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British Empire
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The areas of the world that at one time were part of the British Empire.^ I'm going to thank you for giving me a place to escape, a place to laugh, a world apart from the one I live in in a difficult time.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Current British overseas territories are underlined in red. (Claims in Antarctica are not recognised by all nations.)
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom, that had originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1922, the British Empire held sway over a population of about 458 million people, one-quarter of the world's population at the time,[1] and covered more than 13,000,000 square miles (33,670,000 km2): approximately a quarter of the Earth's total land area.[2] As a result, its political, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. .At the peak of its power, it was often said that "the sun never sets on the British Empire" because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous territories.^ I love how when I set my Tivo to record Scrubs, I get at least 6 eps in one day!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm one of those people who can never wait, because I always need to know.
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^ It is also loved internationally and is NEVER off British TV on one channel or another.
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During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe and in the process, established large overseas empires. Envious of the great wealth these empires bestowed, England, France and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia.[3] A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England (Britain, following the 1707 Act of Union with Scotland) the dominant colonial power in North America and India. However, the loss of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after a war of independence was a blow to Britain, depriving it of its most populous colonies. Despite this setback, British attention soon turned towards Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Following the defeat of Napoleonic France in 1815, Britain enjoyed a century of effectively unchallenged dominance, and expanded its imperial holdings across the globe. Increasing degrees of autonomy were granted to its white settler colonies, some of which were reclassified as dominions.
The growth of Germany and the United States eroded Britain's economic lead by the end of the 19th century. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, for which Britain leaned heavily upon its Empire. The conflict placed enormous financial strain on Britain, and although the Empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after the war, it was no longer a peerless industrial or military power. The Second World War saw Britain's colonies in South-East Asia occupied by Japan, which damaged British prestige and accelerated the decline of the Empire, in spite of British victory. Within two years of the end of the war, Britain granted independence to its most populous and valuable colony, India.
During the remainder of the 20th century, most of the territories of the Empire became independent as part of a larger global decolonisation movement by European powers, ending with the return of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China in 1997. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states. Sixteen Commonwealth nations share their head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, as Commonwealth realms. Fourteen territories remain under British sovereignty, the British overseas territories.

Contents

Origins (1497–1583)

A replica of The Matthew, John Cabot's ship used for his second voyage to the New World
The foundation for the British Empire was laid when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496 King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Portugal and Spain in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic.[4] .Cabot sailed in 1497, and though he successfully made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland (mistakenly believing, like Christopher Columbus five years earlier, that he had reached Asia),[5] there was no attempt to found a colony.^ Did you just decide to take the risk and reach for what made you happy in life or was there some uncertainty?
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I really liked the cautiously optimistic ending - she lets him in, but there's no guarantee they'll be able to work it out.
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^ I ended up in the hospital for attempted suicide and that's how I found out after a year and a half I had lyme disease because my parents didn't think I had it that I making it up.
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Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard from his ships again.[6]
.No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century.^ Well, I can't wait until the next and final season of Scrubs even though it's the last one =(.
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[7] The Protestant Reformation had made enemies of England and Catholic Spain.[4] .In 1562, the English Crown sanctioned the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against African towns and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa[8] with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic trade system.^ You should try Portland, Oregon before you make such a hasty comment against the west coast!
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This effort was rebuffed and later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth lent her blessing to further piratical raids against Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that was returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World.[9] .At the same time, influential writers such as Richard Hakluyt and John Dee (who was the first to use the term "British Empire")[10] were beginning to press for the establishment of England's own empire, to rival those of Spain and Portugal.^ I went out and bought the first five seasons all at the same time (I cant commit to a weekly gig) Anyhoo, check out this guy Steve from The Sneeze.
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^ Yes, I'm like the Elliot Reid character, where except in paperwork I use the terms iike...well anyone who watches the shows knows.
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By this time, Spain was firmly entrenched in the Americas, Portugal had established a string of trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River, later to become New France.

Plantations of Ireland

.Though a relative late comer in comparison to Spain and Portugal, England had been engaged in colonial settlement in Ireland, drawing on precedents dating back to the Norman invasion in 1171.[11][12] The 16th century Plantations of Ireland, run by English colonists, were a precursor to the colonies established on the North Atlantic seaboard,[13] and several people involved in these projects also had a hand in the early colonisation of North America, particularly a group known as the "West Country men", which included Humphrey Gilbert, Walter Raleigh, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane.^ I'm from Portugal, small country in Europe, next to spain, oh well.
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[14]

"First British Empire" (1583–1783)

In 1578, Queen Elizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration.[15] That year, Gilbert sailed for the West Indies with the intention of engaging in piracy and establishing a colony in North America, but the expedition was aborted before it had crossed the Atlantic.[15][16] In 1583 he embarked on a second attempt, on this occasion to the island of Newfoundland whose harbour he formally claimed for England, though no settlers were left behind. .Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleigh, who was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in 1584. Later that year, Raleigh founded the colony of Roanoke on the coast of present-day North Carolina, but lack of supplies caused the colony to fail.^ I ended up in the hospital for attempted suicide and that's how I found out after a year and a half I had lyme disease because my parents didn't think I had it that I making it up.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm reading "Eat, Pray, Love" which I'm enjoying by Elizabeth Gilbert about her travels in Italy, India & Bali within a year.
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^ One day I had come home, and she was unconscious on her bed....as we later found out she had over-medicated on some pain medication.
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[17]
In 1603, King James VI of Scotland ascended to the English throne and in 1604 negotiated the Treaty of London, ending hostilities with Spain. Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations' colonial infrastructure to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies.[18] The British Empire began to take shape during the early 17th century, with the English settlement of North America and the smaller islands of the Caribbean, and the establishment of a private company, the English East India Company, to trade with Asia. This period, until the loss of the Thirteen Colonies after the American War of Independence towards the end of the 18th century, has subsequently been referred to as the "First British Empire".[19]

Americas, Africa and the slave trade

The Caribbean initially provided England's most important and lucrative colonies,[20] but not before several attempts at colonisation failed. An attempt to establish a colony in Guiana in 1604 lasted only two years, and failed in its main objective to find gold deposits.[21] Colonies in St Lucia (1605) and Grenada (1609) also rapidly folded, but settlements were successfully established in St. Kitts (1624), Barbados (1627) and Nevis (1628).[22] The colonies soon adopted the system of sugar plantations successfully used by the Portuguese in Brazil, which depended on slave labour, and—at first—Dutch ships, to sell the slaves and buy the sugar. To ensure that the increasingly healthy profits of this trade remained in English hands, Parliament decreed in 1651 that only English ships would be able to ply their trade in English colonies. This led to hostilities with the United Dutch Provinces—a series of Anglo-Dutch Wars—which would eventually strengthen England's position in the Americas at the expense of the Dutch. In 1655, England annexed the island of Jamaica from the Spanish, and in 1666 succeeded in colonising the Bahamas.
British colonies in North America, c. 1750. 1: Newfoundland; 2: Nova Scotia; 3: The Thirteen Colonies; 4: Bermuda; 5: Bahamas; 6: British Honduras; 7: Jamaica; 8: Lesser Antilles
England's first permanent settlement in the Americas was founded in 1607 in Jamestown, led by Captain John Smith and managed by the Virginia Company, an offshoot of which established a colony on Bermuda, which had been discovered in 1609. The Company's charter was revoked in 1624 and direct control was assumed by the crown, thereby founding the Colony of Virginia.[23] The Newfoundland Company was created in 1610 with the aim of creating a permanent settlement on Newfoundland, but was largely unsuccessful. In 1620, Plymouth was founded as a haven for puritan religious separatists, later known as the Pilgrims.[24] .Fleeing from religious persecution would become the motive of many English would-be colonists to risk the arduous trans-Atlantic voyage: Maryland was founded as a haven for Roman Catholics (1634), Rhode Island (1636) as a colony tolerant of all religions and Connecticut (1639) for Congregationalists.^ First of all I apologize for my poor english if you find many mistakes in my sentences because I'm just a french fan trying to write in english.
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.The Province of Carolina was founded in 1663. In 1664, England gained control of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (renamed New York) via negotiations following the Second Anglo-Dutch War, in exchange for Suriname.^ I’m hanging out with my New York friends, my Jersey boys, my family and loving every single second of it.
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^ Unfortunately for me, I live in North Carolina though, and, although I have family in New York, I just can't make it there anytime soon.
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In 1681, the colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn. The American colonies were less financially successful than those of the Caribbean, but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of English emigrants who preferred their temperate climates.[25]
In 1670, King Charles II granted a charter to the Hudson's Bay Company, granting it a monopoly on the fur trade in what was then known as Rupert's Land, a vast stretch of territory that would later make up a large proportion of Canada. .Forts and trading posts established by the Company were frequently the subject of attacks by the French, who had established their own fur trading colony in adjacent New France.^ I'm a french play writer, it's very hard to begin with our "company" we are looking for a producer who can help us to play it in France, it's really hard because you have to know someone who also know someone or you have to be a friend of Vito Corleone to help you to realize your dream...
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[26]
Two years later, the Royal African Company was inaugurated, receiving from King Charles a monopoly of the trade to supply slaves to the British colonies of the Caribbean.[27] From the outset, slavery was the basis of the British Empire in the West Indies. Until the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, Britain was responsible for the transportation of 3.5 million African slaves to the Americas, a third of all slaves transported across the Atlantic.[28] To facilitate this trade, forts were established on the coast of West Africa, such as James Island, Accra and Bunce Island. In the British Caribbean, the percentage of the population of black people rose from 25 percent in 1650 to around 80 percent in 1780, and in the Thirteen Colonies from 10 percent to 40 percent over the same period (the majority in the southern colonies).[29] For the slave traders, the trade was extremely profitable, and became a major economic mainstay for such western British cities as Bristol and Liverpool, which formed the third corner of the so-called triangular trade with Africa and the Americas. For the transportees, harsh and unhygienic conditions on the slaving ships and poor diets meant that the average mortality rate during the middle passage was one in seven.[30]
In 1695, the Scottish parliament granted a charter to the Company of Scotland, which established a settlement in 1698 on the isthmus of Panama, with a view to building a canal there. Besieged by neighbouring Spanish colonists of New Granada, and afflicted by malaria, the colony was abandoned two years later. The Darien scheme was a financial disaster for Scotland—a quarter of Scottish capital[31] was lost in the enterprise—and ended Scottish hopes of establishing its own overseas empire. The episode also had major political consequences, persuading the governments of both England and Scotland of the merits of a union of countries, rather than just crowns.[32] This occurred in 1707 with the Treaty of Union, establishing the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Rivalry with the Netherlands in Asia

At the end of the 16th century, England and the Netherlands began to challenge Portugal's monopoly of trade with Asia, forming private joint-stock companies to finance the voyages—the English, later British, and Dutch East India Companies, chartered in 1600 and 1602 respectively. The primary aim of these companies was to tap into the lucrative spice trade, and they focused their efforts on the source, the Indonesian archipelago, and an important hub in the trade network, India. The close proximity of London and Amsterdam across the North Sea and intense rivalry between England and the Netherlands inevitably led to conflict between the two companies, with the Dutch gaining the upper hand in the Moluccas (previously a Portuguese stronghold) after the withdrawal of the English in 1622, and the English enjoying more success in India, at Surat, after the establishment of a factory in 1613.
Fort St. George was founded at Madras in 1639
Although England would ultimately eclipse the Netherlands as a colonial power, in the short term the Netherlands' more advanced financial system[33] and the three Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century left it with a stronger position in Asia. Hostilities ceased after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 when the Dutch William of Orange ascended the English throne, bringing peace between the Netherlands and England. A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the Indonesian archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and by 1720, in terms of sales, the English company had overtaken the Dutch.[33] The English East India Company shifted its focus from Surat—a hub of the spice trade network—to Fort St George (later to become Madras), Bombay (ceded by the Portuguese to Charles II of England in 1661 as dowry for Catherine de Braganza) and Sutanuti (which would merge with two other villages to form Calcutta).

Global struggles with France

.Peace between England and the Netherlands in 1688 meant that the two countries entered the Nine Years' War as allies, but the conflict—waged in Europe and overseas between France, Spain and the Anglo-Dutch alliance—left the English a stronger colonial power than the Dutch, who were forced to devote a larger proportion of their military budget on the costly land war in Europe.^ Two things: Is it really possible that I'm the only person who thinks that the only thing funnier than the fact that your dog loves bull penis is the fact that your dog loves *smoked* bull penis?
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .The 18th century would see England (after 1707, Britain) rise to be the world's dominant colonial power, and France becoming its main rival on the imperial stage.^ I would LOVE to see you on stage!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would agree with some others here, we would love to see you on stage...think about it.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'd read it when it would get delived on Sunday or Monday, and then I'd watch it morph all week until the world at large got to see the finished product.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
The death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and his bequeathal of Spain and its colonial empire to Philippe of Anjou, a grandson of the King of France, raised the prospect of the unification of France, Spain and their respective colonies, an unacceptable state of affairs for England and the other powers of Europe.[36] In 1701, England, Portugal and the Netherlands sided with the Holy Roman Empire against Spain and France in the War of the Spanish Succession, which lasted until 1714. At the concluding Treaty of Utrecht, Philip renounced his and his descendants' right to the French throne and Spain lost its empire in Europe.[37] The British Empire was territorially enlarged: from France, Britain gained Newfoundland and Acadia, and from Spain, Gibraltar and Minorca. Gibraltar, which is still a British territory to this day, became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean. Minorca was returned to Spain at the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, after changing hands twice. Spain also ceded the rights to the lucrative asiento (permission to sell slaves in Spanish America) to Britain.[38]
Defeat of French fireships at Quebec in 1759
The Seven Years' War, which began in 1756, was the first war waged on a global scale, fought in Europe, India, North America, the Caribbean, the Philippines and coastal Africa. The signing of the Treaty of Paris (1763) had important consequences for the future of the British Empire. .In North America, France's future as a colonial power there was effectively ended with the recognition of British claims to Rupert's Land,[26] the ceding of New France to Britain (leaving a sizable French-speaking population under British control) and Louisiana to Spain.^ NY to visit a friend so much to live there i watch scrubs in france new from 2006...so im now hypnotized by all characters..simply funny...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For all the non-french speaking people out there who read this comments: vo means version originale, which means original version ...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spain ceded Florida to Britain. In India, the Carnatic War had left France still in control of its enclaves but with military restrictions and an obligation to support British client states, effectively leaving the future of India to Britain. The British victory over France in the Seven Years' War therefore left Britain as the world's dominant colonial power.[39]

Rise of the "Second British Empire" (1783–1815)

Robert Clive's victory at the Battle of Plassey established the Company as a military as well as a commercial power.

Company rule in India

.During its first century of operation, the English East India Company focused on trade with the Indian subcontinent, as it was not in a position to challenge the powerful Mughal Empire,[40] which had granted it trading rights in 1617. This changed in the 18th century as the Mughals declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the Compagnie française des Indes orientales, during the Carnatic Wars in the 1740s and 1750s.^ First of all I apologize for my poor english if you find many mistakes in my sentences because I'm just a french fan trying to write in english.
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The Battle of Plassey in 1757, which saw the British, led by Robert Clive, defeat the French and their Indian allies, left the Company in control of Bengal and as the major military and political power in India.[24] In the following decades it gradually increased the size of the territories under its control, either ruling directly or via local puppet rulers under the threat of force from the British Indian Army, the vast majority of which was composed of native Indian sepoys.[41] The Company's conquest of India was complete by 1857. The Indian Rebellion that year eventually led to the end of the East India Company and India came to be ruled directly by the British Raj.

Loss of the Thirteen American Colonies

.During the 1760s and 1770s, relations between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of resentment of the British Parliament's attempts to govern and tax American colonists without their consent,[42] summarised at the time by the slogan "No taxation without representation". Disagreement over the American colonists' guaranteed Rights as Englishmen turned to violence and, in 1775, the American War of Independence began.^ But no worry's because after i watched it for the 6th time I decided that I wouldnt watch it again until I have bought it.
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^ So thanks, because no, it wasn't just a coincidence that movie came on at that time.
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The following year, the colonists declared the independence of the United States and, with assistance from France, Spain, and the Netherlands would go on to win the war in 1783.
Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. The loss of the American colonies marked the end of the "first British Empire".
.The loss of such a large portion of British America, at the time Britain's most populous overseas possession, is seen by historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires,[43] in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa.^ Hiya Zach, I've just watched Garden State, and I think its one of the most affecting, poignant, touching films I've seen in a long time.
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^ This is the first time I've actually looked up an actor and it brought me to this site....wait.....no.......Jake Gyllanhaal was the first actor I've looked up......You - Zack Braff are the second.
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.Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, had argued that colonies were redundant, and that free trade should replace the old mercantilist policies that had characterised the first period of colonial expansion, dating back to the protectionism of Spain and Portugal.^ After these surgeries, I should be pain free for the first time in a decade and I hope to have my life back.
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[39][44] The growth of trade between the newly independent United States and Britain after 1783 seemed to confirm Smith's view that political control was not necessary for economic success.[45][46] Tensions between the two nations escalated during the Napoleonic Wars, as Britain tried to cut off American trade with France, and boarded American ships to impress into the Royal Navy men of British birth. The U.S. declared war, the War of 1812, in which both sides tried to make major gains at the other's expense. Both failed and the Treaty of Ghent, ratified in 1815, kept the pre-war boundaries.[47]
Events in America influenced British policy in Canada, where between 40,000 and 100,000[48] defeated Loyalists had migrated from America following independence. .The 14,000 Loyalists who went to the Saint John River in Nova Scotia felt too far removed from the provincial government in Halifax, so London split off New Brunswick as a separate colony in 1784.[49] The Constitutional Act of 1791 created the provinces of Upper Canada (mainly English-speaking) and Lower Canada (mainly French-speaking) to defuse tensions between the French and British communities, and implemented governmental systems similar to those employed in Britain, with the intention of asserting imperial authority and not allowing the sort of popular control of government that was perceived to have led to the American Revolution.^ Ive never been to New York, but I am from the east coast in Canada(Nova Scotia) I lived in Cali for 5 months working as a nanny.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will speak French now because I have some difficulties as you can see speaking english...sorry!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For all the non-french speaking people out there who read this comments: vo means version originale, which means original version ...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

Exploration of the Pacific

The voyages of discovery by James Cook in the Pacific Ocean led to the founding of several British colonies, including Australia and New Zealand.
Since 1718, transportation to the American colonies had been a penalty for various criminal offences in Britain, with approximately one thousand convicts transported per year across the Atlantic.[51] Forced to find an alternative location after the loss of the Thirteen Colonies in 1783, the British government turned to the newly discovered lands of Australia.[52] .The western coast of Australia had been discovered for Europeans by the Dutch explorer Willem Jansz in 1606 and was later named by the Dutch East India Company New Holland,[53] but there was no attempt to colonise it.^ Ive never been to New York, but I am from the east coast in Canada(Nova Scotia) I lived in Cali for 5 months working as a nanny.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ East Coast is the coolest place ever, I especially love New England.
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In 1770 James Cook discovered the eastern coast of Australia while on a scientific voyage to the South Pacific Ocean, claimed the continent for Britain, and named it New South Wales.[52] In 1778, Joseph Banks, Cook's botanist on the voyage, presented evidence to the government on the suitability of Botany Bay for the establishment of a penal settlement, and in 1787 the first shipment of convicts set sail, arriving in 1788.[52] Britain continued to transport convicts to New South Wales until 1840, at which time the colony's population numbered 56,000, the majority of whom were convicts, ex-convicts or their descendants.[54] The Australian colonies became profitable exporters of wool and gold.[54]
During his voyage, Cook also visited New Zealand, first discovered by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642, and claimed the North and South islands for the British crown in 1769 and 1770 respectively. Initially, interaction between the native Maori population and Europeans was limited to the trading of goods. European settlement increased through the early decades of the 19th century, with numerous trading stations established, especially in the North. In 1839, the New Zealand Company announced plans to buy large tracts of land and establish colonies in New Zealand. On 6 February 1840, Captain William Hobson and around 40 Maori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi.[55] This treaty is considered by many to be New Zealand's founding document,[56] but differing interpretations of the Maori and English versions of the text[57] have meant that it continues to be a source of dispute.[58]

War with Napoleonic France

Britain was challenged again by France under Napoleon, in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations.[59] It was not only Britain's position on the world stage that was threatened: Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, just as his armies had overrun many countries of continental Europe.
The British Empire following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815[60]
The Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. French ports were blockaded by the Royal Navy, which won a decisive victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in 1805. Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in 1810. France was finally defeated by a coalition of European armies in 1815. Britain was again the beneficiary of peace treaties: France ceded the Ionian Islands, Malta (which it had occupied in 1797 and 1798 respectively), Seychelles, Mauritius, St Lucia, and Tobago; Spain ceded Trinidad; the Netherlands Guyana, and the Cape Colony. Britain returned Guadeloupe, Martinique, Goree, French Guiana, and Réunion to France, and Java, and Suriname to the Netherlands.

Abolition of slavery

Under increasing pressure from the British abolitionist movement, the British government enacted the Slave Trade Act in 1807 which abolished the slave trade in the Empire. In 1808, Sierra Leone was designated an official British colony for freed slaves.[61] The Slavery Abolition Act passed in 1833 made not just the slave trade but slavery itself illegal, emancipating all slaves in the British Empire on 1 August 1834.[62]

Britain's imperial century (1815–1914)

The British Empire in 1897, marked in the traditional colour for imperial British dominions on maps
Between 1815 and 1914, a period referred to as Britain's "imperial century" by some historians,[63][64] around 10,000,000 square miles (25,899,881 km2) of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire.[65] Victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in central Asia.[66] Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica,[67] and a foreign policy of "splendid isolation".[68] Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, Britain's dominant position in world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many nominally independent countries, such as China, Argentina and Siam, which has been characterised by some historians as "informal empire".[69][70]
British imperial strength was underpinned by the steamship and the telegraph, new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the Empire. By 1902, the British Empire was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, the so-called All Red Line.[71]

East India Company in Asia

An 1876 political cartoon of Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) making Queen Victoria Empress of India. The caption was "New crowns for old ones!"
British policy in Asia during the 19th century was chiefly concerned with protecting and expanding India, viewed as its most important colony and the key to the rest of Asia.[72] The East India Company drove the expansion of the British Empire in Asia. The Company's army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War, and the two continued to cooperate in arenas outside India: the eviction of Napoleon from Egypt (1799), the capture of Java from the Netherlands (1811), the acquisition of Singapore (1819) and Malacca (1824) and the defeat of Burma (1826).[66]
From its base in India, the Company had also been engaged in an increasingly profitable opium export trade to China since the 1730s. This trade, illegal since it was outlawed by the Qing dynasty in 1729, helped reverse the trade imbalances resulting from the British imports of tea, which saw large outflows of silver from Britain to China. In 1839, the confiscation by the Chinese authorities at Canton of 20,000 chests of opium led Britain to attack China in the First Opium War, and the seizure by Britain of the island of Hong Kong, at that time a minor settlement.[73]
The end of the Company was precipitated by a mutiny of sepoys against their British commanders, due in part to the tensions caused by British attempts to Westernise India.[74] The Indian Rebellion took six months to suppress, with heavy loss of life on both sides. Afterwards the British government assumed direct control over India, ushering in the period known as the British Raj, where an appointed governor-general administered India and Queen Victoria was crowned the Empress of India. The East India Company was dissolved the following year, in 1858.[75]
India suffered a series of serious crop failures in the late 19th century, leading to widespread famines in which at least 10 million people died. The East India Company had failed to implement any coordinated policy to deal with the famines during its period of rule. .This changed during the Raj, in which commissions were set up after each famine to investigate the causes and implement new policies, which took until the early 1900s to have an effect.^ I dunno, maybe its just cause I grew up here, but I absolutely love New England.
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^ Was thinking of my fav movies cause have new bf and was hoping we had similiar interests, Garden State and Scrubs; 2 thumbs up from both of us Zachy!
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[76]

Rivalry with Russia

During the 19th century, Britain and Russia vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining Ottoman, Persian and Qing Chinese empires.[72] This rivalry in Eurasia came to be known as the "Great Game".[72] As far as Britain was concerned, the defeats inflicted by Russia on Persia and Turkey in the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) and Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829) demonstrated its imperial ambitions and capabilities, and stoked fears in Britain of an overland invasion of India.[77] In 1839, Britain moved to pre-empt this by invading Afghanistan, but the First Anglo-Afghan War was a disaster for Britain.[78] When Russia invaded the Turkish Balkans in 1853, fears of Russian dominance in the Mediterranean and Middle East led Britain and France to invade the Crimean Peninsula in order to destroy Russian naval capabilities.[78] The ensuing Crimean War (1854–56), which involved new techniques of modern warfare,[79] and was the only global war fought between Britain and another imperial power during the Pax Britannica, was a resounding defeat for Russia.[78] The situation remained unresolved in Central Asia for two more decades, with Britain annexing Baluchistan in 1876 and Russia Kirghizia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. For a while it appeared that another war would be inevitable, but the two countries reached an agreement on their respective spheres of influence in the region in 1878, and on all outstanding matters in 1907 with the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente.[72] The destruction of the Russian Navy at the Battle of Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 also limited its threat to the British.[80]

Cape to Cairo

The Rhodes ColossusCecil Rhodes spanning "Cape to Cairo"
The Dutch East India Company had founded the Cape Colony on the southern tip of Africa in 1652 as a way station for its ships travelling to and from its colonies in the East Indies. Britain formally acquired the colony, and its large Afrikaner (or Boer) population in 1806, having occupied it in 1795 in order to prevent it falling into French hands, following the invasion of the Netherlands by France.[81] British immigration began to rise after 1820, and pushed thousands of Boers, resentful of British rule, northwards to found their own—mostly short-lived—independent republics, during the Great Trek of the late 1830s and early 1840s. .In the process the Voortrekkers clashed repeatedly with the British, who had their own agenda with regard to colonial expansion in South Africa and with several African polities, including those of the Sotho and the Zulu nations.^ I am from South Africa an I just want to say that me and my fellow South Africans love you and your show.
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Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: the South African Republic or Transvaal Republic (1852–77; 1881–1902) and the Orange Free State (1854–1902). In 1902 Britain completed its military occupation of the Transvaal and Free State by concluding a treaty with the two Boer Republics following the Second Boer War 1899–1902.
In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened under Napoleon III, linking the Mediterranean with the Indian Ocean. The Canal was at first opposed by the British,[82] but once open its strategic value was recognised quickly. In 1875, the Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli bought the indebted Egyptian ruler Ismail Pasha's 44 percent shareholding in the Suez Canal for £4 million. Although this did not grant outright control of the strategic waterway, it did give Britain leverage. Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in 1882.[83] The French were still majority shareholders and attempted to weaken the British position,[84] but a compromise was reached with the 1888 Convention of Constantinople. This came into force in 1904 and made the Canal neutral territory, but de facto control was exercised by the British whose forces occupied the area until 1954.
As French, Belgian and Portuguese activity in the lower Congo River region threatened to undermine orderly penetration of tropical Africa, the Berlin Conference of 1884–85 sought to regulate the competition between the European powers in what was called the "Scramble for Africa" by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims.[85] The scramble continued into the 1890s, and caused Britain to reconsider its decision in 1885 to withdraw from Sudan. .A joint force of British and Egyptian troops defeated the Madhist Army in 1896, and rebuffed a French attempted invasion at Fashoda in 1898. Sudan was made an Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, a joint protectorate in name, but a British colony in reality.^ But now, when people across the Heianzhimen, found that when the army had already defeated the devil Reunited forces, ready to start a horrendous burning expedition, you prepared ?
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^ I know this is really off the subject of your blog, but one of the french teachers at my high school (her last name is White) used to date you when you were in high school.
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[85]
British gains in southern and East Africa prompted Cecil Rhodes, pioneer of British expansion in Africa, to urge a "Cape to Cairo" railway linking the strategically important Suez Canal to the mineral-rich South.[86] In 1888 Rhodes with his privately owned British South Africa Company occupied and annexed territories subsequently named after him, Rhodesia.

Changing status of the white colonies

The path to independence for the white colonies of the British Empire began with the 1839 Durham Report, which proposed unification and self-government for the two Canadian provinces, as a solution to political unrest there. This began with the passing of the Act of Union in 1840, which created the Province of Canada. Responsible government was first granted to Nova Scotia in 1848, and was soon extended to the other British North American colonies. In 1867, Upper and Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were formed into the Dominion of Canada, a confederation enjoying full self government with the exception of international relations.[87]
Australia and New Zealand achieved similar levels of self-government after 1900, with the Australian colonies federating in 1901.[88] .The term "dominion status" was officially introduced at the Colonial Conference of 1907, to refer to Canada, Newfoundland, Australia and New Zealand.^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
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In 1910, the Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free State were joined together to form the Union of South Africa, which also attained dominion status.[88]
.The last decades of the 19th century saw concerted political campaigns for Irish home rule.^ Hey I saw you at the living room last Thursday after the concert got out.
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^ Hey ZB! I just wanted to tell you that I saw Travis in concert last night and they were amazing!
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.Ireland had been absorbed into the United Kingdom with the Act of Union 1800 after the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and had suffered a severe famine between 1845 and 1852. Home rule was supported by the British Prime Minister, William Gladstone, who hoped that Ireland might follow in Canada's footsteps as a Dominion within the Empire, but his 1886 Home Rule bill was defeated in Parliament, as many MPs feared that a partially independent Ireland might pose a security threat to Great Britain or be the beginnings of the breakup of the Empire.^ When I saw Zach outside the IFC theater, I followed him home, then sifted through his bills and took out a bunch of loans in his name.
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^ Good Evening/Morning/Afternoon Mr Braff, You're a true acting legend due to the 6 seasons of Scrubs and your films, I do hope to see you in many more comedies following them!
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A second Home Rule bill was also defeated for similar reasons.[89] A third bill was passed by Parliament in 1914, but not implemented due to the outbreak of the First World War leading to the 1916 Easter Rising.

World wars (1914–1945)

.By the turn of the 20th century, fears had begun to grow in Britain that it would no longer be able to defend the metropole and the entirety of the Empire while at the same time maintaining the policy of "splendid isolation".[90] Germany was rising rapidly as a military and industrial power and was now seen as the most likely opponent in any future war.^ Seriously we really admire your work as a director, actor and producer and I (trish) am studying tv prduction and I would love to do something like scrubs in the future.
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^ So most of the women would like to buy the Wholesale Handbag.There are many famous brand handbags in the fashion world.
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^ Only in NYC can a person feel so isolated and alone with so many people around them at the same time.
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Recognising that it was overstretched in the Pacific[91] and threatened at home by the German navy, Britain formed an alliance with Japan in 1902, and its old enemies France and Russia in 1904 and 1907, respectively.[92]

First World War

The Grand Fleet sails for Jutland, 1916.
Britain's fears of war with Germany were realised in 1914 with the outbreak of the First World War. The British declaration of war on Germany and its allies also committed the colonies and Dominions, which provided invaluable military, financial and material support. Over 2.5 million men served in the armies of the Dominions, as well as many thousands of volunteers from the Crown colonies.[93] .Most of Germany's overseas colonies in Africa were quickly invaded and occupied, and in the Pacific, Australia and New Zealand occupied German New Guinea and Samoa respectively.^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
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.The contributions of Australian and New Zealand troops during the 1915 Gallipoli Campaign against the Ottoman Empire had a great impact on the national consciousness at home, and marked a watershed in the transition of Australia and New Zealand from colonies to nations in their own right.^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
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^ After Katrina and the time I spent in New Orleans with an Oregon National Guard infantry company, I came home with a very heavy heart.
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The countries continue to commemorate this occasion on ANZAC Day. Canadians viewed the Battle of Vimy Ridge in a similar light.[94] The important contribution of the Dominions to the war effort was recognised in 1917 by the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George when he invited each of the Dominion Prime Ministers to join an Imperial War Cabinet to coordinate imperial policy.[95]
Under the terms of the concluding Treaty of Versailles signed in 1919, the Empire reached its greatest extent with the addition of 1,800,000 square miles (4,662,000 km2) and 13 million new subjects.[96] The colonies of Germany and the Ottoman Empire were distributed to the Allied powers as League of Nations Mandates. Britain gained control of Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq, parts of Cameroon and Togo, and Tanganyika. .The Dominions themselves also acquired mandates of their own: South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia) was given to the Union of South Africa, Australia gained German New Guinea, and New Zealand Western Samoa.^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
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^ Australia, and although u may be too busy to actually read this, just thought i'd let you know that u are one of the great modern actors of this day and age.
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Nauru was made a combined mandate of Britain and the two Pacific Dominions.[97]

Inter-war period

The British Empire following the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, at its greatest extent.
.The changing world order that the war had brought about, in particular the growth of the United States and Japan as naval powers, and the rise of independence movements in India and Ireland, caused a major reassessment of British imperial policy.^ Garden State as a topic for our unit about finding yourself and revelations and growing up.
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[98] Forced to choose between alignment with the United States or Japan, Britain opted not to renew its Japanese alliance and instead signed the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, where Britain accepted naval parity with the United States.[99] This decision was the source of much debate in Britain during the 1930s[100] as militaristic governments took hold in Japan and Germany helped in part by the Great Depression, for it was feared that the Empire could not survive a simultaneous attack by both nations.[101] Although the issue of the Empire's security was a serious concern in Britain, at the same time the Empire was vital to the British economy: during the inter-war period, exports to the colonies and Dominions increased from 32 to 39 percent of all exports overseas, and imports increased from 24 to 37 percent.[102]
In 1919, the frustrations caused by delays to Irish home rule led members of Sinn Féin, a pro-independence party that had won a majority of the Irish seats at Westminster in the 1918 British general election, to establish an Irish assembly in Dublin, at which Irish independence was declared. The Irish Republican Army simultaneously began a guerrilla war against the British administration.[103] The Anglo-Irish War ended in 1921 with a stalemate and the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, creating the Irish Free State, a Dominion within the British Empire, with effective internal independence but still constitutionally linked with the British Crown.[104] Northern Ireland, consisting of six of the 32 Irish counties which had been established as a devolved region under the 1920 Government of Ireland Act, immediately exercised its option under the treaty to retain its existing status within the United Kingdom.[105]
King George V with the British and Dominion prime ministers at the 1926 Imperial Conference.
A similar struggle began in India when the Government of India Act 1919 failed to satisfy demand for independence.[106] Concerns over communist and foreign plots following the Ghadar Conspiracy ensured that war-time strictures were renewed by the Rowlatt Acts, creating tension,[107] particularly in the Punjab, where repressive measures culminated in the Amritsar Massacre. In Britain public opinion was divided over the morality of the event, between those who saw it as having saved India from anarchy, and those who viewed it with revulsion.[107] The subsequent non-cooperation movement was called off in March 1922 following the Chauri Chaura incident, and discontent continued to simmer for the next 25 years.
In 1922, Egypt, which had been declared a British protectorate at the outbreak of the First World War, was granted formal independence, though it continued to be a British client state until 1954. British troops remained stationed in Egypt until the signing of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty in 1936,[108] under which it was agreed that the troops would withdraw but continue to occupy and defend the Suez Canal zone. In return, Egypt was assisted to join the League of Nations.[109] Iraq, a British mandate since 1919, also gained membership of the League in its own right after achieving independence from Britain in 1932.[110]
The ability of the Dominions to set their own foreign policy, independent of Britain, was recognised at the 1923 Imperial Conference.[111] .Britain's request for military assistance from the Dominions at the outbreak of the Chanak crisis the previous year had been turned down by Canada and South Africa, and Canada had refused to be bound by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.^ Keep up with the funniez :) Hope you get your cute little butt down to South Africa soon - maybe for your next holiday!!
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[112][113] After pressure from Ireland and South Africa, the 1926 Imperial Conference issued the Balfour Declaration, declaring the Dominions to be "autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another" within a "British Commonwealth of Nations".[114] This declaration was given legal substance under the 1931 Statute of Westminster.[115] .The parliaments of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, the Irish Free State and Newfoundland were now independent of British legislative control, they could nullify British laws and Britain could no longer pass laws for them without their consent.^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
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^ Last Kiss and Garden State have been played on my tv almost 50 times now, and they never get old!
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[115] Newfoundland reverted to colonial status in 1933, suffering from financial difficulties during the Great Depression.[116] .Ireland distanced itself further from Britain with the introduction of a new constitution in 1937, making it a republic in all but name.^ All of a sudden, about 75% of the new people I meet make conversation by saying: Any relation to Zach Braff?
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^ Im from ireland so i dont know the names of all the stations!!!!
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[117]

Second World War

The Eighth Army was made up of units from across the Empire and fought in the Western Desert and Italy.
Britain's declaration of war against Nazi Germany in September 1939 included the Crown colonies and India but did not automatically commit the Dominions. .Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand all soon declared war on Germany, but the Irish Free State chose to remain legally neutral throughout the war.^ Keep up with the funniez :) Hope you get your cute little butt down to South Africa soon - maybe for your next holiday!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
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[118] After the German occupation of France in 1940, Britain and the Empire were left standing alone against Germany, until the entry of the Soviet Union to the war in 1941. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill successfully lobbied President Franklin D. Roosevelt for military aid from the United States, but Roosevelt was not yet ready to ask Congress to commit the country to war.[119] .In August 1941, Churchill and Roosevelt met and signed the Atlantic Charter, which included the statement that "the rights of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they live" should be respected.^ If he wants to be like Bob Dylan though, then he should definitely start calling people "Cats" and all that jazz.
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^ I love the subway, the dirty (and some clean) streets, I love how they have the best chinese takeout in the world (and how you can get it @ 3AM if you want) and above all I love the people.
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^ With all do respect, The Office is a good show indeed, but what are the people from NBC thinking?
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.This wording was ambiguous as to whether it referred to European countries invaded by Germany, or the peoples colonised by European nations, and would later be interpreted differently by the British, Americans and nationalist movements.^ Are americans so different from europeans?
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[120][121]
In December 1941, Japan launched in quick succession attacks on British Malaya, the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, and Hong Kong. Japan had steadily been growing as an imperial power in the Far East since its defeat of China in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895,[122] envisioning a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere under its leadership. The Japanese attacks on the British and American possessions in the Pacific had an immediate and long-lasting impact on the British Empire. Churchill's reaction to the entry of the United States into the war was that Britain was now assured of victory and the future of the Empire was safe,[123] but the manner in which the British rapidly surrendered in some of its colonies irreversibly altered Britain's standing and prestige as an imperial power.[124][125] Most damaging of all was the fall of Singapore, which had previously been hailed as an impregnable fortress and the eastern equivalent of Gibraltar.[126] .The realisation that Britain could not defend the entire Empire pushed Australia and New Zealand, which now appeared threatened by Japanese forces, into closer ties with the United States, which after the war eventually resulted in the 1951 ANZUS Pact between Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America.^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
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[120]

Decolonisation and decline (1945–1997)

Though Britain and the Empire emerged victorious from the Second World War, the effects of the conflict were profound, both at home and abroad. Much of Europe, a continent that had dominated the world for several centuries, was now in ruins, and host to the armies of the United States and the Soviet Union, to whom the balance of global power had now shifted.[127] Britain was left virtually bankrupt, with insolvency only averted in 1946 after the negotiation of a $3.5 billion loan from the United States,[128] the last instalment of which was repaid in 2006.[129]
At the same time, anti-colonial movements were on the rise in the colonies of European nations. .The situation was complicated further by the increasing Cold War rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union, both nations opposed to the European colonialism of old, though American anti-Communism prevailed over anti-imperialism, which led the US to support the continued existence of the British Empire.^ My fandom (don't think that's a word) was increased even more recently when The Last Kiss and Garden State were both on tv.
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^ Was thinking of my fav movies cause have new bf and was hoping we had similiar interests, Garden State and Scrubs; 2 thumbs up from both of us Zachy!
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[130]
.The "wind of change" ultimately meant that the British Empire's days were numbered, and on the whole, Britain adopted a policy of peaceful disengagement from its colonies once stable, non-Communist governments were available to transfer power to, in contrast to other European powers like France or Portugal,[131] which waged costly and ultimately unsuccessful wars to keep their empires intact.^ Like the other day that old woman at the bus stop, who was following me with her sad eyes and I knew she probably had not spoken to anyone for a few days.
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Between 1945 and 1965, the number of people under British rule outside the UK itself fell from 700 million to five million, three million of whom were in Hong Kong.[130]

Initial disengagement

The pro-decolonisation Labour government elected at the 1945 general election and led by Clement Attlee, moved quickly to tackle the most pressing issue facing the Empire, that of Indian independence.[132] India's two independence movements—the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League—had been campaigning for independence for decades, but disagreed as to how it should be implemented. Congress favoured a unified secular Indian state, whereas the League, fearing domination by the Hindu majority, desired a separate Islamic state for Muslim-majority regions. .Increasing civil unrest and the mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy during 1946 led Attlee to promise independence no later than 1948, but when the urgency of the situation and risk of civil war became apparent to Britain's newly appointed (and last) Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, partitioned independence was hastily brought forward to 15 August 1947.[133] The borders drawn by the British to broadly partition India into Hindu and Muslim areas left tens of millions as minorities in the newly independent states of India and Pakistan.^ About a year later I heard you were making it into a movie, which blew me away, as no one I knew had even heard of the book.
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^ When it became apparent that the answer to all three in my head was no, I dropped out, told myself I'd work for a year, and go back to it.
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[134] Millions of Muslims subsequently crossed from India to Pakistan and Hindus in the reverse direction, and violence between the two communities cost hundreds of thousands of lives. Burma, which had been administered as part of the British Raj, and Ceylon gained their independence the following year in 1948. India, Pakistan and Ceylon became members of the Commonwealth, though Burma chose not to join.[135]
The British Mandate of Palestine, where an Arab majority lived alongside a Jewish minority, presented the British with a similar problem to that of India.[136] The matter was complicated by large numbers of Jewish refugees seeking to be admitted to Palestine following Nazi oppression and genocide in the Second World War. Rather than deal with the issue, Britain announced in 1947 that it would withdraw in 1948 and leave the matter to the United Nations to solve,[137] which it did by voting for the partition of Palestine into a Jewish and Arab state.
Following the defeat of Japan in the Second World War, anti-Japanese resistance movements in Malaya turned their attention towards the British, who had moved to quickly retake control of the colony, valuing it as a source of rubber and tin. The fact that the guerrillas were primarily Malayan-Chinese Communists meant that the British attempt to quell the uprising was supported by the Muslim Malay majority, on the understanding that once the insurgency had been quelled, independence would be granted.[138] The Malayan Emergency, as it was known, began in 1948 and lasted until 1960, but by 1957, Britain felt confident enough to grant independence to the Federation of Malaya within the Commonwealth. In 1963, the 11 states of the federation together with Singapore, Sarawak and British North Borneo joined to form Malaysia, but in 1965 Chinese-dominated Singapore was expelled from the union following tensions between the Malay and Chinese populations.[139] Brunei, which had been a British protectorate since 1888, declined to join the union[140] and maintained its status until independence in 1984.

Suez and its aftermath

British Prime Minister Anthony Eden's decision to invade Egypt during the Suez Crisis ended his political career and revealed Britain's weakness as an imperial power.
In 1951, the Conservative Party was returned to power in Britain, under the leadership of Winston Churchill. Churchill and the Conservatives believed that Britain's position as a world power relied on the continued existence of the Empire, with the base at the Suez Canal allowing Britain to maintain its pre-eminent position in the Middle East in spite of the loss of India. However, Churchill could not ignore Gamal Abdul Nasser's new revolutionary government of Egypt that had taken power in 1952, and the following year it was agreed that British troops would withdraw from the Suez Canal zone and that Sudan would become independent by 1955.[141]
In 1956, Nasser unilaterally nationalised the Suez Canal. The response of the new British Prime Minister, Anthony Eden, was to collude with France to engineer an Israeli attack on Egypt that would give Britain and France an excuse to intervene militarily and retake the canal.[142] Eden infuriated his US counterpart, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, by his lack of consultation, and Eisenhower refused to back the invasion.[143] Another of Eisenhower's concerns was the possibility of a wider war with the Soviet Union after Nikita Khrushchev threatened to intervene on the Egyptian side. Eisenhower applied financial leverage by threatening to sell US reserves of the British pound and thereby precipitate a collapse of the British currency.[144] Though the invasion force was militarily successful in its objective of recapturing the Suez Canal,[145] UN intervention and US pressure forced Britain into a humiliating withdrawal of its forces, and Eden resigned.[146]
.The Suez Crisis very publicly exposed Britain's limitations to the world and confirmed Britain's decline on the world stage, demonstrating that henceforth it could no longer act without at least the acquiescence, if not the full support, of the United States.^ But it would mean the world to me if you could give me and any other young person hoping to act/direct some tips on how to start a career off..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I could without end continue, but I think you know how good you are and how excellent your work is..at least you should do it, because its the truth..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[147][148][149] The events at Suez wounded British national pride, leading one MP to describe it as "Britain's Waterloo"[150] and another to suggest that the country had become an "American satellite".[151] Margaret Thatcher later described the mindset she believed had befallen the British political establishment as "Suez syndrome",[152] from which Britain did not recover until the successful recapture of the Falkland Islands from Argentina in 1982.
While the Suez Crisis caused British power in the Middle East to weaken, it did not collapse.[153] Britain again soon deployed its armed forces to the region, intervening in Oman (1957), Jordan (1958) and Kuwait (1961), though on these occasions with American approval,[154] as the new Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's foreign policy was to remain firmly aligned with the United States.[150] Britain maintained a presence in the Middle East for another decade, withdrawing from Aden in 1967, and Bahrain in 1971.

Wind of change

Macmillan gave a speech in Cape Town, South Africa in February 1960 where he spoke of "the wind of change blowing through this continent."[155] Macmillan wished to avoid the same kind of colonial war that France was fighting in Algeria, and under his premiership decolonisation proceeded rapidly.[156] To the three colonies that had been granted independence in the 1950s—Sudan, the Gold Coast and Malaya—were added nearly ten times that number in the 1960s.[155]
British decolonisation in Africa. By the end of the 1960s, all but Rhodesia (the future Zimbabwe) and the South African mandate of South West Africa (Namibia) had achieved independence.
Britain's remaining colonies in Africa, except for Southern Rhodesia, were all granted independence by 1968 (see map). British withdrawal from the southern and eastern parts of Africa was complicated by the region's white settler populations, particularly in Rhodesia where racial tensions had led Ian Smith, the Prime Minister, to a Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the British Empire in 1965.[157] Rhodesia remained in a state of civil war between its black and white population until the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979, under which Rhodesia was temporarily returned to British colonial rule until elections could be held, under British supervision. The elections were held the following year and won by Robert Mugabe, who became the Prime Minister of the newly independent state of Zimbabwe.[158]
In the Mediterranean, a guerrilla war waged by Greek Cypriots ended (1960) in an independent Cyprus, with the UK retaining the military bases of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. The Mediterranean islands of Malta and Gozo were amicably granted independence from the UK in 1964, though the idea had been raised in 1955 of integration with Britain.[157]
Most of the UK's West Indies territories achieved independence after the departure in 1961 and 1962 of Jamaica and Trinidad from the West Indies Federation, established in 1958 in an attempt to unite the British Caribbean colonies under one government, but which collapsed following the loss of its two by far largest members.[159] Barbados achieved independence in 1966 and the remainder of the eastern Caribbean islands in the 1970s and 1980s, but Anguilla and the Turks and Caicos Islands opted to revert to British rule after they had already started on the path to independence.[160] The British Virgin Islands,[161] Cayman Islands[162] and Montserrat[163] opted to retain ties with Britain. Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966. Britain's last colony on the American mainland, British Honduras, became a self-governing colony in 1964 and was renamed Belize in 1973, achieving full independence in 1981. A dispute with Guatemala over claims to Belize was left unresolved.
British territories in the Pacific acquired independence between 1970 (Fiji) and 1980 (Vanuatu), the latter's independence having been delayed due to political conflict between English and French-speaking communities, as the islands had been jointly administered as a condominium with France.[53] Fiji, Tuvalu, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea chose to become Commonwealth realms.

End of empire

The granting of independence to Rhodesia (as Zimbabwe) and the New Hebrides (as Vanuatu) in 1980, and Belize in 1981 meant that, aside from a scattering of islands and outposts (and the acquisition in 1955 of an uninhabited rock in the Atlantic Ocean, Rockall),[164] the process of decolonisation that had begun after the Second World War was largely complete.
In 1982, Britain's resolve to defend its remaining overseas territories was tested when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, acting on a long-standing claim that dated back to the Spanish Empire.[165] Britain's ultimately successful military response to retake the islands during the ensuing Falklands War was viewed by many to have contributed to reversing the downward trend in the UK's status as a world power.[166]
.The same year, the Canadian government severed its last legal link with Britain by patriating the Canadian constitution from Britain.^ End of the year we have to write a paper on a film of our choice, and the teacher looked at me and said 'i bet you're gonna do the same as a kid last year.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The 1982 Canada Act passed by the British parliament ended the need for British involvement in changes to the Canadian constitution.[167] Equivalent acts were passed for Australia and New Zealand in 1986.[168]
In September 1982, the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher travelled to Beijing to negotiate with the Chinese government on the future of Britain's last major and most populous overseas territory, Hong Kong.[169] Under the terms of the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, Hong Kong Island itself had been ceded to Britain "in perpetuity", but the vast majority of the colony was constituted by the New Territories, which had been acquired under a 99 year lease in 1898, due to expire in 1997.[170] Thatcher, seeing parallels with the Falkland Islands, initially wished to hold Hong Kong and proposed British administration with Chinese sovereignty, though this was rejected by China.[171] .A deal was reached in 1984—under the terms of the Sino-British Joint Declaration, Hong Kong would become a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, maintaining its way of life for at least 50 years.^ I thought it would be a great story-line for a "Scrubs" episode, how people have just become "data" and not real human beings...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OK , this might sound "cheesy" as my british neighbours say but really, in many ways, your movie changed my life Zach.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But my family and I have wondered, because our family has been rooted in northern NJ for the past 50 years or so, we are Jewish, and people say my father resembles you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[172] The handover ceremony in 1997 marked for many,[173] including Charles, Prince of Wales[174] who was in attendance, "the end of Empire".[167][175]

Legacy

The UK retains sovereignty over 14 territories outside the British Isles,[176] which were renamed the British overseas territories in 2002.[177] Some are uninhabited except for transient military or scientific personnel; the remainder are self-governing to varying degrees and are reliant on the UK for foreign relations and defence. The British government has stated its willingness to assist any Overseas Territory that wishes to proceed to independence, where that is an option.[178] British sovereignty of several of the overseas territories is disputed by their geographical neighbours: Gibraltar is claimed by Spain, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are claimed by Argentina, and the British Indian Ocean Territory is claimed by Mauritius and Seychelles.[179] The British Antarctic Territory is subject to overlapping claims by Argentina and Chile, while many nations do not recognise any territorial claims to Antarctica.
Most former British colonies are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, a non-political, voluntary association of equal members, in which the UK has no privileged status. Fifteen members of the Commonwealth continue to share their head of state with the UK, as Commonwealth realms.
Decades, and in some cases centuries, of British rule and emigration have left their mark on the independent nations that arose from the British Empire. .The English language is the primary language of over 300 million people and the secondary language of over 400 million,[180] helped in part by the cultural influence of the United States, itself a product of the British Empire.^ I thought you might like to know how much influence your music choices for the soundtrack of Garden State had on many people.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The English parliamentary system served as the template for the governments for many former colonies, and English common law for legal systems.[181] The British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, one of the UK's highest courts of appeal, still serves as the highest court of appeal for several former colonies in the Caribbean and Pacific. .British Protestant missionaries who fanned out across the globe often in advance of soldiers and civil servants spread the Anglican Communion to all continents.^ I'm not sure if you respond to all the creepy fans who love you like me, but it would be cool if you did.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For all the non-french speaking people out there who read this comments: vo means version originale, which means original version ...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Love ya all Scrubs fans out there, we defenetly have something incommon!!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

British colonial architecture, such as in churches, railway stations and government buildings, continues to stand in many cities that were once part of the British Empire.[182] Ball games that were developed in Victorian Britain—football, cricket, rugby, lawn tennis and golf[183]—were exported, as were the British choice of system of measurement, the imperial system, and the British convention of driving on the left hand side of the road.
Political boundaries drawn by the British did not always reflect homogeneous ethnicities or religions, contributing to conflicts in Kashmir, Palestine, Sudan, Nigeria and Sri Lanka. The British Empire was also responsible for large migrations of peoples. .Millions left the British Isles, with the founding settler populations of the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand coming mainly from Britain and Ireland.^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I found this amazing new artist and every time I hear her I am reminded of the Garden State soundtrack.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Man I've got to come to the United States just to taste that...
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Tensions remain between the white settler populations of these countries and their indigenous minorities, and between settler minorities and indigenous majorities in South Africa and Zimbabwe. British settlement of Ireland has left its mark in the form of divided Catholic and Protestant communities in Northern Ireland. Millions of people moved to and from British colonies, with large numbers of Indians emigrating to other parts of the Empire. Chinese emigration, primarily from Southern China, led to the creation of Chinese-majority Singapore and small Chinese minorities in the Caribbean. The makeup of Britain itself was changed after the Second World War with immigration to the United Kingdom from the colonies to which it was granting independence.[184]

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Maddison 2001, pp. 98, 242.
  2. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 15.
  3. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 2.
  4. ^ a b Ferguson 2004, p. 3.
  5. ^ Andrews 1985, p. 45.
  6. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 4.
  7. ^ Canny, p. 35.
  8. ^ Thomas, pp. 155–158
  9. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 7.
  10. ^ Canny, p. 62.
  11. ^ Canny, p. 7.
  12. ^ Kenny, p. 5.
  13. ^ Taylor, p. 123.
  14. ^ Taylor, p. 119.
  15. ^ a b Olson, p. 466.
  16. ^ Canny, p. 63.
  17. ^ Canny, pp. 63–64.
  18. ^ Canny, p. 70.
  19. ^ Canny, p. 34.
  20. ^ James, p. 17.
  21. ^ Canny, p. 71.
  22. ^ Canny, p. 221.
  23. ^ Olson, p. 600.
  24. ^ a b Olson, p. 897.
  25. ^ Ferguson 2004, pp. 72–73.
  26. ^ a b Buckner, p. 25.
  27. ^ Lloyd, p. 37.
  28. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 62.
  29. ^ Canny, p. 228.
  30. ^ Marshall, pp. 440–64.
  31. ^ Magnusson, p. 531.
  32. ^ Macaulay, p. 509.
  33. ^ a b Ferguson 2004, p. 19.
  34. ^ Canny, p. 441.
  35. ^ Pagden, p. 90.
  36. ^ Olson, p. 1045.
  37. ^ Olson, p. 1122.
  38. ^ Olson, pp. 1121–22.
  39. ^ a b Pagden, p. 91.
  40. ^ Canny, p. 93.
  41. ^ Olson, p. 995.
  42. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 73.
  43. ^ Canny, p. 92.
  44. ^ Olson, p. 1026.
  45. ^ James, p. 119.
  46. ^ Marshall, p. 585.
  47. ^ Latimer, pp. 8, 30–34, 389–92.
  48. ^ Olson, p. 685.
  49. ^ Olson, p. 796.
  50. ^ Smith, p. 28.
  51. ^ Smith, p. 20.
  52. ^ a b c Olson, p. 808.
  53. ^ a b Olson, p. 806.
  54. ^ a b Olson, p. 87.
  55. ^ Olson, p. 1137.
  56. ^ "Waitangi Day". History Group, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/treaty/waitangi-day. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 
  57. ^ Porter, p. 579.
  58. ^ Mein Smith, p. 49.
  59. ^ James, p. 152.
  60. ^ Dalziel, pp. 64–65.
  61. ^ Porter, p. 14.
  62. ^ Porter, p. 204.
  63. ^ Hyam, p. 1.
  64. ^ Smith, p. 71.
  65. ^ Parsons, p. 3.
  66. ^ a b Porter, p. 401.
  67. ^ Porter, p. 332.
  68. ^ Olson, p. 285.
  69. ^ Porter, p. 8.
  70. ^ Marshall, pp. 156–57.
  71. ^ Dalziel, pp. 88–91.
  72. ^ a b c d Olson, p. 478.
  73. ^ Olson, p. 293.
  74. ^ Olson, p. 567.
  75. ^ Olson, p. 568.
  76. ^ Marshall, pp. 133–34.
  77. ^ James, p. 181.
  78. ^ a b c James, p. 182.
  79. ^ Royle, preface.
  80. ^ Hodge, p. 47.
  81. ^ Smith, p. 85.
  82. ^ Olson, p. 1070.
  83. ^ Ferguson 2004, pp. 230–33.
  84. ^ James, p. 274.
  85. ^ a b Olson, p. 989.
  86. ^ Olson, p. 248.
  87. ^ Porter, p. 187
  88. ^ a b Olson, p. 376.
  89. ^ James, p. 315.
  90. ^ O'Brien, p. 1.
  91. ^ Brown, p. 667.
  92. ^ Lloyd, p. 275.
  93. ^ Marshall, pp. 78–79.
  94. ^ Lloyd, p. 277.
  95. ^ Lloyd, p. 278.
  96. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 315.
  97. ^ Olson, p. 658.
  98. ^ Goldstein, p. 4.
  99. ^ Louis, p. 302.
  100. ^ Louis, p. 294.
  101. ^ Louis, p. 303.
  102. ^ Olson, p. 181.
  103. ^ Brown, p. 143.
  104. ^ Olson, p. 58.
  105. ^ Magee, p. 108.
  106. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 330.
  107. ^ a b James, p. 416.
  108. ^ Olson, pp. 400, 1072.
  109. ^ Brown, p. 292.
  110. ^ Olson, p. 745.
  111. ^ McIntyre, p. 187.
  112. ^ Brown, p. 68.
  113. ^ McIntyre, p. 186.
  114. ^ Brown, p. 69.
  115. ^ a b Olson, p. 1157.
  116. ^ Olson, p. 800.
  117. ^ Kenny, p. 21.
  118. ^ Lloyd, pp. 313–14.
  119. ^ Gilbert, p. 234.
  120. ^ a b Lloyd, p. 316.
  121. ^ James, p. 513.
  122. ^ Louis, p. 295.
  123. ^ Gilbert, p. 244.
  124. ^ Louis, p. 337.
  125. ^ Brown, p. 319.
  126. ^ James, p. 460.
  127. ^ Abernethy, p. 146.
  128. ^ Brown, p. 331.
  129. ^ "What's a little debt between friends?". BBC News. 10 May 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/4757181.stm. Retrieved 20 November 2008. 
  130. ^ a b Brown, p. 330.
  131. ^ Abernethy, p. 148.
  132. ^ Lloyd, p. 322.
  133. ^ Smith, p. 67.
  134. ^ Lloyd, p. 325.
  135. ^ Olson, p. 218.
  136. ^ Lloyd, p. 327.
  137. ^ Lloyd, p. 328.
  138. ^ Lloyd, p. 335.
  139. ^ Lloyd, p. 364.
  140. ^ Lloyd, p. 396.
  141. ^ Brown, pp. 339–40.
  142. ^ James, p. 581.
  143. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 355.
  144. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 356.
  145. ^ James, p. 583.
  146. ^ Olson, p. 398.
  147. ^ Brown, p. 342.
  148. ^ Smith, p. 105.
  149. ^ Burke, p. 602.
  150. ^ a b Brown, p. 343.
  151. ^ James, p. 585.
  152. ^ Thatcher.
  153. ^ Smith, p. 106.
  154. ^ James, p. 586.
  155. ^ a b Olson, p. 1165.
  156. ^ Louis, p. 46.
  157. ^ a b Olson, p. 945.
  158. ^ Olson, p. 715.
  159. ^ Olson, p. 1155.
  160. ^ Olson, p. 1111.
  161. ^ Olson, p. 1133.
  162. ^ Olson, p. 276.
  163. ^ Olson, p. 753.
  164. ^ "1955: Britain claims Rockall". BBC News. 1955-09-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/21/newsid_4582000/4582327.stm. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 
  165. ^ Olson, p. 419.
  166. ^ James, p. 629.
  167. ^ a b Brown, p. 594.
  168. ^ Brown, p. 689.
  169. ^ Brendon, p. 654.
  170. ^ Olson, p. 533.
  171. ^ Brendon, pp. 654–55.
  172. ^ Brendon, p. 656.
  173. ^ Brendon, p. 660.
  174. ^ "Charles' diary lays thoughts bare". BBC News. 2006-02-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4740684.stm. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 
  175. ^ "BBC - History - Britain, the Commonwealth and the End of Empire". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/endofempire_overview_07.shtml. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 
  176. ^ "British Overseas Territory definition". Encarta. http://www.encarta.ca/dictionary_701704776/British_Overseas_Territory.html. Retrieved 29 May 2009. 
  177. ^ House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee Overseas Territories Report, p. 145
  178. ^ House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee Overseas Territories Report, pp. 146,153
  179. ^ "British Indian Ocean Territory". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/io.html. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 
  180. ^ Crystal, p. 109.
  181. ^ Ferguson 2004, p. 307.
  182. ^ Marshall, pp. 238–40.
  183. ^ Olsen, pp. 1051–56.
  184. ^ Dalziel, p. 135.

Bibliography

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.When the British politician Lord Salisbury complained about colonial defence expenditures in 1861, he famously said such expenditures were being used "to indulge in the sentiment that the sun never sets on our Empire." Although in 1861 the British Empire was not yet fully formed, Salisbury was quite right about the massive size of it.^ And speaking of scrubs i didnt quite get what u said about it being over soon with NBC. So does that mean that the this season is the final one?
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well in France "the Ex" isn't shown yet but...I guess I'll talk about it to my friends at the right moment!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't read celebrity gossip, so I have no idea what's being said about you, but I'm sure it is annoying to live with that aspect of fame.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Alexander's Macedon, Caesar's Rome and the caliphs' Islamic Empire all were exceeded by the British Empire, which was the largest empire in history on the basis of landmass, population and GDP. Indeed, by 1913, at about 458 million people and 36.6 million km², the Empire contained about a quarter of the world's population and total landmass [1]. .The overseas British Empire began humbly enough with a settlement at Newfoundland in present-day Canada near the turn of the 16th century, but it would eventually be anything but humble with the rich lands of India, North America and South Africa counted among its subjects at various times.^ It always makes me wonder if it really would turn out to be that fun when I become a doctor eventually..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I love NYC. I visited a couple of years ago for 6 days, which was nowhere near long enough.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today its effects still reverberate around the world, both in the Commonwealth of Nations, an organisation of former imperial subject states headed by Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, and legacies of British rule, such as the English language, notions of common law and constitutional government and the peculiarly British sport of cricket.^ I live in India, by the way, and the big co-incidence is that Garden State [which I still haven't seen fully!!:(] is coming on at 4.30 today.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Definition

Dating the beginning of the British Empire can be a bit problematic. For some Celts and Frenchmen, the British (or more nearly, "English") Empire already had been plaguing them for centuries when the British colony at Newfoundland was started in 1496-1497. English kings had fought bloody wars to subjugate the Celtic lands of Wales, Scotland and Ireland to their control and had also laid claim to much of France during the 100 Years War. However, for the purpose of this class, when we say "British Empire," we mean the non-European overseas British Empire, which indeed did begin with the settlement at Newfoundland in 1496-1497.
That said, the finite political boundaries of an island nation gave Great Britain a clear point at which to end its European consolidation, and an easily defensible border to avoid invasion from other European powers while focusing its military might on other continents.

English Imperialism as Precursor to British Imperialism

The concept of a "British Imperialism", rests on the idea of a consolidated "Britain" as entity, which was the product of an English imperial drive. English Imperial aspirations began with medieval claims on France, Wales, Ireland and Scotland. Edward I successfully subdued the Welsh in 1282, but battles with the Scots and French led to no clear victory. By 1558, England had lost its last remaining French possession, but in 1603, the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne as James I of England brought the two kingdoms into personal union, uniting the island of Britain for the first time ever.
Once Scotland and England were personally united, England lost its only hostile land border. .The lesson learned from the long series of medieval wars was that possessions claimed in continental Europe would be temporary possessions at best, but consolidation within the islands could lead to a strong, highly defensible state.^ I am from NY, Long Island really, I know your from New Jersey, but we could make it work.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That would make SCRUBS the best Sitcom ever made (and finished within reasonable time) in the United States history.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Act of Union of 1707 unified Scotland and England into the United Kingdom of Great Britain, then expanded the union to include Ireland with the Act of Union of 1801.

Pre-conditions for empire

The foundations of the early British Empire were in its oceanic strength. This started with the development of the English merchant marine system during the reign of Henry VII, which promoted overseas trading. During his reign Henry VII also constructed England's first dry-dock, and expanded its small navy.
After the Union of Britain, the lack of hostile land borders meant sea power was Britain's highest priority.

First forays

Build up

The British Empire annexed and conquered South Africa in the Zulu and the Boer wars, and captured Egypt and Sudan from the north. It was granted Cyprus from the Ottoman empire. The British explorers colonized Oceania and Australia. .Which built up quickly as they exported prisoners there.^ I feel like you they usually have a featured guest and I just know you would be terribly wonderful up there.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They also controlled parts of Central America. In the early 19th Century they annexed southern Asia. Taking Burma, India creating a new colony known as Pakistan.

Decline

The British empire declined in the 20th century, due to the World Wars I and II, which cost it millions in repairs and military. .In the 1940s it became a commonwealth and gave all of its colonies independence, even though today it still has the most overseas territories in the world.^ Even though I've seen every episode at least 5 times, it still makes me laugh everytime.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though you still have some king of link with then i have to say they have lost their minds...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though I really have nothing to say, like most of the 400 something people before me, I feel this compelling need to leave a post.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But only as they don't have the economy and population to survive. The largest overseas territory is the Falkland Islands, and the most populated are the Cayman Islands.

References


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BRITISH EMPIRE, the name now loosely given to the whole aggregate of territory, the inhabitants of which, under various forms of government, ultimately look to the British crown as the supreme head. The term " empire " is in this connexion obviously used rather for convenience than in any sense equivalent to that of the older or despotic empires of history.
The land surface of the earth is estimated to extend over about 52,500,000 sq. m. Of this area the British empire occupies nearly one-quarter, extending over an area of about E 12,000,000 sq. m. By far the greater portion lies within the temperate zones, and is suitable for white settlement. The notable exceptions are the southern half of India and Burma; East, West and Central Africa; the West Indian colonies; the northern portion of Australia; New Guinea, British Borneo and that portion of North America which extends into Arctic regions. The area of the territory of the empire is divided almost equally between the southern and the northern hemispheres, the great divisions of Australasia and South Africa covering between them in the southern hemisphere 5,308,506 sq. m., while the United Kingdom, Canada and India, including the native states, cover between them in the northern hemisphere 5,271,375 sq. m. The alternation of the seasons is thus complete, one-half of the empire enjoying summer, while one-half is in winter. The division of territory between the eastern and western hemispheres is less equal, Canada occupying alone in the western hemisphere 3,653,946 sq. m., while Australasia, South Africa, India and the United Kingdom occupy together in the eastern hemisphere 6,925,975 sq. m. .As a matter of fact, however, the eastern portions of Australasia border so nearly upon the western hemisphere that the distribution of day and night throughout the empire is, like the alternations of the seasons, almost complete, one-half enjoying daylight, while the other half is in darkness.^ This sounds like sometihing everyone would write, but I have all the seasons ( one to four) that has been relised on dvd and I love them.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I just spent the last two days watching Seasons 4 and 5 of Scrubs in their entirity (I think I completely butchered that spelling).
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is almost like you are my other son.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These alternations of time and of seasons, combined with the variety of soils and climates, are calculated to have an increasingly important effect upon the material and industrial, as well as upon the social and political developments of the empire. This will become evident in considering the industrial productions of the different divisions, and the harvest seasons which permit the summer produce of one portion of the empire to supply the winter requirements of its other markets, and conversely.
The empire contains or is bounded by some of the highest mountains, the greatest lakes, and the most important rivers of the world. Its climates may be said to include all the known climates of the world; its soils are no less various. In the prairies of central Canada it possesses some of the most valuable wheat-producing land; in the grass lands of the interior of Australia the best pasture country; and in the uplands of South Africa the most valuable goldand diamond-bearing beds which exist. .The United Kingdom at present produces more coal than any other single country except the United States.^ Someday I really hope that I get to meet you, because you seem like you're more down to earth than other celebrities.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I recently went to Virginia Beach which is the east coast...and i found that i liked it a lot more than the 5 midwest states i have lived in.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The effect of climate throughout the empire in modifying the type of the Anglo-Saxon race has as yet received only partial attention, and conclusions regarding it are of a somewhat empiric nature. The general tendency in Canada is held to be towards somewhat smaller size, and a hardy active habit; in Australia to a tall, slight, pale development locally known as " cornstalkers," characterized by considerable nervous and intellectual activity. In New Zealand the type preserves almost exactly the characteristics of the British Isles. The South African, both Dutch and British, is readily recognized by an apparently sun-dried, lank and hard habit of body. In the tropical possessions of the empire, where white settlement does not take place to any considerable extent, the individual alone is affected. The type undergoes no modification. It is to be observed in reference to this interesting aspect of imperial development, that the multiplication and cheapening of channels of communication and means of travel throughout the empire will tend to modify the future accentuation of race difference, while the variety of elements in thevast area occupied should have an important, though as yet not scientifically traced, effect upon the British imperial type.
The white population of the empire 1 reached in 1901 a total of over 53,000,000, or something over one-eighth of its entire population, which, including native races, is estimated at about 400,000,000. The white population includes some French, Dutch and Spanish peoples, but is mainly of Anglo-Saxon race. It is distributed roughly as follows United Kingdom and home dependencies Australasia. .
British North America Africa (Dutch and British) India .
West Indies and Bermuda 53 ,040,468 The native population of the empire includes types of the principal black, yellow and brown races, classing with these the high-type races of the East, which may almost be called white. The native population of India, mainly high type, brown, was returned at the census of 1901 as 294,191,379. The population of India is divided into 118 groups on the basis of language. These may, however, be collected into the following principal groups: (A) Malayo-Polynesian.
(B) Indo-Chinese: i. Mon-Khmer.
iii. Siamese-Chinese.
(C) Dravido-Munda: i. Munda (Kolarian).
Indo-Aryan sub-family.
(E) Semitic.
(F) Hamitic.
(G) Unclassed, e.g. Gipsy.
Eastern Colonies Ceylon, high type, brown and mixed 1 The census returns for 1901 from the various parts of the empire were condensed for the first time in 1906 into a blue-book under the title of Census of the British Empire, Report with Summary. The white population of British South Africa according to the census of 1904 was 1,132,226.
. 41,608,791.4,662,000 5,500,000.1,000,0002.169,677 100,000 Straits Settlements, brown, mixed and Chinese Hong-Kong, Chinese and brown. .
North Borneo, mixed brown and Sarawak .
0
- 17
.
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..4.q.94.)(..,
.
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.41
,
air y_prus
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7
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Ceylon
('
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. '

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periods:-
.
...,.
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and its growth
Principal territories
,
eSt.Lucia
St. yi_n_c_e_nt Barad.,
. GrenadaS ,,,T.02:14g9_
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0 Longimde W. 60 0 of Greenwich F o' 30° Longitude E. 60° of Greenwich oo° K
.3,568,824 570,000 306,130 700,000 5,144,954 Of the various races which inhabit these Eastern dependencies the most important are the 2,000,000 Sinhalese and the 954,000 Tamil that make up the greater part of the population of Ceylon.^ And yes, conversations with strangers is a very important part of what makes life so entertaining!!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The rest is made up of Arabs, Malays, Chinese (in the Straits Settlements and Hong-Kong), Dyaks, Eurasians and others.
West Indies. The West Indies, including the continental colonies of British Guiana and Honduras, and seventeen islands or groups of islands, have a total coloured population of about 1,912,655. The colonies of this group which have the largest coloured populations are: Jamaica - Chiefly black, some brown and yellow 790,000 Trinidad and Tobago - Black and brown.. 250,000 British Guiana - Black and brown. .. 286,000 1,326,000 The populations of the West Indies are very various, being made up largely of imported African negroes. In Jamaica these contribute four-fifths of the population. There are also in the islands a considerable number of imported East Indian coolies and some Chinese. The aboriginal races include American Indians of the mainland and Caribs. With these there has been intermixture of Spanish and Portuguese blood, and many mixed types have appeared. The total European population of this group of colonies amounts to upwards of 80,000, to which 15,000 on account of Bermuda may be added.
Africa. South Chiefly black, estimated. 5,211,329 Central. 2,000,000 The aboriginal races of South Africa were the Bushmen and Hottentots. Both these races are rapidly diminishing in numbers, and in British South Africa it is expected that they will in the course of the twentieth century become extinct. Besides these primitive races there are the dark-skinned negroids of Bantu stock, commonly known in their tribal groups as Kaffirs, Zulu, Bechuana and Damara, which are again subdivided into many lesser groups. The Bantu compose the greater part of the native population. .There are also in South Africa Malays and Indians and others, who during the last two hundred years have been introduced from Java, Ceylon, Madagascar, Mozambique and British India, and by intermarriage with each other and with the natives have produced a hybrid population generally classed together under the heading of the Mixed Races.^ My boyfriend of two years who I wanted (and still want) to marry broke up with me about a month ago.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Me last year = girl in blue dress who said hello and shook your hand while the Band from TV was playing.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moved last year from Florida to South Orange - I think we love it as much as you do!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These are of all colours, varying from yellow to dark brown. The tribes of Central Africa are as yet less known. Many of them exhibit racial characteristics allied to those of the tribes of South Africa, but with in some cases an admixture of Arab blood.
.
Natives estimated
Asiatics
Zanzibar - Black and brown. .
Uganda. .
4,000,000
25,000
200,000
3,200,000
Total .
7,425,000
West Africa.
Estimated.
Nigeria (including Lagos) - Black and brown
15,000,000
Gold Coast and hinterland - Chiefly black .
2,700,000
Sierra Leone „ „
I ,000,000
Gambia „
163,000
18,863,000
East Africa. Protectorate - Black and brown: From east to west across Africa the aboriginal nations are mostly of the black negroid type, their varieties being only imperfectly known. .The tendency of some of the lower negroid types has been to drift towards the west coast, where they still practise cannibalistic and fetish rites.^ Even though you still have some king of link with then i have to say they have lost their minds...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The repeats are helping some but they still aren't the same.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the east coast are found much higher types approaching to the Christian races of Abyssinia, and from east to west there has been a wide admixture of Arab blood producing a light-brown type.^ I would also have to agree that East Coast is more like home than West Coast.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't know if the weather up there is as hot as it is where I live here on the east coast but it helps to cool me down.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I recently went to Virginia Beach which is the east coast...and i found that i liked it a lot more than the 5 midwest states i have lived in.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Uganda and Nigeria a large proportion of the population is Arab and relatively light-skinned.
Australasia. Australia - Black, very low type. .
Chinese and half castes, yellow. New Zealand - Maoris, brown, Chinese and half castes.. Fiji - Polynesian, black and brown Papua - Polynesian, black and brown The native races of Australia and the Polynesian groups of islands are divided into two main types known as the dark and light Polynesian. The dark type, which is black, is of a very low order, and in some of the islands still retains its cannibal habits. The aboriginal tribes of Australia are of a low-class black race, but generally peaceful and inoffensive in their habits. The white Polynesian races are of a very superior type, and exhibit, as in the Maoris of New Zealand, characteristics of a high order. The natives of Papua (New Guinea) are in a very low state of civilization. The estimate given of their numbers is approximate, as no census has been taken.
Canada. Indians - Brown. 100,000 The only coloured native races of Canada are the Red Indians, many in tribal variety, but few in number.
Native Populations:
India
294, 191 ,379
Ceylon and Eastern Colonies
5,144,954
West Indies. .
.
I,912,655
South Africa .
5,211,329
British Central Africa
2,000,000
East Africa .
7,425,000
West Africa
18,863,000
Australasia and Islands
824,000
Canada .
100,000
335,672,317
White populations
53,04 0, 468
Total
.
388,712,785
Summary. This is without taking into account the population of the lesser crown colonies or allowing for the increase likely to be shown by later censuses. Throughout the empire, and notably in the United Kingdom, there is among the white races a considerable sprinkling of Jewish blood.
.The latest calculation of the entire population of the world, including a liberal estimate of 650,000,000 for peoples not brought under any census, gives a total of something over 1,500,000,000. The population of the empire may therefore be calculated as amounting to something more than one-fourth of the population of the world.^ We think it may have come up one of the pipes or something.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I miss the Delacorte on a summer day, sitting in line and talking to people whose lives were far more interesting than mine.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm going to thank you for giving me a place to escape, a place to laugh, a world apart from the one I live in in a difficult time.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a matter of first importance in the geographical distribution of the empire that the five principal divisions, the United Kingdom, South Africa, India, Australia and Canada Divisions. are separated from each other by the three great oceans of the world. .The distance as usually calculated in nautical miles: from an English port to the Cape of Good Hope is 5840 m.; from the Cape of Good Hope to Bombay is 4610; from Bombay to Melbourne is 5630; from Melbourne to Auckland is 1830; from Auckland to Vancouver is 6210; from Halifax to Liverpool is 2744. From a British port direct to Bombay by way of the Mediterranean it is 6272; from a British port by the same route to Sydney 11,548 m.^ Good Morning or so Zach, you may excuse my English and even the way I like to express myself, because I might using the wrong words.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These great dist nces have necessitated the acquisition of intermediate ports suitable for coaling stations on the trade routes, and have determined the position of many of the lesser crown colonies which are held simply for military and commercial purposes. Such are the Bermudas, Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, Labuan, Hong-Kong, which complete. the
200,000 50,000 53,000 121,000 400,000 824,000 chain of connexion on the eastern route, and such on other routes are the lesser West African stations, Ascension, St. Helena, the Mauritius and Seychelles, the Falklands, Tristan da Cunha, and the groups of the western Pacific. Other annexations of the British empire have been rocky islets of the northern Pacific required for the purpose of telegraph stations in connexion with an all-British cable.
.For purposes of political administration the empire falls into the three sections of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the dependencies of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man; the Indian empire, consisting of British India and the feudatory native states; and the colonial empire, comprising all other colonies and dependencies.^ I thought you were great in it, but the other night all my friends were watching it and at the end credits when I discovered you wrote, directed, and starred in it, i knew i'd love to contact you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have watched Scrubs for a while now, but so far Garden State has had the biggest impact on me then all your other things.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is syndicated on about 3 different channels that all fall perfectly one after another on the weeknights, so between all of the other goob and bad (mostly bad...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the modern sense of extension beyond the limits of the United Kingdom the growth of the empire is of comparatively. recent date. The Channel Islands became British as a part of the Norman inheritance of William the Conqueror. The Isle of Man, which was for a short time held in conquest by Edward I. and restored, was sold by its titular sovereign to Sir William Scrope, earl of Wiltshire, in 1393, and by his subsequent attainder for high treason and the confiscation of his estates, became a fief of the English crown. It was granted by Henry IV. in 1406 to Sir John Stanley, K.C., ancestor of the earls of Derby, by whom it was held till 1736, when it passed to James Murray, 2nd duke of Atholl, as heir-general of the 10th earl. It was inherited by his daughter Charlotte, wife of the 3rd duke of Atholl, who sold it to the crown for £70,000 and an annuity of £2000. With these exceptions and the nominal possession taken of Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, all the territorial acquisitions of the empire have been made in the 17th and subsequent centuries.
The following is a list of the British colonies and dependencies (other than those belonging to the Indian empire) together with a summary statement of the date and method of their acquisition. Arranged in chronological order they give some idea of the rate of growth of the empire. The dates are not, however, in all cases those in which British sovereignty was established. .They indicate in some instances only the first definite step, such as the building of a fort, the opening of a trading station, or other act, which led later to the incorporation in the empire of the country indicated.^ But it would mean the world to me if you could give me and any other young person hoping to act/direct some tips on how to start a career off..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why don't you see if some other american station will sign the show.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I just wish some of the Doctors I worked with were like the character, and if only we had some residents (my favorites) that were like the characters on Scrubs and less, like, well...they do act like "the Todd".
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the case of Australian states or Canadian provinces originally part of other states or provinces the date is that, approximately, of the first settlement of British in the district named; e.g. there were British colonists in Saskatchewan in the last half of the 18th century, but the province was not constituted until 1905. Save where otherwise stated, British authority has been continuous from the first date mentioned in the table.^ Hello from france!Hey Zach, I saw garden state last week it was fantastic,the music was excellent!continue this way, .
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I must admit watching 'The Last Kiss' with the other half was abit sketchy, as we had only just found out I was pregnant.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reference should be made to the articles on the various colonies.
Name. Date. Method of Acquisition.
Newfoundland.. 1583 Possession taken by Sir H. Gilbert for the crown.
1632 1632 1638 1638 Finally passed to Great Britain in 1803.
c. 1650 Settlement. Danish forts bought 1850, Dutch forts 1871. Northern Territories added 1897.
Name. Date. Method of Acquisition. 17th Century (contd.). St Helena. 1651 Settled by East India Co. Government vested in British crown 1833.

1655 Conquest.

1666 Settlement.
1666-1672 Settlement and conquest.
1669 Settlement under royal charter of Hudson's Bay Co. Purchased from imp. gov. 1869, and transferred to Canada 1870.
Turks and Caicos Is.. 1678 Settlement.
Lath Century. 1704 Capitulation.
? 1713 Cession.

1758 Conquest.

1759-1790 With New Brunswick and Nova 1 7591 79 0 Scotia constituted Dominion of Canada 1867. Prince Edward Is. enters the confederation 1873. In 1880 all British possessions (other than Newfoundland) in North America annexed to the 1761 1762 1762 1763 Cession. Afterwards in French possession. Reconquered 1803.
1765 Settlement. Reoccupied 1832.
1766 Settlement. Separated from N.W. Territories of Canada 1905.
1780 Settlement.
1786 Settlement and cession. Vested to (1858) in crown by E. I. Co.
1824 Transferred from Indian to colonial possessions 1867. Malacca in British occupation 1795-1818.
1787 Settlement.
c. 1788 Separated from N.W. Territories of Canada 1905.
Settlement.
Capitulation.
19th Century. 1803 Capitulation.
1803 Settlement.
1806 Capitulation. Present limits not attained until 1895. First British occupation 1795-1803.1806 Capitulation.
1810 1811 Settlement by Red River or Selkirk colony. Created province of Canada 1870.1815 Military occupation.
1821 Settlement under Hudson's Bay Co. Entered Canadian confederation 1871.
1824 Settlement. Natal Boers submit 1843 1824 Separated from New South Wales 1859.
1826 Settlement.
1834 Separated from New South Wales 1851.
1836 Settlement.
1840 Settlement and treaty.
1841 Treaties. Kowloon on the mainland added in 1860; additional area leased 1898.
1846 Cession. Incorporated in Straits Settlements 1906.
1861 Cession. South Nigeria amalgamated with Lagos, under style of Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria 1906.
1874 Cession.
17th Century. 1605-1625 Settlement. 1609 1618 1623 1628 1628 A second time in 1816.
Did not become wholly British until 1713.
Ceded to France 1632; recovered 1713.
Barbados. Bermudas. Gambia .
St Christopher Novia Scotia Nevis Montserrat Antigua. Honduras .
St Lucia .
Dominion. Conquest.
Capitulation.
British Guiana .
Tasmania.. Cape of Good Hope .
Seychelles. Mauritius. Manitoba .
Ascension and Tristan da Cunha B. Columbia and Vancouver Island Natal.. Queensland West Australia Victoria .
South Australia New Zealand. Hong-Kong. .
Lagos .
Fiji Jamaica .
N. W. Territories of Canada Gibraltar. New Brunswick. Prince Edward Is. Ontario. .
Falkland Is. Saskatchewan Pitcairn I.. .. Straits Settlements Sierra Leone. Alberta. .
New South Wales. 1788 Ceylon. .. 1795 Trinidad.. 1797 Malta.. 1800 1888 Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter. Trans ferred to crown 1895.
1888-1893 Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter.
Protectorate declared.
Zanzibar 1890 Treaty and protectorate. Uganda 1890-1896 Protectorate declared. Nyasaland 1891 Ashanti 1896 Military occupation. Lease from China.
Wei-hai-wei 1898 Pacific Islands 1898 Annexed for purposes of proChristmas, Fanning, jected Pacific cable. Penrhyn, Suvarov Choiseul and Isabel Is. 1899 Cession.
(Solomon Group) 1900 Protectorate declared.
Tonga and Niue. .
1900 Annexation. Formerly British Orange Free State. .
1848-1854.
Transvaal and Swaz11900 Annexation. Formerly British land 1877-1881.
loth Century. Kelantan, Trengganu, 1909 Cession from Siam.
&c.
.In the Pacific are also Bird Island, Bramble Cay, Cato Island, Cook Islands, Danger Islands, Ducie Island, Dudosa, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Kermadec Islands, Macquarie Island, Manihiki Islands, Nassau Island, Palmerston Island, Palmyra Island, Phoenix Group, Purdy Group, Raine Island, Rakaanga Island, Rotumah Island, Surprise Island, Washington or New York Island, Willis Group and Wreck Reef.^ Hi stranger, Whenever it is raining in Berlin, I am thinking of New York.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So whenever it starts to rain in Berlin I wished I would be back in New York, because as it happens, I never carry one with me.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the Indian Ocean there are, besides the colonies already mentioned, Rodriguez, the Chagos Islands, St Brandon Islands, Amirante Islands, Aldabra, Kuria Muria Islands, Maldive Islands and some other small groups.
In certain dependencies the sovereignty of Great Britain is not absolute. The island of Cyprus is nominally still part of the Turkish empire, but in 1878 was handed over to Great Britain for occupation and administration; Great Britain now making to the Porte on account of the island an annual payment of 5000. The administration is in the hands of an official styled high commissioner, who is invested with the powers usually conferred on a colonial governor. In Zanzibar and other regions of equatorial Africa the native rulers retain considerable powers; in the Far East certain areas are held on lease from China.
Egypt, without forming part of the British empire, came under the military occupation of Great Britain in 1882. " By right of conquest " Great Britain subsequently claimed a share in the administration of the former Sudan provinces of Egypt, and an agreement of the 19th of January 1899 established the joint sovereignty of Great Britain and Egypt over what is now known as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
The Indian section of the empire was acquired during the 17th-19th centuries under a royal charter granted to the East India Company by Queen Elizabeth in 1600. It was transferred to the imperial government in 1858, and Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress under the Royal Titles Act in 1877. The following list gives the dates and method of acquisition of the centres of the main divisions of the Indian empire. They have, in most instances, grown by general process of extension to their present dimensions.
Date. Method of Acquisition.
By treaty and subsequent conquest. Fort St George, the foundation of Madras. was the first territorial possession of the E.I.Co. in India. It was acquired by treaty with its Indian ruler. Madras was raised into a presidency in 1683; ceded to France 1746; recovered 1748.
Treaty and cession. Trade first established 1608. Ceded to British crown by Portugal 1661. Transferred to E.I. Co. 1668. Presidency removed from Surat 1687.
Treaty and subsequent conquests. First trade settlement established by treaty at Pipli in Orissa 1633. Erected into presidency by separation from Madras 1681. Virtual sovereignty announced by E.I. Co., as result of conquests of Clive, 1765.
By conquests and treaty through successive stages, of which the principal dates were 1801-3 - 14-15. In 1832 the nominal sovereignty of Delhi, till then retained by the Great Mogul, was resigned into the hands of the E.I. Co. Oudh, of which the conquest may be said to have begun with the battle of Baxar in 1764, was finally annexed in 1856.
Central Provinces.. 1802-1817 By conquest and treaty.
Eastern Bengal and 1825-1826 Conquest and cession. The Assam Bengal portion of the province by separation from Bengal in 1905.
Burma. 1824-1852 Conquest and cession.
Punjab.. 1849 Conquest and annexation. Made into distinct province 1859.
N.-W. Frontier Province 1901 Subdivision.
Ajmere and Merwara. 1818 By conquest and cession.
1834 Conquest and annexation. British Baluchistan. 1854-1876 Conquest and treaty.
Andaman Islands.. 1858 Annexation.
The following is a list of some of the principal Indian states which are more or less under the control of the British government: I. In direct political relations with the governor-general in council.
2. Under the Rajputana agency. Udaipur. Jodhpur. Bikanir. Jaipur (and feudatories).
3. Under the Central Indian agency.
4. Under the Bombay government.
Cutch. Khairpur (Sind). Kolhapur (and dependencies). Bhaunagar.
Name. Date.
.rgth Century W. Pacific Islands, in1877 cluding Union, Ellice, Gilbert, Southern Solomon, and other groups Federated Malay States 1874-1895 Cyprus.^ SCRUBS, I absolutely cannot get enough of Garden State..actually me and my group of friends watched it my friend, Elizabeth's, house the other night.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.. .. 1878 North Borneo 1881 Papua 1884 Nigeria 1884-1886 Somaliland.. 1884-1886 Bechuanaland. 1885-1891 Zululand 1887 Method of Acquisition.
(contd.). High commission created by order in council, giving jurisdiction over islands not included in other colonial governments, nor within jurisdiction of other civilized powers. Protectorates declared over all these islands by 1900. Treaty.
Occupied by treaty.
Treaty and settlement under royal charter. Protectorate assumed 1888.
Protectorate declared.
Treaty, conquest and settlement under royal charter. Chartered Co.'s territory transferred to crown, and whole divided into North and South Nigeria 1900.
Occupation and cession. Protectorate declared 1887. Protectorate declared. Southern portion annexed to Cape Colony 1895.
Annexation. Incorporated in Natal 1897.
Protectorate declared.
Sarawak Brunei British East Africa Rhodesia Name. Madras Bombay .
Bengal United Provinces of Agra and Oudh 1639 to 1 74 8 1608 to 1685 1633 to 1765 1764 to 1856 Bharatpur. Dholpur.
5. Under the Madras government. Travancore. Cochin.
6. Under the Central Provinces government. Bastar.
7. Under the Bengal government. Kuch Behar. Sikkim.
8. Under United Provinces government. Rampur. Garhwal.
9. Under the Punjab government.
Bahawalpur. Sirmur (Nahan).
to. Under the government of Burma.
In addition to these there are British tracts known as the Upper Burma frontier and the Burma frontier. There is also a sphere of British influence in the border of Afghanistan. .The state of Nepal, though independent as regards its internal administration, has been since the campaign of 1814-15 in close relations with Great Britain.^ Garden State and The Last Kiss inspired me to take a lot of turns in my life even though I'm just 15.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is bound to receive a British resident, and its political relations with other states are controlled by the government of India. All these native states have come into relative dependency upon Great Britain as a result of conquest or of treaty consequent upon the annexation of the neighbouring provinces. The settlement of Aden, with its"dependencies of Perim and Sokotra Island, forms part of the government of Bombay.
This vast congeries of states, widely different in character, and acquired by many different methods, holds together under the supreme headship of the crown on a generally A acknowledged triple principle of self-government, g P P? P g self-support and self-defence. .The principle is more fully applied in some parts of the empire than in others; there are some parts which have not yet completed their political evolution; some others in which the principle is temporarily or for special reasons in abeyance; others, again - chiefly those of very small extent, which are held for purposes of the defence or advantage of the whole - to which it is not applicable; but the principle is generally acknowledged as the structural basis upon which the constitution of the empire exists.^ I think you are a very talented actor and although I was sad about Scrubs ending...I know you will have many roles in some more great movies!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strange how it doesn't seem to bother most of us when we feed a dog or a person some other part(s) of another critter, but when it comes to THAT part.....
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One reason being that you're a good on screen kisser just like shia lebouf and some others.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In its relation to the empire the home section of the British Isles is distinguished from the others as the place of origin of the British race and the residence of the crown. The history and constitutional development of this portion of the empire will be found fully treated under separate headings. .(See England; Wales; Ireland; Scotland; UNITED KINGDOM; English History; India; Africa; Australia; Canada; &C.) It is enough to say that for purposes of administration the Indian empire is divided into nine great provinces and four minor commissionerships.^ I hope I am lucky enough to run into you oneday in NY I am sure I won't , so I want to say "THANK YOU ZACH FOR BEING YOU!" You are a sweet gifted actor!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anywhozer ma bob - it's been great talkin to ya, (I can't really say with ya) can't wait to see you in more movies and I can't wait to start renting scrubs cuz now I'm into the show.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The nine great provinces are presided over by two governors (Bombay and Madras), five lieut.-governors (Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, United Provinces [Agra and Oudh], the Punjab and Burma), a chief commissioner (the Central Provinces) and an agent to the governor-general (the N.-W. Frontier Province). The four minor commissionerships are presided over each by a chief commissioner. Above these the supreme executive authority in India is vested in the viceroy in council. The council consists of six ordinary members besides the existing commander-in-chief. For legislative purposes the governor-general's council is increased by the addition of fifteen members nominated by the crown, and has power under certain restrictions to make laws for British India, for British subjects in the native states, and for native Indian subjects of the crown in any part of the world. The administration of the Indian empire in England is carried on by a secretary of state for India assisted by a council of not less than ten members. The expenditure of the revenues is under the control of the secretary in council.
Tl'.e colonial empire comprises over fifty distinct governments. It is divided into colonies of three classes and dependencies; these, again, are in some instances associated for administrative purposes in federated groups. The three classes of colonies are crown colonies, colonies possessing representative institutions but not responsible government, and colonies possessing representative institutions and responsible government. In crown colonies the crown has entire control of legislation, and the public officers are under the control of the home government. In representative colonies the crown has only a veto on legislation, but the home government retains control of the public officers. In responsible colonies the crown retains a veto upon legislation, but the home government has no control of any public officer except the governor.
In crown colonies - with the exception of Gibraltar and St Helena, where laws may be made by the governor alone - laws are made by the governor with the concurrence of a council nominated by the crown. In some crown colonies, chiefly those acquired by conquest or cession, the authority of this council rests wholly on the crown; in others, chiefly those acquired by settlement, the council is created by the crown under the authority of local or imperial laws. The crown council of Ceylon may be cited as an example of the first kind, and the crown council of Jamaica of the second.
In colonies possessing representative institutions without responsible government, the crown cannot (generally) legislate by order in council, and laws are made by the governor with the concurrence of the legislative body or bodies, one at least of these bodies in cases where a second chamber exists possessing a preponderance of elected representatives. The Bahamas, Barbados, and Bermuda have two legislative bodies - one elected and one nominated by the crown; Malta and the Leeward Islands have but one, Lwhich is partly elected and partly nominated.
Under responsible government legislation is carried on by parliamentary means exactly as at home, with a cabinet responsible to parliament, the crown reserving only a right of veto, which is exercised at the discretion of the governor in the case of certain bills. The executive councils in those colonies, designated as at home by parliamentary choice, are appointed by the governor alone, and the other public officers only nominally by the governor on the advice of his executive council.
Colonial governors are classed as governors-general; governors; lieut.-governors; administrators; high commissioners; and commissioners, according to the status of the colony and dependency, or group of colonies and dependencies, over which they preside. Their powers vary according to the position which they occupy. In all cases they represent the crown.
As a consequence of this organization the finance of crown colonies is under the direct control of the imperial government; the finance of representative colonies, though not directly controlled, is usually influenced in important departures by the opinion of the imperial government. In responsible colonies the finance is entirely under local control, and the imperial government is dissociated from either moral or material responsibility for colonial debts.
In federated groups of colonies and dependencies matters which are of common interest to a given number of separate governments are by mutual consent of the federating communities adjudged to the authority of a common government, which, in the case of self-governing colonies, is voluntarily created for the purpose. .The associated states form under the federal government one federal body, but the parts retain control of local matters, and exercise all their original rights of government in regard to these.^ Garden State hit me in all of the right places.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IT HAS ALREADY BEGUN! THE EARTHLING RACE`S VERSES THE ALIEN RACE`S! IT ALL BEGINS WITH MICROCHIPPING THE EARTHLINGS TO KEEP THEM IN CHECK AND UNDER CONTROL! THE GREYS, NELPHIN GIANTS AND THE REPTILLIANS ARE THE ONES BEHIND THE NEW WORLD ORDER! IT ALREADY HAS BEGUN! 2006 - 2012 .
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The two great self-governing groups of federated colonies within the empire are the Dominion of Canada and the Commonwealth of Australia. .In South Africa unification was preferred to federation, the then self-governing colonies being united in 1910 into one state - the Union of South Africa.^ I was recovering from the tough mental and physical earthquake called Fresh Motherhood, I rented a lot of dvd's, Garden State being one of them.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

India, of which the associated provinces are under the control of the central government, may be given as an example of the practical federation of dependencies. Examples of federated crown colonies and lesser dependencies are to be found in the Leeward Island group of the West Indies and the federated Malay States.
This rough system of self-government for the empire has been evolved not without some strain and friction, by the recognition through the vicissitudes of three hundred years of the value of independent initiative in the development of young countries. Queen Elizabeth's first patent to Sir Walter Raleigh permitted British subjects to accompany him to America, " with guarantee of a continuance of the enjoyment of all the rights which her subjects enjoyed at home." This guarantee may presumably have been intended at the time only to assure the intending settlers that they should lose no rights of British citizenship at home by taking up their residence in America. Its mutual interpretation in a wider sense, serving at once to establish in the colony rights of citizenship equivalent to those enjoyed in England, and to preserve for the colonist the status of British subject at home and abroad, has formed in application to all succeeding systems of British colonization the unconscious charter of union of the empire.
The first American colonies were settled under royal grants, each with its own constitution. .The immense distance in time which in those days separated America from Great Britain secured them from interference by the home authorities.^ Those two thing just popped up Big Time for me in the last few days.
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^ I flew Iberia - great food but none of my planes were on time except the last one and my suitcase stayed in Madrid for 2 days while I went on to Mallorca!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They paid their own most moderate governing expenses, and they contributed largely to their own defence. From the middle of the 17th century their trade was not free, but this was the only restriction from whichthey suffered. The great war with France in the middle of the 18th century temporarily destroyed this system. .That war, which resulted in the conquest of Canada and the delivery of the North American colonies from French antagonism, cost the imperial exchequer £90,000,000. The attempt to avert the repetition of such expenditure by the assertion of a right to tax the colonies through the British parliament led to the one great rupture which has marked the history of they empire.^ Not to mention that SOUNDTRACK. I mean my god, how does one guy come up with such great stuff.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I imagine many, many takes to get through just one scene, am I right?
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has to be noted that at home during the latter half of the 17th century and the earlier part of the 18th century parliamentary power had to a great extent taken the place of the divine right of kings. But parliamentary power meant the power of the English people and taxpayers. The struggle which developed itself between the American colonies and the British parliament was in fact a struggle on the part of the people and taxpayers of one portion of the empire to resist the domination of the people and taxpayers of another portion. In this light it may be accepted as having historically established the fundamental axiom of the constitution of the empire, that the crown is the supreme head from which the parts take equal dependence.
The crown requiring advice in the ordinary and constitutional manner receives it in matters of colonial administration from the secretaries of state for the colonies and for India. .After the great rupture separate provision in the home government for the administration of colonial affairs was at first judged to be unnecessary, and the " Council 1 of Trade and Plantations," which up to that date had supplied the place now taken by the two offices of the colonies and India, was suppressed in 1782. There was a reaction from the' liberal system of colonial selfgovernment, and an attempt was made to govern the colonies simply as dependencies.^ I saw Romeo and Juliet, as well as Midsummer Night's Dream in Central Park this summer (there's nothing better than waking up at 4 in the morning to get the first place in line!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have a leaky butt!", Jack retorts, "I SAID I DIDN'T HAVE MY DEPENDS THAT DAY!" So, fed-up he decides to fake Alzheimer's to get placed in a posh assisted living home.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1791, not long after the extension of the range of parliamentary authority in another portion of the empire, by the creation in 1784 of the Board of Control for India, Pitt made the step forward of granting to Canada representative institutions, of which the home government kept the responsible control. Similar institutions were also given at a later period to Australia and South Africa. But the long peace of the early part of the 19th century was marked by great colonial developments; Australia, Canada and South Africa became important communities. Representative institutions controlled by the home government were insufficient, and they reasserted the claim for liberty to manage their own affairs.
1 Or " Board," as it became in 1695.
Fully responsible government was granted to Canada in 1840, and gradually extended to the other colonies. In 1854 a separate secretary of state for the colonies was appointed at home, and the colonial office was established on its present footing. In India, as in the colonies, there came with the growing needs of empire a recognition of the true relations of the parts to each other and of the whole to the crown. In 18, 58, on the complete transference of the territories of the East India Company to the crown, the board of control was abolished, and the India Council, under the presidency of a secretary of state for India, was created. It was especially provided that the members of the council may not sit in parliament.
Thus, although it has not been found practicable in the working of the British constitution to carry out the full theory of the direct and exclusive dependence of colonial possessions on the crown, the theory is recognized as far as possible. It is understood that the principal sections of the empire enjoy equal rights under the crown, and that none is subordinate to another. The intervention of the imperial parliament in colonial affairs is only admitted theoretically in so far as the support of parliament is required by the constitutional advisers of the crown. .To bring the practice of the empire into complete harmony with the theory it would be necessary to constitute, for the purpose of advising the crown on imperial affairs, a council in which all important parts of the empire should be represented.^ I mean, if our dogs eat that stuff, and I know they use all the parts of animals these days for all sorts of stuff, what goes into the foods we eat.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gradual recognition of the constitutional theory of the British empire, and the assumption by the principal mperia - colonies of full self-governing responsibilities, has ism. cleared the way for a movement in favour of a further development which should bring the supreme headship of the empire more into accord with modern ideas.^ We would love to give you the grand tour and since you are according to you blog, doing a lot of dating you are more than welcome to bring a guest along.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was during the period of domination of the " Manchester school," of which the most effective influence in public affairs was exerted for about thirty years, extending from 1845 to 1875, that the fullest development of colonial self-government was attained, the view being generally accepted at that time that self-governing institutions were to be regarded as the preliminary to inevitable separation.^ I'm sure you know this (and have heard it about 2^64 times before, anyway) but just keep your head up and keep being you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I wouldn't have necessarily picked you two as being a couple, but most of the time opposites attract, right?!?!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A general inclination to withdraw from the acceptance of imperial responsibilities throughout the world gave to foreign nations at the same time an opportunity by which they were not slow to profit, and contributed to the force of a reaction of which the part played by Great Britain in the scramble for Africa marked the culmination. Under the increasing pressure of foreign enterprise, the value of a federation of the empire for purposes of common interest began to be discussed. Imperial federation was openly spoken of in New Zealand as early as 1852. A similar suggestion was officially put forward by the general association Of the Australian colonies in London in 1857. The Royal Colonial Institution, of which the motto " United Empire " illustrates its aims, was founded in 1868. First among leading British. statesmen to repudiate the old interpretation of colonial self-government as a preliminary to separation, Lord Beaconsfield, in 1872, spoke of the constitutions accorded to the colonies as " part of a great policy of imperial consolidation." In 1875 W. E. Forster, afterwards a member of the Liberal government, made a speech in which he advocated imperial federation as a means by which it might become practicable to " replace dependence by association." The foundation of the Imperial Federation League - in 1884, with Forster for its first president, shortly to be succeeded by Lord Rosebery - marked a distinct step forward. The Colonial Conferences of 1887 and subsequent years (the title being changed to Imperial Conference in 1907), in which colonial opinion was sought and accepted in respect of important questions of imperial organization and defence, and the enthusiastic loyalty displayed by the colonies towards the crown on the occasion of the jubilee manifestations of Queen Victoria's reign, were further indications of progress in the same direction. .Coincidently with this development, the achievements of Sir George Goldie and Cecil Rhodes, who, the one in West Africa and the other in South Africa, added between them to the empire in a space of less than twenty years a dominion of greater extent than the whole of British India, followed by the action of a host of distinguished disciples in other parts of the world, effectually stemmed the movement initiated by Cobden and Bright.^ There are 3 of us who say that if there was one man in the world we would want to sit down and have coffee with, it would be you.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And since the odds for winning a "DANNON" sweepstakes to visit hollywood (haha) or any other for that matter are less than getting struck by lightning, I'm writing to you now.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But other than that it was one of the best fims I've ever seen in a long time!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A tendency which had seemed temporarily to point towards a complacent dissolution of the empire was arrested, and the closing years of the 19th century were marked by a growing disposition to appreciate the value and importance of the unique position which the British empire has created for itself in the world.^ They don't seem to be very positive towards you, I just wanted you to know, Team Zach all the way!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

No stronger demonstration of the reality of imperial union could be needed than that which was afforded by the support given to the imperial forces by the colonies and India in the South African War. .It remained only to be seen by what process of evolution the further consolidation of the empire would find expression in the machinery of government.^ Im only 12 but Scrubs is the funniest show I have ever seen and I just wish it would come back.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A step in this direction was taken in 1907, when at the Colonial Conference held in London that year it was decided to form a permanent secretariat to deal with the common interests of the self-governing colonies and the mothercountry. It was further decided that conferences, to be called in future Imperial Conferences, between the home government and the governments of the self-governing dominions, should be held every four years, and that the prime minister of Great Britain should be ex o f ficio president of the conference. No executive power was, however, conferred upon the conference.
The movement in favour of tariff reform initiated by Mr Chamberlain in 1903 with the double object of giving a preference to colonial goods and of protecting imperial trade by the imposition in certain cases of retaliative duties on foreign goods, was a natural evolution of the imperialist idea, and of the fact that by this time the trade-statistics of the United Kingdom had proved that trade with the colonies was forming an increasingly large proportion of the whole. In spite of the defeat of the Unionist party in England in 1906, and the accession to power of a Liberal government opposed to anything which appeared to be inconsistent with free trade, the movement for colonial preference, based on tariff reform, continued to make headway in the United Kingdom, and was definitely adopted by the Unionist party. .And at the Imperial Conference of 1907 it was advocated by all the colonial premiers, who could point to the progress made in their own states towards giving a tariff preference to British goods and to those of one another.^ You could talk to the people who made this website to fix this, because you yourself are a great spamhater I read :) Would be very nice.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm one of those people who can never wait, because I always need to know.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So i wish i was in New York so i could be one of those random people you bump into and have random conversations with on the street.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The question of self-government is closely associated with the question of self-support. Plenty of good land and the liberty to manage their own affairs were the causes assigned by Adam Smith for the marked prosperity of the British colonies towards the end of the 18th century. .The same causes are still observed to produce the same effects, and it may be pointed out that, since the date of the latest of Adam Smith's writings, upwards of 6,000,000 sq.^ Do some dating for us married men out there and then blog about it that we may live a little....
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am glad you are having a wonderful summer is NYC! If you wanna go on a date with me, since u are out being single and u like to mingle.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m. of virgin soil, rich with possibilities of agricultural, pastoral and mineral wealth, have been added to the empire. In the same period the white population has grown from about 12,000,000 to 53,000,000, and the developments of agricultural and industrial machinery have multiplied, almost beyond computation, the powers of productive labour.
It is scarcely possible within this article to deal with so widely varied a subject as that of the productions and industry of the empire. For the purposes of a general statement, it is interesting to observe that concurrently with the acquisition of the vast continental areas during the 19th century, the progress of industrial science in application to means of transport and communication brought about a revolution of the most radical character in the accepted laws of economic development. Railways did away with the old law that the spread of civilization is necessarily governed by facilities for water carriage and is consequently confined to river valleys and sea-shores. Steam and electricity opened to industry the interior of continents previously regarded as unapproachable. The resources of these vast inland spaces which have lain untouched since history began became available to individual enterprise, and over a great portion of the earth's surface were brought within the possessions of the British empire. The production of raw material within the empire increased at a rate which can only be appreciated by a careful study of figures, and by a comparison of the total of these figures with the total figures of the world. The tropical and temperate possessions of the empire include every field of production which can be required for the use of man. There is no main staple of human food which is not grown; there is no material of textile industry which is not produced. .The British empire gives occupation to more than one-third of the persons employed in mining and quarrying in the world.^ I miss the Delacorte on a summer day, sitting in line and talking to people whose lives were far more interesting than mine.
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^ I have a dear, dear friend of mine who lives in L.A. and I told him that if he ever sees you out and about, to give you a personal "Hello" from me.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nothing would give me more pleasure than to have the chance to work on one of your productions.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It may be interesting, as an indication of the relative position in this respect of the British empire to the world, to state that at present it produces one-third of the coal supply of the world, one-sixth of the wheat supply, and very nearly two-thirds of the gold supply. .But while these figures may be taken as in themselves satisfactory, it is far more important to remember that as yet the potential resources of the new lands opened to enterprise have been barely conceived, and their wealth has been little more than scratched.^ I miss the Delacorte on a summer day, sitting in line and talking to people whose lives were far more interesting than mine.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CRAZYY. the only lyrics you can really hear are "it's just the same as it ever was, what you need is a little more love" i've googled it, i've asked friends, i can't figure it out.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yo...this more than a little wierd, Have never read a word on this site, and that sort of, doesn't really matter.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Population as yet has been only very sparsely sprinkled over the surface of many of the areas most suitable for white settlement.^ I only found out it ended not to long ago, and that was when I loved it the most.It brought me down real hard and it hurts very much .
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the wheat lands of Canada, the pastoral country of Australasia, and the mineral fields of South Africa and western Canada alone, the undeveloped resources are such as to ensure employment to the labour and satisfaction to the needs of at least as many millions as they now contain thousands of the British race. In respect of this promise of the future the position of the British empire is unique.
It is not too much to say that trade has been at once the most active cause of expansion and the most potent bond of union in the development of the empire. Trade with the tropical and settlement in the temperate regions of the world formed the basis upon which the foundations of the empire were laid. Trading companies founded most of the American and West Indian colonies; a trading company won India; a trading company colonized the north-western districts of Canada; commercial wars during the greater part of the 18th century established the British command of the sea, which rendered the settlement of Australasia possible. .The same wars gave Great Britain South Africa, and chartered companies in the 19th century carried the British flag into the interior of the African continent from south and east and west.^ I am from South Africa an I just want to say that me and my fellow South Africans love you and your show.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Trading companies developed Borneo and Fiji. The bonds of prosperous trade have kept the Australasian colonies within the empire. The protection of colonial commerce by the imperial navy is one of the strongest of material links which connect the crown with the outlying possessions of the empire.
The trade of the empire, like the other developments of imperial public life, has been profoundly influenced by the variety of local conditions under which it has flourished. In the early settlement of the North American colonies their traderial trade was left practically free; but by the famous policy. Navigation Act of 1660 the importation and exportation of goods from British colonies were restricted to British ships, of which the master and three-fourths of the mariners were English. .This act, of which the intention was to encourage British shipping and to keep the monopoly of British colonial trade for the benefit of British merchants, was followed by many others of a similar nature up to the time of the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 and the introduction of free trade into Great Britain.^ Well, in case you took your time to read this, I dig all I've seen with/by you so just keep up the good work Greetings from Sweden!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Really liked the Frou Frou song "Let go", and ended up buying that CD, which I can listen to many times over when working.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would take the time to watch it, (with so many other things on my schedual; ie.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Navigation Acts were repealed in 1849. Thus for very nearly two hundred years British trade was subject to restrictions, of which the avowed intention was to curtail the commercial intercourse of the empire with the world. During this period the commercial or mercantile system, of which the fallacies were exposed by the economists of the latter half of the 18th century, continued to govern the principles of British trade. Under this system monopolies were common, and among them few were more important than that of the East India Company. In 1813 the trade of India was, however, thrown open to competition, and in 1846, after the introduction of free trade at home, the principal British colonies which had not yet at that date received the grant of responsible government were specially empowered to abolish differential duties upon foreign trade. A first result of the commercial emancipation of the The finperial factor in industry colonies was the not altogether unnatural rise in the manufacturing centres of the political school known as the Manchester school, which was disposed to question the value to Great Britain of the retention of colonies which were no longer bound to give her the monopoly of their commercial markets. An equally natural desire on the part of the larger colonies to profit by the opportunity which was opened to them of establishing local manufactures of their own, combined with the convenience in new countries of using the customs as an instrument of taxation, led to something like a reciprocal feeling of resentment, and there followed a period during which the policy of Great Britain was to show no consideration for colonial trade, and the policy of the principal colonies was to impose heavy duties upon British trade. By a gradual process of better understanding, largely helped by the development of means of communication, the antagonistic extreme was abandoned, and a tendency towards a system of preferential duties within the empire displayed itself. At the Colonial Conference held in London in 1887 a proposal was formally submitted by the South African delegate for the establishment within the empire of a preferential system, imposing a duty of 2% upon all foreign goods, the proceeds to be directed to the maintenance of the imperial navy. To this end it was requested that certain treaties with foreign nations which imposed restrictions on the trade of various parts of the empire with each other should be denounced. .Some years later, a strong feeling having been manifested in England against any foreign engagement standing in the way of new domestic trade arrangements between a colony and the mother-country, the German and Belgian treaties in question were denounced (1897).^ I feel the same way you do about NYC. I'ma have to move to LA for my career at some point but I hope I get to a point where I can come back to New York and still do my LA thing, Spike style.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Meanwhile, simultaneously with the movement in favour of reciprocal fiscal advantages to be granted within the empire by the many local governments to each other, there was a growth of the perception that an increase of the foreign trade of Great Britain, carried on chiefly in manufactured goods, was accompanied by a corresponding enlargement of the home markets for colonial raw material, and consequently that injury to the foreign trade of Great Britain, while as yet it so largely outweighed the trade between the United Kingdom and the colonies, must necessarily react upon the colonies. This view was definitely expressed at the Colonial Conference at Ottawa in 1894, and was one of the factors which led to the relinquishment of the demand that in return for colonial concessions there should be an imposition on the part of Great Britain of a differential duty upon foreign goods. Canada was the first important British colony to give substantial expression to the new imperial sentiment in commercial matters by the introduction in 1897 of an imperial tariff, granting without any reciprocal advantage a deduction of 25% upon customs duties imposed upon British goods. The same advantage was offered to all British colonies trading with her upon equal terms. .In later years the South African states, Australia and New Zealand also granted preferential treatment to British goods.^ Well im from New Zealand but now live in Australia we all absolutely LOVE scrubs!!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile in Great Britain the system of free imports, regarded as " free trade " (though only one-sided free trade), had become the established policy, customs duties being only imposed for purposes of revenue on a few selected articles, and about half the national income was derived from customs and excise.^ I can only say that about one other actor (okay, maybe two).
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blame it on the article I have been hearing about you regarding the whole "cad" issue.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being Jewish and from Jersey, you helped portray an image of a person that I only hope I can become.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In most of the colonies customs form of necessity one of the important sources of revenue. It is, however, worthy of remark that in the self-governing colonies, even those which are avowedly protectionist, a smaller proportion of the public revenue was derived from customs and excise than was derived from these sources in the United Kingdom. The proportion in Australasia before federation was about one quarter. In Canada it is more difficult to estimate it, as customs and excise form the principal provision made for federal finance, and note must therefore be taken of the separate sources of revenue in the provinces. .With these reservations it will still be seen that customs, or, in other words, a tax upon the movements of trade, forms one of the chief sources of imperial revenue.^ You've got to be one of the funniest actors I've ever seen, and when you have to play all serious you still manage to make the impact.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But other than that it was one of the best fims I've ever seen in a long time!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sadly enough, scrubs is one of the only sources of humor for me these days --cant wait for the new season!!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The development of steam shipping and electricity gave to the movements of trade a stimulus no less remarkable than that given by the introduction of railroads and industrial machinery to production and manufactures. Whereas at the beginning of the 29th century the journey to Australia occupied eight months, and business communications between Sydney and London could not receive answers within the year, at the beginning of the 20th century the journey could be accomplished in thirty-one days, and telegraphic despatches enabled the most important business to be transacted within twenty-four hours. .For one cargo carried in the year at the beginning of the 19th century at least six could now be carried by the same ship, and from the point of view of trade the difference of a venture which realizes its profits in two months, as compared with one which occupied a whole year, does not need to be insisted on.^ My boyfriend of two years who I wanted (and still want) to marry broke up with me about a month ago.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I just discovered Scrubs via Comedy Central about 6 months ago and really look forward to watching two back to backs every night.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I re-discovered Scrubs (also totally by chance) just a few months ago after deciding years ago, based on 90 seconds of one episode, that it blew.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The increased rapidity of the voyage and the power of daily communication by telegraph with the most distant markets have introduced a wholly new element into the national trade of the empire, and commercial intercourse between the southern and the northern hemispheres has received a development from the natural alternation of the seasons, of which until quite recent years the value was not even conceived. Fruit, eggs, butter, meat, poultry and other perishable commodities pass in daily increasing quantities between the northern and the southern hemispheres with an alternate flow which contributes to raise in no inconsiderable degree the volume of profitable trade. Thus the butter season of Australasia is from October to March, while the butter season of Ireland and northern Europe is from March to October. .In three years after the introduction of ice-chambers into the steamers of the great shipping lines, Victoria and New South Wales built up a yearly butter trade of £1,000,000 with Great Britain without seriously affecting the Irish and Danish markets whence the summer supply is drawn.^ Hes the new Art Garfunkel from Great Britain!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These facilities, combined with the enormous additions made to the public stock of land and labour, contributed to raise the volume of trade of the empire from a total of less than £ioo,000,000 in the year 1800 to a total of nearly £1,500,000,000 in 1900. The declared volume of British exports to all parts of the world in 1800 was £38,120,120, and the value of British imports from all parts of the world was £30,570,605; total, 68,690,725. As in those days the colonies were not allowed to trade with any other country this must be taken as representing imperial trade. The exact figures of the trade of India, the colonies, and the United Kingdom for 1900 were: imports, £809,178,209; exports, £657,899,363; total, £1,467,077,572.
A question of sovereign importance to the continued existence of the empire is the question of defence. A country of which the main thoroughfares are the oceans of the world demands in the first instance a strong navy. It has of late years been accepted as a fundamental axiom of defence that the British navy should exceed in strength any reasonable combination of foreign navies which could be brought against it, the accepted formula being the " two-power standard," i.e. a 10% margin over the joint strength of the two next powers. The expense of maintaining such a floating armament must be colossal, and until within the decade 1890-1900 it was borne exclusively by the taxpayers of the United Kingdom. As the benefits of united empire have become more consciously appreciated in the colonies, and the value of the fleet as an insurance for British commerce has been recognized, a desire has manifested itself on the part of the self-governing colonies to contribute towards the formation of a truly imperial navy. In 1895 the Australasian colonies voted a subsidy of f126,000 per annum for the maintenance of an Australasian squadron, and in 1897 the Cape Colony also offered a contribution of £30,000 a year to be used at the discretion of the imperial government for naval purposes. The Australian contribution was in 1902 increased to £240,000, and that of the Cape to £50,000, while Natal voted £35,000 a year and Newfoundland £3000. But apart from these comparatively slight contributions, and the local up-keep of colonial fortifications, - and the beginning in 1908-1909 of an Australian torpedo-boat flotilla provided by the Commonwealth, - the whole cost of the imperial navy, on which ultimately the security of the empire rested, remained to be Colonial ference. Imperial defence. borne by the taxpayers in the British islands. The extent of this burden was emphasized in 1909 by the revelations as to the increase of the German (and the allied Austrian) fleet. .At this crisis in the history of the two-power standard a wave of enthusiasm started in the colonies, resulting in the offer of " Dreadnoughts " from New Zealand and elsewhere; and the British government called an Imperial Conference to consider the whole question afresh.^ New Zealand is sooo way behind in Scrub episodes...unless you have the power of the Worldwide Web!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Land defence, though a secondary branch of the great question of imperial defence, has been intimately connected with the development and internal growth of the empire. In the case of the first settlement of the American colonies they were expected to provide for their own land defence. .To some extent in the early part of their career they carried out this expectation, and even on occasion, as in the taking of Louisburg, which was subsequently given back at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle as the price of the French evacuation of Madras, rendered public service to the empire at large.^ I feel the same way you do about NYC. I'ma have to move to LA for my career at some point but I hope I get to a point where I can come back to New York and still do my LA thing, Spike style.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm not kidding when I say that your show makes me laugh out loud sometimes when I'm not even watching the show just remembering some joke.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if you dont read this i take pride thinking that you will rad it and email me back!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In India the principle of local self-defence was from the beginning carried into practice by the East India Company. But in America the claim of the French wars proved too heavy for local resources. In 1755 Great Britain intervened with troops sent from home under General Braddock, and up to the outbreak of the American War the cost of the defence of the North American colonies was borne by the imperial exchequer. To meet this expense the imperial parliament took upon itself the right to tax the American colonies. In 1765 a Quartering Act was passed by which io,000 imperial troops were quartered in the colonies. As a result of the American War which followed and led to the loss of the colonies affected, the imperial authorities accepted the charge of the land defences of the empire, and with the exception of India and the Hudson Bay territories, where the trading companies determined to pay their own expenses, the whole cost of imperial defence was borne, like the cost of the navy, by the taxpayers of the United Kingdom. This condition of affairs lasted till the end of the Napoleonic Wars. During the thirty years' peace which followed there came time for consideration. The fiscal changes which towards the middle of the 19th century gave to the self-governing colonies the command of their own resources very naturally carried with them the consequence that a call should be made on colonial exchequers to provide for their own governing expenses. Of these defence is obviously one of the most essential. Coincidently, therefore, with the movements of free trade at home, the renunciation of what was known as the mercantile system and the accompanying grants of constitutional freedom to the colonies, a movement for the reorganization of imperial defence was set on foot. In the decade which elapsed between 1846 and 1856 the movement as regards the colonies was confined chiefly to calls made upon them to contribute to their own defence by providing barracks, fortifications, &c., for the accommodation of imperial troops, and in some cases paying for the use of troops not strictly required for imperial purposes. In 1857 the Australian colonies agreed to pay the expenses of the imperial garrison quartered in Australia. This was a very wide step from the imperial attempt to tax the American colonies for a similar purpose in the preceding century. Nevertheless, in evidence given before a departmental committee in 1859, it was shown that at that time the colonies of Great Britain were free from almost every obligation of contributing either by personal service or money payment towards their own defence, and that the cost of military expenditure in the colonies in the preceding year had amounted in round figures to £4,000,000. A committee of the House of Commons sat in 1861 to consider the question, and in 1862 it was resolved, without a division, that " colonies exercising the right of self-government ought to undertake the main responsibility of providing for their own internal order and security, and ought to assist in their own external defence." The decision was accepted as the basis of imperial policy. The first effect was the gradual withdrawing of imperial troops from the self-governing colonies, together with the encouragement of the development of local military systems by the loan, when desired, of imperial military experts. A call was also made for larger military contributions from some of the crown colonies. The committee of 1859 had emphasized in its report the fact that the principal dependence of the colonies for defence is necessarily upon the British navy, and in 1865, exactly loo years after the Quartering Act, which had been the cause of the troubles that led to the independence of the United States, a Colonial Naval Defence Act was passed which gave power to the colonies to provide ships of war, steamers, and volunteers for their own defence, and in case of necessity to place them at the disposal of the crown. In 1868 the Canadian Militia Act gave the fully organized nucleus of a local army to Canada. In the same year the imperial troops were withdrawn from New Zealand, leaving the colonial militia to deal with the native war still in progress. In 1870 the last imperial troops were withdrawn from Australia, and in 1873 it was officially announced that military expenditure in the colonies was almost " wholly for imperial purposes." In 1875 an imperial officer went to Australia to report for the Australian government upon Australian defence. The appointment in 1879 of a royal commission to consider the question of imperial defence, which presented its report in 1882, led to a considerable development and reorganization of the system of imperial fortifications. Coaling stations were also selected with reference to the trade routes. In 1885 rumours of war roused a very strong feeling in connexion with the still unfinished and in many cases unarmed condition of the fortifications recommended by the commission of 1879. Military activity was stimulated throughout the empire, and the Colonial Defence Committee was created to supply a much-felt need for organized direction and advice to colonial administrations acting necessarily in independence of each other. The question of colonial defence was among the most important of the subjects discussed at the colonial conference held in London in 1887, and it was at this conference that the Australasian colonies first agreed to contribute to the expense of their own naval defence. From this date the principle of local responsibility for self-defence has been fully accepted. India has its own native army, and pays for the maintenance within its frontiers of an imperial garrison. Early in the summer of 1899, when hostilities in South Africa appeared to be imminent, the governments of the principal colonies took occasion to express their approval of the South African policy pursued by the imperial government, and offers were made by the governments of India, the Australasian colonies, Canada, Hong-Kong, the Federal Malay states, some of the West African and other colonies, to send contingents for active service in the event of war. On the outbreak of hostilities these offers, on the part of the self-governing colonies, were accepted, and colonial contingents upwards of 30,000 strong were among the most efficient sections of the British fighting force. The manner in which these colonial contingents were raised, their admirable fighting qualities, and the service rendered by them in the field, disclosed altogether new possibilities of military organization within the empire, and in subsequent years the subject continued to engage the attention of the statesmen of the empire. Progress in this field lay chiefly in the increased support given in the colonial states to the separate local movements for self-defence; but in 1909 a scheme was arranged by Mr Haldane, by which the British War Office should co-operate with the colonial governments in providing for the training of officers and an interchange of views on a common military policy.
The important questions of justice, religion and instruction will be found dealt with in detail under the headings of separate sections of the empire. Systems of justice throughout J the empire have a close resemblance to each other, and the judicial committee of the privy council, on which the self-governing colonies and India are represented, constitutes a supreme court of appeal (q.v.) for the entire empire. .In the matter of religion, while no imperial organization in the strict sense is possible, the progress made by the Lambeth Conferences and otherwise (see Anglican Communion) has done much to bring the work of the Church of England in different parts of the world into a co-operative system.^ Hello , just a quick note to tell you how much i appreciate your work on scrubs and in all the movies you've made.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hi Zach, Just wanted to say how much I love your work, and I promise I have no intention of selling you ringtones.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relationships are like cars, they need maintenance no matter how long you have them, and seeing it up close like in the movie I guess shakes some people's idea of how relationships really work.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Religion, of which the forms are infinitely varied, is however everywhere free, except in cases where the exercise of religious rites leads to practices foreign to accepted laws of humanity. .It is perhaps interesting to state that the number of persons in the empire nominally professing the Christian religion is 58,000,000, of Mahommedans 94,000,000, of Buddhists 12,000,000, of Hindus 208,000,000, of pagans and others 25,000,000. Systems of instruction, of which the aim is generally similar in the white portions of the empire and is directed towards giving to every individual the basis of a liberal education, are governed wholly by local requirements.^ I'm a relgious viewer of Scrubs and have reccommened Garden State and The Last Kiss to literally every person I know.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it would mean the world to me if you could give me and any other young person hoping to act/direct some tips on how to start a career off..
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Garden State I became interested in you as an actor (like so many others) But really, I never realized what an awesome person you were until I stayed up all night and read your blogs.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Native schools are established in all settled communities under British rule.

LITERATURE

.In recent years the subject of British imperialism has inspired a growing literature, and it is only possible here to name a selected number of the more important works which may usefully be consulted on different topics: Sir C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies (1888, et seq.^ I would love post some of my work on here or privately for you to read so you can give me advice, probably in a million years you may not do that, but hey if you don't ask you don't get!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Valparaiso University (in SCENIC northwest indiana haha no i've lived here my whole life and the only time of year that is beautiful is fall...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I leave any more crazy messages on here I may just block this site somehow from my laptop.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

); H. E. Egerton, Short History of British Colonial Policy (1897); H. J. Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas (1902); Sir J. R. Seeley, Expansion of England (1883); Growth of British Policy (1895); Sir Charles Dilke, Greater Britain (1869), Problems of Greater Britain (1890), The British Empire (1899) G. R. Parkin, Imperial Federation (1892); Sir John Colomb, Imperial Federation, Naval and Military (1886); Sir G. S. Clarke, Imperial Defence (1897); Sidney Goldmann and others, The Empire and the Century (1905); J. L. Garvin, Imperial Reciprocity (1903); J. W. Welsford, The Strength of a Nation (1907); Compatriots Club Essays (1906); Sir H. Jenkyns, British Rule and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas (1902); Bernard Holland, Imperium et libertas (1901); (for an alai-imperialist view) J. A. Hobson, Imperialism (1902). See also the Reports of the various colonial conferences, especially that of the Imperial Conference of 1907; and for trade statistics, J. Holt Schooling's British Trade Book. For the tariff reform movement in England see the articles FREE TRADE and PROTECTION. (F. L. L.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
  1. Formerly the United Kingdom together with its dominions, colonies, dependencies, trust territories and protectorates; became the Commonwealth of Nations following the independence of many of its constituent countries

Translations


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|350px|A map of the countries which were once part of the British Empire]] [[File: |thumb|right|350px|The British Empire in 1921]]

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The British Empire was a global power that contained territories owned by the United Kingdom. The empire was the largest empire in history, and at its peak controlled 23% of the world's surface. More than 458 million people were brought under the control of the British Empire. Today, most of its members are in the Commonwealth of Nations. The most famous part of the British Empire was the East India Trading Company, which started out as a small business before becoming a very large trading company which many people depended on.

The British Empire was seen as a "role model" for other nations, most notably Germany. Germany had a bad habit of starting wars in Europe, because they wanted an Empire that Britain had established. The people of the UK and Germany are like cousins, and Germany wanted to be successful like Britain.

The British Empire began to decline after World War Two, when Britain decided to give back colonies, known as Decolonization. Britain decided to give back nations because her work was done. The British had taken all the available resources from each country, the spread of Christianity was complete and the English language was all over the world.

The last part of the British Empire that was alive was Hong Kong, which was given back to China in 1997. Britain retained its title as a 'Superpower' in 1982 with the Falkland's War, a War against Argentina over the possession of the Falkland Islands.

Some argue, that the empire lives on today. There are currently 14 overseas territories that the UK own, and as long as they exist, the empire exists. However, those territories are controlled not from the UK but from each territory's own government.

krc:Британ империя

rue:Брітаньска Імперія


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on British Empire, which are similar to those in the above article.








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