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British Isles
Native name:

English / Scots: British Isles1
Irish: Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa / Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha / Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór[1]
Manx: Ny h-Ellanyn Goaldagh[2]
Scottish Gaelic: Eileanan Bhreatainn[3]
Welsh: Ynysoedd Prydain[4]

LocationBritishIsles-noborders.png
The British Isles in relation to Europe
Geography
Location Western Europe
Total islands 6,000+
Major islands Great Britain and Ireland
Area 315,134 km2 121,673 sq mi
Highest point Ben Nevis (1,344 m (4,409 ft))
Sovereign states and Crown Dependencies
Guernsey
Largest city Saint Peter Port
Isle of Man
Largest city Douglas
Ireland
Largest city Dublin
Jersey
Largest city Saint Helier
United Kingdom
Largest city London
Demographics
Population ~65 million
Ethnic groups Britons, English, Irish, Scottish, Ulster-Scots, Welsh, Cornish,[5] Channel Islanders, Manx

1   May appear in Scots as "Breetish" Isles.[6]

The British Isles are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe that include Great Britain, Ireland and over six-thousand smaller islands.[7] There are two sovereign states located on the islands: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and Ireland.[8] The British Isles also include the Crown Dependencies of the Isle of Man and, by tradition, the Channel Islands, although the latter are not physically a part of the island group.[9][10]

The term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland,[7][11][12] where there are objections to its usage due to the association of the word "British" with Ireland. The Government of Ireland discourages its use,[13][14] and in relations with the United Kingdom the words "these islands" are used.[15][16] Although still used as a geographic term, the controversy means that alternative terms such as "Britain and Ireland" are increasingly preferred.[17][18]

Contents

Etymology

The first references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of travellers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia.[19][20] These writings have been lost, but later writers quoted from the Massaliote Periplus (6th century BC) and from Pytheas' On the Ocean (circa 325–320 BC),[21] providing several variations referring to the geographical area of the British Isles, including Britain and Ireland, which have survived. In the 1st century BC Diodorus introduced the Latin form Πρεττανια (Prettania) from Πρεττανικη (Prettanike)[20], Strabo (1.4.2) has Βρεττανία (Brettania) and Marcian of Heraclea in his Periplus maris exteri describes αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι (the Prettanic Isles). The historian Norman Davies states that "though the details are debatable, the main derivations looks pretty solid".[22] They believe that the peoples of these islands of Pretanike were called the Πρεττανοι (Priteni or Pretani), [20][23] names derived from a Celtic term which probably reached travellers like Pytheas from the Gauls, who may have used it as their name for the inhabitants of the islands.[19]

The replacement of the "P" of "Pretannia" to the "B" of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar.[24] In classical Latin the plural term Britannicae insulae was sometimes used.[25]

The earliest citation of the phrase "Brytish Iles" in the Oxford English Dictionary[26] is dated 1577 in a work by John Dee.

In modern Welsh, the term Prydain ac Iwerddon ("Britain and Ireland") is common.[citation needed] Ynysoedd Prydain ("British Isles") usually refers to the territories of England, Scotland and Wales: it does not include Ireland, north or south.[27]

Alternative names and descriptions

Several different names are currently used to describe the islands. Dictionaries, encyclopaedias and atlases that use the term British Isles define it as Great Britain and Ireland and adjacent islands – typically including the Isle of Man, the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland.[28] Some definitions include the Channel Islands.[29] Commonly used alternative names are British-Irish Isles,[30] Britain and Ireland, Great Britain and Ireland, British Isles and Ireland,[31] or UK and Ireland.

UK media organisations such as the The Times and the BBC have style-guide entries to try to maintain consistent usage.[32][33] Encyclopædia Britannica, the Oxford University Press (publishers of the Oxford English Dictionary) and the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (publisher of Admiralty charts) have all occasionally used the term British Isles and Ireland.[34][35][36] The Economic History Society style guide suggests that use of the term British Isles should be avoided.[37]

Some international publications no longer use the term British Isles. In early 2008, it was reported that National Geographic said it would use the wording British and Irish Isles instead of British Isles.[38] In 2006, Folens, an Irish publisher of school text books, decided to stop using the term in Ireland while continuing to use it in the United Kingdom.[39][40] Since 2001 the rugby union team the British Isles or British Lions are now named the British and Irish Lions.

Geography

Satellite image of the British Isles, excluding Orkney (obscured by cloud) and Shetland (out of frame).

There are about 136 permanently inhabited islands in the group, the largest two being Great Britain and Ireland. Great Britain is to the east and covers 216,777 km2 (83,698 square miles), over half of the total landmass of the group. Ireland is to the west and covers 84,406 km2 (32,589 square miles). The largest of the other islands are to be found in the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland to the north, Anglesey and the Isle of Man between Great Britain and Ireland, and the Channel Islands near the coast of France.

The islands are at relatively low altitudes, with central Ireland and southern Great Britain particularly low lying: the lowest point in the islands is the Fens at −4 m (−13 ft). The Scottish Highlands in the northern part of Great Britain are mountainous, with Ben Nevis being the highest point in the British Isles at 1,344 m (4,409 ft) (4,409 ft). Other mountainous areas include Wales and parts of the island of Ireland, but only seven peaks in these areas reach above 1,000 m (3,281 ft) (3,281 ft). Lakes on the islands are generally not large, although Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland is an exception, covering 381 km2 (147 square miles); the largest freshwater body in Great Britain is Loch Lomond at 71.1 kilometres (44 mi). There are a number of major rivers within the British Isles. The river Severn at 354 km (220 mi) is the longest in Great Britain and the Shannon at 386 km (240 mi) is the longest in Ireland.

The British Isles have a temperate marine climate, the North Atlantic Drift ("Gulf Stream") which flows from the Gulf of Mexico brings with it significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C (20 °F) above the global average for the islands' latitudes.[41] Winters are thus warm and wet, with summers mild and also wet. Most Atlantic depressions pass to the north of the islands, combined with the general westerly circulation and interactions with the landmass, this imposes an east-west variation in climate.[42]

Geology

An image showing the British Isles in relation to the north-west European continental shelf.

The British Isles lie at the juncture of several regions with past episodes of tectonic mountain building. These orogenic belts form a complex geology which records a huge and varied span of earth history.[43] Of particular note was the Caledonian Orogeny during the Ordovician Period, ca. 488–444 Ma and early Silurian period, when the craton Baltica collided with the terrane Avalonia to form the mountains and hills in northern Britain and Ireland. Baltica formed roughly the north western half of Ireland and Scotland. Further collisions caused the Variscan orogeny in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods, forming the hills of Munster, south-west England, and south Wales. Over the last 500 million years the land which forms the islands has drifted northwest from around 30°S, crossing the equator around 370 million years ago to reach its present northern latitude.[44]

The islands have been shaped by numerous glaciations during the Quaternary Period, the most recent being the Devensian. As this ended, the central Irish Sea was de-glaciated (whether or not there was a land bridge between Great Britain and Ireland at this time is somewhat disputed, though there was certainly a single ice sheet covering the entire sea) and the English Channel flooded, with sea levels rising to current levels some 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, leaving the British Isles in their current form.

The islands' geology is highly complex, though there are large numbers of limestone and chalk rocks that formed in the Permian and Triassic periods. The west coasts of Ireland and northern Great Britain that directly face the Atlantic Ocean are generally characterized by long peninsulas, and headlands and bays; the internal and eastern coasts are "smoother".

Transport

Heathrow is Europe's busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic and the Dublin-London route is the busiest air route in Europe.[45] The English Channel and the southern North Sea are the busiest seaways in the world.[46] The Channel Tunnel, opened in 1994, links Great Britain to France and is the second-longest rail tunnel in the world. The idea of building a tunnel under the Irish Sea has been raised since 1895,[47] when it was first investigated. Several potential Irish Sea tunnel projects have been proposed, most recently the Tusker Tunnel between the ports of Rosslare and Fishguard proposed by The Institute of Engineers of Ireland in 2004.[48][49] A rail tunnel was proposed in 1997 on a different route, between Dublin and Holyhead, by British engineering firm Symonds. Either tunnel, at 80 km (50 mi), would be by far the longest in the world, and would cost an estimated €20 billion. A proposal in 2007,[50] estimated the cost of building a bridge from County Antrim in Northern Ireland to Galloway in Scotland at £3.5bn (€5bn).

Demographics

Population density per km2 of the British Isles. Dublin and London, with respective population densities of 1,288 and 4,761 are shaded blue.

The demographics of the British Isles shows a generally high density of population in England, which accounts for almost 80% of the total population of the islands. In Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales high density of population is limited to areas around, or close to, their respective capitals. Major population centres (greater than one million people) exist in the following areas:

The population of England has risen steadily throughout its history, while the populations of Scotland and Wales have shown little increase during the twentieth century - the population of Scotland remaining unchanged since 1951. Ireland, which for most of its history comprised a population proportionate to its land area (one third of the total population) has, since the Great Famine, fallen to less than one tenth of the population of the British Isles. The famine, which caused a century-long population decline, drastically reduced the Irish population and permanently altered the demographic make-up of the British Isles. On a global scale this disaster led to the creation of an Irish diaspora that numbers fifteen times the current population of the island

Population of Ireland since the Great Famine v Total for British Isles
Ireland British Isles  % of total Graph
1841 8.2 26.7 30.7% IrePop1500.PNG
1851 6.9 27.7 24.8%
1891 4.7 37.8 12.4%
1951 4.1 53.2 7.7%
1991 5.5 62.9 8.7%
2006 6.0 64.3 9.3%

Political co-operation within the islands

Euler diagram of the British Isles

Between 1801 and 1922, Great Britain and Ireland together formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[51] In 1922, twenty-six counties of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom following the Irish War of Independence and the Anglo-Irish Treaty; the remaining six counties, mainly in the northeast of the island, became known as Northern Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act, 1920. Both states, but not the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands, are members of the European Union.

However, political cooperation between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland exists on some levels:

  • Travel. Since Irish partition an informal free-travel area has continued to exist across the entire region; in 1997 it was formally recognised by the European Union, in the Amsterdam Treaty, as the Common Travel Area.
  • Voting rights. No part of the British Isles considers a citizen of any other part as an 'alien'.[52] This pre-dates and goes much further than that required by European Union law, and gives common voting rights to all citizens of the jurisdictions within the archipelago. Exceptions to this are presidential elections and referendums in the Republic of Ireland, for which there is no comparable franchise in the other states. Other EU nationals may only vote in local and European Parliament elections while resident in either the UK or Ireland. A 2008 UK Ministry of Justice report proposed to end this arrangement arguing that, "the right to vote is one of the hallmarks of the political status of citizens; it is not a means of expressing closeness between countries."[53]
  • Diplomatic. Bilateral agreements allow UK embassies to act as an Irish consulate when Ireland is not represented in a particular country.
  • Northern Ireland. Citizens of Northern Ireland are entitled to the choice of Irish or British citizenship or both.
  • The British-Irish Council was set up in 1999 following the 1998 Belfast Agreement. This body is made up of all political entities across the islands, both the sovereign governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom, the devolved governments of Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and the dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man. It has no executive authority but meets biannually to discuss issues of mutual importance, currently restricted to the misuse of drugs, the environment, the knowledge economy, social inclusion, tele-medicine, tourism, transport and national languages of the participants. During the February 2008 meeting of the Council, it was agreed to set-up a standing secretariat that would serve as a permanent 'civil service' for the Council.[54]
  • The British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary Body (Irish: Comhlacht Idir-Pharlaiminteach na Breataine agus na hÉireann) was established in 1990. Originally it comprised 25 members of the Oireachtas, the Irish parliament, and 25 members of the parliament of the United Kingdom, with the purpose of building mutual understanding between members of both legislature. Since then the role and scope of the body has been expanded with the addition of five representatives from the Scottish Parliament, five from the National Assembly for Wales and five from the Northern Ireland Assembly. One member is also taken from the States of Jersey, one from the States of Guernsey and one from the High Court of Tynwald (Isle of Man). With no executive powers, it may investigate and collect witness evidence from the public on matters of mutual concern to its members, these have in the past ranged from issues such as the delivery of health services to rural populations, to the Sellafield nuclear facility, to the mutual recognition of penalty points against drivers across the British Isles. Reports on its findings are presented to the governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Leading on from developments in the British-Irish Council, the chair of the Body, Niall Blaney, has suggested a name-change and that the body should shadow the British-Irish Council's work.[55]

History

A 1490 Italian reconstruction of Ptolemy's Geography based on surviving latitude and longitude descriptions, showing Ibernia Britannica Insula ("Hibernia, Island of Britannia", Ireland), Albion Insula Britannica ("Albion, Island of Britannia", Great Britain) and Mona Insula (Isle of Man) separated from the European mainland by Oceanus Germanicus ("Germanic Ocean", North Sea) to the east and Oceanus Britannicus ("Britannic Ocean", English Channel) to the south.

Languages

     Language branches     Modern languages     Typical spoken locations
A Euler diagram showing language branches, major languages and typically where they are spoken for modern languages in the British Isles.

The ethno-linguistic heritage of the British Isles is very rich in comparison to other areas of similar size, with twelve languages from six groups across four branches of the Indo-European family. The Insular Celtic languages of the Goidelic sub-group (Irish, Manx, Scottish Gaelic) and the Brythonic sub-group (Cornish, Welsh and Breton, spoken in north-western France) are the only remaining Celtic languages - their continental relations becoming extinct during the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries. The Norman languages of Guernésiais, Jèrriais and Sarkese are spoken in the Channel Islands, as is French. A cant, called Shelta, is a language spoken by Irish Travellers, often as a means to conceal meaning from those outside the group. However, English, sometimes in the form of Scots, is the dominant language, with few monoglots remaining in the other languages of the region. The Norn language appears to have become extinct in the 18th/19th century.

Until perhaps 1950 the use of languages other than English roughly coincided with the major ethno-cultural regions in the British Isles. As such, many of them, especially the Celtic languages, became intertwined with national movements in these areas, seeking either greater independence from the parliament of the United Kingdom, seated in England, or complete secession. The common history of these languages was one of sharp decline in the mid-19th century, prompted by centuries of economic deprivation and official policy to discourage their use in favour of English. However, since the mid-twentieth century there has been somewhat of a revival of interest in maintaining and using them. Celtic-language medium schools are available throughout Ireland, Scotland and Wales to such an extent that it is now possible to receive all formal education, up to and including third-level education, through a Celtic language. Instruction in Irish and Welsh is compulsory in all schools in the Republic of Ireland and Wales respectively. In the Isle of Man, Manx in taught in all schools, although it is not compulsory, and there is one Manx-medium school. The respective languages are official languages of state in Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland and Wales, with equal status with respect to English. In the Channel Islands French is a legislative and administrative language (see Jersey Legal French). Since 2007, Irish is a working language of the European Union.

During the last 60 years there has been a great deal of immigration into Great Britain (less into Ireland). As a result a number of languages not formerly found in the British Isles are in regular use. Polish, Punjabi, and Hindustani (inc Urdu & Hindi), are each probably the first language of over 1 million residents, and a number of other languages are regularly spoken by substantial numbers of persons. Even in provincial areas it has become common for local government to publish information to residents in ten or so languages,[56] and in the largest city, London, the first language of about 20% of the population is neither English nor an indigenous Celtic language.[57] Cornish and the Norman languages of Guernésiais, Jèrriais and Sarkese are far less supported. In Jersey, a language office (L'Office du Jèrriais) is funded to provide education services for Jèrriais in schools and other language services, while in Guernsey there is a language officer and Guernésiais is taught in some schools on a volunteer basis. Of the four, only Cornish is recognised officially under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, and it is taught in some schools as an optional modern language. Guernésiais and Jèrriais are recognised as regional languages by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British-Irish Council. Scots, as either a dialect of or a closely related language to English, is similarly recognised by the European Charter, the British-Irish Council, and as "part of the cultural wealth of the island of Ireland" under the Good Friday Agreement. However, it is without official status as a language of state in Scotland, where English is used in its place.

Shelta, spoken by the ethnic minority Irish Travellers, is thought to be spoken by 6,000–25,000 people, according to varying sources. Although evidence suggests that it existed as far back as the 13th century, as a secret language, it was only discovered at the end of the 19th century. It is without any official status, despite being thought to have 86,000 speakers worldwide, mostly in the USA.

Culture

Sport

A number of sports are popular throughout the British Isles, the most prominent of which is association football. While this is organised separately in different national associations, leagues and national teams, even within the UK, it is a common passion in all parts of the islands.

Rugby union is also widely enjoyed across the islands. The British and Irish Lions is a team made up of players from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales that undertakes tours of the southern hemisphere rugby playing nations every four years. This team was formerly known as the British Isles and the British Lions, but has been called the British and Irish Lions since 2001. Ireland play as a united team, represented by players from both Northern Ireland and the Republic. The four national rugby teams from Great Britain and Ireland play each other each year for the Triple Crown as part of the Six Nations Championship. Also since 2001 the professional club teams of Ireland, Scotland and Wales have competed together in the Magners League.

The Ryder Cup in golf was played between a United States team and a team representing Great Britain and Ireland. From 1979 onwards this was expanded to include the whole of Europe.

Popular culture

The United Kingdom and Ireland have separate media, although British television, newspapers and magazines are widely available in Ireland,[58] giving people in Ireland a high level of familiarity with cultural matters in Great Britain.

A few cultural events are organised for the island group as a whole. For example, the Costa Book Awards are awarded to authors resident in the UK or Ireland. The Man Booker Prize is awarded to authors from the Commonwealth of Nations or Ireland. The Mercury Music Prize is handed out every year to the best album from a British or Irish musician or group.

Many other bodies are organised throughout the islands as a whole; for example the Samaritans which is deliberately organised without regard to national boundaries on the basis that a service which is not political or religious should not recognise sectarian or political divisions.[59] The RNLI is also organised throughout the islands as a whole, covering both the United Kingdom and Ireland.[60]

See also

References

  1. ^ Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha from CollinsHapper Pocket Irish Dictionary (ISBN 0-00-470765-6). Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa meaning Islands of Western Europe from Patrick S. Dineen, Foclóir Gaeilge Béarla, Irish-English Dictionary, Dublin, 1927. Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór, meaning Ireland and Great Britain (from focail.ie, "The British Isles", Foras na Gaeilge, 2006)
  2. ^ Office of The President of Tynwald
  3. ^ University of Glasgow Department of Celtic. See paragraph "Dè dìreach a th’ ann an Ceiltis an Glaschu?" (Version in English. See para' "What is Celtic at Glasgow?")
  4. ^ Example:"Hunaniaethau Cenedlaethol Yn Nysoedd Prydain 1801-1914" (In English: "National Identities in the British Isles 1801-1914"). See also: Cardiff University Welsh-English Lexicon
  5. ^ National Statistics Office (2003). "Ethnic group statistics A guide for the collection and classification of ethnicity data". HMSO. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/about/ethnic_group_statistics/downloads/ethnic_group_statistics.pdf. 
  6. ^ For "Breetish" see Dictionary of the Scots Language (DSL) & Scottish National Dictionary Supplement (1976) (SNDS). For use in term "Breetish Isles" see Scots Language Centre website ("Show content as Scots").
  7. ^ a b "British Isles," Encyclopædia Britannica
  8. ^ The diplomatic and constitutional name of the Irish state is simply Ireland. For disambiguation purposes "Republic of Ireland" is often used although technically not the name of the state but, according to the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, its "description". Article 4, Bunreacht na hÉireann. Section 2, Republic of Ireland Act, 1948.
  9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "British Isles: a geographical term for the islands comparing Great Britain and Ireland with all their offshore islands including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands."
  10. ^ Alan, Lew; Colin, Hall; Dallen, Timothy (2008). World Geography of Travel and Tourism: A Regional Approach. Oxford: Elsevier. ISBN 9780750679787. "The British Isles comprise more than 6,000 islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe, including the countries of the United Kingdom of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland. The group also includes the United Kingdom crown dependencies of the Isle of Man, and by tradition, the Channel Islands (the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey), even though these islands are strictly speaking an archipelago immediately off the coast of Normandy (France) rather than part of the British Isles." 
  11. ^ An Irishman's Diary Myers, Kevin; The Irish Times (subscription needed) 09/03/2000, Accessed July 2006 "millions of people from these islands - oh how angry we get when people call them the British Isles".
  12. ^ Social work in the British Isles by Malcolm Payne, Steven Shardlow When we think about social work in the British Isles, a contentious term if ever there was one, what do we expect to see?
  13. ^ The Times: "New atlas lets Ireland slip shackles of Britain".
  14. ^ "Written Answers - Official Terms", Dáil Éireann - Volume 606 - 28 September, 2005. In his response, the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs stated that "The British Isles is not an officially recognised term in any legal or inter-governmental sense. It is without any official status. The Government, including the Department of Foreign Affairs, does not use this term. Our officials in the Embassy of Ireland, London, continue to monitor the media in Britain for any abuse of the official terms as set out in the Constitution of Ireland and in legislation. These include the name of the State, the President, Taoiseach and others."
  15. ^ Bertie Ahern's Address to the Joint Houses of Parliament, Westminster, 15 May 2007
  16. ^ Tony Blair's Address to the Dáil and Seanad, November 1998
  17. ^ British Culture of the Postwar: An Introduction to Literature and Society, 1945-1999, Alistair Davies & Alan Sinfield, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 0415128110, Page 9.
  18. ^ The Reformation in Britain and Ireland: An Introduction, Ian Hazlett, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 0567082806, Chapter 2
  19. ^ a b Foster, p. 1.
  20. ^ a b c Allen, p. 172-174.
  21. ^ Harley, p. 150.
  22. ^ Davies, p. 47.
  23. ^ Snyder, p. 68.
  24. ^ Snyder, p. 12.
  25. ^ "Britain" Encyclopædia Britannica
  26. ^ John Dee, 1577. 1577 J. Arte Navigation, p. 65 "The syncere Intent, and faythfull Aduise, of Georgius Gemistus Pletho, was, I could..frame and shape very much of Gemistus those his two Greek Orations..for our Brytish Iles, and in better and more allowable manner." From the OED, s.v. "British Isles"
  27. ^ Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru/University of Wales Dictionary, vol. 3, page 2916; vol. 4, p. 3819.
  28. ^ Longman Modern English Dictionary - "a group of islands off N.W. Europe comprising Great Britain Ireland, the Hebrides, Orkney the Shetland Is and adjacent islands"
    Merriam Webster - "Function: geographical name, island group W Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland, & adjacent islands"
    dictionary.com - includes for example the American Heritage Dictionary - "British Isles, A group of islands off the northwest coast of Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland, and adjacent smaller islands"
    Encarta - "British Isles, group of islands in the northeastern Atlantic, separated from mainland Europe by the North Sea and the English Channel. It consists of the large islands of Great Britain and Ireland and almost 5,000 surrounding smaller islands and islets"
    Philip's World Atlas
    Times Atlas of the World
    Insight Family World Atlas. Archived 2009-10-31.
  29. ^ OED Online: "a geographical term for the islands comprising Great Britain and Ireland with all their offshore islands including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands"
    GENUKI: Crown Dependencies
    The British Isles and all that
    Philips University Atlas
  30. ^ John Oakland, 2003, British Civilization: A Student's Dictionary, Routledge: London

    British-Irish Isles, the (geography) see BRITISH ISLES

    British Isles, the (geography) A geographical (not political or CONSTITUTIONAL) term for ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, WALES, and IRELAND (including the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND), together with all offshore islands. A more accurate (and politically acceptable) term today is the British-Irish Isles.

  31. ^ Blackwellreference.com
  32. ^ BBC's style guide BBC:PDF (275 KB) "The British Isles is not a political entity. It is a geographical unit, the archipelago off the west coast of continental Europe covering Scotland, Wales, England, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands."
  33. ^ The Times: "Britain or Great Britain = England, Wales, Scotland and islands governed from the mainland (i.e. not Isle of Man or Channel Islands). United Kingdom = Great Britain and Northern Ireland. British Isles = United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. Do not confuse these entities."
  34. ^ Hydro.gov.ukPDF (1.00 MB) Notice to Mariners of 2005 referring to a new edition of a nautical chart of the Western Approaches. Chart 2723 INT1605 International Chart Series, British Isles & Ireland, Western Approaches to the North Channel.
  35. ^ "Britannica.com Thus, the Gulf Stream–North Atlantic–Norway Current brings warm tropical waters northward, warming the climates of eastern North America, the British Isles and Ireland, and the Atlantic coast of Norway in winter, and the Kuroshio–North Pacific Current does the same for Japan and western North America, where warmer winter climates also occur. Page retrieved Feb eighteenth 2007.
  36. ^ "OUP.com The description of the OUP textbook "The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries" in the series on the history of the British Isles carries the description that it 'Offers an integrated geographical coverage of the whole of the British Isles and Ireland - rather than purely English history'" The same blurb goes on to say that the "book encompasses the histories of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, and also considers the relationships between the different parts of the British Isles". Page retrieved Feb eighteenth 2007.
  37. ^ Economic History Society Style Guide
  38. ^ Tribune.ie, 'British Isles' references leave Irish eyes frowning, The Sunday Tribune, 27 January 2008
  39. ^ The Irish Times, "Folens to wipe 'British Isles' off the map in new atlas", 2 October 2006
  40. ^ British Isles is removed from school atlases
  41. ^ Mayes, Julian; Dennis Wheeler (1997). Regional Climates of the British Isles. London: Routledge. pp. 13. 
  42. ^ Ibid., pp. 13–14.
  43. ^ Goudie, Andrew S.; D. Brunsden (1994). The Environment of the British Isles, an Atlas. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 2. 
  44. ^ Ibid., p. 5.
  45. ^ Seán McCárthaigh, Dublin–London busiest air traffic route within EU Irish Examiner, 31 March 2003
  46. ^ Thenail, Bruno. "EMDI - Espace Manche Development Initiative". European Community INTERREG IIIB NWE Programme. http://www.nweurope.org/page/projet.php?p=&id=606. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  47. ^ "Tunnel under the Sea", The Washington Post, 2 May 1897 (Archive link)
  48. ^ A Vision of Transport in Ireland in 2050, IEI report (pdf), The Irish Academy of Engineers, 21/12/2004
  49. ^ Tunnel 'vision' under Irish Sea, (link), BBC news, Thursday, 23 December 2004
  50. ^ BBC News, From Twinbrook to the Trevi Fountain, 21 August 2007
  51. ^ Though the Irish Free State left the United Kingdom on 6 December 1922 the name of the United Kingdom was not changed to reflect that until April 1927, when Northern Ireland was substituted for Ireland in its name.
  52. ^ Who can vote, UK Electoral Commission, retrieved August 12, 2009.
  53. ^ Goldsmith, 2008, Citizenship: Our Common Bond, Ministry of Justice: London
  54. ^ [Communiqué of the British-Irish Council], February 2008
  55. ^ Martina Purdy, 28 February 2008 2008, Unionists urged to drop boycott, BBC: London
  56. ^ "Bristol City Council: Translating and interpreting services: Translations / Community language documents". Bristol.gov.uk. http://www.bristol.gov.uk/ccm/content/Community-Living/Equality-Diversity/community-language-resources.en. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  57. ^ ‘A Profile of Londoners by Language’: Greater London Authority: Data Management and Analysis Group http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/publications/factsandfigures/dmag-briefing-2006-26.pdf
  58. ^ "Ireland". Museum.tv. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/I/htmlI/ireland/ireland.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  59. ^ Samaritans - Would you like to know more? > History > National growth
  60. ^ RNLI.org.uk, The RNLI is a charity that provides a 24-hour lifesaving service around the UK and Republic of Ireland.

Further reading

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Britain and Ireland article)

From Wikitravel

Europe : Britain and Ireland

Britain and Ireland are the principal countries in the British Isles, an archipelago just northwest of the European mainland. The region includes the British Crown dependencies of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.

Britain, Ireland, and surrounding islands
Britain, Ireland, and surrounding islands
United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland)
Republic of Ireland
Isle of Man
a British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea, directly between Great Britain and Ireland
Channel Islands (Jersey, Guernsey)
a group of British Crown dependencies in the English Channel, located off the coast of Normandy, France.

Understand

Britain and Ireland is one of the most visited regions on the planet. It contains some of the world's most recognisable landmarks, historical sites dating back thousands of years, and unique natural environments. World cities, quaint towns, and remote and isolated areas and islands.

Every part is accessible to the visitor to explore, with trains, ferries, planes and roads connecting the region together. English speaking visitors are guaranteed of being able to communicate everywhere within the region, read all the signs and maps, and get to know the people.

Talk

Most people speak English as their first language, however, it may surprise some visitors that in some small geographical pockets English is not the first language used for local communication, and the indigenous languages survive. These indigenous languages are generally of Celtic origin. Welsh is the most widely spoken of these and in some north-western parts of Wales it remains the majority language. Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic are closely related Gaelic languages sharing much of the same base vocabulary. In the Channel Islands there are small numbers of Norman French speakers. Even in those areas, however, nearly everyone speaks some English and most speak it fluently.

There are considerable variations in accent and dialect, although this should provide no major obstacle to visitors with reasonable fluency in English. There are, however, dialects of English in certain parts that could be said to form distinct languages such as "Scots" and "Ulster Scots".

All official signs are in English, and where it is multi-lingual, they will have an additional language as well.

In recent decades, immigration has seen other linguistic communities establish themselves throughout the region, mainly in urban England.

Get in

Visitors may find more useful information in the "Get in" sections of the specific part of the region they wish to enter.

Immigration and visa requirements

There are five separate jurisdictions with their own immigration rules in this region. Therefore, travellers may wish to check the requirments for the territories in which they wish to travel on the appropriate pages. The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands have their own immigration rules, which are not exactly the same as the United Kingdom itself. Those concern mainly of long-term residency and are probably not important for the average tourist. Despite there being different rules in the different territories, there is considerable co-operation and co-ordination among the various authorities in this region which means that the British Isles comprise a Common Travel Area, which helps the vast majority of travelers enjoy hassle free travel when crossing borders within the Region.

By plane

There are external direct flights to every constituent part of this region except to the Isle of Man.

The largest port of entry to this region is London Heathrow Airport. Situated 15 miles west of Central London, Heathrow offers a large choice of international destinations, with direct flights to most countries in the world. Many onward air connections within the region are possible. Coach connections to other places in mainland Great Britain are generally good. Rail connections from Heathrow to London are good; however, there being no direct services to other parts of Great Britain, a change of train will be necessary in London or possibly at Reading Station, which is served by a regular shuttle coach.

Heathrow's location in the far South East of the region means that many travellers to many other parts of these islands may be better off getting a direct flight to the specific part of the Region in which they are interested. However, from some parts of the world Heathrow, may be the only realistic option, to get into the region, and then further arrangements for onward travel would then be required.

Other airports such as Birmingham, Dublin, Gatwick, Glasgow, Manchester, and Shannon are served by a number of long haul as well as European cities.

There are many other airports where a traveller can enter this region: from some longhaul cities and many European cities; further information is available on the pages about the specific country, or part of the country.

Get around

The Common Travel Area

The United Kingdom, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands maintain a common travel area, somewhat akin to the Schengen Area on continental Europe. Broadly speaking. Crossing the borders is very simple compared with most other international borders.

Ireland and the United Kingdom have been separate countries for many decades. but for the most part both have found it beneficial to maintain relatively open borders. However, because of the way it has developed over the years, the Common Travel Area arrangment is not as formalised as other similar arrangments (such as the Schengen Area), and so the exact rules can be quite complex for some third country nationals.

  • Nationals of a "Common Travel Area" country can travel to any of the others without a passport but can be asked to provide identity documents.
  • Citizens of the European Economic Area have the right to travel between the two countries and they require a national ID card or a passport.
  • Visitors from other countries that do not require a visa and have been checked through immigration in one part of the area (e.g. England) would not normally have to go through immigration procedures when continuing a journey to another part of the Area (e.g. Ireland) but must carry a valid passport.
  • Visitors from a country needing a Visa to enter one Common Travel Area Country will need to apply for a Visa to enter the other. Whilst both countries have very similar Visa rules, it is important to remember that unlike the Schengen Area, the United Kingdom and Ireland maintain separate Visa systems.

In general, if you have a passport or EU national identification card, you can avoid any hassles by carrying it, and using it for identification. Also check the identification requirements of any airline or ferry you may be taking.

Buy

The Pound Sterling is the currency of the United Kingdom and its Crown Dependencies. The Euro is the currency of the Republic of Ireland. With very limited exceptions, neither currency is accepted outside their territories within this region. Travellers should therefore be aware to have Sterling and or Euro as appropriate to their travel plans.

United Kindom and Crown Dependencies

Sterling is the local currency. Euro is accepted in certain border areas; for example, near the land border with the Republic of Ireland or in certain businesses near ferry terminals serving Ireland.

Banknotes

In the United Kingdom, most banknotes are produced by the Bank of England. In Scotland and in Northern Ireland, the various banks produce their banknotes too. Each Crown Dependency government produces its own banknotes for local circulation.

In England and Wales, Bank of England notes are the only ones which commonly circulate, and a visitor is unlikely to see any other variety of banknotes. Scottish banknotes are almost universally accepted by large retailers and are generally by smaller ones too. Roughly speaking, the closer to Scotland, the more readily they are accepted, perhaps due to more familiarity with them. Scottish notes are extremely rarely given in change although it is not completely unknown for Scottish £5 notes to be offered and accepted as an alternative to coins as change due to a the shortage of bank of England £5 notes. Northern Ireland notes are generally accepted in large retailers but are even rarer to see than Scottish notes. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Crown Dependency notes can be exchanged for Bank of England notes for free in banks.

In Scotland, most circulating notes are produced by the local banks. Bank of England notes also circulate freely. Northern Ireland notes are generally accepted by most retailers. Northern Ireland notes can be exchanged for mainland notes for free in banks. Crown Dependency notes can be exchanged for local notes for free in banks.

In Northern Ireland, most circulating notes are produced by the local banks. Bank of England notes also circulate freely. Scottish notes are generally accepted by most retailers. Scottish notes can be exchanged for Northern Irish notes for free in banks. Crown Dependency notes can be exchanged for local notes for free in banks. Travellers should be aware, however that notes produced by Northern Irish banks are still Sterling and so are not valid for circulation in the Republic of Ireland, where the local currency is the Euro.

In the Crown Dependencies, notes generally circulate only in each dependency. Bank of England notes also circulate. Scottish and Northern Irish notes may be accepted.

An overseas traveller with non Bank of England Sterling bank notes would be well advised to change them for Bank of England notes before leaving the UK or Dependent territory since these notes may well be unfamiliar overseas. The obvious exception to that, Northern Ireland notes, will be familar in the republic and can be changed for Euro there: that may be worthwhile if a traveller does not intend to cross back to the UK.

Coins

United Kingdom Coins follow standard designs, so in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales and circulate freely throughout the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies, and the other Dependent territories that use Sterling.

Coins from the Crown Dependencies and the other Overseas territories, (e.g. Falkland Islands, Gibraltar etc) have their own designs and commonly circulate only in their respecitve territory. Otherwise, they conform to the same weight and other specifications to mainland UK coins. They may occasionally be seen in circulation outside these territories including in the United Kingdom and for the most part circulate freely, although the occasional eagle eyed retailer or customer may decline them. Banks will exchange them if need be, but that usually is unecessary. If the worst comes to the worst, vending machines, parking meters, and such like have not been known to object to non-Mainland coins!

Republic of Ireland

Only the Euro is legal tender. Sterling may be accepted in certain border locations, for example in ferry ports or near the Northern Ireland land border.

Notes

Euro notes have a standard design throughout the Eurozone, which includes Ireland.

Coins

Euro Coins have a side that is common throughout the whole zone, and another side with a national symbol. However, all coins are valid throughout the Eurozone. Since Ireland has no land borders with any other part of the Eurozone, other than at more "internationalised" locations, such as airports, it is speculated that Ireland has proportionately less "foreign" Euro coins in circulation than most other Eurozone countries. That is more a point of interest rather than practicial concern there are no known difficulties in using non Irish Euro coins.

See

Although most if not all visitors will probably visit London at some point, it is well worth getting out of the capital to get a real taste of the region.

Whether it's countryside, coastal, historic towns or vibrant cities you are after, there's something for everyone.

For the best countryside head for the National Parks such as the Yorkshire Dales, perhaps on a daytrip or a longer stay.

For coastal there are either pretty beaches such as St Ives, traditional fishing towns like Whitby or seaside resorts such as Blackpool.

For historic towns there are a wide range from Edinburgh and Cardiff and their castles, to Bath and York and their Roman history.

For vibrant cities why not head to Leeds in the North for shopping, museums, theatre and day trips to the Yorkshire Dales, Bristol in the West or Glasgow in Scotland and Dublin in Ireland.

Do

Golf

The game of golf as we understand it developed in this region, specifically in Scotland. Despite a strong challenge from Iberia in recent decades, Britain and Ireland remains the Europe's most important region for the sport. Indeed, it can make a strong argument to be the world's main golfing destination.

Whilst Scotland is considered the home of golf and remains a major worldwide golfing destination in its own right, the Scots' Celtic cousins, in Ireland and more recently Wales, are clearly challenging for pre-eminence as premier golfing destinations, both having well established courses and having invested heavily in new courses too. Indeed, Ireland has recently hosted, and Wales is about to host, the 2010 Ryder Cup. England, as the largest country in the region, has the largest number of courses,and so clearly should not be overlooked as a golfing destination either even if its Celtic neighbours hit above their weight.

There are unsurprisingly many top class golf courses in all of the major countries of the region as well as good quality courses to suit more modest pockets.

Drink

The Pub

The "Pub" concept has its origins here. They are premises licenced for the sale of alcoholic drinks for consumption on and off the premises. The pub concept is distinct from the broader concept of a "bar". There are similarities shared by "pubs" throughout Britain and Ireland not shared with other sorts of drinking establishments elsewhere, though the Irish Pub experience can be very distinct from the pub experience of elsewhere in these Islands.

Whisky (Whiskey)

Distilled spirits have been drunk on these islands for millennia. Whisky (or Whiskey in Ireland) is produced predominantly in Ireland and Scotland. There are, however, also Welsh and English Whiskies, too.

Stay safe

Throughout this region, traffic drives on the left. In the United Kingdom, and its Crown Dependencies, speed limits are expressed in miles per hour. In the Republic of Ireland speed limits are expressed in kilometres per hour.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

the British Isles

  1. A group of islands off the northwest coast of mainland Europe, comprising Great Britain, Ireland (the island), the Isle of Wight, the Isles of Scilly, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, the Outer Hebrides, the Inner Hebrides, the Orkney Islands, the Shetland Islands and many other smaller islands.

Translations

Usage notes

Usage of this term is not universally accepted in Ireland, where use of the term "The British Isles" to include Ireland can sometimes be regarded as inappropriate or anachronistic, and such usage may cause some offense.

See also


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Wikipedia has a page called:

The British Isles are a group of over 6,000 islands off the west coast of continental Europe. The two largest are Great Britain and Ireland. The northernmost island is Out Stack, a few kilometres north of Unst, Shetland. The southernmost islands are either the Isles of Scilly or the Channel Islands, depending on one's viewpoint.

The term "British Isles" is offensive to many people of Ireland and is generally avoided in official discussions with the United Kingdom.


This page is a "stub" and could be improved by additions and other edits.


This article uses material from the "British Isles" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

The British Isles are a group of islands in north-western Europe. The biggest islands are called Great Britain and Ireland, followed by the Isle of Man. Great Britain, the biggest island, is home to three countries: England, Wales and Scotland. The island of Ireland is divided into Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Great Britain is the biggest island in Europe and Ireland is the third biggest.

England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland join together to make the United Kingdom.

  • The term tends not to be used in Ireland because many people feel it implies that Ireland is politically British.







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