competition from Liverpool from c. 1760, the disruption of maritime commerce caused by wars with France (1793) and the abolition of the slave trade (1807) contributed to the city's failure to keep pace with the newer manufacturing centres of the North of England and the West Midlands. The passage up the heavily tidal Avon Gorge, which had made the port highly secure during the Middle Ages, had become a liability which the construction of a new "Floating Harbour" (designed by William Jessop) in 1804–9 failed to overcome, as the great cost of the scheme led to excessive harbour dues.[29] .Nevertheless, Bristol's population (66,000 in 1801) quintupled during the 19th century, supported by new industries and growing commerce.^ Clinical Cleaning & Industrial Support Phone: 01275 541470 Bristol, South West England .

^ "Our beautiful daughter Bristol came to us with news that as parents we knew would make her grow up faster than we had ever planned."
  • Bristol Palin - Zimbio 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

[30] It was particularly associated with the Victorian era engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who designed the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London Paddington, two pioneering Bristol-built ocean going steamships, the SS Great Britain and SS Great Western, and the Clifton Suspension Bridge. John Wesley founded the very first Methodist Chapel, called the New Room, in Bristol in 1739. Riots occurred in 1793[31] and 1831, the first beginning as a protest at renewal of an act levying tolls on Bristol Bridge, and the latter after the rejection of the second Reform Bill.[32]
An old ordnance survey map of Bristol, showing roads, railways, rivers and contours.
A map of Bristol from 1946
Bristol's city centre suffered severe damage from Luftwaffe bombing during the Bristol Blitz of World War II.[33] The original central shopping area, near the bridge and castle, is now a park containing two bombed out churches and some fragments of the castle. A third bombed church nearby, St Nicholas, has been restored and has been made into a museum which houses a triptych by William Hogarth, painted for the high altar of St Mary Redcliffe in 1756. The museum also contains statues moved from Arno's Court Triumphal Arch, of King Edward I and King Edward III taken from Lawfords' Gate of the city walls when they were demolished around 1760, and 13th century figures from Bristol's Newgate representing Robert, the builder of Bristol Castle, and Geoffrey de Montbray, Bishop of Coutances, builder of the fortified walls of the city.[34]
The rebuilding of Bristol city centre was characterised by large, cheap 1960s tower blocks, brutalist architecture and expansion of roads. Since the 1980s another trend has emerged with the closure of some main roads, the restoration of the Georgian period Queen Square and Portland Square, the regeneration of the Broadmead shopping area, and the demolition of one of the city centre's tallest post-war blocks.[35]
The removal of the docks to Avonmouth Docks and Royal Portbury Dock, 7 miles (11.3 km) downstream from the city centre during the 20th century has also allowed redevelopment of the old central dock area (the "Floating Harbour") in recent decades, although at one time the continued existence of the docks was in jeopardy as it was viewed as a derelict industrial site rather than an asset. However the holding, in 1996, of the first International Festival of the Sea in and around the docks, affirmed the dockside area in its new leisure role as a key feature of the city.[36]

Governance

A large brick building, built in a shallow curve, with a central porch. In front of that a pool and a water fountain. Autumn trees on the right and a blue sky with some clouds above.
The Council House, the seat of local government
A tall church spire over a quayside with wooden sheds and boats covered with tarpaulins. In front of these on the water a twin masted sailing boat and a narrowboat
St Mary Redcliffe church and the Floating Harbour, Bristol.
Bristol City Council consists of 70 councillors representing 35 wards. .They are elected in thirds with two councillors per ward, each serving a four-year term.^ Ward said Dodd “has always been a staunch supporter of and advocate for the city of Bristol, the state of Connecticut and the nation” that he has “served with distinction” for years.

Wards never have both councillors up for election at the same time, so effectively two-thirds of the wards are up each election.[37] The Council has long been dominated by the Labour Party, but recently the Liberal Democrats have grown strong in the city and as the largest party took minority control of the Council at the 2005 election. In 2007, Labour and the Conservatives joined forces to vote down the Liberal Democrat administration, and as a result, Labour ruled the council under a minority administration, with Helen Holland as the council leader.[38] In February 2009, the Labour group resigned, and the Liberal Democrats took office with their own minority administration.[39] At the council elections on 4 June 2009 the Liberal Democrats gained four seats and, for the first time, overall control of the City Council.[40] The Lord Mayor is Lib Dem Councillor Chris Davis.[41]
Bristol constituencies in the House of Commons cross the borders with neighbouring authorities, and the city is divided into Bristol West, East, South and North-west and Kingswood. Northavon also covers some of the suburbs, but none of the administrative county. At the next General Election, the boundaries will be changed to coincide with the county boundary. Kingswood will no longer cover any of the county, and a new Filton and Bradley Stoke constituency will include the suburbs in South Gloucestershire. There are four Labour Members of Parliament and one Liberal Democrat.[42]
Bristol has a tradition of local political activism, and has been home to many important political figures. Edmund Burke, MP for the Bristol constituency for six years from 1774, famously insisted that he was a Member of Parliament first, rather than a representative of his constituents' interests. The women's rights campaigner Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867–1954) was born in Bristol. Tony Benn, a veteran left-wing politician, was Member of Parliament (MP) for Bristol South East from 1950 until 1983. In 1963, there was a boycott of the city's buses after the Bristol Omnibus Company refused to employ black drivers and conductors. The boycott is known to have influenced the creation of the UK's Race Relations Act in 1965.[43] The city was the scene of the first of the 1980s riots. In St. Paul's, a number of largely African-Caribbean people rose up against racism, police harassment and mounting dissatisfaction with their social and economic circumstances before similar disturbances followed across the UK. Local support of fair trade issues was recognised in 2005 when Bristol was granted Fairtrade City status.[44]
.Bristol is unusual in having been a city with county status since medieval times.^ Clean City Bristol impressed visitors with its clean streets in Tudor times.

^ For the first time since 1995, Bristol ’s historic Muzzy Field will house a college league baseball team this summer.

The county was expanded to include suburbs such as Clifton in 1835, and it was named a county borough in 1889, when the term was first introduced.[17] However, on 1 April 1974, it became a local government district of the short-lived county of Avon.[45] On 1 April 1996, it regained its independence and county status, when the county of Avon was abolished and Bristol became a Unitary Authority.[46]

Geography

Boundaries

There are a number of different ways in which Bristol's boundaries are defined, depending on whether the boundaries attempt to define the city, the built-up area, or the wider "Greater Bristol". The narrowest definition of the city is the city council boundary, which takes in a large section of the Severn Estuary west as far as, but not including, the islands of Steep Holm and Flat Holm.[47] A slightly less narrow definition is used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS); this includes built-up areas which adjoin Bristol but are not within the city council boundary, such as Whitchurch village, Filton, Patchway, Bradley Stoke, and excludes non-built-up areas within the city council boundary.[48] The ONS has also defined an area called the "Bristol Urban Area," which includes Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford, Winterbourne, Frampton Cotterell, Almondsbury and Easton-in-Gordano.[49] The term "Greater Bristol", used for example by the Government Office of the South West,[50] usually refers to the area occupied by the city and parts of the three neighbouring local authorities (Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire), an area sometimes also known as the "former Avon area" or the "West of England".
River flowing though a steep sided valley. In the distance is a suspension bridge supported by towers. In the left foreground is a handrail.
The Avon Gorge, home to several unique plant species.

Physical geography

Bristol is in a limestone area, which runs from the Mendip Hills to the south and the Cotswolds to the north east.[51] The rivers Avon and Frome cut through this limestone to the underlying clays, creating Bristol's characteristic hilly landscape. The Avon flows from Bath in the east, through flood plains and areas which were marshy before the growth of the city. To the west the Avon has cut through the limestone to form the Avon Gorge, partly aided by glacial meltwater after the last ice age.[52] The gorge helped to protect Bristol Harbour, and has been quarried for stone to build the city. The land surrounding the gorge has been protected from development, as The Downs and Leigh Woods. The gorge and estuary of the Avon form the county's boundary with North Somerset, and the river flows into the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth. There is another gorge in the city, in the Blaise Castle estate to the north.[52]

Climate

Situated in the south of the country, Bristol is one of the warmest cities in the UK, with a mean annual temperature of 10.2-12 °C (50-54 °F).[53] It is also amongst the sunniest, with 1,541–1,885 hours sunshine per year.[54] The city is partially sheltered by the Mendip Hills, but exposed to the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, Annual rainfall is similar to the national average, at 741-1,060 mm (29.2–41.7 in). Rain falls all year round, but autumn and winter are the wettest seasons. The Atlantic strongly influences Bristol's weather, maintaining average temperatures above freezing throughout the year, although cold spells in winter often bring frosts. Snow can fall at any time from mid-November through to mid-April, but it is a rare occurrence. Summers are drier and quite warm with variable amounts of sunshine, rain and cloud. Spring is unsettled and changeable, and has brought spells of winter snow as well as summer sunshine.[55]
Climate data for Bristol, England, United Kingdom
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.2
(45)
7.8
(46)
11.1
(52)
15
(59)
17.8
(64)
21.1
(70)
22.8
(73)
22.8
(73)
20
(68)
15
(59)
10.6
(51)
7.8
(46)
15
(59)
Average low °C (°F) 2.8
(37)
2.2
(36)
4.4
(40)
7.2
(45)
8.9
(48)
12.2
(54)
14.4
(58)
13.9
(57)
11.7
(53)
8.9
(48)
5
(41)
2.8
(37)
7.8
(46)
Precipitation mm (inches) 97.7
(3.85)
53.8
(2.12)
85.9
(3.38)
65.0
(2.56)
92.5
(3.64)
70.6
(2.78)
79.8
(3.14)
56.6
(2.23)
64.5
(2.54)
113.3
(4.46)
118.6
(4.67)
117.0
(4.61)
1,015.3
(39.97)
Source: Weatherbase [1] 2007-08-03
Source #2: Met Office- Yeovilton [56] 2007-08-03

Demographics

In 2008 the Office for National Statistics estimated the Bristol unitary authority's population at 416,900,[57][58] making it the 47th-largest ceremonial county in England.[59] Using Census 2001 data the ONS estimated the population of the city to be 441,556,[60] and that of the contiguous urban area to be 551,066.[61] and more recent 2006 ONS estimates put the urban area population at 587,400 [62] This makes the city England's sixth most populous city, and ninth most populous urban area.[61] At 3,599 inhabitants per square kilometre (9,321 /sq mi) it has the seventh-highest population density of any English district.[63]
According to 2007 estimates, 88.1% of the population were described as White British, 4.6% as Asian or Asian British, 2.9% as black or black British, 2.3% as mixed race, 1.4% as Chinese and 0.7% other. National averages for England were 88.2%, 5.7%, 2.8%, 1.7%, 0.8% and 0.7% for the same groups.[64]

Historical population records

Note: Only includes figues for Bristol Unitary Authority i.e. excludes areas that are part of the Bristol urban area (2006 estimated population 587,400) but are located in South Gloucestershire, BANES or North Somerset which border Bristol UA such as Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Filton, Warmley etc.[65] The figures for 2006 are an estimate from the Office for National Statistics
Year 1377[66] 1607[67] 1700[65] 1801[65] 1811[65] 1821[65] 1831[65] 1841[65] 1851[65]
Total population 9,518 10,549 20,000 68,944 83,922 99,151 120,789 144,803 159,945
Year 1861[65] 1871[65] 1881[65] 1891[65] 1901[65] 1911[65] 1921[65] 1931[65] 1941[65]
Total population 194,229 228,513 262,797 297,525 323,698 352,178 367,831 384,204 402,839
Year 1951[65] 1961[65] 1971[65] 1981[65] 1991[65] 2001[65] 2008[3]
Total population 422,399 425,214 428,089 384,883 396,559 380,615 421,300

Economy and industry

Two ornate metal pillars with large dishes on top in a paved street, with a eighteenth century stone building behind upon which can be seen the words "Tea Blenders Estabklishec 177-". People sitting at cafe style tables outside. On the right iron railings.
The Nails in Corn Street, over which trading deals were made
As a major seaport, Bristol has a long history of trading commodities, originally wool cloth exports and imports of fish, wine, grain and dairy produce,[68] later tobacco, tropical fruits and plantation goods; major imports now are motor vehicles, grain, timber, fresh produce and petroleum products. Deals were originally struck on a personal basis in the former trading area around The Exchange in Corn Street, and in particular, over bronze trading tables, known as "The Nails". This is often given as the origin of the expression "cash on the nail", meaning immediate payment, however it is likely that the expression was in use before the nails were erected.[69]
As well as Bristol's nautical connections, the city's economy is reliant on the aerospace industry, defence, the media, information technology and financial services sectors, and tourism.[70] The former Ministry of Defence (MoD)'s Procurement Executive, later the Defence Procurement Agency, and now Defence Equipment & Support, moved to a purpose-built headquarters at Abbey Wood, Filton in 1995. The site employs some 7,000 to 8,000 staff and is responsible for procuring and supporting much of the MoD's defence equipment.[71]
In 2004 Bristol's GDP was £9.439 billion, and the combined GDP of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset was £44.098 billion. .The GDP per head was £23,962 (US$47,738, €35,124) making the city more affluent than the UK as a whole, at 40% above the national average.^ (US$35 per person per night) .
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ "More than 1 million people live in cities and towns that have decided on a default 20mph limit: Leicester, Newcastle, Portsmouth, Islington, and now Glasgow.

^ Better than any other b&b ” jon-head on the road 23 Jun 2009 .
  • The Greenhouse B&B Bed and Breakfast Reviews and Photos, Bristol, United Kingdom - TripAdvisor 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.tripadvisor.co.uk [Source type: General]

This makes it the third-highest per-capita GDP of any English city, after London and Nottingham, and the fifth highest GDP per capita of any city in the United Kingdom, behind London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Belfast and Nottingham.[72] In March 2007, Bristol's unemployment rate was 4.8%, compared with 4.0% for the south west and 5.5% for England.[73]
Although Bristol's economy is no longer reliant upon the Port of Bristol, which was relocated gradually to the mouth of the Avon to new docks at Avonmouth (1870s)[74] and Royal Portbury Dock (1977) as the size of shipping increased, the city is the largest importer of cars to the UK.[75] Since the port was leased in 1991, £330 million has been invested and the annual tonnage throughput has increased from 3.9 million long tons (4 million metric tonnes) to 11.8 million long tons (12 million metric tonnes).[76] The tobacco trade and cigarette manufacturing have now ceased, but imports of wines and spirits by Harveys and Averys continue.
The financial services sector employs 59,000 in the city,[77] and the high-tech sector is important, with 50 micro-electronics and silicon design companies, which employ around 5,000 people, including the Hewlett-Packard national research laboratories, which opened in 1983.[78] [79] .Bristol is the UK's seventh most popular destination for foreign tourists, and the city receives nine million visitors each year.^ Bristol Doors Open Day 14th September 2002 Telephone: (0117) 922 3719 (Doors Open Hotline) URL: http://www.bristol-city.gov.uk/tourism/doorsopen_intro.html Bristol Doors Open Day - now in its ninth year - is the day when many of Bristol's most significant contemporary and historic buildings open their doors to the general public.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The fiesta attracts approximately half a million visitors each year, all come to watch the amazing sight of over 150 hot air balloons taking to the skies each day, making a truly impressive sight across the Bristol skyline.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol is one of the most vibrant cities (currently bidding for European City of Culture 2008) in England, host to about half a million people.

[80]
In the 20th century, Bristol's manufacturing activities expanded to include aircraft production at Filton, by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, and aero-engine manufacture by Bristol Aero Engines (later Rolls-Royce) at Patchway. The aeroplane company became famous for the World War I Bristol Fighter,[81] and Second World War Blenheim and Beaufighter aircraft.[81] In the 1950s it became one of the country's major manufacturers of civil aircraft, with the Bristol Freighter and Britannia and the huge Brabazon airliner. The Bristol Aeroplane Company diversified into car manufacturing in the 1940s, producing hand-built luxury cars at their factory in Filton, under the name Bristol Cars, which became independent from the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1960.[82] The city also gave its name to the Bristol make of buses, manufactured in the city from 1908 to 1983, first by the local bus operating company, Bristol Tramways, and from 1955 by Bristol Commercial Vehicles.
A view from below of an aeroplane in flight, with a slender fuselage and swept back wings.
The last ever flight of any Concorde, 26 November 2003. The aircraft is seen a few minutes before landing on the Filton runway from which it first flew in 1969.
In the 1960s Filton played a key role in the Anglo-French Concorde supersonic airliner project. The Bristol Aeroplane Company became part of the British partner, the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC). Concorde components were manufactured in British and French factories and shipped to the two final assembly plants, in Toulouse and Filton. The French manufactured the centre fuselage and centre wing and the British the nose, rear fuselage, fin and wingtips, while the Olympus 593 engine's manufacture was split between Rolls-Royce (Filton) and SNECMA (Paris). The British Concorde prototype made its maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford on 9 April 1969, five weeks after the French test flight.[83] In 2003 British Airways and Air France decided to cease flying the aircraft and to retire them to locations (mostly museums) around the world. On 26 November 2003 Concorde 216 made the final Concorde flight, returning to Filton airfield to be kept there permanently as the centrepiece of a projected air museum. This museum will include the existing Bristol Aero Collection, which includes a Bristol Britannia aircraft.[84]
The aerospace industry remains a major segment of the local economy.[85] The major aerospace companies in Bristol now are BAE Systems, (formed by merger between Marconi Electronic Systems and BAe; the latter being formed by a merger of BAC, Hawker Siddeley and Scottish Aviation), Airbus[86] and Rolls-Royce, all based at Filton, and aerospace engineering is a prominent research area at the nearby University of the West of England. Another important aviation company in the city is Cameron Balloons, who manufacture hot air balloon.[87] Each August the city is host to the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, one of Europe's largest hot air balloon events.[88]
A new £500 million shopping centre called Cabot Circus opened in 2008 amidst claims from developers and politicians that Bristol would become one of England's top ten retail destinations.[89] Bristol was selected as one of the world's top ten cities for 2009 by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness series of guides for young adults.[90]

Sustainability

Based on its environmental performance, quality of life, future-proofing and how well it is addressing climate change, recycling and biodiversity, Bristol was ranked as the UK's most sustainable city, topping environmental charity Forum for the Future's Sustainable Cities Index 2008.[91][92] Notable local initiatives include Sustrans, who have created the National Cycle Network, founded as Cyclebag in 1977,[93] and Resourcesaver established in 1988 as a non-profit business by Avon Friends of the Earth.[94]
A panoramic view looking over a cityscape of office blocks, old buildings, church spires and a multi-story car park. In the distance hills.
Panorama over Bristol, taken in 2004.

Culture

Arts

An imposing eighteenth century building with three entrance archways, large first floor windows and an ornate peaked gable end above. On the left a twentieth century grey brick building with a gilded crest and on the right a cream coloured building with four pitched roofs. In front a cobbled street.
The Coopers Hall, entrance to the Bristol Old Vic Theatre Royal complex
A painting on a building showing a naked man hanging by one hand from a window sill. A man in a suit looks out of the window, shading his eyes with his right hand, behind him stands a woman in her underwear.
One of many Banksy artworks in the city
The city is famous for its music and film industries, and was a finalist for the 2008 European Capital of Culture, but the title was awarded to Liverpool.[95]
The city's principal theatre company, the Bristol Old Vic, was founded in 1946 as an offshoot of the Old Vic company in London. Its premises on King Street consist of the 1766 Theatre Royal (607 seats), a modern studio theatre called the New Vic (150 seats), and foyer and bar areas in the adjacent Coopers' Hall (built 1743). The Theatre Royal is a grade I listed building[96][97] and is the oldest continuously operating theatre in England.[98] The Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, which had originated in King Street is now a separate company. The Bristol Hippodrome is a larger theatre (1981 seats) which hosts national touring productions. Other theatres include the Tobacco Factory (250 seats), QEH (220 seats), the Redgrave Theatre (at Clifton College) (320 seats) and the Alma Tavern (50 seats). Bristol's theatre scene includes a large variety of producing theatre companies, apart from the Bristol Old Vic company, including Show of Strength Theatre Company, Shakespeare at the Tobacco Factory and Travelling Light Theatre Company. Theatre Bristol is a partnership between Bristol City Council, Arts Council England and local theatre practitioners which aims to develop the theatre industry in Bristol.[99] There are also a number of organisations within the city which act to support theatre makers, for example Equity, the actors union, has a General Branch based in the city,[100] and Residence which provides office, social and rehearsal space for several Bristol-based theatre and performance companies.[101]
Since the late 1970s, the city has been home to bands combining punk, funk, dub and political consciousness, amongst the most notable have been Glaxo Babies[102], The Pop Group[103] and trip hop or "Bristol Sound" artists such as Tricky,[104] Portishead[105] and Massive Attack;[106] the list of Bands from Bristol is extensive. It is also a stronghold of drum & bass with notable artists such as the Mercury Prize winning Roni Size/Reprazent[107] as well as the pioneering DJ Krust[108] and More Rockers.[109] This music is part of the wider Bristol urban culture scene which received international media attention in the 1990s.[110] Bristol has many live music venues, the largest of which is the 2,000-seat Colston Hall, named after Edward Colston. Others include the Bristol Academy, Fiddlers, Victoria Rooms, Trinity Centre, St George's Bristol and a range of public houses from the jazz-orientated The Old Duke to rock at the Fleece and Firkin and indie bands at the Louisiana.[111][112]
The Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery houses a collection of natural history, archaeology, local glassware, Chinese ceramics and art. The Bristol Industrial Museum, featuring preserved dock machinery, closed in October 2006 for rebuilding and plans to reopen in 2011 as the Museum of Bristol.[113] The City Museum also runs three preserved historic houses: the Tudor Red Lodge, the Georgian House, and Blaise Castle House. The Watershed Media Centre and Arnolfini gallery, both in disused dockside warehouses, exhibit contemporary art, photography and cinema, while the city's oldest gallery is at the Royal West of England Academy in Clifton.
Stop frame animation films and commercials produced by Aardman Animations[114] and television series focusing on the natural world have also brought fame and artistic credit to the city. The city is home to the regional headquarters of BBC West, and the BBC Natural History Unit.[115] Locations in and around Bristol often feature in the BBC's natural history programmes, including the children's television programme Animal Magic, filmed at Bristol Zoo.[116]
In literature, Bristol is noted as the birth place of the 18th-century poet Thomas Chatterton,[117] and also Robert Southey,[118] who was born in Wine Street, Bristol in 1774. Southey and his friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge married the Bristol Fricker sisters;[119] and William Wordsworth spent time in the city,[120] where Joseph Cottle first published Lyrical Ballads in 1798.[121]
The 18th- and 19th-century portrait painter Sir Thomas Lawrence and 19th-century architect Francis Greenway, designer of many of Sydney's first buildings, came from the city, and more recently the graffiti artist Banksy, many of whose works can be seen in the city.[122] Some famous comedians are locals, including Justin Lee Collins,[123] Lee Evans,[124] Russell Howard,[125] and writer/comedian Stephen Merchant.[126]
Bristol University graduates include magician and psychological illusionist Derren Brown;[127] the satirist Chris Morris;[128] Simon Pegg[129] and Nick Frost[130] of Spaced, Shaun of the Dead and Hot Fuzz; and Matt Lucas[131] and David Walliams[131] of Little Britain fame.[132] Hollywood actor Cary Grant was born in the city;[133] Patrick Stewart, Jane Lapotaire, Pete Postlethwaite, Jeremy Irons, Greta Scacchi, Miranda Richardson, Helen Baxendale, Daniel Day-Lewis and Gene Wilder are amongst the many actors who learnt their craft at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School,[134] opened by Laurence Olivier in 1946. The comedian John Cleese was a pupil at Clifton College.[135] Hugo Weaving studied at Queen Elizabeth's Hospital School[136] and David Prowse (Darth Vader, Star Wars) attended Bristol Grammar School.[137]

Architecture

A seventeenth century timber framed building with three gables and a traditional inn sign showing a picture of a sailing barge. Some drinkers sit at benches outside on a cobbled street. Other old buildings are further down the street and in the backgriound part of a modern office building can be seen.
The Llandoger Trow, an ancient public house in the heart of Bristol.
Bristol has 51 Grade I listed buildings,[97] 500 Grade II* and over 3,800 Grade II buildings,[138] in a wide variety of architectural styles, ranging from the medieval to the 21st century. In the mid-19th century, Bristol Byzantine, an architectural style unique to the city, was developed, of which several examples have survived. Buildings from most of the architectural periods of the United Kingdom can be seen throughout the city. Surviving elements of the fortified city and castle date back to the medieval era,[139] also some churches dating from the 12th century onwards.[140]
Outside the historical city centre there are several large Tudor mansions built for wealthy merchants.[141] Almshouses[142] and public houses of the same period still exist,[143] intermingled with modern development. Several Georgian-era squares were laid out for the enjoyment of the middle class as prosperity increased in the 18th century.[144]
During World War II, the city centre suffered from extensive bombing during the Bristol Blitz.[145] The redevelopment of shopping centres, office buildings, and the harbourside continues apace.

Sport and leisure

In the foreground twentieth century housing can be seen amidst trees and on the right a tower block of flats. In the middle distance a complex of red coloured buildings can be seen and behind that a steep sided gorge with a suspension bridge spanning it. Eighteenth century terraces on the right side of the gorge, the slopes of which are heavily wooded and a tower can be seen in the distance on the skyline.
Ashton Gate stadium with the Clifton Suspension Bridge in the background over the Avon Gorge
The city has two League football clubs: Bristol City and Bristol Rovers, as well as a number of non-league clubs. Bristol City was formed in 1897, became runners-up in Division One in 1907, and losing FA Cup finalists in 1909. They returned to the top flight in 1976, but in 1980 started a descent to Division Four. They were promoted to the second tier of English football in 2007. The team lost in the play-off final of the Championship to Hull City (2007/2008 season). City announced plans for a new 30,000 all-seater stadium to replace their home, Ashton Gate.[146] Bristol Rovers is the oldest professional football team in Bristol, formed in 1883. They are in the top half of League One, and reached the quarter-final stage of the FA Cup. During their history, Rovers have been champions of the (old) division Three (1952/53, 1989/90), Watney Cup Winners (1972, 2006/07), and runners-up in the Johnstone's Paint Trophy. The Club have planning permission to re-develop the Memorial Stadium into an 18,500 all-seat Stadium to be completed by December 2010.[147]
A cricket match with fielders and batmen wearing coloured kit. A bowler delivers a ball to one of the batsman. Some of the crowd can be seen behind advertising hoardings and in front of trees and a scaffold construction.
The County Ground, Ashley Down
The city is also home to Bristol Rugby rugby union club,[148] a first-class cricket side, Gloucestershire C.C.C.[149] and a Rugby League Conference side, the Bristol Sonics. The city also stages an annual half marathon, and in 2001 played host to the World Half Marathon Championships. There are several athletics clubs in Bristol, including Bristol and West AC, Bitton Road Runners and Westbury Harriers. Speedway racing was staged, with breaks, at the Knowle Stadium from 1928 to 1960, when it was closed and the site redeveloped. The sport briefly returned to the city in the 1970s when the Bulldogs raced at Eastville Stadium.[150] In 2009, senior ice hockey returned to the city for the first time in 17 years with the newly formed Bristol Pitbulls playing out of Bristol Ice Rink.
The Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, a major event for hot-air ballooning in the UK, is held each summer in the grounds of Ashton Court, to the west of the city.[151] The fiesta draws substantial crowds even for the early morning lift beginning at about 6.30 am. Events and a fairground entertain visitors during the day. A second mass ascent is made in the early evening, again taking advantage of lower wind speeds. Until 2007 Ashton Court also played host to the Ashton Court festival each summer, an outdoor music festival known as the Bristol Community Festival.

Media

Bristol has two daily newspapers, the Western Daily Press and the Bristol Evening Post; a weekly free newspaper, the Bristol Observer; and a Bristol edition of the free Metro newspaper, all owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust.[152] The local weekly listings magazine, Venue, covers the city's music, theatre and arts scenes and is owned by Northcliffe Media, a subsidiary of the Daily Mail and General Trust.[153] Bristol Media is the city's support network for the creative and media industries with over 1600 members.[154] The city has several local radio stations, including BBC Radio Bristol, Heart Bristol (previously known as GWR FM), Classic Gold 1260, Kiss 101, Star 107.2, BCfm (a community radio station launched March 2007), Ujima 98 FM,[155] Jack FM,[156] as well as two student radio stations, The Hub and BURST. Bristol also boasts television productions such as The West Country Tonight for ITV West (formerly HTV West), Points West for BBC West, hospital drama Casualty (due to move to Cardiff in 2011)[157] and Endemol productions such as Deal Or No Deal. Bristol has been used as a location for the Channel 4 comedy drama Teachers, BBC drama Mistresses, teen drama Skins and BBC3 comedy-drama series Being Human.

Dialect

A dialect of English is spoken by some Bristol inhabitants, known colloquially as Bristolian, or even more colloquially as "Bristle" or "Brizzle". Bristol natives speak with a rhotic accent, in which the r in words like car is pronounced. The unusual feature of this dialect, unique to Bristol, is the Bristol L (or terminal L), in which an L sound is appended to words that end in an 'a' or 'o'.[158] Thus "area" becomes "areal", etc. Further Bristolian linguistic features are the addition of a superfluous "to" in questions relating to direction or orientation (a feature also common to the coastal towns of South Wales), or using "to" instead of "at"; and using male pronouns "he", "him" instead of "it". For example, "Where's that?" would be phrased as "Where's he to?", a structure exported to Newfoundland English.[159]
An ornate brick tower surrounded by trees. The tower has balconies and is surmounted by a pitched roof with a an ornate figure at the apex.
Cabot Tower viewed from Brandon Hill park.
.Stanley Ellis, a dialect researcher, found that many of the dialect words in the Filton area were linked to work in the aerospace industry.^ Candidates must have 3 years of stable work history in the Tri-Cities area and at least 1 year prior light industrial experience.
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He described this as "a cranky, crazy, crab-apple tree of language and with the sharpest, juiciest flavour that I've heard for a long time".[160]

Religion

In the United Kingdom Census 2001, 60% of Bristol's population reported themselves as being Christian, and 25% stated they were not religious; the national UK averages are 72% and 15% respectively. Islam accounts for 2% of the population (3% nationally), with no other religion above one percent, although 9% did not respond to the question.[161]
The city has many Christian churches, the most notable being the Anglican Bristol Cathedral and St. Mary Redcliffe and the Roman Catholic Clifton Cathedral. Nonconformist chapels include Buckingham Baptist Chapel and John Wesley's New Room in Broadmead.[162]
In Bristol, other religions are served by four mosques,[163][164] several Buddhist meditation centres,[165] a Hindu temple,[166] Progressive and Orthodox synagogues,[167] and four Sikh temples.[168][169][170]

Education, science and technology

 A Palladian style nineteenth century stone building with a large colonnaded porch. In front a large metal statue on a pedestal and fountains with decorations.
The Victoria Rooms, owned by the University
Bristol is home to two major institutions of higher education: the University of Bristol, a "redbrick" chartered in 1909, and the University of the West of England, formerly Bristol Polytechnic, which gained university status in 1992. The city also has two dedicated further education institutions, City of Bristol College and Filton College, and three theological colleges, Trinity College, Wesley College and Bristol Baptist College. The city has 129 infant, junior and primary schools,[171] 17 secondary schools,[172] and three city learning centres. It has the country's second highest concentration of independent school places, after an exclusive corner of north London.[173] The independent schools in the city include Colston's School, Clifton College, Clifton High School, Badminton School, Bristol Cathedral School, Bristol Grammar School, Redland High School, Queen Elizabeth's Hospital (the only all-boys school) and Red Maids' School, which claims to be the oldest girls' school in England, having been founded in 1634 by John Whitson.[174]
A tall stone nineteenth century with shields on the visible sides and a pepperpot upper storey. In front, traffic and pedestrians on a busy street.
The Wills Memorial Building on Park Street belongs to the University of Bristol. The tower was cleaned in 2006-2007.
In 2005, the then Chancellor of the Exchequer recognised Bristol's ties to science and technology by naming it one of six "science cities", and promising funding for further development of science in the city,[175] with a £300 million science park planned at Emerson's Green.[176] As well as research at the two universities and Southmead Hospital, science education is important in the city, with At-Bristol, Bristol Zoo, Bristol Festival of Nature and the Create Centre being prominent local institutions involved in science communication. The city has a history of scientific luminaries, including the 19th-century chemist Sir Humphry Davy,[177] who worked in Hotwells. Bishopston gave the world Nobel Prize winning physicist Paul Dirac[178] for crucial contributions to quantum mechanics in 1933. Cecil Frank Powell was Melvill Wills Professor of Physics at Bristol University when he was awarded the Nobel prize for a photographic method of studying nuclear processes and associated discoveries in 1950. The city was birth place of Colin Pillinger,[179] planetary scientist behind the Beagle 2 Mars lander project, and is home to the psychologist Richard Gregory.[180] Initiatives such as the Flying Start Challenge help encourage secondary school pupils around the Bristol area to take an interest in Science and Engineering. Links with major aerospace companies promote technical disciplines and advance students' understanding of practical design.[181]

Transport

Bristol has two principal railway stations. Bristol Temple Meads is near the centre and sees mainly First Great Western services including regular high speed trains to London Paddington as well as other local and regional services and CrossCountry trains. Bristol Parkway is located to the north of the city and is mainly served by high speed First Great Western services between Cardiff and London, and CrossCountry services to Birmingham and the North East. There is also a limited service to London Waterloo from Bristol Temple Meads, operated by South West Trains. There are also scheduled coach links to most major UK cities.[182]
 A railway station with curved platforms under an arched iron framed roof with roof-lights. A passenger train stands at the platform on the right and on the left passengers waiting for a train.
Temple Meads station
The city is connected by road on an east–west axis from London to West Wales by the M4 motorway, and on a north–southwest axis from Birmingham to Exeter by the M5 motorway. Also within the county is the M49 motorway, a short cut between the M5 in the south and M4 Severn Crossing in the west. The M32 motorway is a spur from the M4 to the city centre.[182]
The city is served by Bristol International Airport (BRS), at Lulsgate, which has seen substantial investments in its runway, terminal and other facilities since 2001.[182]
Public transport in the city consists largely of its bus network, provided mostly by First Group, formerly the Bristol Omnibus Company – other services are provided by Abus,[183] Buglers,[184] Ulink,[185] and Wessex Connect.[186] Buses in the city have been widely criticised for being unreliable and expensive, and in 2005 First was fined for delays and safety violations.[187][188] Private car usage in Bristol is high, and the city suffers from congestion, which costs an estimated £350 million per year.[189] Bristol is motorcycle friendly; the city allows motorcycles to use most of the city's bus lanes, as well as providing secure free parking.[190] Since 2000 the city council has included a light rail system in its Local Transport Plan, but has so far been unwilling to fund the project. The city was offered European Union funding for the system, but the Department for Transport did not provide the required additional funding.[191] As well as support for public transport, there are several road building schemes supported by the local council, including re-routing and improving the South Bristol Ring Road.[192] There are also three park and ride sites serving the city, supported by the local council.[193] The central part of the city has water-based transport, operated by the Bristol Ferry Boat, Bristol Packet and Number Seven Boat Trips providing leisure and commuter services on the harbour.[194]
Bristol's principal surviving suburban railway is the Severn Beach Line to Avonmouth and Severn Beach. The Portishead Railway was closed to passengers under the Beeching Axe, but was relaid for freight only in 2000–2002 as far as the Royal Portbury Dock with a Strategic Rail Authority rail-freight grant. Plans to relay a further three miles (5 km) of track to Portishead, a largely dormitory town with only one connecting road, have been discussed but there is insufficient funding to rebuild stations.[195] Rail services in Bristol currently suffer from overcrowding and there is a proposal to increase rail capacity under the Greater Bristol Metro scheme.[196]
Bristol was named "England's first 'cycling city'" in 2008,[197] and is home to the sustainable transport charity Sustrans. It has a number of urban cycle routes, as well as links to National Cycle Network routes to Bath and London, to Gloucester and Wales, and to the south-western peninsula of England. Cycling has grown rapidly in the city, with a 21% increase in journeys between 2001 and 2005.[189]

Twin cities

The walls and tower of a an old ruined church set in a paved area and surrounded by a park. On the left is water with some pontoons morred and in the background office blocks, streets and church spires.
St Peter's ruined church in Castle Park, Bristol.
Bristol was among the first cities to adopt the idea of town twinning. In 1947 it was twinned with Bordeaux and then with Hannover,[198] the first post-war twinning of British and German cities. Twinnings with Porto, Portugal (1984),[199] Tbilisi, Georgia (1988),[200] Puerto Morazan, Nicaragua (1989), Beira, Mozambique (1990) and Guangzhou, China (2001)[201] have followed.[202]

See also

References

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  179. ^ "barnstormpr - The website of Professor Colin Pillinger, CBE FRS". colinpillinger.com. http://colinpillinger.com/barnstormpr.co.uk/biography.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  180. ^ "Professor Richard Gregory on-line". www.richardgregory.org. http://www.richardgregory.org/. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  181. ^ "Flying Start Challenge". www.flyingstartchallenge.co.uk. http://www.flyingstartchallenge.co.uk/. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  182. ^ a b c "Bristol (UK)". www.progress-project.org. http://www.progress-project.org/Progress/bristol.html. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  183. ^ "Abus". http://www.abus.co.uk/. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  184. ^ "Buglers 500 Service" (PDF). http://www.buglercoaches.co.uk/documents/500Route.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  185. ^ "Ulink". http://www.uwe.ac.uk/hsv/transport/bus.shtml. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  186. ^ "Wessex Connect". http://wessexconnect.net/busroutes.aspx. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  187. ^ Kerry McCarthy, et al. (17 January 2006). "Oral Answers to Questions — Transport". British House of Commons. Hansard. http://www.theyworkforyou.com/debate/?id=2006-01-17c.685.4. Retrieved 2007-05-12. 
  188. ^ "Bus firm must reduce city fleet". BBC News Online. 25 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/bristol/somerset/4716023.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  189. ^ a b "Joint Local Transport Plan". B&NES, Bristol City, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire councils. 2006. http://www.westofengland.org/transport/jltp/final-joint-local-transport-plan-200607-201011. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  190. ^ "Motorcycles". Bristol City Council. http://www.bristol.gov.uk/ccm/content/Transport-Streets/Roads-highways-and-pavements/motorcycles/motorcycles.en. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  191. ^ "Memorandum on Government Discrimination against Innovative Low-cost Light Rail in favour of Urban Diesel Buses" (PDF). Sustraco / H.M. Treasury. March 2006. http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/sus_2.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  192. ^ Atkins (2005). "Greater Bristol Strategic Transport Study Chapter 6". http://www.gbsts.com/. Retrieved 2007-05-12. 
  193. ^ "Park and Ride". Bristol City Council. http://www.bristol.gov.uk/ccm/navigation/transport-and-streets/parking/park-and-ride/. Retrieved 2007-05-08. 
  194. ^ "Visitor Info". Bristol Harbour Festival 2009. http://www.bristolharbourfestival.co.uk/visitor_info/ferry.php. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  195. ^ "Bristol-Portishead Rail Link". House of Commons Debate. Hansard. 24 January 2005. http://www.theyworkforyou.com/debates/?id=2005-01-24a.134.0. Retrieved 2007-05-12. 
  196. ^ "Greater Bristol Metro". West of England Partnership. http://www.westofengland.org/media/98508/item%2004%20greater%20bristol%20metro%2013%20march%202009.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  197. ^ "Bristol named first cycling city". BBC NEWS. 19 June 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/bristol/somerset/7462791.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  198. ^ "Hanover - Twinn Towns" (in German). © 2007-2009 HANNOVER.de - Offizielles Portal der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover in Zusammenarbeit mit hier.de. http://www.hannover.de/de/buerger/entwicklung/partnerschaften/staedte_regionspartnerschaften/index.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  199. ^ "International Relations of the City of Porto". © 2006-2009 Municipal Directorateofthe PresidencyServices InternationalRelationsOffice. http://www.cm-porto.pt/document/449218/481584.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
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  201. ^ "Sister Cities of Guangzhou". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. http://www.gzwaishi.gov.cn/Item/3970.aspx. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  202. ^ "Bristol City - Town twinning". Bristol City Council. http://www.bristol.gov.uk/ccm/navigation/leisure-and-culture/tourism-and-travel/town-twinning/. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Bristol (disambiguation).
Bristol [1] is the unofficial capital of the West Country of England.
Brunel's Clifton Suspension Bridge spans the Avon Gorge.
Brunel's Clifton Suspension Bridge spans the Avon Gorge.

Understand

Bristol is the United Kingdom’s eighth most populous city and the most populated city in South West England, making it a core city in England. .It received a Royal Charter in 1155 and was granted County status in 1373. From the 13th century, for half a millennium, it ranked amongst the top three English cities after London, alongside York and Norwich, until the rapid rise of Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester during the Industrial Revolution in the latter part of the 18th century.^ Corn Street, Bristol (0117 922 4017) Wednesdays 9.30-2.30 On Wednesdays, in an old and historic part of English west country city, Bristol, a farmer's market is held.

It borders the counties of Somerset and Gloucestershire and is also located near the historic cities of Bath to the south east and Gloucester to the north. The city is built around the River Avon, and has a short coastline on the estuary of the River Severn where it flows into the Bristol Channel.
Although it’s often overlooked as a tourist destination, Bristol has a lot to offer of its own and is also an excellent base for exploring the West Country, with relatively inexpensive accommodation compared to some of the main ‘tourist traps’ (such as nearby Bath) and a huge choice of bars, restaurants and shops. It is one of the most culturally vibrant cities in the South of England, hosting a wide variety of visual arts, theatre, speciality shopping and live music.

Get in

By plane

.Bristol International Airport [2] is situated 8 miles south-west of Bristol city centre and offers scheduled flights from major European cities.^ Bristol Press City of Bristol The Tattoo Teen Newspaper Youth Journalism International .

It is a major base for both budget airlines Easyjet and Ryanair with nearly 80 destinations including: Amsterdam also with KLM, Paris also with Air France, Barcelona, Berlin, Brussels, Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Lisbon, Madrid, Milan, Rome, Prague, Krakow, Bratislava and Riga (but not London), and as a daily flight from Newark New York by the carrier Continental Airlines.
There is no train link between Bristol's airport and the city, but there is a 'Flyer' bus service that takes 30-45 minutes and has a peak-daytime frequency of every 20-30 minutes. It costs are £9 for a return ticket (the second part of which can be used up to a month after the first), £7 for a one-way. There are discounts on this service - just like on UK trains - if you have a railcard.
Car parks serving Bristol Airport
Address On/Off Airport Distance / Transfer Time Security Park Mark®
[3] Award
Additional Information
Long Stay Car Park
Bristol International Airport
Bristol
BS48 3DY
On
0.4 miles / 3 minutes
CCTV, high perimeter fencing, security lighting, entry/exit barriers and security patrols.
Yes
Maximum vehicle size is a minibus. Trailers are allowed, but prior notice must be given to the car park.
Premier Parking
Bristol International Airport
Bristol
BS48 3DY
On
0.2 miles / Walking distance
CCTV, entry/exit barriers and regular security patrols 24 hours a day.
Yes
Special assistance for Blue Badge holders is available, and Help buttons are located at the entry/exit barriers.
Silver Zone Car Park
Bristol International Airport
Bristol
BS48 3DY
On
0.5 miles / 5 minutes
CCTV, high security fencing, entry/exit barriers and regular security patrols 24 hours a day.
Yes
Trailers are allowed, but prior notice must be given to the car park.
Valet Parking
Customers' vehicles are parked in a secure, on-airport car park.
On
Customer is met at terminal. No transfer required.
CCTV, high perimeter fencing, entry/exit barriers and regular security patrols.
Yes
Customer is met at the terminal upon departure and arrival.
Meet and Greet Parking
Bristol International Airport
Bristol
BS48 3DY
On
N/A Met at the terminal
CCTV, high security fencing, entry/exit barriers and regular security patrols 24 hours a day + disabled access.
Yes
Regrettably, no cars with trailers are permitted to use the meet and greet service at Bristol International Airport.
Sources:
The alternative is to use one of the London airports or Birmingham airport and travel on to Bristol by train, car or bus. The most convenient are:
  • Heathrow Airport [4] is about two hours drive straight down the M4 (westbound) motorway. .Alternatively the RailAir express bus service (running every 20 minutes) connects with the main London to Bristol rail service at Reading rail station; expect the total journey to take slightly over two hours.
  • Birmingham International [5] is within quicker (and cheaper) reach of Bristol than London's two other airports, Gatwick and Stansted.^ Joe is taking advantage of every 15 minutes of his fame.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It takes two folks, and as Bristol herself said abstinence for teens is unrealistic.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    .By car it takes about 1h45min and you'll be avoiding the congestion-prone M25. Rail services connect Birmingham International to Bristol every 30 min at peak times with a change in Birmingham New Street.^ Best of luck Bristol, take care of that kid and don't even trip about Levi.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    The journey takes between two and two and a half hours.
  • Gatwick Airport [6] is about three hours drive away via the M23 (northbound), M25 (clockwise) and M4 (westbound) motorways.
  • Stansted Airport [7] is about three hours drive away via the M11 (southbound), M25 (anti-clockwise) and M4 (westbound) motorways. .By train you will need to catch a Stansted Express train to London Liverpool Street station, the tube to London Paddington station, then follow the directions below; expect the total journey to take around three and a half hours.
  • Cardiff International Airport [8] is about one hour west of Bristol, going northbound from Culverhouse Cross, to J33 of the M4, then Eastbound, to Bristol.^ You must have been in Bristol the same time as me - i moved away in 1985 to go to college.

    ^ I think Bristol needs to go on Maury Povich for a "you are not the father" episode!
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Corn Street, Bristol (0117 922 4017) Wednesdays 9.30-2.30 On Wednesdays, in an old and historic part of English west country city, Bristol, a farmer's market is held.

    Alternatively take the train direct from Cardiff Airport, to Cardiff Central Station, then take another train to Bristol Temple Meads Station .

By train

.Bristol Temple Meads station is located approximately 15 minutes walk from the city centre and has regular inter-city and regional train services from Bath, Birmingham, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Exeter, Glasgow, London, Plymouth, Southampton, Swansea and York.^ Well now that the little son of the drug trafficker (Levi) has left Bristol at the altar (or 15-minute wedding chapel), he should be prosecuted for statutory rape.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

It is the oldest, continuously and still operating train station in the world.
Bristol has a second main railway station in Bristol Parkway, which is located several miles north of the city centre. Although this station also has frequent services to many of the same locations as Temple Meads, it is principally aimed at suburban residents and is unlikely to be useful to visitors.
From London, you can travel from London Paddington station. There are several through trains an hour, the fastest of which take under two hours for the journey. .Train times (from any location) can be found on the National Rail Planner [9] or by calling 08457 48-49-50 from anywhere in the UK. Alternatively, there is Megatrain [10], a budget train service running out of London Waterloo to Bristol Temple Meads, with one or two trains a day taking just over two and a half hours.^ The only reason this is news is because there is still an all-out assault on Palin's run for president.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ It takes two folks, and as Bristol herself said abstinence for teens is unrealistic.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ I suppose we are to believe that Bristol was just walking in school one day when she slipped and fell on Levi's p-e-n-i-s and got pregnant.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

By bus

National Express [11] operate services to Marlborough St Coach station, located in the city centre, from cities throughout the UK including London. The journey from London to Bristol takes about 2h30min. Tickets are much cheaper if booked in advance online.
MegaBus [12] also operate budget coach services from London to a stop outside the Colston Hall in Colston Street (Behind Flavourz restuartant formerly Yates Winelodge City Centre). Tickets must be booked online and fares are demand responsive but can be very cheap (£1.50 if you book far enough in advance). The journey to London takes about 30 min longer than by National Express.

By car

The M5 and M4 motorways intersect near Bristol and the M32, a motorway 'spur', brings traffic directly into the city centre. The M4 links London with Bristol with a driving time of less than two hours.
The city also has 3 Park and Ride facilities, A4 Portway, Long Ashton and A4 Bath Road sites, for more information see National Park and Ride Directory [13]
Parkopedia.com [14] is a free service that allows users to search and compare parking rates and locations for commercial and private parking facilities in Bristol [15].

Get around

Maps

Visit Bristol, the official tourism website for Bristol has free maps of the city [16] for visitors. Distinctive blue A3 tourist maps which cover the city centre, the Harbourside and Clifton, are available for free from locations such as libraries, shops, Temple Meads railway station, tourist information offices and the YHA hostel.
Detailed maps for districts within the city (such as Fishponds and Lockleaze), cycle, bus and a very detailed harbourside map are available from the City Council [17].
Bristol is also home to a branch of Stanfords, [18] a very large supplier of maps and tour guides. Maps of Bristol with all the city centre street names and destinations marked sell from £1.50. Stanfords can be found at 29 Corn Street, and the staff double as local travel experts.

On Foot

.Most locations in central Bristol (the Harbourside and Old City areas) are reasonable easily walkable, and there are plenty of attractive walking routes along the quaysides and in the pedestrianised central streets.^ Corn Street, Bristol (0117 922 4017) Wednesdays 9.30-2.30 On Wednesdays, in an old and historic part of English west country city, Bristol, a farmer's market is held.

.The main rail station (Bristol Temple Meads) is a little further (about 15 mins walk) but still accessible by harbourside walkways or by bus.^ Well now that the little son of the drug trafficker (Levi) has left Bristol at the altar (or 15-minute wedding chapel), he should be prosecuted for statutory rape.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Bristol walking directions can be planned online with the walkit.com [19] walking route planner.

Bike

Bristol has plenty of bike paths and routes and is at the centre of the National Cycle Network [20]. Sustrans, which manages the network, is based in the city, and has a shop and information centre on College Green, next to the Marriott Hotel. The staff can provide information on cycle routes throughout the UK. Free cycling maps for the Avon Cycleway, Bristol and surrounding council regions (South Gloucestershire, North Somerset, Bath and North-East Somerset) can be obtained by emailing, telephoning or writing to Bristol City Council's Transport Planning Team [21].

By train

Bristol Temple Meads offers direct trains to many UK cities including London (Paddington). It is also one terminus of the Severn Beach Line which passes through Lawrence Hill and Stapleton Road in the East of the inner city; Montpelier, Redland and Clifton Down in the north before heading north-west to Severn Beach, although off-peak trains terminate at Avonmouth. The route is quite scenic - the line itself has been voted one of the most scenic in the world by Thomas Cook; the fares are cheap (a 7 day season ticket between Temple Meads and Clifton Down is £3.90 and an off-peak day return is £1.50), quick (Temple Meads to Clifton Down takes about 15 minutes) and usually punctual and reliable. The Severn Beach train usually runs approximately hourly from 0600 to 2200hrs, Monday to Saturday, with a reduced Sunday service from summer 2008, but check details using Transport Direct [22] before travelling.

By bus

CitySightseeing offer open top bus tours with commentary during the summer months. 24hr and three day passes are available. The circular route takes in most of the major visitor destinations including the Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol Zoo, City Docks, Temple Meads, old city and city centre.[23]
Most bus services in Bristol are operated by First Bristol [24]. Visitors should be warned that by and large the buses are unreliable, so if possible check the bus times on the First website as the times on Bus Stops may be dated and incorrect. As most of Bristol's hotels and places to visit are located near the city centre or are in the upmarket suburb of Clifton, First Bristol's number 8 and 9 buses are probably the most useful for visitors. They follow a route from Temple Meads station to Clifton, passing through the main shopping area (Broadmead), the city centre (also handy for the harbourside) and the West End on the way. Single-trip tickets are a flat rate of £1.55. Not widely advertised is the fact that on the 8 & 9 you can get a return within the same fare zone for the same £1.55. The zones can be confusing; ask the driver.
Visitors planning on using the bus service for anything more than one short return journey may wish to purchase a FirstDay [25] ticket. This will allow unlimited travel within zones 1 and 2 on most bus services for a one-off fixed fee. Currently, a FirstDay ticket will cost between £3.90 ( before 9AM Monday to Friday (except Public Holidays)) and £4.20 (any other time i.e. after 9AM Monday to Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Public Holidays.)
Other operators include Wessex Connect [26], Buglers [27] and Abus [28].
Tourist boats at Bristol Harbour Festival, by Jeremy McNeill
Tourist boats at Bristol Harbour Festival, by Jeremy McNeill
Because of the way the city centre is intimately interwoven with the old 'floating harbour', a boat is a good way of getting around as well as seeing a lot of interesting sights. Bristol Ferry Boat [29] runs several ferry services around the harbour, stopping at various quays on route, and even providing a commuter service between the city centre and the main rail station.
The Bristol Packet [30] offer city docks tours with commentaries daily during school holidays and at weekends throughout the year. They also run regular excursions to riverside tea gardens on the Avon towards Bath and Avon Gorge cruises under the Clifton Suspension Bridge to Avonmouth and back.
Number Seven Boat Trips [31] also offer a ferry service during the summer months.
Bristol City Council offers a useful walking and public transport journey planner at [32]. .Bristol is quite a hilly city, but if you don't mind walking up hills the walk can be pleasant on a fine day.^ I suppose we are to believe that Bristol was just walking in school one day when she slipped and fell on Levi's p-e-n-i-s and got pregnant.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

By car

Driving is probably the best way of seeing the surrounding region. A couple of the routes into Bristol during peak hours operate a car pool lane for cars with more than one occupant.
The centre of Bristol follows a one way city system, which can be frustrating and confusing for those not used to it. However with patience and practice and a lot of circling around the same areas numerous times, it does become easier.

Parking

There are plenty of NCP car parks, and street parking. The cheaper street parking is in short supply in the centre - however Queen Square can usually be counted on to have a few spaces at off-peak times.

Park and Ride

There are three Park and Ride schemes operating in Bristol, with an additional Park and Ride for the busy Christmas period based at the University of the West of England (UWE) in Frenchay. The main park and rides are at Brislington, on the A4 opposite St Brendan's school. Another is in Shirehampton and a third is at the end of the A370 Long Ashton Bypass. These are recommended due to their cheaper fares and ease of access to the busy city centre. For more information, see National Park and Ride Directory [33]

Taxi

.Due to the heavy traffic, taxis in Bristol can be quite expensive – and don't forget to allow extra time on your journey when taking a cab.^ Best of luck Bristol, take care of that kid and don't even trip about Levi.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

There are about 700 licensed taxis (Hackney Carriages) and these can be distinguished by roof signs and meters charged at a rate set by the council. There are a similar number of private hire vehicles (without roof signs) that need to be pre-booked. All legitimate taxis and private hire vehicles should have a predominantly yellow council-issued plate at the front and back of the vehicle. More information on taxis and private hire vehicles and a cab rank map can be found at Taxis and Minicabs in Bristol [34].

See

Harbourside

The floating harbour is the jewel in Bristol's crown, and many of its attractions are on or close to the harbour:
  • SS Great Britain, Gas Ferry Road, Tel: +44 (0)117 926 0680, [35]. The world's first iron hulled, screw propeller-driven, steam-powered passenger liner, built by Brunel in 1843 and now preserved in a dry-dock alongside the floating harbour. Winner of the Gulbenkian Prize for Museum of the Year 2006 - the Biggest Arts Prize in the U.K. Open every day Apr-Oct 10AM-5:30PM; every day Nov-Mar 10AM-4:30PM; closed Dec 25/26. £10.95 (adults); £8.95 (senior citizens); £5.95 (children).
SS Great Britain
SS Great Britain
  • Red Lodge. The house was built in 1590 and then altered in 1730. It has fine oak panelling and carved stone chimney pieces and is furnished in the style of both periods. The garden has now been laid out in Elizabethan style  edit
  • Museum of Bristol, Princes Wharf, Tel: +44 (0)117 922 3571, [36]. Scheduled to open in 2010. It will be located in the L-Shed, the former site of the Bristol Industrial Museum that closed in October 2006.
  • @Bristol, Harbourside, tel: +44 (0)845 345 1235 (within UK only), [37]. Explore science centre and planetarium with interactive displays covering the brain, inventions and unexplained mysteries. Open every day 10AM-6PM; closed Dec 25. £11.90 (adults); £9.90 (students & senior citizens); £7.70 (children).
Also in the Harbourside is the Blue Reef Aquarium and 3D IMAX Cinema [38] From the hidden world of UK waters, this amazing new aquarium transports visitors to the spectacular 'underwater gardens' of the Mediterranean and stunning beauty of tropical waters - home to everything from seahorses and puffer fish to living corals and tropical sharks.
  • St Mary Redcliffe Church,[39] a short walk from Bathurst Basin. Described by Queen Elizabeth I, as "the goodliest, fairest and most famous parish church in England"
  • Brandon Hill & The Cabot Tower, off Park Street (about 10 minutes walk up a steep hill from the centre of Bristol). This attractive and hilly park is worth visiting, if only for the views over Bristol from the hill-top. Even better views can be gained by climbing the narrow spiral staircase within the Cabot Tower atop the hill. Open every day from 8AM to 30mins before dusk. The tower is currently closed for significant structural maintenance and will reopen this summer, 2009.
  • Bristol Cathedral, College Green, tel: + 44(0)117 926 4879.[40] Originally the abbey of St Augustine, founded in the Norman era, extensively rebuilt in the 16th and 19th centuries. The seat of the diocese of Bristol. Open daily, free, donations welcome.

Old Bristol

Within walking distance from the bustling shopping district of Broadmead, is old town Bristol where the town originated from. You'll discover old buildings and hidden alleys whilst walking along cobbled streets. Highlights include:
  • Corn Exchange & The Nails, Corn Street. The Palladian Corn Exchange, built in 1743, boasts a clock on its frontage that ingeniously tells time both in the new-fangled GMT and the old Bristol time. In front are nails (in reality Bronze pillars) over which the local merchants did business; from these come the expression 'paid on the nail'. Exterior always open. Free.
  • St. Nicholas Market, All under a glass arcade and is a great place to grab some deliciously different and cheap food. Choices include, local cheeses, The Bristol Sausage shop, famous Pie Minister Pies as well as food from around the world such as Portuguese, Italian, Moroccan or Caribbean and Turkish.
  • Castle Park & St Peters Church. It is difficult to imagine now, but this large harbour-side park was a network of busy streets and shops until it was bombed out during the second world war. Within the park are the excavated ruins of Bristol Castle, and the ruined St Peters Church preserved as it stood after the bombing as a memorial to those killed. Open during daylight hours. Free.
  • King Street. King Street is now the heart of Bristol's theatre-land (see 'Old Vic' below) but it once lead down to the docks at Welsh Back, where the old sailing trows (a type of sailing barge) used to dock after their journeys from South Wales. The street has changed little since those days, and the Llandoger Trow [41] pub dates back to 1663. It is rumoured to have been patronised by pirates of old, not to mention Robert Louis Stevenson whilst writing Treasure Island.
The Clifton Downs
The Clifton Downs
The old and up-market suburb of Clifton contains several more places of interest, as well as much of the city's student population:
  • Bristol Zoo, tel: +44 (0) 117 974 7399, [42]. Open summer 9AM-5:30PM; winter 9AM-4:30PM; closed Dec 25. £11.36 (adults); £9.98 (students & senior citizens; £7.04(children). It is the 5th oldest zoo in the world and the oldest outside of a capital city. It was awarded ‘Zoo of the Year 2004’ by the Good Britain Guide,
  • Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery, Queens Road, tel: +44 (0)117 922 3571, [43]. Open daily, 10AM - 5PM, free. Archaeology, history, natural history, art gallery, cafe.
  • Clifton Suspension Bridge.[44] Possibly the city's most famous landmark, Brunel's 19th century suspension bridge spans the spectacular Avon Gorge at a height of 75m. Always open. Free to walk across, 50 pence to drive over. Tours operate at 3PM every Sunday during the summer (Free).
  • Clifton Downs and Observatory. The Downs provide a huge open space within Bristol, with great views over the Avon Gorge and the suspension bridge. On top of the downs, right by the bridge is the Observatory, housing a camera obscura and a cave leading down towards an observation point within the 250-foot sheer cliff face of the gorge.
  • Clifton Lido & Victoria Pub. A Grade II* listed building. .The Lido and pub are separately managed, the historic Lido [45] having closed in 1989, completely refurbished and reopened 24th November 2008. The Victoria freehouse pub [46] stands in one corner of the site; it was created in 1851 to provide the funds to rescue the Lido the first time, and was itself saved from closure in April 2006.
  • Georgian House, 7 Great George Street, tel: +44 (0)117 921 1362. [47] Built for merchant and slave trader John Pinney in 1790, also the former home of Pero Jones, a slave brought to Bristol from Nevis, by Pinney.^ March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 July 2008 June 2008 May 2008 April 2008 March 2008 February 2008 January 2008 December 2007 November 2007 October 2007 September 2007 August 2007 July 2007 June 2007 May 2007 April 2007 March 2007 February 2007 January 2007 .
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    Open Saturday - Wednesday, 10AM-5PM, free.
  • Red Lodge, Park Row, tel: +44 (0)117 921 1360. [48] Built in 1580 as the lodge for a now demolished Great House, Tudor and Georgian rooms, Knot Garden. Open Saturday - Wednesday, 10AM-5PM, free.
  • The Rodney Hotel, 4 Rodney Place, Clifton Village, BS8 4HY, www.cliftonhotels.com/Rodney, 0117 9735422. Picture a beautiful Georgian terrace set in the historic Clifton Village, and you have the essence of the Rodney. Once a large, private house, this newly refurbished Cafe hotel is one of Bristol's most elegant establishments, offering a contemporary twist to compliment its original Georgian features - a perfect blend of modern comfort and convenience with classic style and grace. A small hotel of only 31 rooms and 2 conference rooms, the atmosphere at the Rodney is warm and welcoming, as the staff go out of their way to make every guest feel special, tailoring services to individual needs.
Home to the exclusive AA rosette awarded restaurant, No.4, we invite you to enjoy not only our hotel but to sample a range of freshly prepared produce in a variety of comfortable and relaxed surroundings; including al fresco dining in our secluded garden.
  • No.4 Restaurant & Bar, 4 Rodney Place, Clifton Village, BS8 4HY, www.numberfourrestaurant.co.uk, 0117 9735422. No.4 is a charming, laid back and friendly local restaurant offering the best in Modern British Cuisine in the heart of Clifton.
No.4 offers a fresh perspective on modern dining and has recently been awarded an AA Rosette for its exacting standards and use of local produce. The food is always varied, fresh, local and very reasonably priced, your perfect place to eat out. The Clifton based restaurant has been modernized whilst still keeping many of its original Georgian features, including a working open fire place and large sash windows that run the entirety of one wall of the room. During the day this bathes the room in natural light whilst at night diners can look out onto our attractive sculpted front garden. Think wooden floors, walls donned with local art and friendly and relaxed service. No.4 bar is an inviting cozy room overlooking the beautiful, wall garden below. Those who would prefer a lighter meal can either cuddle up by the fire in the bar or when the weather is good, soak up the sun in our secluded garden. Whatever you are after, be it a formal sit down dinner or a themed birthday party, we have the team to make it a night to remember.

Eastside

.Bristol's Eastside is the multicultural centre of Bristol and offers visitors a refreshing alternative side of the city, made up of a colourful collection of neighbourhoods that boast independent retailers from all around the globe.^ Sarah made them open game when she paraded them out for all to see and made sure and let everybody know that even though Bristol was knocked up that she was keeping the baby and marrying the father.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

The wonderful thing about this side of town is simply walking around it - and most of the good things to do and see are free!
  • Stokes Croft / Montpelier (pronounced Mont-pelly-err, rather than the French-accented Mon-pell-ee-ay!). The bohemian heart of Bristol and home to artists and musicians of all descriptions. The streets are often canvases themselves and you'll find work by famous graffiti artists around every corner. Great music, cafes, an independent cinema, and a treasure trove of vintage clothing.
  • St Pauls. Is the Afro-Caribbean centre of Bristol and home to the world famous St Pauls Carnival. It still suffers from the negative reputation of having been home of the St Pauls riots over 25 years ago but visitors today will find it a colourful, friendly area with fantastic reggae pubs and clubs and a great street art scene. Host to an Asian supermarket on Ashley Road next door to Teoh's pan-Asian cafe.
  • St Werburghs. Is the alternative quarter and a green oasis in the heart of the city. Filled with allotments, a city farm, eco-housing and lively pubs including the award-winning The Duke of York in Jubilee Road and The Miner's Arms in Mina Road [49] . The most recent addition to the area is the multi-million pound Eastgate Oriental City [50] complex which features a large Chinese supermarket and Chinese restaurant.
  • Easton. Is possibly the most multicultural area in Bristol where people of all nationalities rub shoulders. Here you can find anything from anywhere in the world - black hair and beauty, saris, Moroccan and Somalian cafes...You name it, you'll find it in Easton! This area is quite rightly home to the World On Your Doorstep festival held every June on Stapleton Road. For fantastic cafes and specialist shops (including the locally-famed Bristol Sweet Mart [51] selling a large range of south-Asian foods and ingredients) head to St Marks Road.

Parks

Bristol has many open spaces reasonably accessible from the city centre. The more notable include:
  • Clifton and Durdham Downs [52], adjacent to the Avon Gorge, the Suspension Bridge and Bristol Zoo, 400 acres of grassland, with views towards the Severn Estuary and the Mendip Hills.
  • Ashton Court Estate[53], 850 acre city park, less than two miles from the city centre, with a mix of meadow, woodland, deer park, golf course, site of the Balloon Fiesta, the KIte Festival and the former Ashton Court Festival.
  • Leigh Woods [54], Forestry Commission open broadleaf woods and coppice bordering the Avon Gorge.
  • Blaise Castle Estate [55], 650 acres of park and woodland on the northern fringes, with a folly, the gorge of the River Trym and a small museum in Blaise House.
  • Oldbury Court [56], woodland and riverside paths alongside the Frome, with historic parkland and children's play facilities, approx 3 miles north east of city centre.
Details of other city parks can be found on the city council website. [57]
  • Sheer Adventure (Rock Climbing and Abseiling), 48 William St, 07900335832, [58]. Abseiling and rock climbing group activities in Bristol's famous Avon Gorge for stag and hen parties, families, charity and corporate events.  edit

Special Events

Bristol has a widespread range of festivals throughout the year. The most significant include:
Bristol Balloon Festival
Bristol Balloon Festival
  • St Paul´s Carnival [59]
  • Bristol Balloon Fiesta [60]
  • Bristol Open Doors Day [61]
  • Venn Festival [62]
  • Mayfest [63]
  • Festival of Ideas [64]
  • Bristol Harbour Festival [65]
  • Soil Association Organic Food Festival [66]
  • Bristol International Kite Festival [67]
  • Slapstick Silent Film Festival [68]
  • Encounters Short Film Festival [69]
  • Wildscreen Film Festival [70]
  • Bristol Vegan Fayre [71]

Listings

There are various websites publicising these events, but probably the best thing is to pick up a copy of Venue Magazine [72] (analogous to London's 'Time Out') from a newsagent. Venue is weekly (except around Christmas/New Year), costs £1.50, and new editions are usually available on Wednesdays. Saturday's edition of the Bristol Evening Post has a free pull-out supplement called Seven that lists much of what is on offer in the city during the following seven days. .Alternatively you can check out Bristol Music & Theatre listings online on Bristol Music [73] which also house's contact details for all local venues and music contacts and reviews.^ And the best of all was when the Starr's report actually did come out describing in detail the ******** and forcing conservative morons to read and imagine those scenes.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Don't you just love the Republican Party?---------------------- They really have become a cartoon.------------------Check them out on the Cartoon Network.---Fox News!
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

  • Watershed, Canon's Road, tel:+44 (0)117 927 5100, [74]. The primary hub for art-house film in the city centre with a lovely (WiFi enabled) cafe too.
  • Cube Microplex, Dove Street South, [75]. Hidden away not far from the bus station, this small non-profit making co-operative venue is housed in a beautifully shabby 1960's theatre. It's run entirely by volunteers and specialises in experimental film, music and performance. A unique experience.
  • Odeon Cinema, Union Street, Tel:+44 (0)117 929 0884, [76]. Three screen mainstream cinema located in the center of Bristol.
  • Vue Cinemas, [77]. .There are two of these Warner Village cinemas in Bristol, one near the Mall out-of-town shopping center at Cribbs Causeway (near the M5/M4 junction) and the other in Longwell Green, off the A4174 Ring Road.^ One is the way Sarah pushed these two kids into the limelight, and the other is the way the news and media are exploiting their lives.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    Both are modern multiplex type cinemas with approx 10 screens.
  • Showcase Cinema, [78]. Bristol's first multiplex cinema, the Showcase has been open since at least the mid-1990s. .Compared with the more-recently opened Warner Village cinemas, it's beginning to look a little tatty, but it does offer cheap tickets on Tuesdays - £3.75 all day.^ That said, most libs I know have more values and respect for the world and the life on it in their little pinkie compared to what passes as conservatives these days.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    The Showcase is situated on the Avonmeads retail park, off the spine road that runs between the Lawrence Hill roundabout (take the exit before Junction 2 signposted as the A4320 to Bath) and the Bath Road in Brislington.
  • Cineworld, [79]. Hengrove Leisure Park, Hengrove Way, off the A4174 Ring Road in the outskirts of the south of the city. Notable for showing at least one Bollywood film per week.
  • Arnolfini, [80]. Right on the water's edge at Narrow Quay, this contemporary arts center includes a cinema showing alternative and arthouse films. And the quayside is a great place to soak up the sun with a beer from the cafe!
  • Showcase Delux, [81]. New multiplex in the Cabot Circus shopping centre next to Broadmead.
  • Tobacco Factory Theatre, North Street, tel: +44 (0)117 902 0345, [82]. A hidden gem outside the city center, in the Southville area of town. Well known for being involved in some of the most cutting-edge theater in the city.
  • Bristol Old Vic, King Street, tel:+44 (0)117 987 7877, [83]. Bristol's main repertory theater, located in the city center, due to shut for refurbishment in 2010, open until then.
  • Bristol Hippodrome, St Augustines Parade, tel: +44 (0)870 607 7500, [84]. Showing large West End-style shows.
  • Alma Tavern Theatre, 18-20 Alma Vale Road, tel:+44 (0)117 973 5171 (reservations at +44 (0)117 946 7899), [85]. Theatre located on the first floor of the Alma Tavern & Theater pub in Clifton, a short walk from Whiteladies Road. The theatre seats 50, with the bar on the ground floor.
  • Redgrave Theater, Perceval Road, Clifton, tel:+44 (0)117 315 7620, [86]. 220 seat theatre hosting amateur drama, Bristol Old Vic Theatre School productions and concerts.
  • Colston Hall, Colston Street, tel: +44 (0)117 922 3682, [87]. Wide variety of concerts, gigs and performances.
  • St George's, Great George Street, off Park Street, tel: +44 (0)845 40 24 001, [88]. Wide variety of acoustic music including classical, world and jazz.
  • Bristol Hippodrome, St Augustines Parade. .Not really a concert venue and instead usually hosts long-running musicals.
  • Bristol (O2) Academy, Frogmore Street, [89].^ In the long run Bristol will discover that this loser did her a big favor.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    Large gigs and club nights.
  • The Syndicate Superclub, Nelson Street, [90]. Club nights, often with famous guest DJs.
  • Anson Rooms (University Union), Queens Road, [91].
  • The Fleece, St Thomas Street, [92]. Free on Monday and Tuesdays.
  • Thekla, East Mud Dock, [93]. The famous club on a boat, sporting a Banksy graffiti work and prime location by Queens Square.
  • Bristol Bierkeller, All Saints St., [94]. Rock, Metal, Punk, Goth, Alternative.
  • Full Moon & Eclipse, North St./Stokes Croft Rock, [95]. Formerly an important Metal and Punk venue but has now become a backpacker hostel with some music events targeted at their guests.
  • The Croft, Stokes Croft, [96].The croft has a policy of supporting new music of every style and scheduling mainly homegrown talent. Free before 10PM Mon-Wed and then a charge on Thur-Sun.
  • The Louisiana, Wapping Road/Bathurst Terrace, [97].Bands that have played here include, Coldplay, the Whitestripes, Kings of Leon, Keane and many, many more.
  • The Junction, 51 Stokes Croft, opposite City Road junction, [98]. Punk/Alternative.
  • The Old Duke, King Street, [99]. Jazz, Blues.
  • Black Swan, 438 Stapleton Rd, Eastville, tel: +44 (0)117 939 3334. A pub that regularly hosts alternative liberal, electronic dance, rave music events.
Pubs offering live music of some sort are extremely numerous in most areas of the city.
  • The Comedy Box, [100]. Usually hosted above the Hen and Chicken pub on North Street, Southville but sometimes at the nearby Tobacco Factory (especially for more popular acts). Has hosted a number of major stand-up acts, including Mark Thomas, Sue Perkins, Ed Byrne and Marcus Brigstocke.
  • Jongleurs, 28 Baldwin Street, [101]. Situated above the Stone House Bar, on the 2nd floor.
  • Jesters Comedy Club, 142 Cheltenham Road, [102]. Live performances offering stand up comedy.
  • Oppo Comedy [103], at Oppo [104], Park Street (entrance on Park Street Avenue). Sunday evenings from 8.30PM, hosted by Mark Olver. £2+
  • Comedy Rocket [105], at the Thunderbolt [106] pub, Bath Road, Totterdown. Occasional Wednesday evenings from 8.00PM (doors 7.00PM),£3.

Learn

Higher education

Bristol is home to two universities: University of Bristol [107] and University of the West of England [108]. There is also a music college on King Square, the Bristol Institute of Modern Music [109], which from September 2009 will offer a BA (Hons) course in Professional Musicianship.

Work

The largest independent employers in Bristol are the two Universities, the Orange telco, Airbus, Rolls Royce, Hewlett-Packard/Compaq, AXA and various media companies including BBC Bristol (famed for its natural history department), HTV West and Endemol. The Ministry of Defence has a large site employing around 5000 people in the north of the city.
Casual work, usually supermarket, call centre, bar and restaurant work is fairly easily available in Bristol. Many employment agencies are located in the city centre.
  • Broadmead & Cabot Circus are the two major precincts within the city's central shopping district. The newer of the two is Cabot Circus[110] which opened in September 2008. The name was chosen by public vote after it was decided that the name 'Merchants Quarter' brought with it too many connotations to Bristol's slave trade past. It is a large, and mostly under-cover shopping centre, containing over 120 shops including House of Fraser, Harvey Nichols, 'Apple', Hollister, Boss, Ted Baker, Fred Perry as well as a Cinema Du Lux.
Cabots Circus Shopping
Cabots Circus Shopping
Broadmead remains a pretty dire indictment of post war planning and architecture; it contains the Mall Galleries, Bristol's city centre mall. It is large and has a good range of shops, although many chains have moved their premises to Cabot Circus. Most of the major department stores can be found in the streets outside. Department stores in Broadmead include Primark and Debenhams. Other high street stores include Lush, BHS, Next, New Look, River Island, Marks and Spencers, Waterstones, HMV, Currys, H&M, Miss Selfridge. [111]
  • The Mall Cribbs Causeway, [112], is an out of town mall off junction 17 of the M5. This has a large John Lewis and Marks and Spencer as well as lots of other fashionable shops. The surrounding area of Cribbs Causeway is also home to large stores such as TK Maxx and furniture stores, with The Venue – including the Vue cinema complex, and chain restaurants such as Frankie & Benny's, Chiquitos and TGIF's.
  • Avonmeads Situated between St Philips and Brislington, Avonmeads has a few out of town shops, restaurants, Showcase cinema and bowling. Shops include Boots, Mothercare, Currys, Brantano, Outfit, The Range, and M&S Simply Food. A short distance away is Sainsburys.
  • Park Street, Queens Road and The Triangle (marketed by the local traders as Bristol's West End) has a good range of fashionable clothes shops, book shops, restaurants, takeaways, record shops.
  • Clifton Village contains a wide variety of smaller, more expensive boutique style shops, as well as some nice cafes and restaurants.
  • Whiteladies Road has some small department stores, takeaways, restaurants, bars, Clifton Down shopping centre, electrical stores, bookshops, gift shops.
  • Old Market Street/West Street is home to several of Bristol's massage parlours, along with a few adult shops and a gay bar called The Flamingo. Nearby on Midland Road is The Club, and on Alfred Street, The Elite Retreat; both good massage parlours, although Central Massage on Old Market Street is the cheapest, and Adam & Eve on West Street is open 24/7.
Bristol also has quite vibrant district shopping centres. The best of these are probably:
  • North St and East St, in Bedminster in the south of the city. A wide range of independent shops, also supermarkets, greengrocers, butchers, bars, cafes, delicatessens, charity shops.
  • Gloucester Rd/Cheltenham Rd in the North, which contains a large number of cafes and restaurants, a number of instrument shops, many hardware stores and a good selection of independent butchers, bakers and greengrocers. At night, the restaurants and pubs attract lively nightlife.
  • Fishponds Rd and Staple Hill in the East. Asian restaurants, thrift shops, bakers and independent stores.
  • St Mark's Rd in Easton, in the east of the inner city, which is particularly noted for its mainly South Asian food shops and restaurants. It is also home to a modern vegetarian/vegan restaurant (Café Maitreya) that has won national acclaim.

Markets

There are also a number of markets in and around the city. St Nicholas Market [113] in the center, near Corn St. is a permanent fixture and has stalls selling jewellery, books, CDs and fresh food. It also hosts the 'Nails' market on Fridays and Saturdays and a Flea Market on Fridays, as well as various special markets around the end of the year. There are a number of farmers markets (and similar events) held at different venues around the city. These include:
  • Corn St. [114] Bristol Farmers Market on Wednesday mornings 0930-1430hrs. Local producers from a 40-mile radius sell a massive range of food from cheese, fish, honey, cakes, vegetables to meat, game and poultry at this award-winning market. All the produce is grown, reared, caught, brewed, pickled, baked or smoked by the stallholders.
  • Fresh Saturday Food Market, St. Nicholas Street (behind Glass Arcade and Covered Market, in road that links High Street to Corn Street), [115]. Saturday mornings and usually runs until mid afternoon. Has on offer a great selection of local, fresh and organic produce.
  • Straits Parade, Fishponds, [116].Straits Parade is a grassy open space right alongside the busy Fishponds Road. Here the Market has come to its customers. Held on the Second Thursday morning each month it is gaining a strong local following. Good bus links to Emersons Green and Downend.
  • Tobacco Factory, Southville, [117], Sunday market 1030-1430hrs. It has around 30 stalls and leans strongly towards eco-friendly, fair trade and local products.
  • Slow Food Market, [118] Corn St. on the first Sunday, 1000-1500hrs. It is the largest food market in Bristol, with the widest choice. Although it is the largest food market, Slow Food Bristol and Bristol City Council are committed to increasing its size and range further. They are aiming by next year to see the market going international with visits from food producers from France, Germany, Portugal, Spain and, of course, Italy.
  • Whiteladies Rd. , [119] Due to its popularity with both stallholders and shoppers it is now fortnightly, alternating Fridays 8.30AM till 1PM, and Saturdays, 9AM till 2PM, at the corner of Whiteladies Road and Apsley Road.

Eat

Bristol has a huge choice of bars and restaurants to suit all tastes and budgets. There are many around the Harbourside and The West End's Park Street and Whiteladies Road, but do not be dissuaded from trying those outside the centre as many are superior to those that attract passing trade due to their location. After a night out, or if your hotel allows food delivery, you will also be able to find many takeaways in Bristol , with different variaties of food.
  • There is a food aisle within the glass arcade at St Nicholas Market, near Corn Street. Many international cuisines are represented, including Italian, Indian, West Indian/Caribbean, Moroccan and Portuguese. Can be a bit chilly, depending on the weather, so keep your coat on!
St. Nicholas Market
St. Nicholas Market
  • One Stop Thali Cafe, York Road, Montpelier, tel: +44 (0)117 942 6687, [120]. Tiny and always packed, a different menu every day, the Thali specialises in vegetarian Indian food and in terms of volume of food, must be one of the best bargains in the city! Loads of courses for very little outlay. On Sundays there is normally live music and bargain Thalis on a first-come-first-served basis (no reservations taken). Credit and debit cards are not accepted.
  • Las Iguanas, Whiteladies Road (opposite Clifton Down Shopping Center), Clifton, [121]. Delicious South American food with the fresh flavors of lime, salsa and chillis. Two-course lunch is a bargain at £8.
  • Wagamama, Queen's Road, [122]. is a professionally run, good value Asian noodle bar. Main courses are filling, of consistent quality and cost £5-8. Walkable from the center, or take a bus from St. Augustines Parade/College Green up Park Street.
  • Beijing Bistro, Park Street, [123]. Arguably much better than the London chain Wagamama and tends not to be overrun by hordes of students during term time. This family-run noodle bar has modern decor, a wide menu, friendly quick service and a good choice of beers. A great place to refuel when out shopping. All dishes between £5-7. Walkable from the center, or take a bus from St. Augustines Parade/College Green up Park Street.
  • Teoh's, Lower Ashley Road, St Pauls and North Street in Bedminster (in the same building as the Tobacco Factory).[124] All meals £6, pan-Asian (somewhat comparable with Wagamama) - choice from Thai, Malaysian, Japanese and Chinese. Any chicken dish can also be prepared with Tofu instead. Excellent prawn crackers and friendly, fast service!
  • Tripitakas, 80 Colston Street, Bristol BS1 5BB, [125]. Provides Thai soups and curry, sushi and baguettes from £2.00 - vegetarian option
  • Severnshed, The Grove, tel: +44 (0)177 925 1212, [126]. The famous eatery with a bar that moves (using compressed air). They serve modern cuisine, and prices can be reasonable (especially at lunch time / early evening when they do a number of meals for £9.77). Right in the heart of the city center, on the waterfront. Open every day noon-late. £8-£30. Walkable from the center.
  • The River, 1 The Watershed, Canons Road, tel: +44 (0)177 930 0498. A newcomer to the bar scene and an opportunity to get a decent drink on the waterfront in decent company (at last!). They serve excellent good value food, including various sausages and mash and incredible pies. Open every day 11AM–late. £3-£15. Walkable from the center.
  • Boca Bar, Paintworks, Bath Road, Arnos Vale, [127]. Gourmet pizzas from £9-12, tapas.
  • Zero Degrees, Colston Street (between Christmas Steps and the bottom of St Michaels Hill), [128]. Californian-style gourmet pizzas (reminiscent of California Pizza Kitchen, but much thinner, biscuity bases) from £7-9, specialty sausages, mussels, salads. On-site microbrewery brewing Bavarian-style Black Ale, Wheat Ale, Czech-style Pilsner, New England-style Pale Ale and usually a special beer (usually a fruit beer such as Mango or Raspberry).
  • Bell's Diner, 1-3 York Road, Montpelier, tel: +44 (0)117 924 0357, [129]. .A very well respected Bristol institution for those who know, Bell's serves up some of the most unique menus in the city, including their 'taster' menu where you get to work your way around everything.^ "I'm not sure what caused [them to break up] — it's common knowledge," says another source who knows the family.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You just know those naive right-wingers see that photo and run to their wallets.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Iran working on The Bomb, President in over his head- but yeah, Bristol Palin is DEFINITELY the big story of the week- you fools .
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    Open Tu-F noon-3PM (lunch); M-Sa 7PM-10:30PM. £18-£35.
  • Hotel du Vin, The Sugar House, Narrow Lewins Mead, tel: +44 (0)117 925 5577, [130]. This hotel has a wonderful Bistro with a great atmosphere. Food and service is of excellent quality. Starters about £7, main course £15 and dessert around £7. Walkable from the center.
  • Cafe Maitreya, St. Marks Road, Easton, tel: +44 (0)117 951 0100, [131]. Nationally acclaimed vegan/vegetarian restaurant. So good, even many omnivores enjoy it too! Open Tu-Sa 6:45PM-9:45PM. £16-20, excluding drinks.
  • City Cafe, City Inn Bristol, Temple Way, tel: +44 (0)117 925 1001, [132]. Head Chef Peter Quinion [133] joined in 2003. £16-32, excluding drinks. Walkable from the center, or get a bus to Temple Meads.
  • Bordeaux Quay, V-Shed Canons Way, tel:+44 (0)117 9431200, [134]. Bordeaux Quay is a harbourside venue with an upmarket restaurant upstairs, a casual brasserie, bar, deli downstairs, with a bakery and cookery school - all under one roof. .They aim to offer the very best in regionally sourced organic food and drink, while it tries to maintain environmental sustainability, energy consumption, minimalism waste and reducing food miles.^ The source of their anger seems quite clear--they're just very confused people.
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    Grab a coffee and freshly baked pain au chocolat for breakfast, or indulge in succulent mussels for dinner.
  • River Station, The Grove, tel: +44 (0)117 9144434, [135]. The restaurant aims to be carbon neutral with naturally generated air-conditioning. Great location on the harbourside looking towards Redcliffe. Fresh locally sourced menu with a lean towards Mediterranean seafood.
  • Casamia, High St, Westbury-on-Trym, tel:+44 (0)117 959 2884, [136]. Located in the city's north-western suburbs, this Italian restaurant was awarded a Michelin star in 2009 and is currently the only restaurant in Bristol to hold that honour.

Drink

The fact that it's the home to around 44,000 students probably says a lot for the quality of the city's nightlife. Surprisingly, though, it's relatively expensive, with prices similar to those in London. Mainstream nightlife centers around 3 main areas - Corn Street in the 'old city', Park Street / Whiteladies Road, and the Harbourside. .These areas get extremely busy, if not rowdy, at weekends, however there are plenty of places in Bristol where you can have a good time without mixing with more student type crowds.^ You libs would be more likely to kill the baby in similar circumstances, which, if you read my earlier post is GOOD FOR SOCIETY. Why?
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

drinksinbristol is a good source of information, as is Venue magazine.. The eastern end of King Street in the old city provides a slightly more relaxed, but popular, outdoor drinking area on sunny summer evenings, surrounded by historic pubs such as the 17th-century Llandoger Trow (reputed to have been the haunt of pirates and the model for the Admiral Benbow in Robert Louis Stevenson's novel "Treasure Island").
Amongst the hundreds of brilliant venues in the city, there are four outstanding areas:
  • St Nicholas' Market, including Baldwin Street: on and around Corn Street, you'll find several chain bars, including Wetherspoons' the Commercial Rooms on Corn Street which was once a meeting place for Merchant Ventures. Other reliable venues include the Slug & Lettuce and Vodka Revolution on St Nicholas Street, All Bar One and Walkabout on Corn Street and O'Neill's and Reflex on Baldwin Street. However, those looking to get away from the familiar will definitely enjoy Start The Bus at the bottom of Corn Street, an established indie pub-come-club; also, Mr Wolf's on St Stephen's Street offers noodles and live music.
  • Harbourside: the regenerated waterside is a great place to drink, especially on summer afternoons. On Welsh Back, there's the famous Old Duke jazz pub and, opposite it, the famous Lladngoer Trow - plus, the Apple, a floating cider bar. Bristol's famous bar on a boat, the Thekla, is around the corner, and there are plenty of big chain and independent bars on Canon Road. Millennium Square has lots of chain restaurants and bars centered on the impressive mirrored 'Imaginarium' and fountains.
  • Park Street, Park Row, Clifton Triangle and Whiteladies Road: Whiteladies Road runs from the Downs on top of Blackboy Hill, past Clifton on one side and Cotham and Redland on the other; at the Triangle, traffic runs around the eponymous island of shops and bars before pushing down Park Street to the center of Bristol. There are hundreds of bars and clubs along this busy thoroughfare: popular venues include the Tube, the Woods, Embargo, Brown's, The Jersey Lily and the Black Bear.
  • Stokes Croft and Gloucester Road: the anarchic area of Stokes Croft is home to Bristol's big independent clubs, Blue Mountain, Lakota and Clockwork; after these monoliths, there are live music venues, pubs and bars to please the alternative crowd. Highlights include the Pipe and Slippers, the Croft, the Bell, the Flyer and the Prince of Wales.
If you're a tourist in Bristol, you may enjoy visiting one of the city's pubs and bars with historic and literary connections.
The Llandoger Trow
The Llandoger Trow
  • The Llandoger Trow on King Street is supposedly the meeting place of Daniel Defoe and 'Robinson Crusoe', Alexander Selkirk. It is also rumoured to be Robert Louis' Stevenson's inspiration for the Admiral Benbow pub in his work, Treasure Island. The pub is a 17th-century Grade II listed building.
  • Abolitionist the Reverend Thomas Clarkson stayed in the Seven Stars in Redcliffe while he researched the British slave trade in 1787.
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey used to meet in the Rummer Tavern to talk about emigrating. An earlier pub on the same premises, known as the Greene Lattis, was the first pub in Bristol to get a license, back in 1241.
  • Actor Cary Grant often stayed in the Avon Gorge Hotel, which has a terrace bar opening out onto Clifton's best view of Brunel's suspension bridge.
  • Pioneers of the Bristol sound, Massive Attack, established the Tube, a bar/club at the foot of Park Street.
Notable Pubs include;
  • The Hillgrove Porter Stores (The Hillgrove), 53 Hillgrove Street North, Bristol, BS2 8LT, 0117 924 8234, [137]. Winner of the CAMRA Bristol pub of the year in 2007, a freehouse with ten real ales and cider, perry. A wide mix of customers, good food and heated beer garden, open til midnight Sun-Thurs, 1AM Fri & Sat.  edit
  • The Miner's Arms, 136 Mina Road, St Werburghs, Bristol, BS2 9YQ, 0117 907 9874, [138]. This pub is the type of large, multi-roomed community local that is increasingly rare. Declared the Best Pub in Bristol by Venue Magazine in 2005, it has mirrored the resurgence of this vibrant community.  edit
  • The Green Man (formerly The Bell), 21 Alfred Place, Kingsdown, Bristol, BS2 8HD, 0117 930 4824, [139]. opened in September 2008 as the first 'Organic' Pub in the city. The pub was formerly the Georgian-built 'The Bell'. Notably, all the alcoholic drinks are Organic and the freshly-prepared food is all Organic or Free Range. Two of the six real ales are served on gravity from the barrel.  edit
  • The Highbury Vaults, 164 St Michael's Hill, St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8DE, 0117 973 3203. Winner of the CAMRA Bristol pub of the year in 2003, the Highbury Vaults is a classic traditional pub with 8 real ales available on cask. Popular with students and older customers alike, and with a large heated garden. Open until midnight.  edit
  • The Portcullis, 3 Wellington Terrace, Sion Hill, Clifton, Bristol, BS8 4LE, 0117 908 5536, [140]. Freehouse near Brunel's Suspension Bridge. A Grade II listed Georgian building, it has been a pub since the 1850s. On two levels, the bottom bar and main entrance is one of the smallest pubs in Bristol.  edit
  • The Victoria, 2 Southleigh Road, Clifton, Bristol, BS8 2BH, 0117 974 5675, [141]. Freehouse is part of the Grade II* listed Clifton Lido site.  edit
  • The Hatchet, 27 Frogmore Street, Bristol BS1 5NA, 0117 929 4118, [142]. Favourite of many various 'alternative' sub-cultures and is sometimes the venue for related club- and live-music events. It also runs a noted free stand-up comedy event ("Gagging for It [143]") on Sunday evenings, serving as a showcase for local talent. Due to its proximity to the Bristol Academy venue, it's convenient for pre-gig drinks. Open until 2AM on weekends.  edit
  • The Coronation Tap, 8 Sion Place, Clifton, Bristol, BS8 4AX, 0117 973 9617, [144]. A small West-Country cider house in Clifton, famous for its Exhibition cider - sweet, innocent looking but lethal. Gets rammed at weekends.  edit
  • Duke Of York, 2 Jubilee Road, St Werburghs, Bristol, BS2 9RS, 0117 941 3677. Winner of CAMRA's Best Pub in Bristol 2008, has a friendly atmosphere and quirky décor.  edit
  • Goldbrick House, 69 Park Street, Bristol BS1 5PB, (0117) 945 1950, [145]. Goldbrick House: The bar is laid out over the top floor of a traditional Georgian building and spans four interconnecting rooms. It has a great intimate vibe as it creates the feeling that you are drinking, not in a bar but in someone’s house. The décor reflects this mood as there are contemporary yet comfy armchairs and sofas dotted around.  edit
  • Cosies, 34 Portland Square Bristol, 0117 942 4110. Cosies: Don’t let the location (St. Pauls) of this amazing place put you off. The best way to describe it, is an underground cave. You walk down some steps on the street and enter through one small door straight up to the bar. The first half of the bar is relatively open, by this there are a few windows , but as you turn the corner you enter the ‘cave’ . A low ceiling, arched brick room with a Dj booth in the corner. On weekends it gets rammed as the beer is cheap, the music is pumping and the wide range of people from the students and middle aged couples to the Rastas in the corner, are all bumping and grinding with one another, leading to one hell of a night.  edit
  • The Apple, Welsh Back Bristol BS1 4SB, 0117 925 3500. The Apple: A floating cider bar! A converted old Dutch Barge where the decks have been transformed into seating areas where you can sit and lull with the water whilst enjoying some of the West Country’s finest ciders. A really unique place to grab a drink. Just be wary of what cider you are drinking as some are rather lethal and could lead to a man over board situation.  edit
There are a number of pubs located around the City Docks, such as The Cottage at the Hotwells end of the Floating Harbour. These pubs can be accessed by foot or by harbour ferry.
  • Bristol's a gay-friendly city, on the whole, with a rounded and rich gay scene. Flamingo's on West Street is probably Bristol's biggest gay club with a 900-person capacity. The Pineapple on St George's Road is a sociable and well-established pink pub, and just down the road, the QueenShilling on Frogmore Street is a long-standing club that holds the Bristol heats of Mr Gay UK. And not to be missed is Club Wonky, held at Warehouse on Prince Street on the last Friday of the month where sleazy electro hits are cut with pop classics.
Non-alcoholic venues include:
  • The Big Banana Juice Bar, [146]. Great juice bar in the center of town at St Nicholas's Market on Corn Street. Fruit juices and organic wheatgrass. Into health and wellbeing. Juice promotions and promotional events.
  • Blue Juice, 39 Cotham Hill, Cotham. Also serves wraps and salads.
  • Shakeaway, The Arcade, Broadmead. Will make a milkshake out of pretty much anything, including Haribo, Mars Bars and Oreos.

Sleep

There are a large number of hotels and guest houses in the Bristol area. A selection is listed below.
  • The Washington, St Paul's Road, tel: +44 117 973 3980, [147]. A good value budget hotel in heart of Clifton with full English breakfast included in the price. From £26.
  • Youth Hostel, 14 Narrow Quay, tel: +44 117 922 1659, [148]. A modern, clean and very central YHA [149] youth hostel located in the Harbourside area; now with a newly revamped cafe on the quayside. Open every day all hours (reception 7AM-10PM). £17 (adult); £13 (under 18).
  • Bristol Backpackers, 17 Saint Stephen's Street, located in Old City close to many night venues, tel: +44 (0)117 925 7900, [150]. Reception hours 9AM-11:30PM. Dorm Rate £14 per person per night
  • Full Moon Eco Hostel, Stokes Croft near the '5102' apartments, opposite the large roundabout behind Debenham's department store and the bus station, [151]. Dorm Bed £15 per person per night. Take note however that this hostel is situated right next to two of Bristol's biggest nightclubs with music going on until 5AM.
  • Arnos Manor Hotel, 470 Bath Road, Arnos Vale, Bristol, BS4 3HQ, +44 117 971 1461, [152]. checkin: 2PM; checkout: 11AM. Built in 1760 as the luxurious home of wealthy Bristol merchant William Reeve, this historic building boasts many original Georgian Gothic features. From £45.  edit
  • Premier Inn, The Haymarket (near the Bus Station), tel: 0870 238 3307 (within UK only), [153]. Standard rooms, nothing fancy, has everything you need as a reasonable price. Not ideal for long stays as could get a bit depressing. Room Prices: £50-£90.
  • City Inn, Temple Way (near Temple Meads), tel" +44 (0)117 925 1001, [154]. £65-£120. Bright rooms, with plasma TV & DVD player and large beds, smart bathrooms and room service. While it may be a little out of the centre, it's actually handy for the train station, a lovely 5 min stroll to the harbourside/centre and not far from a water taxi stop if you fancy cruising into town that way. Also has limited free on-site parking for guests.
  • The Berkeley Square, 15 Berkeley Square, tel:+44 (0)117 925 4000, [155]. If your visit takes you nearer to Clifton, this could be useful, just off Park Street (where all the best independent shops in the city are). The hotel is a lovely old 3* Georgian house; staying here also gains you access to the exclusive members-only bar in the basement. Rooms from £54.
  • The Clifton Hotel, tel:+44 (0)117 973 6882. [156]. Offers rooms full of individuality and character. On arrival new guests are welcomed with a gift of hand-baked biscuits and seasonal fruit. From £50.
  • SACO Serviced Apartments, tel: +44 (0)117 970 6999. [157]. An alternative to staying in a hotel. 150 well-equipped apartments throughout the city in seven convenient locations with friendly staff. From £65.
  • Cadbury House Hotel[158], tel: +44 193 483 4343. Located just minutes from Bristol Airport and a short drive from Bristol city centre, this 4 star hotel is suitable both relaxation and corporate visits.
  • Marriott Royal, College Green, tel: +44 (0)177 925 5100, [159]. Four star hotel, the most famous in the city. From £75.
  • The Brigstow, Welsh Back, tel: +44 (0)117 929 1030, [160]. A modern, contemporary hotel in the center of all the action, near Broadmead/Corn Street. Overlooks a very attractive stretch of the floating harbour. £89-£250.
  • Hotel du Vin, The Sugar House, Narrow Lewins Mead, tel: +44 (0)117 925 5577, [161]. Walkable from the center. Has spacious rooms and a restaurant and winery.
  • Avon Gorge Hotel[162], tel: +44 (0)117 9738 955. Boast spectacular panoramic views of the Avon gorge and the Clifton suspension Bridge. Located in Clifton Village close to all the local restaurants, bars and the Clifton Downs. .If you are feeling lazy or simply want to take in the views they also have their own bar and restaurant on sight which you can enjoy.^ They want to dictate who we can marry and what we do with our bodies, but when it comes to a national figure like Palin, we have to "mind our own business."
    • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    From £115.
  • Mercure Brigstow Bristol, Welsh Back BS1 4SP, [163]. A prime position on Welsh Back with riverside frontage. Comfortable, modern bedrooms and there's even a plasma-screen TV in the bathroom.  edit
  • The Grand Hotel (Formerly the Thistle)[164], tel: +44 870 333 9130. Located in the center of Bristol, about a 2 minute walk from Corn Street and St. Nicholas's Market. It has its own health and leisure club. Ideal place to stay for either business trips or as a base for exploring the city.

Stay safe

Like many larger cities in the UK, Bristol has its rough areas. .The general advice seems to be that you have to use your common sense while getting around.^ I mean, you're really getting spittle on your monitor now.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Drunken brawls and assaults do occur in the centre of town on Friday and Saturday nights as pubs and clubs close, especially near the waterfront area, "the Centre", taxi queues and fast food joints. This has been reduced somewhat by a heavy police presence and security guards monitoring the taxi queues.
To avoid this in the Centre, especially at 11PM and 2AM kick-out times, you'd be advised to walk along Baldwin Street (between the coffee shop and Alliance & Leicester) to hail a cab from some of the smaller, less busy ranks.
There are also specific areas that do have a reputation after dark (and some in the day.) The inner city districts of St Pauls and Easton, are said to be rife with drugs and gangs, but these should not pose any danger unless you are directly involved in the narcotics trade and are as safe as anywhere else during the day. Pay attention to what's going on around you, and you shouldn't encounter difficulties, especially during the daytime. Also some outlying suburbs such as Southmead, Knowle and Hartcliffe have a reputation but it is unlikely that a visitor to the city would travel to these parts.
The main danger is to your cash from beggars. Many will approach you on the street to ask for money, and many will try offering you drugs in return for cash. They don't actually have any drugs, and will give you a bogus parcel (balls of cellophane or matches wrapped in newspaper for example) and run off with your money. They may have knives, so it's best not to make the deal in the first place.
  • Bristol Royal Infirmary [165] has an Emergency Department.
  • Southmead Hospital [166] Emergency Department now CLOSED, Minor Injury Unit available, only open limited hours.
  • Frenchay Hospital [167] has an Emergency Department, but it is planned that Frenchay will close and all services will be transferred to Southmead.
  • Bristol Eye Hospital [168] is a specialist hospital for eye conditions and has an accident and emergency department [169] for eye conditions ONLY. Accident and Emergency department opening hours 0800-2000hrs.
  • Bristol Dental Hospital [170] provides the full range of Dental Specialties including Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Medicine, Restorative, Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry. Emergency service [171] for dental conditions ONLY (opening hours 0800-1000hrs). Alternatively contact NHS Direct on 0845 46 47.
  • Bristol City Walk-In Centre [172] Bristol Royal Infirmary, Queens Building, Marlborough Street provides treatment for minor illnesses and injuries, assessment by an experienced NHS nurse, advice on how to stay healthy, and information on out-of-hours GP and dental services, local pharmacy services and other local health services. There is also a NHS Walk In Centre at Knowle West Health Park, In the southern part of the city, For Opening times contact NHS Direct on 0845 46 47.
  • The Bristol Sexual Health Centre [173] is Bristol's main sexual health clinic and provides free advice, testing and treatment for Sexually Transmitted Infections amongst other services. The BSHC provides a drop-in service. The Milne Centre closed in July 2008.
  • NHS Direct [174] operate a 24 hour helpline staffed by medical professionals, available by phone on 0845 46 47. For all serious and possibly-serious complaints, they will probably refer the caller to a local General Practitioner or Accident and Emergency department.

Contact

Phone

Bristol's landline area code is 117. Dial 0117 from within the UK or +44117 from outside the UK.

Internet

Bristol has easy internet access like most cities, and as a city, has the advantage of broadband being easily accessible both to install and use. Bristol also has an abundance of internet cafes available for all to use. The council has also recently installed the internet in most of the main libraries in Bristol. Providing you are a member of Bristol Libraries you can book internet use although be prepared to wait if visiting the library during school term-times as students from the nearby school and college frequently use the facilities. A network of free wi-fi hotspots called StreetNet is being deploying in central Bristol. It is currently available around the Watershed and along Queen's Road. An up to date map of pubs, bars and cafe's in Bristol with free wifi is available here
Many small "i" stations can be found in and around the centre, allowing you to surf certain approved sites such as job search pages, visitor information, transport links and entertainment guides for local clubs and venues. You can also send emails with media attachments: for example you are able to film a message for someone to send alongside your regular email. A
  • Bath, with its famous Regency terraces, Roman remains and spa facilities, is only some 12 miles drive or 15 minutes train journey away, and makes an excellent day trip from Bristol.
  • Wells, with its beautiful cathedral, is a hour's coach ride from Bristol.
  • Weston-super-Mare, probably the nearest sea-side resort with a sandy beach and plenty of entertainment suitable for young families. An adult day return from Bristol Temple Meads is £5.50. If possible, take the train to Weston-super-mare as an adult day return from the bus station will cost upwards of £8.
Online details of public transport options can be found at Transport Direct [175].
Abseiling and rock climbing activities [176] are available in Avon Gorge with Sheer Adventure.

The Bristol to Bath Railway path

This showcase cycle path runs on a disused railway line from central Bristol to Bath. With its traffic free tarmac, gentle gradients, and only two minor road crossings on its 22km stretch, it is ideal for cycling. At a leisurely pace the journey to Bath takes a good 2h through green suburbs and some attractive countryside. If you are too tired to cycle back, you can take your bicycle free of charge on one of the frequent trains from Bath Spa to Bristol temple meads station. The journey takes 10-15 min.
From Bath, you can continue cycling along the towpath of the Kennet and Avon Canal all the way to Bradford upon Avon, taking another hour or so. Though not paved and somewhat narrower than the Bristol to Bath cycle path, the towpath is still traffic free and the scenery even more beautiful. There are two or three places to stop and eat or drink on the way. The Aqueduct at Avoncliff is worth seeing. From Bradford too there are direct trains back to Bristol that carry bicycles. You can view a PDF map at Bristol and Bath Railway Path [177].
This is a guide article. It has a variety of good, quality information including hotels, restaurants, attractions, arrival and departure info. Plunge forward and help us make it a star!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also bristol

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Bristol
Plural
-
Bristol
  1. A city and county in south-west England.
  2. A surname.

Translations

Related terms

See also


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Bristol
File:Clifton.bridge.longview.750pix.jpgView from Cumberland Basin of the Clifton Suspension Bridge and the Avon Gorge
File:EnglandBristol.png
Coordinates: 51°27′14″N, 2°35′48″WLatitude: 51°27′14″N
Longitude: 2°35′48″W
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country Template:Country data England [[Category:Valid name- localities of
Template:Country data England]]
Region South West England
History  
Royal Charter 1155
County status 1373
Government  
 - Governing body Bristol City Council
 - Leadership Leader & Cabinet
 - Executive Labour
 - MPs Roger Berry (L)</br>
Population  
 - City (2006 est.) 410,500
(Ranked 43rd
Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
Postcode BS
Website: www.bristol.gov.uk/
.Bristol (IPA: /ˈbrɪstəl/) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 105 miles (169 km) west of London, and 44 miles (71 km) east of Cardiff.^ Bristol is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, 105 miles west of London, and 24 miles east of Cardiff.

^ Advantex Phone: 01275 544323 Bristol, South West England .

^ Sheenclean Phone: 01454 852979 Bristol, South West England .

File:EnglandBristol.png It lies on the River Avon. .It borders on the Unitary Districts of Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire.^ Bristol Somerset Bath Wilts Dorset Gloucs Devon Kernow/Cornwall South West South Wales .

^ Bristol, City Of Bristol Property for sale Ashton Court Estate Bristol, North Somerset Property for sale Georgian House Bristol, Bristol Property for sale Little Bristol, South Gloucestershire Property for sale Oldbury Court Estate Bristol, Bristol Property for sale Red Lodge Bristol, Bristol Property for sale Other types of Bristol property.
  • Bristol property for sale | Globrix 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globrix.com [Source type: General]

^ Bath seems to have been transferred from Mercia to Wessex at this time and is today in north Somerset rather than south Gloucestershire.

.The city extends to the coast of the Bristol Channel; the area of Bristol near the coast is called Avonmouth.^ Bristol has an abundance of open spaces to enjoy, set near the Cheddar Gorge and the thickly wooded slopes of the Avon gorge, which reaches almost into the heart of the city.
  • Bristol, Gloucestershire Tourist Information on AboutBritain.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aboutbritain.com [Source type: News]

^ The Changing Face of Bristol & its People - memories of the City of Bristol, and the area of Kingswood Forest over the last 100 years.
  • GENUKI: Bristol, Gloucestershire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the beautiful houses in these areas were built from the proceeds of Spanish shipping plundered off the coast of the Americas, mostly funded by Bristol merchants.

Suburbs of the city include Kingswood, Filton, Patchway, Mangotsfield and Keynsham. .Bristol is England's eighth, and the United Kingdom's eleventh most populous city.^ Bristol , United Kingdom + Add a trip .
  • Dopplr | Smart advice & tips about travel to Bristol, United Kingdom 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dopplr.com [Source type: General]

^ A group for the city of Bristol in the west of England.
  • Flickr: Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: General]

^ All Year Access - We're open ALL year round and welcome customers from all over the United Kingdom and Ireland via Bristol airport.
  • Skirmish Bristol • Home • bristol, paintball, skirmish, games, skirmish, corporate, party, stag, hen, bath, 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.skirmishbristol.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

<1-- the above and next paragraphs are both from Wikipedia. .Clearly they need more integration.--> With a population of about 410,000, and urban area about 550,o00, it is England's sixth, and the United Kingdom's ninth most populous urban area, one of England's core cities, and the most populous city in South West England.^ Experience more in United Kingdom .
  • Bristol, England, United Kingdom travel blogs - travel stories and photos about Bristol, England, United Kingdom - TravelPod 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.travelpod.com [Source type: General]

^ A group for the city of Bristol in the west of England.
  • Flickr: Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: General]

^ A seaport city in the west of England.

.It received a royal charter in 1155 and was granted county status in 1373. For half a millennium it was the second or third largest English city, until the rapid rise of Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester in the Industrial Revolution in the later part of the 18th century.^ In 1373 it was granted a charter and county status which widened Bristol's trade to include business with Portugal, Spain, the Mediterranean and Iceland ("About Bristol/Title Page").
  • Bristol: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.heritage.nf.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward III made Bristol a "City and County" in 1373, although today, and in recent times past, it is not generally considered to be both.
  • GENUKI: Bristol, Gloucestershire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hot wells became fashionable in the reign of Anne (who granted a charter in 1710), and a little later Bristol was the centre of the Methodist revival of Whitefield and Wesley .

.It borders on the unitary districts of Bath and North East Somerset (BANES), North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, between the cities of Bath, Gloucester and Newport, and has a short coastline on the estuary of the River Severn, which flows into the Bristol Channel.^ The Avon , here forming the boundary between Gloucestershire and Somerset, though entering the estuary of the Severn (Bristol Channel) only 8 m.
  • Bristol - LoveToKnow 1911 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC chestofbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bristol centre [south-east] City Inn Bristol .
  • Bristol Accommodation - Bed and Breakfast, Guest House and Hotel Accommodation in or near Bristol. 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.milford.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Bristol centre [south-east] Express by Holiday Inn Bristol City Centre .
  • Bristol Accommodation - Bed and Breakfast, Guest House and Hotel Accommodation in or near Bristol. 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.milford.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Bristol is one of the centres of culture, employment and education in the region.^ Bristol has for a long time been an educational centre.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The Mission of BBNA is to maintain and promote a strong regional organization supported by the Tribes of Bristol Bay to serve as a unified voice to provide social, economic, cultural, educational opportunities and initiatives for the benefit of the Tribes and the Native people of Bristol Bay.
  • BBNA home page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bristol is one of the most vibrant cities (currently bidding for European City of Culture 2008) in England, host to about half a million people.

.From its earliest days, its prosperity has been linked to that of the Port of Bristol, the commercial port, which was in the city centre but has now moved to the Severn estuary coast at Avonmouth and Portbury.^ Bristol derives its name from an industrious port city of the same name in the county of Gloucestershire, England located in the southwest.

^ The hotel is within easy reach of Bristol city centre, Bath, SS Great Britain and Cheddar Gorge.
  • Suburb Hotels in Bristol, Suburb Hotel Reviews & Discounts up to 75% 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.hoteltravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol, England Factoid The River Avon winds through the center of Bristol and forms part of a system of waterways that transformed the city into a great inland port.

.In more recent years the economy has been built on the aerospace industry, and the city centre docks have been regenerated as a centre of heritage and culture.^ Candidates must have 3 years of stable work history in the Tri-Cities area and at least 1 year prior light industrial experience.
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British Aerospace , a major aerospace and engineering group, and one of the world's leading defence and aerospace companies built its Sowerby Research Centre in Filton in 1982.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

Contents

Boundaries

.There are a number of different ways in which Bristol's boundaries are defined, depending on whether the boundaries attempt to define the city, the built-up area, or the wider "Greater Bristol". The narrowest definition of the city is the city council boundary; although this definition does include a large portion of the Severn Estuary, west as far as the islands of Steep Holm and Flat Holm.^ A group for the city of Bristol in the west of England.
  • Flickr: Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: General]

^ From cutting-edge cool to BYO trencherman joints, Bristol seems to have far more decent restaurants than is reasonable for such a small city.
  • Dopplr | Smart advice & tips about travel to Bristol, United Kingdom 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dopplr.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol City Council GIS Support team  and is best viewed at 1024x768 or higher resolution.

[1] .A slightly less narrow definition is used by the Office for National Statistics; this includes built-up areas which adjoin Bristol but are not within the city council boundary, such as Whitchurch village, Filton, Patchway, Bradley Stoke, and excludes non-built-up areas within the city council boundary.^ The charter of 1373 extended the boundaries of the town to include Redcliffe (thus settling the long-standing dispute) and the waters of the Avon and Severn up to the Steep and Flat Holmes; and made Bristol a county in itself, independent of the county courts, with an elected sheriff , and a council of forty to be chosen by the mayor and sheriff.

^ The City Boundaries now extend as far north as Stoke Gifford and Winterbourne, and to Shirehampton and Henbury in the west.
  • GENUKI: Bristol, Gloucestershire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filton Abbey Wood  0.61 miles Patchway  0.67 miles Bristol Parkway  0.96 miles Tel: 0843 2822 814 (BT 4p/min) .
  • Property to rent in Bristol - Find a Property 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.findaproperty.com [Source type: General]

[2] .The ONS has also defined an area which it calls the "Bristol Urban Area" which includes Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford, Winterbourne, Frampton Cotterell, Almondsbury and Easton-in-Gordano.^ The City Boundaries now extend as far north as Stoke Gifford and Winterbourne, and to Shirehampton and Henbury in the west.
  • GENUKI: Bristol, Gloucestershire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Work began on what was then called Bristol International Speedway in 1960 and it took approximately one year to finish.
  • NASCAR.COM : Tracks 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nascar.com [Source type: General]

^ The Changing Face of Bristol & its People - memories of the City of Bristol, and the area of Kingswood Forest over the last 100 years.
  • GENUKI: Bristol, Gloucestershire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.[3] The term "Greater Bristol" (used for example by the Government Office of the South West [4] is most usually used to refer to the area covered by the city and its three neighbouring local authorities.^ Spots & Sparkles Phone: 01173495473 Bristol, South West England - We are a first class cleaning company which can provide a first class clean.We do a wide range of cleans from a simple communal area to an office block.With a happy, friendly, honest and reliable team we can promise a high standard of work.

^ Bristol the sum of £50,000 for the further development of the free libraries of the city, and with especial regard to the formation and sustenance of a general reference library of a standard and scientific character.

^ Name * Friend name * Email address * I've found this useful information - courses at University Of The West Of England, Bristol.
  • University Of The West Of England, Bristol courses, all University Of The West Of England, Bristol courses 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.whatuni.com [Source type: Academic]

History

Main article: History of Bristol
.There is evidence of settlement in the Bristol area from the palaeolithic era, with 60,000-year-old archaeological finds at Shirehampton and St Annes.^ It is there we find what evidence survives of pre-Norman Bristol.

^ Another major company in the Bristol area is Hewlett Packard , who chose to build there Research and Development laboratories in Bristol (the first outside of the United States).
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The evidence suggests that St Peter's lay outside the walls of Saxon Bristol.

[5] .There are Iron Age hill forts near the city, at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down on the side of the Avon Gorge, and on Kingsweston Hill, near Henbury.^ The Clifton Suspension Bridge , which spans the Avon Gorge at a height of 245 feet above the high water mark, is a beautiful example of Brunel's engineering skills.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Read all reviews » Avon Gorge National Nature Reserve TripAdvisor Popularity Index: # 20 of 96 attractions in Bristol Part of Britain's National Trust, this reserve features scenic woodland and an Iron-Age hill fort, a place of historical interest and natural beauty.
  • Things to Do in Bristol - Bristol Attractions - TripAdvisor 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]
  • Bristol Attractions: What to Visit in Bristol, United Kingdom - TripAdvisor 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.tripadvisor.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ It’s a hilly city which means great views and interesting landscapes, and has an impressive gorge with the River Avon running through it and the infamous Clifton Suspension Bridge straddling it.
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

[6]. .During the Roman era there was a settlement, Abona, at what is now Sea Mills, connected to Bath by Roman road, and another settlement at what is now Inns Court.^ There’s another lovely shop on Gloucester Road not far from room 212, on the same side of the street that sells designer-maker stuff - but I just can’t remember the name of now!
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Though it is near both British and Roman camps, there is no evidence of a British or Roman settlement.

^ The site was also well-placed to make use of the Roman road system, which included a road between Roman settlements at Bath and Sea Mills.

.There were also isolated Roman villas and small Roman settlements throughout the area.^ Though it is near both British and Roman camps, there is no evidence of a British or Roman settlement.

[7]
.The town of Brycgstow (Old English, "the place at the bridge"[8]) was in existence by the beginning of the 11th century, and under Norman rule acquired one of the strongest castles in southern England.^ Or, just wander through the imposing interior, which through the centuries has incorporated a range of architectural styles - its Chapter House is one of the finest Norman rooms in England, and adjacent is the Abbey Gateway, a Norman arch surmounted by 16th century additions.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Then Saxon remains discovered on the site of the Norman castle, now Castle Park, led one archaeologist to argue that Saxon Bristol lay outside the walled town, which he saw as a Norman creation.

^ The Old English port could mean a gate, or a market (town), or a port in its modern meaning.

[9] .The River Avon in the city centre has evolved into Bristol Harbour, and since the 12th century the harbour has been an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland.^ In the 18th century the tobacco trade was important to Bristol.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Bristol city centre Harbour House Serviced Apartments by Portland .
  • Bristol Accommodation - Bed and Breakfast, Guest House and Hotel Accommodation in or near Bristol. 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.milford.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Or take a ferryboat and view the city from the harbour, which gives an entirely different perspective of Bristol.
  • Bristol, Gloucestershire Tourist Information on AboutBritain.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aboutbritain.com [Source type: News]

.In 1247 a new bridge was built, which was replaced by the current Bristol Bridge in the 1760s,[10] and the town was extended to incorporate neighbouring suburbs, becoming in 1373 a county in its own right.^ Bristol was incorporated as a town in 1055, and the harbour was created in 1247.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Lying between Somerset and Gloucestershire , it has been administered politically by both counties, and the county of Avon until in the late 1990's when Avon was broken up and Bristol again became its own county.

^ Edward III made Bristol a "City and County" in 1373, although today, and in recent times past, it is not generally considered to be both.
  • GENUKI: Bristol, Gloucestershire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .During this period Bristol also became a centre of shipbuilding and manufacturing.^ Bristol has manufacturers of glass, soap, and earthenware; shipbuilding, tanning, and sugar-refining; and extensive chemical and engineering works.
  • GENUKI: Bristol, Gloucestershire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hot wells became fashionable in the reign of Anne (who granted a charter in 1710), and a little later Bristol was the centre of the Methodist revival of Whitefield and Wesley .

^ During the American Revolution , American troops were quartered in Bristol in December 1776; the Episcopal church was used as a stable, and the Friends Meeting House became a hospital.
  • Bristol (Pennsylvania, United States) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bristol was the starting point for many important voyages, notably John Cabot's 1497 voyage of exploration to North America.^ Rising from the summit of Brandon Hill, this famous landmark was built in 1897 to commemorate the fourth centenary of John Cabot's epic voyage of discovery to North America.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Starting from the 1497 voyage of John Cabot from Bristol to America, it charts a course through history that takes in a wide range of cultures and also celebrates the diversity that is united in the current Commonwealth.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Express By Holiday Inn North Bristol Bristol Parkway Business Park 4.2 mi The Express By Holiday Inn North Bristol is situated near many of the city’s biggest attractions.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

.File:Bristol.cathedral.west.front.arp.jpg By the 14th century Bristol was England's third-largest town (after London and York), with perhaps 15–20,000 inhabitants on the eve of the Black Death of 1348–49.[12] The Plague inflicted a prolonged pause in the growth of Bristol's population, with numbers remaining at 10–12,000 through most of the 15th and 16th centuries.^ Look out too for the remains of a Civil War hillfort, built to defend the north-west flank of Bristol against the Royalists during the siege of 1643.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol, England Factoid The River Avon winds through the center of Bristol and forms part of a system of waterways that transformed the city into a great inland port.
  • Express By Holiday Inn Bristol Hotels - Express By Holiday Inn Hotel Reservations Bristol, England 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolhotels.hiexpress.com [Source type: News]

^ Bristol, located on the Lower Avon River in England, has been a thriving port city since the 10th century.
  • England - Related Items - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

.The Diocese of Bristol was founded in 1542,[13] with the former Abbey of St Augustine becoming Bristol Cathedral.^ This Anglican cathedral was founded as the abbey church of St Augustine in 1140, becoming the cathedral of the newly created Diocese of Bristol in 1542.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Among them are: St. Mary Redcliffe (built in the 13th century), of which Queen Elizabeth I, when she visited Bristol in 1574, commented: " The fairest, the godliest, and the most famous parish church in England " The cathedral, on college green, once an abbey of St. Augustine, goes back to 1142.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ About 1137 he founded the Priory of St. James at Bristol as a dependent cell of Tewkesbury.

.Traditionally this is equivalent to the town being granted city status.^ Another charter of the same year granted the city of Dublin to the men of Bristol as a colony with the same liberties as their own town.

.During the 1640s Civil War the city was occupied by Royalist military, after they overran Royal Fort, the last Parliamentarian stronghold in the city.^ Look out too for the remains of a Civil War hillfort, built to defend the north-west flank of Bristol against the Royalists during the siege of 1643.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol Castle A rebel stronghold in the 12th-century civil war.

^ Robert of Gloucester and his son William, 2nd Earl of Gloucester fought long and loyally for Empress Matilda during the civil wars that followed Henry I's death.

[14] File:Bristol.harbour.arp.750pix.jpg
.Renewed growth came with the 17th century rise of England's American colonies and the rapid 18th century expansion of England's part in the Atlantic trade in Africans taken for slavery in the Americas.^ This horrific trade saw between seven million and ten million (although no accurate records were kept) Africans shipped across the Atlantic to colonies in the Americas.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Nearby Historic Fallsington is a restoration of colonial-style buildings as well as other buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • Bristol (Pennsylvania, United States) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 18th century the tobacco trade was important to Bristol.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.Bristol, along with Liverpool, became a centre for the slave trade although few slaves were brought to Britain.^ Bristol's involvement in the slave trade.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The hot wells became fashionable in the reign of Anne (who granted a charter in 1710), and a little later Bristol was the centre of the Methodist revival of Whitefield and Wesley .

^ The slave trade was enormous, and reminders of it can be seen throughout Bristol.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.During the height of the slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slaving ships were fitted out at Bristol, carrying a (conservatively) estimated half a million people from Africa to the Americas and slavery.^ Bristol's involvement in the slave trade.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Look out too for the remains of a Civil War hillfort, built to defend the north-west flank of Bristol against the Royalists during the siege of 1643.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol made a huge amount of money from slavery; so much that the Corporation of Bristol and the Society of Merchant Venturers endorsed the trade as " the great support of our people at home, and the foundation of our trade abroad ".
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

[15] .Still standing in Bristol is the Seven Stars pub, where abolitionist Thomas Clarkson collected information regarding the slave trade.^ Bristol's involvement in the slave trade.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The slave trade was enormous, and reminders of it can be seen throughout Bristol.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Later, between 1698 (when London's monopoly of slave trading was broken) and when parliament abolished the slave trade in 1807, Bristol became a major player in the slave trade.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.File:Bristol 1873.png Fishermen who left Bristol were long part of the migratory fishery to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and began settling that island permanently in larger numbers around this time.^ Rehoboth; part from Bristol in 1873 .
  • Bristol County RI, USGenWeb Project 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brendabova.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol has for a long time been an educational centre.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Jailed: Vicious Bristol thugs who left victim with two skull fractures .
  • Bristol Airport, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wunderground.com [Source type: Reference]

.Bristol's strong nautical ties meant that maritime safety was an important issue in the city, In the 19th century Samuel Plimsoll, "the sailor's friend", campaigned to make the seas safer.^ Bristol, located on the Lower Avon River in England, has been a thriving port city since the 10th century.
  • England - Related Items - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ Why is this easiest of measures to ensure the safety of cyclists and pedestrians being pioneered by cities other than Bristol which is a Cycling City?

^ The Clifton Hotel in Bristol, with 59 guestrooms over five floors, is set in a terrace of handsome 19th century neo-classical houses in the centre of a lively city.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

He was shocked by the overloaded cargoes and successfully fought for a compulsory load line on ships.
Competition from Liverpool from c. .1760, the disruption of maritime commerce through war with France (1793) and the abolition of the slave trade (1807) contributed to the city's failure to keep pace with the newer manufacturing centres of the North and Midlands.^ For most of its long history the medieval city of Bristol has been a trading and shipping centre.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Later, between 1698 (when London's monopoly of slave trading was broken) and when parliament abolished the slave trade in 1807, Bristol became a major player in the slave trade.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.The passage up the heavily tidal Avon Gorge, which had made the port highly secure during the Middle Ages, had become a liability which the construction of a new "Floating Harbour" (designed by William Jessop) in 1804–9 failed to overcome.^ I'll try to keep the list up to date, and will add new attractions as I become aware of them.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Bristol harbour was formed in 1809 by the conversion of the Avon and a branch of the Frome into "the Float ," by the cutting of a new channel for the Avon and the formation of two basins.

^ Spanning the Avon Gorge, this bridge has become the symbol of the city and is a must for any visitors.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

.Nevertheless, Bristol's population (66,000 in 1801) quintupled during the 19th century, supported by new industries and growing commerce.^ Clinical Cleaning & Industrial Support Phone: 01275 541470 Bristol, South West England .

^ "Our beautiful daughter Bristol came to us with news that as parents we knew would make her grow up faster than we had ever planned."
  • Bristol Palin - Zimbio 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

[16] .It was particularly associated with the Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who designed the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London, two pioneering Bristol-built steamships, the SS Great Britain and SS Great Western, and the Clifton Suspension Bridge.^ Clifton Down (adjacent to Suspension Bridge) Bristol BS8 3LT United Kingdom .
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, she was the largest ship to be built of iron and was powered by a huge steam engine.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Bristol was the launching point for Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Great Western in 1838, the second steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.John Wesley founded the very first Methodist Chapel, called the New Room, in Bristol in 1739. Riots occurred in 1793 and 1831, the first beginning as a protest at renewal of an act levying tolls on Bristol Bridge, and the latter after the rejection of the second Reform Bill.^ You can also visit the rooms above the chapel, where John Wesley stayed.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Inside on the first floor, is the last surviving suite of 16th-century rooms in Bristol.
  • Bristol, Gloucestershire Tourist Information on AboutBritain.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aboutbritain.com [Source type: News]

^ The decline was checked by the efforts of the Bristol chamber of commerce (founded in 1823) and by the Municipal Reform Act of 1835.

.Bristol's city centre suffered severe damage from bombing during the Bristol Blitz of World War II.^ He recently participated in the veterans oral history project sponsored and produced by CCSU detailing his experiences as a soldier in World War II, which will be submitted to the U.S. Library of Congress.
  • The Bristol Press: Bristol, Conn., and surrounding areas (BristolPress.com) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Between the World Wars the Bristol Aeroplane Company had very few successful designs.
  • Bristol Aircraft 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.aviastar.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A lifelong Bristol resident, he attended local schools and served in the U.S. Army during World War II. He served with the 6th Armored Division in Italy and Europe, where he participated in Anzio and the Battle of the Bulge and was awarded a Silver Star and Bronze Star for his service.
  • The Bristol Press: Bristol, Conn., and surrounding areas (BristolPress.com) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolpress.com [Source type: General]

.The original central shopping area, near the bridge and castle, is now a park containing two bombed out churches and some tiny fragments of the castle.^ A typical pattern in towns of late Saxon origin is multiple churches, some over gates.

^ Within it we find the Church of St Mary le Port, which lies now in ruins at the west end of Castle Park.

^ His memorial is in the churchyard of St Mary, and in the church a chest contains the records among which he claimed to have discovered some of the manuscripts which were in reality his own.

.A third bombed church nearby, St Nicholas, has been restored and has been made into a museum which houses a triptych by William Hogarth, painted for the high altar of St Mary Redcliffe in 1756. The museum also contains statues moved from Arno's Court Triumphal Arch, of King Edward I and King Edward III taken from Lawfords' Gate of the city walls when they were demolished around 1760 and 13th century figures from Bristol's Newgate representing Robert, the builder of Bristol Castle, and Geoffrey de Montbray, Bishop of Coutances, builder of the fortified walls of the city.^ Mary Redcliffe Church Medieval Britain church .
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ The St. Nicholas Market is also located nearby.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ A coin of King Cnut made in Bristol.

[17]
.The rebuilding of Bristol city centre was characterised by large, cheap tower blocks, brutalist architecture and expansion of roads.^ Welcome to Bristol, a city that has successfully combined its unique maritime and architectural heritage with some excellent tourist attractions, shopping and entertainment.
  • Bristol, Gloucestershire Tourist Information on AboutBritain.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aboutbritain.com [Source type: News]

^ Holiday Inn Filton Bristol Filton Road 4.8 mi This accommodation in Bristol is basically a lakeside resort of its own accord, nestled at the edge of the bustling city center.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol Marriott Hotel City Centre ( < 1 Mile)* Experience a wonderful mix of traditional and modern Bristol at the exquisite Marriott Bristol City Centre Hotel.
  • Bristol, Gloucestershire Tourist Information on AboutBritain.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aboutbritain.com [Source type: News]

.Since the 1980s another trend has emerged with the closure of some main roads, the restoration of the Georgian period Queen Square and Portland Square, the demolition and rebuilding of the Broadmead shopping centre (at 2007 in progress) and the demolition of the city centre's tallest post-war blocks.^ The main shopping area in the centre of Bristol houses all of the major chain stores and is in the throws of a major redevelopment due for launch in Autumn 2008.
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Five minutes walk from Bristol Temple Meads Railway Station and in close proximity to the shopping centre and all the main leisure attractions as well as bars and restaurants in the city.
  • Bristol, Gloucestershire Tourist Information on AboutBritain.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aboutbritain.com [Source type: News]

^ The property also benfits from being close to the city centre, bus routes and Gloucester Road.
  • Property to rent in Bristol - Find a Property 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.findaproperty.com [Source type: General]

[18]
.The removal of the docks to Avonmouth, 7 miles (11 km) downstream from the city centre has also allowed redevelopment of the old central dock area (the "Floating Harbour") in recent decades, although at one time the continued existence of the docks was in jeopardy as it was viewed as a derelict industrial site rather than an asset.^ The main shopping area in the centre of Bristol houses all of the major chain stores and is in the throws of a major redevelopment due for launch in Autumn 2008.
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

^ There is a lot of green space and the renovated old industrial docks offer an extra waterside treat, especially during the summer.
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The Bristol Marriott Hotel City Centre is a centrally- located modern building set within a mile of the 14th- 15th century Gothic cathedral and City Museum and Art Gallery.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.However the holding, in 1996, of the first International Festival of the Sea in and around the docks, affirmed the dockside area in its new leisure role as a key feature of the city.^ The spiral stairs of this 105-foot tower climb to around 350 feet above sea level, offering panoramic views of the city center and surrounding countryside.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Job Title Medical Office Receptionist Johnson City, TN We are recruiting Medical Office Receptionists for ongoing and future needs of existing and new client companies in the Johnson City area.
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Job Title Administrative Assistant Johnson City, TN We are recruiting for Administrative Assistants for ongoing and future needs of existing and new client companies in the Johnson City area.
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]

Economy and industry

Main article: Economy and industry of Bristol
.File:Concorde on Bristol.jpg As well as Bristol's nautical connections, the city's economy is reliant on the aerospace industry, the media, information technology and financial services sectors and tourism.^ Indeed, the economy of the largest, most dynamic city in the West Country is bolstered by the thriving British Aerospace industry, as well as Rolls-Royce.
  • Express By Holiday Inn Bristol Hotels - Express By Holiday Inn Hotel Reservations Bristol, England 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolhotels.hiexpress.com [Source type: News]

^ Our free real estate services feature all Bristol and Virginia cities and suburbs.
  • Bristol Real Estate, Bristol Homes For Sale, Bristol REALTORS - HomeGain 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.homegain.com [Source type: News]

^ Business travelers are very close to the key working sectors and buildings of Bristol, including the commercial, financial, and government districts.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

[20] .In 2004 Bristol's GDP was £9.439 billion GBP, and the combined GDP of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset was £44.098 billion.^ Lying between Somerset and Gloucestershire , it has been administered politically by both counties, and the county of Avon until in the late 1990's when Avon was broken up and Bristol again became its own county.

^ Bristol, City Of Bristol Property for sale Ashton Court Estate Bristol, North Somerset Property for sale Georgian House Bristol, Bristol Property for sale Little Bristol, South Gloucestershire Property for sale Oldbury Court Estate Bristol, Bristol Property for sale Red Lodge Bristol, Bristol Property for sale Other types of Bristol property.
  • Bristol property for sale | Globrix 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.globrix.com [Source type: General]

^ March 1, 1632, Bristol, Somerset, England buried: St. Nicholas Parish, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England .

.The GDP per head was £23,962 (US$47,738, €35,124) making the city more affluent than the UK as a whole, at 40% above the national average.^ (US$35 per person per night) .
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ "More than 1 million people live in cities and towns that have decided on a default 20mph limit: Leicester, Newcastle, Portsmouth, Islington, and now Glasgow.

^ Better than any other b&b ” jon-head on the road 23 Jun 2009 .
  • The Greenhouse B&B Bed and Breakfast Reviews and Photos, Bristol, United Kingdom - TripAdvisor 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.tripadvisor.co.uk [Source type: General]

.This makes it the third-highest per-capita GDP of any English city, after London and Nottingham, and the fifth highest GDP per capita of any city in the United Kingdom, behind London, Edinburgh, Belfast and Nottingham.^ Restaurant service poor ” MalachiWilliams 31 contributions London, United Kingdom Aug 13, 2009 .
  • Hotel: Mercure Holland House Bristol (Bristol, United Kingdom) - Hotel Reviews - TripAdvisor 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ Excellent value for money ” MrsFun 3 contributions London, United Kingdom Aug 31, 2009 .
  • Hotel: Mercure Holland House Bristol (Bristol, United Kingdom) - Hotel Reviews - TripAdvisor 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ Aberdeen Hotels Bath Hotels Belfast Hotels Birmingham Hotels Blackpool Hotels Bournemouth Hotels Brighton Hotels Cardiff Hotels Chester Hotels Edinburgh Hotels Glasgow Hotels Leeds Hotels Liverpool Hotels London Hotels Manchester Hotels Newcastle upon Tyne Hotels Nottingham Hotels Stratford-upon-Avon Hotels Torquay Hotels York Hotels All cities in United Kingdom »   .
  • Bristol Condos: Find Bristol Condo Reviews and Rates - TravelPod 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.travelpod.com [Source type: General]

[21] .In December 2005, Bristol's unemployment rate was 5.2%, compared to 3.6% for the south west and 4.8% for the United Kingdom.^ Easy Street Phone: 0117-971 2154 Bristol, South West England .

^ Fox Phone: 0117-971 9713 Bristol, South West England .

^ Smooth Move Phone: 0117-956 1606 Bristol, South West England .

[22]
.While Bristol's economy is no longer reliant upon its port, the city is the largest importer of cars to the UK. Since the port was leased in 1991, £330 million has been invested and the annual tonnage throughput has increased from 4 million tonnes to 12 million tonnes.^ The records of the Society of Merchant Venturers began in 1467, and the society increased in influence so rapidly that in 1500 it directed all the foreign trade of the city and had a lease of the port dues.

^ Bristol, England Factoid The River Avon winds through the center of Bristol and forms part of a system of waterways that transformed the city into a great inland port.
  • Express By Holiday Inn Bristol Hotels - Express By Holiday Inn Hotel Reservations Bristol, England 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolhotels.hiexpress.com [Source type: News]

^ Indeed, the economy of the largest, most dynamic city in the West Country is bolstered by the thriving British Aerospace industry, as well as Rolls-Royce.
  • Express By Holiday Inn Bristol Hotels - Express By Holiday Inn Hotel Reservations Bristol, England 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolhotels.hiexpress.com [Source type: News]

[23] .The financial services sector employs 40,000 in the city, and the hi-tech sector is important, with 400 micro-electronics and silicon design companies, as well as the Hewlett-Packard national research laboratories.^ Another major company in the Bristol area is Hewlett Packard , who chose to build there Research and Development laboratories in Bristol (the first outside of the United States).
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ On the beautiful waterside in the city centre, this modern hotel will accommodate all needs with well-designed modern rooms and the best attractions right outside.
  • Bristol, The Bristol Hotel (formerly Jurys Bristol Hotel) 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.activehotels.com [Source type: General]

^ The important districts of the city are within a short distance for the working person who needs access to the financial, government, and commercial sectors.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

.Bristol is the UK's seventh most popular destination for foreign tourists, and the city receives nine million visitors each year.^ Bristol Doors Open Day 14th September 2002 Telephone: (0117) 922 3719 (Doors Open Hotline) URL: http://www.bristol-city.gov.uk/tourism/doorsopen_intro.html Bristol Doors Open Day - now in its ninth year - is the day when many of Bristol's most significant contemporary and historic buildings open their doors to the general public.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The fiesta attracts approximately half a million visitors each year, all come to watch the amazing sight of over 150 hot air balloons taking to the skies each day, making a truly impressive sight across the Bristol skyline.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol is one of the most vibrant cities (currently bidding for European City of Culture 2008) in England, host to about half a million people.

[24]
.In the 20th century, Bristol's manufacturing activities expanded to include aircraft production at Filton, by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, and aero-engine manufacture by Bristol Aero Engines (later Rolls-Royce) at Patchway.^ Filton Abbey Wood  0.61 miles Patchway  0.67 miles Bristol Parkway  0.96 miles Tel: 0843 2822 814 (BT 4p/min) .
  • Property to rent in Bristol - Find a Property 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.findaproperty.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the engines for British Aerospace's aircraft, including the Olympus 593, which powers Concorde are designed and built by Rolls Royce , who also have a aerospace base in Filton.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ If Bristol became a planned town in the reign of Alfred, then thelweard Mw could have gained Bristol anything up to a century later.

.The aeroplane company became famous for the World War I Bristol Fighter, and Second World War Blenheim and Beaufighter aircraft.^ The company is committed to research and innovation and has continued to bring improvements to the world's aircraft.
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^ Bristol is traditionally associated with the wine trade, and the world-famous firm Harvey's .
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.In the 1950s it became one of the country's major manufacturers of civil aircraft, with the Bristol Freighter and Britannia and the huge Brabazon airliner.^ Later, between 1698 (when London's monopoly of slave trading was broken) and when parliament abolished the slave trade in 1807, Bristol became a major player in the slave trade.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ This is one of the more unique hotels in Bristol, having been part of the Ashton Court Country Club in 1950.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

The Bristol Aeroplane Company diversified into car manufacturing in the 1940s, producing hand-built luxury cars at their factory in Filton, under the name Bristol Cars, which became independent from the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1960.[25]
.In the 1960s Filton played a key role in the Anglo-French Concorde supersonic airliner project.^ Aircraft are designed and constructed here, including the British-French Concorde supersonic airliner.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.Concorde components were manufactured in British and French factories and shipped to the two final assembly plants, in Toulouse and Filton.^ Many of the engines for British Aerospace's aircraft, including the Olympus 593, which powers Concorde are designed and built by Rolls Royce , who also have a aerospace base in Filton.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Aircraft are designed and constructed here, including the British-French Concorde supersonic airliner.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.The French manufactured the centre fuselage and centre wing and the British the nose, rear fuselage, fin and wingtips, while the Olympus 593 engine's manufacture was split between Rolls-Royce (Filton) and SNECMA (Paris).^ Many of the engines for British Aerospace's aircraft, including the Olympus 593, which powers Concorde are designed and built by Rolls Royce , who also have a aerospace base in Filton.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ British Aerospace , a major aerospace and engineering group, and one of the world's leading defence and aerospace companies built its Sowerby Research Centre in Filton in 1982.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Rolls Royce and British Aerospace are based here.

.The British Concorde prototype made its maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford on 9 April 1969, five weeks after the French test flight.^ Many of the engines for British Aerospace's aircraft, including the Olympus 593, which powers Concorde are designed and built by Rolls Royce , who also have a aerospace base in Filton.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Aircraft are designed and constructed here, including the British-French Concorde supersonic airliner.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.In 2003 British Airways and Air France decided to cease flying the aircraft and to retire them to locations (mostly museums) around the world.^ A showcase of international kite experts from all around the world are on hand, showing off their flying skills and fantastic kites.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ City Inn Bristol Temple Way 0.5 mi The City Inn Bristol is located next to the British Commonwealth Museum.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

On 26 November 2003 Concorde 216 made the final Concorde flight, returning to Filton airfield to be kept there permanently as the centrepiece of a projected air museum. .This museum will include the existing Bristol Aero Collection, which includes a Bristol Britannia aircraft.^ Telephone : (0117) 922 3571 The Museum has a large collection , including exhibitions on Cabot's Bristol, Egyptology, and natural history.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Local attractions include the Cabot Circus Shopping Center and the Bristol Museum and Arts Gallery.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ Attractions located within a few miles of this Bristol hotel include the Bristol Zoo, the Wildwalk, the Hands On Science Museum, and the IMAX Theater.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

The aerospace industry remains a major segment of the local economy. .The major aerospace companies in Bristol now are BAE Systems, Airbus and Rolls-Royce, all based at Filton, and aerospace engineering is a prominent research area at nearby UWE.^ The main shopping area in the centre of Bristol houses all of the major chain stores and is in the throws of a major redevelopment due for launch in Autumn 2008.
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Another major company in the Bristol area is Hewlett Packard , who chose to build there Research and Development laboratories in Bristol (the first outside of the United States).
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Many of the engines for British Aerospace's aircraft, including the Olympus 593, which powers Concorde are designed and built by Rolls Royce , who also have a aerospace base in Filton.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.Another important aviation company in the city is Cameron Balloons, a manufacturer of hot air balloons.^ Hot air balloons come from the world over to participate in the fiesta which takes place at Ashton Court.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Hot air balloon enthusiasts from across the world have been gathering at Ashton Court every year since 1979 for this weekend aerial spectacle.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol Balloon Fiesta A sky full of hot air balloons!
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

.Each August the city is host to the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, one of Europe's largest hot air balloon events.^ Bristol Balloon Fiesta A sky full of hot air balloons!
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Every year, in autumn, the city is host to the Bristol Balloon Fiesta .
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Bristol Home Home to Brunel's dramatic Suspension Bridge , a spectacular balloon fiesta , a flourishing arts and media scene and surrounded by beautiful countryside, this mellow city combines a rich maritime past with its vibrant contemporary present .
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]


File:Panorama of Bristol.jpg
Panorama over Bristol

Culture

Main article: Culture of Bristol

Arts

.File:Bristol Old Vic (750px).jpg The city is famous for its music and film industries, and was a finalist for the 2008 European Capital of Culture.^ Perhaps for this reason Bristol is also the home of the World Wine Fair which takes place on the city's exciting waterfront which has also become established as a major venue for events such as the World Wildlife Film Festival, Showing that Bristol is a city rich in culture.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Leisurely tourists will enjoy close proximity to the famous nightlife venues within the city, and also to such destinations as the Old Vic Theater, the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery, the Clifton Suspension Bridge, the Bristol Cathedral, and St. Mary’s, just to name a few.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ This hotel in Bristol also offers easy access to many other famous attractions, including the city of Bath.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

[26]
.The city's principal theatre company, the Bristol Old Vic, was founded in 1946 as an offshoot of the Old Vic company in London.^ The 18th century Theatre Royal in nearby King Street is the home of the Bristol Old Vic Theatre Company which was founded as an offspring of the famous London Old Vic and which is now the only company entitled to that honoured name.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The Bristol Hippodrome provides opera and ballet, featuring major British companies and hosts visits by Britain's National Theatre.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Of the churches within the centre of the city, the following are found within a radius of half-a-mile from Bristol Bridge.

Its premises on King Street consist of the 1766 Theatre Royal (400 seats), a modern studio theatre called the New Vic (150 seats), and foyer and bar areas in the adjacent Coopers' Hall (built 1743). .The Theatre Royal is a grade I listed building and the oldest continuously-operating theatre in England.^ Other historical buildings are the New Room in Broadmead, built by John Wesley, the first Methodist chapel in the world; Broadmead Baptist Chapel; and the Theatre Royal built in 1766.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.The Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, which had originated in King street is now a separate company.^ The 18th century Theatre Royal in nearby King Street is the home of the Bristol Old Vic Theatre Company which was founded as an offspring of the famous London Old Vic and which is now the only company entitled to that honoured name.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The Bristol Hippodrome provides opera and ballet, featuring major British companies and hosts visits by Britain's National Theatre.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Overlooking the quay, the Jurys Bristol Hotel (England) stands within 500 metres of the Bristol Cathedral and Bristol Old Vic theatre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.The Bristol Hippodrome is a larger theatre (1981 seats) which hosts national touring productions, while the 2000-seat Colston Hall, named after Edward Colston, is the city's main concert venue.^ Colston Hall, which is used for concerts and meetings.

^ Classical music and rock concerts are given at the Colston Hall.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ The Bristol Hippodrome provides opera and ballet, featuring major British companies and hosts visits by Britain's National Theatre.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

.Other theatres include the Tobacco Factory, QEH and Redgrave Theatre (at Clifton College).^ Clifton College, opened in 1862 and incorporated in 1877, includes a physical science school, with laboratories, a museum and observatory .

.Bristol is home to many live music venues, including Fiddlers, Victoria Rooms, St George's and a range of pubs from the jazz orientated The Old Duke to rock at the Fleece and Firkin and indie bands at the Louisiana.^ The city has a strong tradition of music, and the city is home to many current bands, including Massive Attack, and Portishead.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Availability: 22 Jan 2010 Rooms, St Andrews, Bristol .
  • Property to rent in Bristol - Find a Property 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.findaproperty.com [Source type: General]

^ Funk Funeral Home, 35 Bellevue Ave., Bristol, to St. Anthony Church for a Mass of Christian Burial at 11:30 a.m.
  • The Bristol Press: Bristol, Conn., and surrounding areas (BristolPress.com) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolpress.com [Source type: General]

[27]
.Since the late 1970s, the city has been home to a crop of bands combining punk, funk, dub and political consciousness, the most celebrated being The Pop Group.^ The city has a strong tradition of music, and the city is home to many current bands, including Massive Attack, and Portishead.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ Two months have now passed since the world celebrated Twestival ; events in 185 cities to raise money for charity: water .

.Ten years later, Bristol was the birthplace of a type of English hip-hop music called trip hop or the "Bristol Sound", from artists such as Tricky, Portishead, Smith & Mighty and Massive Attack.^ Some well known exports are bands such as Massive Attack and Portishead, street artist Banksy, animation company Aardman, as well as being the home of the BBC’s Natural History department.
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The city has a strong tradition of music, and the city is home to many current bands, including Massive Attack, and Portishead.
  • Bristol, England 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.xciv.org [Source type: General]

^ A contemporary chronicler describes Bristol castle as "seated on a mighty mound , and garrisoned with knights and foot soldiers or rather robbers and raiders," and he calls Bristol the stepmother of England.

It is also a stronghold of drum & bass with notable artists such as the Mercury Prize winning Roni Size/Reprazent as well as the pioneering DJ Krust and More Rockers. This music is part of the wider Bristol urban culture scene which received international media attention in the 1990s.[28]
.File:Bristol pw from ms.jpg The Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery houses a collection of natural history, archaeology, local glassware, Chinese ceramics and art.^ The Bristol City Museum website is here .

^ The Bristol Marriott Hotel City Centre is a centrally- located modern building set within a mile of the 14th- 15th century Gothic cathedral and City Museum and Art Gallery.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ Leisurely tourists will enjoy close proximity to the famous nightlife venues within the city, and also to such destinations as the Old Vic Theater, the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery, the Clifton Suspension Bridge, the Bristol Cathedral, and St. Mary’s, just to name a few.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

The Bristol Industrial Museum, featuring preserved dock machinery, closed in October 2006 for complete renovation and plans to reopen in 2009 as the Museum of Bristol. .The City Museum also runs three preserved historic houses: the Tudor Red Lodge, the Georgian House, and Blaise Castle House.^ This week of tragedy comes exactly three months after two teenage children were killed walking in the city by hit and run drivers in separate incidents.

^ Set amidst beautiful gardens and woodlands, this Georgian house has been elegantly maintained and has been building its reputation as a family-run hotel for nearly 40 years.
  • Bristol, The Bristol Hotel (formerly Jurys Bristol Hotel) 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.activehotels.com [Source type: General]

^ Henbury Lodge Hotel is located on the outskirts of Bristol, England, 250 metres from Blaise Castle and four miles from Bristol city centre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.The Watershed Media Centre and Arnolfini gallery, both in disused dockside warehouses, exhibit contemporary art, photography and cinema, while the city's oldest gallery is at the Royal West of England Academy in Clifton.^ Arnolfini : Harbourside An arts centre right on the dockside with a contemporary gallery, art house cinema, café/bar and specialist bookshop.
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol Home Home to Brunel's dramatic Suspension Bridge , a spectacular balloon fiesta , a flourishing arts and media scene and surrounded by beautiful countryside, this mellow city combines a rich maritime past with its vibrant contemporary present .
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ The Bristol Marriott Hotel City Centre is a centrally- located modern building set within a mile of the 14th- 15th century Gothic cathedral and City Museum and Art Gallery.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

Stop frame animation films and commercials produced by Aardman Animations and television series focusing on the natural world have also brought fame and artistic credit to the city. .The city is home to the regional headquarters of BBC West, and the BBC Natural History Unit.^ Some well known exports are bands such as Massive Attack and Portishead, street artist Banksy, animation company Aardman, as well as being the home of the BBC’s Natural History department.
  • Design*Sponge » Blog Archive » bristol, england design guide! 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.designspongeonline.com [Source type: General]

.Locations in and around Bristol often feature in the BBC's natural history programmes, including the children's television programme Animal Magic, filmed at Bristol Zoo.^ Guests will find a wide selection of attractions in the area, including the Bristol Zoo.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ This hotel offers travelers easy access to all that the city has to offer, including the Bristol Zoo.
  • Bristol Hotels: 122 Cheap Bristol Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ The Novotel Bristol Centre is located in Bristol, England, 500 metres from Bristol city centre, 1.5 miles from Explore at Bristol, and four miles from Bristol Zoo Gardens.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

File:Llandoger.trow.overall.arp.jpg
In literature Bristol is noted as the birth place of the 18th century poet Thomas Chatterton, and the poets Robert Southey, who was born in Wine Street, Bristol in 1774, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge married the Bristol Fricker sisters; and William Wordsworth spent time in the city where Joseph Cottle first published Lyrical Ballads in 1798.
.The 18th and 19th century portrait painter Sir Thomas Lawrence and 19th century architect Francis Greenway, designer of many of Sydney's first buildings, came from the city, and more recently the graffiti artist Banksy.^ The church of St Mary Redcliffe, for grandeur of proportion and elaboration of design and finish, is the first ecclesiastical building in Bristol, and takes high rank among the parish churches of England.

^ The Clifton Hotel in Bristol, with 59 guestrooms over five floors, is set in a terrace of handsome 19th century neo-classical houses in the centre of a lively city.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ The phrase ’expect the expected’ could have been written for Bristol graffiti artist Banksy.

Some famous comedians are locals, including Justin Lee Collins, Lee Evans, and writer/comedian Stephen Merchant.
.Bristol University graduates include the satirist Chris Morris, Simon Pegg and Nick Frost of Spaced and Shaun of the Dead and Matt Lucas and David Walliams of Little Britain fame.^ Smith was a 2004 graduate of Bristol Eastern High School who had been studying economics and business administration at Eastern Connecticut State University.

.Hollywood actor Cary Grant was born in the city, Patrick Stewart, Jane Lapotaire, Pete Postlethwaite, Jeremy Irons, Greta Scacchi, Miranda Richardson, Helen Baxendale, Daniel Day-Lewis and Gene Wilder are amongst the many actors who learnt their craft at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, opened by Sir Laurence Olivier in 1946 and Hugo Weaving (Agent Smith, The Matrix) studied at Queen Elizabeth's Hospital School.^ The hot wells became fashionable in the reign of Anne (who granted a charter in 1710), and a little later Bristol was the centre of the Methodist revival of Whitefield and Wesley .

^ Among the many charitable institutions are the general hospital, opened in 1858, and since repeatedly enlarged; royal hospital for sick children and women, Royal Victoria home, and the Queen Victoria jubilee convalescent home.

^ Overlooking the quay, the Jurys Bristol Hotel (England) stands within 500 metres of the Bristol Cathedral and Bristol Old Vic theatre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

Sport and leisure

.File:Gloscricketground.jpg The city has two League football clubs: Bristol City and Bristol Rovers, as well as a number of non-league clubs, most notably Bristol Manor Farm.^ During the league’s first two seasons, in 1994 and 1995, the Bristol Nighthawks played at Muzzy.

^ If the rides are well supported then newcomers will enjoy themselves more and more people will be encouraged to join the rides, join the campaign and increase the number of people cycling in Bristol.

^ The Hilton Bristol is a modern hotel with an indoor pool and health club, located just off the M4/M5 interchange, eight miles from Bristol city centre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

Bristol City are the most successful football team in the city; their honours including finishing Football League First Division runners-up in 1907 and FA Cup finalists in 1909. In the last 25 years they have won promotion from the league's fourth tier once, the third tier on three occasions, and in 2007 won promotion to the second tier of English football, but they have not played in the top division since 1980.
.The city is also home to Bristol Rugby rugby union club, a first-class cricket side, Gloucestershire C.C.C. and a Rugby League Conference side, the Bristol Sonics.^ Of the open spaces in and near Bristol the most extensive are those bordering the river in the neighbourhood of the gorge, Durdham and Clifton Downs , on the Gloucestershire side (see Clifton ).

^ Use our interactive Bristol home price map to view real estate activity across Bristol ZIP codes and in other cities nearby Bristol.
  • Bristol Real Estate & Bristol Homes For Sale — Trulia.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.trulia.com [Source type: General]

^ We want Bristol to be the city that puts people first.

.The city also stages an annual half marathon, and in 2001 played host to the World Half Marathon Championships.^ World Cup bid news Bristol chosen as host city Bristol 2018 video I would like to...
  • Bristol news, Local news, Jobs, Cars, Sports | This is Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thisisbristol.co.uk [Source type: General]

.In summer the grounds of Ashton Court to the west of the city play host to the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, a major event for hot-air ballooning in the UK. The Fiesta draws a substantial crowd even for the early morning lift that typically begins at about 6.30am.^ Bristol Balloon Fiesta A sky full of hot air balloons!
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Hot air balloons launch from near the mansion House in the grounds every week - go on a Sunday afternoon, when the weather is fine and you may well see them being inflated and taking-off.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol International Airport is open, but flights may be subject to disruption due to the adverse weather conditions across the UK and parts of Europe.
  • UK & International Flights (New York) from Bristol International Airport - Bristol International Airport 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolairport.co.uk [Source type: General]

Events and a fairground entertain the crowds during the day. A second mass ascent is then made in the early evening, again taking advantage of lower wind speeds. .Ashton Court also plays host to the Ashton Court festival each summer, an outdoors music festival which used to be known as the Bristol Community Festival.^ Ashton Court estate is one mile away and Bristol Temple Meads sta… .
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ Ashton Court Bristol's favourite bit of countryside .
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Various events are held here throughout the summer including Bristol Community Festival and the Balloon Fiesta.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

Speedway racing was staged, with breaks, at the Knowle Stadium from 1928 to 1960 when it was closed and the site redeveloped. The sport briefly returned to the City in the 1970s when the Bulldogs raced at Eastville Stadium. The Bulldogs of 1949 whitewashed Glasgow (White City) Tigers 70 - 14.

Media

.File:Bristol International Balloon Fiesta.JPG Bristol has a daily morning newspaper, the Western Daily Press; an evening paper, the Evening Post; a weekly free newspaper, the Bristol Observer; and a Bristol edition of the free Metro newspaper.^ BBC (includes video) BBC Bristol (includes images) Times Online Sky News Reuters Telegraph Bristol Evening Post CNN .

^ Various events are held here throughout the summer including Bristol Community Festival and the Balloon Fiesta.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ The Evening Post has used them to compile the tables for schools in the Bristol area.
  • Bristol news, Local news, Jobs, Cars, Sports | This is Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.thisisbristol.co.uk [Source type: General]

The local weekly listings magazine, Venue, covers the city's music, theatre and arts scenes. All of these papers are owned by the Northcliffe Group. .The city has several local radio stations, including BBC Radio Bristol, GWR FM (previously known as Radio West), Classic Gold 1260, Kiss 101, Star 107.2, BCfm (a community radio station launched March 2007), Original 106 (starting summer 2007)[29] and The Hub (a student radio station).^ Various events are held here throughout the summer including Bristol Community Festival and the Balloon Fiesta.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Radio 4 - Bristol: Cycling City - interviews with Bristol Cycling Campaign members - recording available here or via the BBC iPlayer .

^ In the heart of Bristol, close to all of the city centre’s businesses, shops and attractions, this 4-star hotel offers spacious accommodation and modern facilities, including an indoor swimming pool.
  • Bristol, The Bristol Hotel (formerly Jurys Bristol Hotel) 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.activehotels.com [Source type: General]

File:Cabot Tower (600px).jpg

Dialect

A dialect of English is spoken by some Bristol inhabitants, known colloquially as Bristolian. .Bristol is the only large English city with a rhotic accent, in which the r in words like car is pronounced.^ The Washington Hotel in Bristol, a proud chapter of the Clifton Group, the city's only independently owned hotel group, is a business-class property with the spirit of a luxury boutique.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ We've been campaigning for 20mph across the whole of Bristol for some time now and were delighted when Bristol City Council decided to introduce large areas of 20mph in Bristol as part of Cycling City.

^ Only four of the museum’s staff were told about the plans and not even its owners, Bristol City Council, knew about it.

.The unusual feature of this dialect, unique to Bristol, is the Bristol L (or terminal L), in which an L sound is appended to words that end in an 'a' or 'o'.[30] Thus "area" becomes "areal", etc.^ The Berkeley Square is situated in the trendy and central Clifton area of Bristol, and is dedicated to Art and unique designs.
  • Bristol, The Bristol Hotel (formerly Jurys Bristol Hotel) 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.activehotels.com [Source type: General]

This is believed to be how the city's name evolved from Brycgstow to have a final 'L' sound: Bristol. Further Bristolian linguistic features are the addition of a superfluous "to" in questions relating to direction or orientation, or using "to" instead of "at"; and using male pronouns "he", "him" instead of "it". For example, "Where's that?" would be phrased as "Where's he to?", a feature exported to Newfoundland English.[31]
.Stanley Ellis, a dialect researcher, found that many of the dialect words in the Filton area were linked to work in the aerospace industry.^ Candidates must have 3 years of stable work history in the Tri-Cities area and at least 1 year prior light industrial experience.
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He described this as "a cranky, crazy, crab-apple tree of language and with the sharpest, juiciest flavour that I've heard for a long time".[32]
A guide to Bristol's dialect is at [1]

Politics and government

.File:Bristol1-l.jpg Bristol City Council consists of 70 councillors representing 35 wards.^ Bristol City Council GIS Support team  and is best viewed at 1024x768 or higher resolution.

^ Only four of the museum’s staff were told about the plans and not even its owners, Bristol City Council, knew about it.

^ Ward said Dodd “has always been a staunch supporter of and advocate for the city of Bristol, the state of Connecticut and the nation” that he has “served with distinction” for years.

.They are elected in thirds with two councillors per ward, each serving a four-year term.^ Ward said Dodd “has always been a staunch supporter of and advocate for the city of Bristol, the state of Connecticut and the nation” that he has “served with distinction” for years.

Wards never have both councillors up for election at the same time, so effectively two-thirds of the wards are up each election.[33] The Council has long been dominated by the Labour Party, but recently the Liberal Democrats have grown strong in the city and as the largest party took minority control of the Council at the 2005 election. They are no longer in control following Labour and the Conservatives vetoing the Liberal Democrats' preferred candidate, Steve Comer, in 2007. As a result, Labour rule the council under a minority administration, and the council leader is Helen Holland. [34] The Lord Mayor is Labour Councillor Royston Griffey.[35]
.Bristol's constituencies in the House of Commons cross the borders with neighbouring authorities, and the city is divided into Bristol West, East, South and North-west and Kingswood.^ Look out too for the remains of a Civil War hillfort, built to defend the north-west flank of Bristol against the Royalists during the siege of 1643.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Lloyd Window Cleaning Services Phone: 0117-961 3235 Bristol, South West England .

^ Matson Supplies Phone: 01275 843542 Bristol, South West England .

Northavon also covers some of the suburbs, but none of the administrative county. At the next General Election, the boundaries will be changed to coincide with the county boundary. Kingswood will no longer cover any of the county, and a new Filton and Bradley Stoke constituency will include the suburbs in South Gloucestershire. There are four Labour and one Liberal Democrat Members of Parliament.[36]
Bristol has a tradition of local political activism, and has been home to many important political figures. .Tony Benn, a veteran left-wing politician, was Member of Parliament (MP) for Bristol South East from 1950 to 1983. Edmund Burke, MP for the Bristol constituency for six years from 1774, famously insisted that he was a Member of Parliament first, rather than a representative of his constituents' interests.^ Paperline Sales Ltd Phone: 0117-946 1950 Bristol, South West England .

^ If you are interested in this position please submit resume, letter of interest with salary requirements, past 2 years salary history and availability to Bristol@brightservices.net .
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are interested in this position please submit resume, letter of interest with salary requirements, past 2 years of salary history and availability to Bristol@brightservices.net .
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1963, there was a boycott of the city's buses after the Bristol Omnibus Co. refused to employ black drivers and conductors. The boycott is known to have influenced the creation of the UK's Race Relations Act in 1965.[37] The women's rights campaigner Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867–1954) was born in Bristol. The city was the scene of the first of the 1980s riots or uprisings. In St. Paul's, a number of largely African-Caribbean people rose up against racism, police harassment and mounting disatifisfaction with their social and economic circumstances before similar disturbances followed across the UK. Local support of fair trade issues was recognised in 2005 when Bristol was granted Fairtrade City status.[38]
.Bristol is unusual in having been a city with county status since medieval times.^ Clean City Bristol impressed visitors with its clean streets in Tudor times.

^ For the first time since 1995, Bristol ’s historic Muzzy Field will house a college league baseball team this summer.

The county was expanded to include suburbs such as Clifton in 1835, and it was named a county borough in 1889, when the term was first introduced.[11] However, on 1 April 1974, it became a local government district of the short-lived county of Avon. On 1 April 1996, it once again regained its independence and county status, when the county of Avon was abolished and Bristol became a Unitary Authority.

Demographics

File:Bristol.broadmead.balloon.arp.jpg
.In 2005 the Office for National Statistics estimated Bristol's population at 398,300, making it the 47th-largest ceremonial county in England.^ About Bristol, England City Statistics > > Bristol exudes prosperity.
  • Express By Holiday Inn Bristol Hotels - Express By Holiday Inn Hotel Reservations Bristol, England 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bristolhotels.hiexpress.com [Source type: News]

[39] See also List of ceremonial counties of England by population. .Using Census 2001 data the ONS estimated the population of the contiguous built-up area to be 441,556,[40] and that of the metropolitan area to be 551,066.[41] This makes the city England's sixth most populous city, and ninth most populous metropolitan area.^ L Census data for Bristol 2001 .

[41] At 3,599 people per square kilometre it has the seventh-highest population density of any English district.[42]
In the 2001 census 91.83% of the population described themselves as white, 2.85% as South Asian, 2.32% as black, 2.08% as mixed race, 0.56% as Chinese and 0.34% other. National averages were 90.92%, 4.58%, 2.3%, 1.31%, 0.45% and 0.44% for the same groups.[43] .60% of Bristol's population registered their religion as Christianity, and 25% as not religious in the 2001 census, compared to 72% and 15% nationally.^ L Census data for Bristol 2001 .

.2% of the population follow Islam (3% nationally), with no other religion above one percent.^ These "kids" are no different than millions of other kids (including those from very conservative homes around the nation).
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ No doubt at least one or two of the Democrats who have been eyeing the governor's office or other statewide post will decide to grab the AG slot instead.

[44] Bristol had the ninth highest proportion of people refer to their religion in the last census as 'Jedi'.[45]

Physical geography

File:Bristol, Avon Gorge from Clifton Down.jpg
.Bristol is in a limestone area, which runs from the Mendip Hills to the south and the Cotswolds to the north east.^ With a pool length of 22 metres (nine metres in width) and a spectator capacity of 400, Bristol North regularly hosts competition swimming for clubs in the Bristol area.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ North Bristol Cleaning Co Phone: 0117-961 3235 Bristol, South West England .

[46] .The rivers Avon and Frome cut through this limestone to the underlying clays, creating Bristol's characteristic hilly landscape.^ Bristol provides just such a site, guarded by the Rivers Frome and Avon.

^ Bristol was not only sited at the lowest convenient bridging-point, but on a site naturally protected by the Avon and its curving tributary the Frome.

The Avon flows from Bath in the east, through flood plains and areas which were marshy before the growth of the city. To the west the Avon has cut through the limestone to form the Avon Gorge, partly aided by glacial meltwater after the last ice age. The gorge aided in the protection of Bristol Harbour, and has been quarried for stone to build the city. The land surrounding the gorge has been protected from development, as The Downs and Leigh Woods. .The gorge and estuary of the Avon form the county's boundary with North Somerset, and the river flows into the Bristol Channel at Avonmouth at the mouth of the River Severn.^ The Avon became the boundary between the shires of Gloucester and Somerset, rather than between kingdoms.

^ Bristol provides just such a site, guarded by the Rivers Frome and Avon.

.There is another gorge in the city, in the Blaise Castle estate to the north.^ To the north-west it seems that there was another large royal estate in the time of Aethelbald of Mercia, who granted Westbury-on-Trym to Offa's grandfather Eanulf.

.Situated in the south of the country, Bristol is one of the warmest cities in the UK, with a mean annual temperature of 10.2-12 °C (50-54°F).^ Johnson Cleaners UK Ltd Phone: 0117-962 8605 Bristol, South West England .

^ Cross Country Cleaning Phone: 01275 851553 Bristol, South West England .

^ Mercure Holland House is a luxury 4 star hotel situated within minutes of Bristol city centre.

[47] It is also amongst the sunniest, with 1541-1885 hours sunshine per year.[48] The city is partially sheltered by Exmoor and the Mendip Hills, but exposed from the Bristol Channel, and annual rainfall is similar to the national average, at 741-1,060 mm (29.2–41.7 in).[49]
Weather averages for Bristol, England, United Kingdom
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 8 (46) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 7 (45) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 10 (50) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 12 (54) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 17 (62) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 19 (66) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 22 (71) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 21 (69) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 18 (65) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 14 (57) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 11 (51) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 8 (47) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt border-left-width:medium;" | 14 (57)
Average low °C (°F) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 3 (38) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 3 (37) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 5 (41) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 6 (42) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 9 (48) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 12 (54) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 14 (58) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 14 (57) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 12 (53) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 9 (48) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 6 (43) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt" | 4 (40) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colt border-left-width:medium;" | 8 (47)
Precipitation mm (inch) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 142.3 (5.6) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 127.6 (5) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 133.6 (5.3) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 104.3 (4.1) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 76.9 (3) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 57.2 (2.3) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 48.9 (1.9) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 37.6 (1.5) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 82.5 (3.2) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 123.7 (4.9) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 154.8 (6.1) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp" | 147.3 (5.8) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp border-left-width:medium;" | 1,236.7 (48.7)
Source: Weatherbase [50] 3 Aug 2007
Source #2: Met Office- Yeovilton [51] 3 Aug 2007

Education, science and technology

.File:Wills Memorial Building from road during day.jpg Bristol is home to two major institutions of higher education: the University of Bristol, a "redbrick" chartered in 1909, and the University of the West of England, formerly Bristol Polytechnic, which gained university status in 1992. The city also has two dedicated further education institutions, City of Bristol College and Filton College, and three theological colleges, Trinity College, Wesley College & Bristol Baptist College.^ Look out too for the remains of a Civil War hillfort, built to defend the north-west flank of Bristol against the Royalists during the siege of 1643.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

^ Lloyd Window Cleaning Services Phone: 0117-961 3235 Bristol, South West England .

^ Matson Supplies Phone: 01275 843542 Bristol, South West England .

.The city has 129 infant, junior and primary schools,[52] 17 secondary schools,[53] and three city learning centres.^ The Redwood Hotel and Country Club is located in Failand, Bristol, England, within three miles of Bristol city centre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.There are also independent schools in the city, including Clifton College, Colston's School, Clifton High School, Badminton School, Bristol Cathedral School, Bristol Grammar School, Redland High School, Queen Elizabeth's Hospital (an all-boys school) and Red Maids' School, the oldest girls' school in England, founded in 1634 by John Whitson.^ The Washington Hotel in Bristol, a proud chapter of the Clifton Group, the city's only independently owned hotel group, is a business-class property with the spirit of a luxury boutique.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ Bristol , England i am a single mum of 2 boys.and i do very well bringing them up on my own .dont need no one else to ...
  • Bristol Dating Site England - Bristol personals - Bristol Matchmaking Services England 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.flirtbox.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henbury Lodge Hotel is located on the outskirts of Bristol, England, 250 metres from Blaise Castle and four miles from Bristol city centre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.In 2005 the Chancellor of the Exchequer recognised Bristol's ties to science and technology by naming it one of three "science cities", and promising funding for further development of science in the city,[54] with a £300 million "Science Park" planned at Emerson's Green.^ Bristol Bridge The key to the development of the city.

^ Pointing to one that's painted with light blue, Mayor Art Ward turned to the city's economic development director, Jonathan Rosenthal.

^ The Redwood Hotel and Country Club is located in Failand, Bristol, England, within three miles of Bristol city centre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

[55] .As well as research at the two universities and Southmead Hospital, science education is important in the city, with At-Bristol, Bristol Zoo, Bristol Festival of Nature and the Create Centre being prominent local institutions involved in science communication.^ If the development of Saxon Bristol was a two-phase process, that might explain the dual nature of the settlement.

^ Henbury Lodge Hotel is located on the outskirts of Bristol, England, 250 metres from Blaise Castle and four miles from Bristol city centre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hilton Bristol is a modern hotel with an indoor pool and health club, located just off the M4/M5 interchange, eight miles from Bristol city centre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.The city has a history of scientific achievement, including Sir Humphry Davy, the 19th century scientist who worked in Hotwells and discovered laughing gas.^ Candidates must have 3 years of stable work history in the Tri-Cities area and at least 1 year prior light industrial experience.
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Clifton Hotel in Bristol, with 59 guestrooms over five floors, is set in a terrace of handsome 19th century neo-classical houses in the centre of a lively city.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

Bishopston has given the world two Nobel Prize winning physicists: Paul Dirac for crucial contributions to quantum mechanics in 1933, and Cecil Frank Powell, for a photographic method of studying nuclear processes and associated discoveries in 1950. The city was birth place of Colin Pillinger, planetary scientist behind the Beagle 2 Mars lander project, and is home to Adam Hart-Davis, presenter of various science related television programmes, the famed graffati artist Banksy, and the psychologists Susan Blackmore and Richard Gregory.

Transport

File:Bristol airport overview.jpg
There are two principal railway stations in Bristol. .Bristol Parkway is located to the north of the city and Bristol Temple Meads located in the centre.^ City centre location.
  • Bristol, The Bristol Hotel (formerly Jurys Bristol Hotel) 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.activehotels.com [Source type: General]

^ Close to the city's vibrant centre, opposite Temple Quay and just a 2-minute walk from Bristol Temple Meads railway station, the hotel provides the perfect location from which to explore ...
  • Bristol, The Bristol Hotel (formerly Jurys Bristol Hotel) 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.activehotels.com [Source type: General]

^ Set in a prime location on the outskirts of Bristol, this hotel is only 10 minutes from Bristol Parkway Rail Station and is easily located close to the M4...

.There are scheduled coach links to most major UK cities.^ City and team officials said they have worked hand-in-hand with the American Legion team to make sure there are no scheduling problems.

.The city is connected by road on an east-west axis from London to Wales by the M4 motorway, and on a north-southwest axis from Birmingham to Exeter by the M5 motorway.^ Welcome to Express by Holiday Inn Bristol North, conveniently situated within easy reach of the M4, M5 and M32 motorways, providing the ideal base to visit...

.Also within the county is the M49 motorway, a shortcut between the M5 in the south and M4 Severn Crossing in the west.^ Welcome to Express by Holiday Inn Bristol North, conveniently situated within easy reach of the M4, M5 and M32 motorways, providing the ideal base to visit...

^ Cross Country Cleaning Phone: 01275 851553 Bristol, South West England .

The M32 motorway is a spur from the M4 to the city centre. The city is also served by its own airport, Bristol International (BRS), at Lulsgate, which has seen substantial investments in its runway, terminal and other facilities since 2001.
Public transport in the city consists largely of its bus network, provided by First Group. Buses in the city have been widely criticised for being unreliable and expensive, and in 2005 First was fined for delays and safety violations.[56][57] .Use of private cars in Bristol is high, and the city suffers from congestion, which costs an estimated £350 million per year.^ To close the Bristol courthouse, state lawmakers would have to repeal a statute that mandates it stay open at least 40 weeks per year.

^ Use our interactive Bristol home price map to view real estate activity across Bristol ZIP codes and in other cities nearby Bristol.
  • Bristol Real Estate & Bristol Homes For Sale — Trulia.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.trulia.com [Source type: General]

^ Senate hopeful's brother lives in Bristol Bingham School may close this year No Dodd, no high speed rail for Connecticut?

[58] Bristol is a motorcycle friendly city. .The city recognises that motorcycle use eases congestion and encourages this allow motorcycles to use most of the city's bus lanes, as well as providing secure free parking.^ Although steeped in history, today it stands surrounded by the bustle of nearby Park Street, and a visit inside provides a welcome respite from the hurry of the city centre.
  • Schmap Bristol Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schmap.com [Source type: General]

[59] .Since 2000 the city council has included a light rail system in its Local Transport Plan, but has so far been unable to fund the project.^ City councilors plan Tuesday to fill three critical volunteer positions, including a vacancy on the powerful Board of Finance that controls city spending and borrowing.

The city was offered European Union funding for the system, but the Department for Transport did not provide the required additional funding.[60] .As well as support for public transport, there are several road building schemes supported by the local council, including re-routing and improving the South Bristol Ring Road.^ Fairway Support Servicves Phone: 0117-962 1333 Bristol, South West England .

^ Clinical Cleaning & Industrial Support Phone: 01275 541470 Bristol, South West England .

^ KMC Cleaning & Support Services Ltd Phone: 01278 446635 Bristol, South West England .

[61] .There are also three park and ride sites serving the city, supported by the local council.^ Bristol City Council GIS Support team  and is best viewed at 1024x768 or higher resolution.

[62] .The central part of the city has water-based transport, operated as the Bristol Ferry Boat, which provides both leisure and commuter services on the harbour.^ Corn Street, Bristol (0117 922 4017) Wednesdays 9.30-2.30 On Wednesdays, in an old and historic part of English west country city, Bristol, a farmer's market is held.

^ In a central location close to Bristol's city centre offices, this is an exclusive development of quality one-bedroom apartments.
  • Bristol, The Bristol Hotel (formerly Jurys Bristol Hotel) 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC www.activehotels.com [Source type: General]

.Bristol was never well served by suburban railways, though the Severn Beach Line to Avonmouth and Severn Beach survived the Beeching Axe and is still in operation.^ We are recruiting for experienced, well trained, safe Forklift Operators with Shipping/Receiving experience for referral to companies throughout the Bristol, TN area.
  • Bright Services Job Listings-Bristol 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.brightservices.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Portishead Railway was closed to passengers under the Beeching Axe, but was relaid in 2000-2002 as far as the Royal Portbury Dock with a Strategic Rail Authority rail-freight grant. .Plans to relay a further three miles of track to Portishead, a largely dormitory town with only one connecting road, have been discussed but there is insufficient funding to rebuild stations.^ James, there's only one explanation for that discrepancy-- racism.
  • Shenanigans: Levi, Bristol break up - POLITICO.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[63]
.Despite being hilly, Bristol is one of the prominent cycling cities of England, and is home to the national cycle campaigning group Sustrans.^ Henbury Lodge Hotel is located on the outskirts of Bristol, England, 250 metres from Blaise Castle and four miles from Bristol city centre.
  • Bristol Hotels, Hostels and Accommodation - Lonely Planet Hotels & Hostels 20 September 2009 4:13 UTC hotels.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ Poppins Home Help Services Phone: 01761 462878 Bristol, South West England .

^ Use our interactive Bristol home price map to view real estate activity across Bristol ZIP codes and in other cities nearby Bristol.
  • Bristol Real Estate & Bristol Homes For Sale — Trulia.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.trulia.com [Source type: General]

.It has a number of urban cycle routes, as well as links to National Cycle Network routes to Bath and London, to Gloucester and Wales, and to the south-western peninsula of England.^ Bath Industrial Cleaning Services Phone: 01761 416166 Bristol, South West England .

Cycling has grown rapidly in the city, with a 21% increase in journeys between 2001 and 2005.[58]

Twin cities

File:040424 026 avonmouth.jpg Bristol was amongst the first cities to adopt the idea of town twinning. In 1947 it was twinned with Bordeaux and Hanover, the first post-war twinning of British and German cities. It is twinned with:[64]
  • Template:Country data Germany Hanover, Germany, since 1947
  • Flag of France Bordeaux, France, since 1947
  • Template:Country data Portugal Porto, Portugal, since 1984
  • Template:Country data Georgia Tbilisi, Georgia, since 1988
  • Template:Country data Nicaragua Puerto Morazan, Nicaragua, since 1989
  • Template:Country data Mozambique Beira, Mozambique, since 1990
  • Template:Country data People's Republic of China Guangzhou, China, since 2001
  • Template:Country data Spain Segovia, Spain, since 2005
  • Template:Country data Spain La Coruña, Spain, since 2007

See also

References

  1. ^ NOMIS (www.nomisweb.co.uk) area boundary for the Bristol unitary authority
  2. ^ NOMIS (www.nomisweb.co.uk) area boundary for the Bristol urban area (definition used by the Office for National Statistics)
  3. ^ KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas (a page at the Office for National Statistics website, accessed on 16 July 2007)
  4. ^ Atkins, 2005. "Greater Bristol Strategic Transport Study."
  5. ^ The Palaeolithic in Bristol. Bristol City Council (24 April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-06.,
  6. ^ Bristol in the Iron Age. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  7. ^ Bristol in the Roman Period. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  8. ^ Little, Bryan (1967). The City and County of Bristol. Wakefield: S. R. Publishers. ISBN 0854095128. 
  9. ^ The Impregnable City. Bristol Past. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  10. ^ Bristol Bridge. Images of England. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  11. ^ a b Rayfield, Jack (1985). Somerset & Avon. London: Cadogan. ISBN 0947754091. 
  12. ^ Largest towns in England in 1334. Love my town. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.,
  13. ^ Pictorial Record of Bristol's History. History of Bristol Companies. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  14. ^ Bristol. Fortified Places. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  15. ^ Lottery Fund rejects Bristol application in support of a major exhibition to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade (PDF). British Empire & Commonwealth Museum. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.,
  16. ^ A vision of Bristol UA/City. A Vision of Britain. Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  17. ^ Four figures on Arno's Gateway. Public Monument and Sculpture Association National Recording Project. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  18. ^