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Location of the British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself.[1] They are the remnants of the British Empire that have not achieved independence or have voted to remain British territories.

The name "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, and replaced the name British Dependent Territory, which was introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981. Before 1981, the territories were known as colonies or Crown colonies.

The fourteen territories are Anguilla, the British Antarctic Territory, Bermuda, the British Indian Ocean Territory, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, St Helena and Dependencies (Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha), the Turks and Caicos Islands, Pitcairn Island, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, and the Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus.[2] Claims in Antarctica, including that of Britain, are not recognised by all nations.[3] Collectively they encompass an approximate land area of 667,018 square miles (1,728,000 km2) and a population of approximately 260,000 people.[4]

The territories of Jersey and Guernsey (collectively known as the Channel Islands), and the Isle of Man, though also under the sovereignty of the British Crown, have a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom, and are classed as Crown Dependencies.[5][6][7] The British overseas territories and Crown Dependencies are distinct from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of countries mostly with historic links to the British Empire.

Contents

History

The original English colonies in the New World were plantations of English subjects in lands hitherto outside the dominions of the Crown. The first such plantation was in Newfoundland, where English fishermen routinely set up seasonal camps in the 16th century.[8]

What later became known as the "Old Empire" began in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in "Virginia" (a term that was then applied generally to North America). In 1609, a second colony was unintentionally established in Bermuda (as an extension of Virginia), which, with the loss of the American colonies in 1776, is the oldest British colony in existence (English colonies became British with the 1707 unification of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain) .

The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its peak in the 1920s, saw the UK acquire over one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa, which were held for commercial and strategic reasons rather than for settlement[citation needed]. The late 19th century saw the larger settler colonies — in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa — becoming self-governing colonies and achieving independence in all matters except foreign policy, defence and trade. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada (in 1867) and Australia (in 1901). These and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. The Dominions achieved almost full independence with the Statute of Westminster (1931). The Empire was renamed the British Commonwealth to reflect such changes and in 1949 became known as the Commonwealth of Nations. Most of the British colonies in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean achieved independence. Some colonies became Commonwealth Realms, retaining the British monarch as head of state, others became republics but acknowledged Queen Elizabeth II as Head of the Commonwealth.[citation needed]

St. George's town, in the Islands of Bermuda, or The Somers Isles. The colony was founded by the wrecking of the flagship of the Virginia Company in 1609. The Company's charter was extended to include Bermuda in 1612, and it has remained an English (since 1707, British) colony ever since. Since the independence of Virginia, it has been the oldest-remaining British colony, and the town of St. George's is the oldest continuously-inhabited English settlement in the New World.[citation needed]

After the independence of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in Africa in 1980 and British Honduras (now Belize) in Central America in 1981, the last major colony that remained was Hong Kong, with a population of over 5 million. Unlike other territories, the territory of Hong Kong had two different arrangements:

With 1997 approaching, the United Kingdom and China negotiated the Sino-British Joint Declaration, which led to the whole of Hong Kong becoming a "special administrative region" of China in 1997, subject to various conditions intended to guarantee the preservation of Hong Kong's capitalist economy and its way of life under British rule for at least 50 years after the handover. This was because Hong Kong's infrastructure was significantly interconnected with that of Guangdong Province, which would make it virtually impossible for those areas ceded in perpetuity to continue functioning without importing virtually all of their necessities.

Following the return of Hong Kong, the remaining British overseas possessions are mostly small island territories with small populations – the only territory of significant area being the uninhabited British Antarctic Territory. The reasons for these territories not achieving independence vary, and include:[citation needed]

  • lack of support for independence among the local population;
  • a small population size making the possibility of success as a sovereign nation more difficult;
  • dependence on economic aid from the UK;
  • being uninhabited territories used for scientific or military purposes;
  • a lack of any economic or political justification for independence.

In 2002, the UK Parliament passed the British Overseas Territories Act 2002. This reclassified the UK's dependent territories as overseas territories and, with the exception of those people solely connected with the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus, restored full British citizenship to their inhabitants.[9]

Current overseas territories

The 14 British overseas territories are:

Flag Arms Territory Location Motto Area Population Capital
Flag of Anguilla.svg Coat of Arms of Anguilla.svg Anguilla Caribbean and North Atlantic Territories Strength and Endurance 146 km2 (56.4 sq mi) [10] 13,500[11] The Valley
Flag of Bermuda.svg Coa Bermuda.svg Bermuda North Atlantic Ocean Quo fata ferunt (Latin: "Whither the Fates carry [us]") 54 km2 (20.8 sq mi) [12] 64,000 (2007 estimate) [13] Hamilton
Flag of the British Antarctic Territory.svg British Antarctic Territory COA.svg British Antarctic Territory Antarctica Research and discovery 1,709,400 km2 (660,000 sq mi) [14] 50 in winter; over 400 in summer [15] Rothera (main base)
Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg British Indian Ocean Territory coat of arms.svg British Indian Ocean Territory Indian Ocean In tutela nostra Limuria (Latin: "Limuria is in our charge") 46 km2 (18 sq mi) [16] about 3,000 UK & US military and staff. [17] Diego Garcia (base)
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg Coat of Arms of the British Virgin Islands.svg British Virgin Islands Caribbean and North Atlantic Territories Vigilate (Latin: "Be watchful") 153 km2 (59 sq mi) [18] 27,000 (2005 estimate) [19] Road Town
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg Coat of arms of Cayman Islands.svg Cayman Islands Caribbean and North Atlantic Territories He hath founded it upon the seas 259 km2 (100.0 sq mi) [20] 53,252 (2006 estimate) [21] George Town
Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg Coa Falkland.svg Falkland Islands South Atlantic Ocean Desire the right 12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi) [22] 2,955 (2006 census) [23] Stanley
Flag of Gibraltar.svg Coat of arms of Gibraltar1.svg Gibraltar Iberian Peninsula Nulli expugnabilis hosti (Latin: "No enemy shall expel us") 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi) [24] 28,800 (2005) [25] Gibraltar
Flag of Montserrat.svg Coat of arms of Montserrat.svg Montserrat Caribbean and North Atlantic Territories Each Endeavouring, All Achieving 101 km2 (39 sq mi) [26] 4,655 (2006 estimate) [27] Plymouth (abandoned due to volcano—de facto capital is Brades)
Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg Coat of Arms of the Pitcairn Islands.svg Pitcairn Islands Pacific Ocean None 45 km2 (17 sq mi)
(all islands) [28]
51 (2008) [29] Adamstown
Flag of Saint Helena.svg Coat of arms of Saint Helena.svg Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha   South Atlantic Ocean Loyal and Unshakeable (St Helena)
Our faith is our strength (Tristan da Cunha)
122 km2 (47 sq mi) [30] 4,000 (2007) [31] Jamestown
Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg Coat of arms of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.svg South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Atlantic Ocean Leo terram propriam protegat (Latin: "Let the lion protect his own land") 4,066 km2 (1,570 sq mi) [32] 99 [33] King Edward Point/Grytviken
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Her Majesty's Government Coat of Arms.svg Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Mediterranean (Cyprus) Dieu et mon droit (French: "God and my right") 255 km2 (98 sq mi) [34] 14,000 (about half British military and staff); Episkopi Cantonment
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Coat of arms of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Turks and Caicos Islands Caribbean and North Atlantic Territories 430 km2 (166 sq mi) [35] 32,000 (2006 census estimate) [36] Cockburn Town

Government

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Head of State

The head of state in the overseas territories is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Queen's role in the territories is in her role as Queen of the United Kingdom, and not in right of each territory. The Queen appoints a representative in each territory to exercise her executive power. In territories with a permanent population, a Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the British Government, usually a retired senior military officer, or a senior civil servant. In territories without a permanent population, a Commissioner is usually appointed to represent the Queen. For overseas territories with dependencies, the Governor may appoint an Administrator to represent him or her in that dependency.[citation needed]

The role of the Governor is to act as the de facto head of state, and they are usually responsible for appointing the head of government, and senior political positions in the territory. The Governor is also responsible for liaising with the UK Government, and carrying out any ceremonial duties. A Commissioner has the same powers as a Governor, but also acts as the head of government.

Government

All the overseas territories have their own system of government, and localised laws. The structure of the government appears to be closely correlated to the size and political development of the territory.[citation needed]

Territories Government
No native or permanent population, therefore there is no elected government. The Commissioner, supported by an Administrator run the affairs of the territory.
There is no elected government, and currently has no native settled population. However, the Chagos Islanders - who were forcibly evicted from the territory in 1971 and might reasonably be considered as that territory's people - are currently defending an appeal against an English High Court judgment which quashed an Order preventing them from returning.
There is no elected government, however the British military authorities try to ensure convergence of laws with those of the Republic of Cyprus where possible.
There is an elected Mayor and Island Council, who have the power to propose and administer local legislation. However, their decisions are subject to approval by the Governor, who retains near-unlimited powers of plenary legislation on behalf of the United Kingdom Government.
The Government consists of an elected Legislative Assembly, with the Chief Executive and the Director of Corporate Resources as ex officio members.[37]
The Government consists of an elected Legislative Council. The Governor is the head of government and leads the Executive Council, consisting of appointed members made up from the Legislative Council and two ex-officio members. Governance on Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha is led by Administrators which are advised by elected Island Councils.[38]
These larger territories have a larger House of Assembly, (except in the Cayman Islands, which have a Legislative Assembly) with political parties. The Executive Council is usually called a cabinet and is led by either a Premier (in the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands), a Chief Minister (in Anguilla), who is the leader of the majority party in parliament. The Governor exercises less power over local affairs and deals mostly with foreign affairs and economic issues, while the elected government controls most "domestic" concerns.[citation needed]
This territory has a Legislative Council, with political parties. The Executive Council is usually called a cabinet and is led by a Chief Minister, who is the leader of the majority party.
Under the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006 which was approved in Gibraltar by a referendum, Gibraltar now has a Parliament. The Government of Gibraltar, headed by the Chief Minister is elected. Defence, external affairs and internal security vest in the Governor as a matter of distribution of powers. The UK therefore has no need to administer in Gibraltar.[39]
Bermuda, settled in 1609, is the oldest and most populous of the Overseas Territories, and most executive powers have been devolved to the head of government, known as the Premier.[citation needed]

The Turks and Caicos Islands adopted a new constitution effective 9 August 2006; their head of government now also has the title Premier, and their autonomy has been greatly increased.[citation needed]

On 16 March 2009 the British parliament voted suspend self-government in the territory for a period of up to 2 years. A subsequent legal judgement was upheld by three member British Court of Appeal on 12 August 2009, thus allowing the process to be implemented.[40][41]

Legal system

Each overseas territory has its own legal system independent of the United Kingdom. The legal system is generally based on English common law, with some distinctions for local circumstances. Each territory has its own attorney general, and court system. For the smaller territories, the UK may appoint a UK-based lawyer or judge to work on legal cases. This is particularly important for cases involving serious crimes and where it is impossible to find a jury who will not know the defendant in a small population island[citation needed].

The Pitcairn rape trial of 2004 is an example of how the UK may choose to provide the legal framework for particular cases where the territory cannot do so alone.

Relations with the UK

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office has the responsibility of looking after the interests of all overseas territories except one. The Overseas Territory Department is headed by the Foreign Office Minister for the Overseas Territories, currently the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State is Chris Bryant[42]. The exception is the Sovereign Base Areas territory, which comes under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence.

In 1999, the FCO published the Partnership for Progress and Prosperity: Britain and the Overseas Territories report which set out the UK's policy for the Overseas Territories, covering four main areas:

  • Self-determination
  • Responsibilities of the UK and the territories
  • Democratic autonomy
  • Provision for help and assistance

The UK and the overseas territories do not have diplomatic representations, although the governments of the overseas territories with indigenous populations all retain a representative office in London. The United Kingdom Overseas Territories Association (UKOTA) also represents the interests of the territories in London. The governments in both the United Kingdom and territories occasionally meet to mitigate or resolve disagreements over the process of governance in the territories and levels of autonomy.[43]

The UK provides financial assistance to the overseas territories via the Department of International Development. Currently only Montserrat and Saint Helena receive budgetary aid (ie financial contribution to recurrent funding). Several specialist funds are made available by the UK, including:

Foreign affairs

Map showing the portion of Antarctica claimed by the UK as British Antarctic Territory.

Foreign affairs of the overseas territories are handled by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London. Some territories maintain diplomatic officers in nearby countries for trade and immigration purposes. Several of the territories in the Americas maintain membership within the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Development Bank, Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency, and the Association of Caribbean States. The territories are members of the Commonwealth of Nations through the United Kingdom. The inhabited territories compete in their own right at the Commonwealth Games, and three of the territories (Bermuda, the Cayman Islands and the British Virgin Islands) sent teams to the 2008 Summer Olympics.

Gibraltar is the only overseas territory that is part of the European Union (EU), although it is not part of the customs union and is not a member in its own right. None of the other Overseas Territories are members of the EU, and the main body of EU law does not apply and, although certain slices of EU law are applied to those territories as part of the EU's Association of Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT Association), they are not commonly enforceable in local courts. The OCT Association also provides overseas territories with structural funding for regeneration projects.

Since the return of full British citizenship to most 'belongers' of overseas territories (mainly since the British Overseas Territories Act 2002), the citizens of those territories hold concurrent European Union citizenship, giving them rights of free movement across all EU member states.

Several nations dispute the UK's sovereignty in the following overseas territories:

Currencies

The many British overseas territories use a varied allotment of currencies with very few using the British pound as their native currency.

Location Native currency
  • British Antarctic Territory
  • Tristan da Cunha
  • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Pound Sterling

  • The Falkland Islands

Falkland Islands pound

  • Gibraltar

Gibraltar pound

  • Saint Helena
  • Ascension Island

Saint Helenian pound

  • British Indian Ocean Territory
  • The British Virgin Islands
  • The Turks and Caicos Islands

United States dollar

  • Anguilla
  • Montserrat

Eastern Caribbean dollar

  • Bermuda

Bermudian dollar

  • The Cayman Islands

Cayman Islands dollar

  • The Pitcairn Islands

New Zealand dollar

  • Akrotiri and Dhekelia

Euro

Citizenship

None of the overseas territories have their own nationality status, and all citizens are classed as British Overseas Territories citizens (BOTC). They do however, have legislative independence over immigration, and holding the status of a BOTC does not automatically give a person a right to abode in any of the territories, as it depends on the territory's immigration laws. A territory may issue Belonger status to allow a person classed as a BOTC to reside in the territory that they have close links with. Non-BOTC citizens may acquire Belonger status in order to reside in a particular territory (and may subsequently become naturalised BOTC if they wish).

Historically, most inhabitants of the former British Empire held the status of British subject, which was usually lost upon independence. From 1949, British subjects in the United Kingdom and the remaining crown colonies became citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies. However changes in British immigration and nationality law between 1962 and 1983 saw the creation of a separate British Dependent Territories citizenship with effect from January, 1983. Citizens in most territories were stripped of full British citizenship. This was mainly to prevent a mass exodus of the citizens of Hong Kong to the UK before the agreed handover to China in 1997. Exception was made for the Falkland Islands, which had been invaded the previous year by Argentina. Full British citizenship was soon returned to the people of Gibraltar due to their friction with Spain.

However, the British Overseas Territories Act 2002 replaced dependent territory citizenship with British Overseas Territories citizenship, and restored full British citizenship to all BOTCs except those from the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus. This restored to BOTCs the right to reside in the UK.

British citizens do not, however, have an automatic right to reside in any of the Overseas Territories. Some territories prohibit immigration, and any visitors are required to seek the permission of the territory's government to live in the territory. As they are used primarily as military bases, Ascension Island and the British Indian Ocean Territory do not allow visitors to the territory unless on official business.

Military

Defence of the Overseas Territories is the responsibility of the UK. Many of the overseas territories are used as military bases by the UK and its allies.

Symbols and insignia

Each overseas territory has been granted its own flag and coat of arms by the British monarch. Traditionally, the flags follow the Blue Ensign design, with the Union Flag in the canton, and the territory's coat of arms in the fly. Exceptions to this are Bermuda which uses a Red Ensign; British Antarctic Territory which uses a White Ensign; British Indian Ocean Territory which uses a Blue Ensign with wavy lines to symbolise the sea; and Gibraltar which uses a banner of its coat of arms (the flag of the city of Gibraltar). Gibraltar's coat of arms is unique in that it is the only armorial insignia that dates from before the period of British colonial administration[citation needed].

The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia are the only British overseas territories without an official flag of their own. The Union Flag is used in this territory and is also used for Ascension Island.

Gallery of images

Further reading

  • Harry Ritchie, The Last Pink Bits: Travels Through the Remnants of the British Empire (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1997)
  • Simon Winchester, Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire (London & New York, 1985)
  • George Drower, Britain's Dependent Territories (Dartmouth, 1992)
  • George Drower, Overseas Territories Handbook (London: TSO, 1998)
  • Ben Fogle, The Teatime Islands: Adventures in Britain's Faraway Outposts (London: Michael Joseph, 2003)
  • Joseph Boromé, 'How Crown Colony Government Came to Dominica by 1898', in Aspects of Dominican History (Roseau, Dominica, 1972), 120-50
  • Bonham C. Richardson, The Caribbean in the Wider World, 1492-1992[45]

References

  1. ^ The 14 Territories
  2. ^ http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080205132101/www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front%3fpagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1013618138295
  3. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ay.html
  4. ^ http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/
  5. ^ http://www.gov.je/ChiefMinister/International+Relations/Profile+of+Jersey.htm
  6. ^ http://www.gov.gg/ccm/navigation/about-guernsey/
  7. ^ http://www.gov.im/government/
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ British Overseas Territories Act 2002 (text online): S. 3: "Any person who, immediately before the commencement of this section, is a British overseas territories citizen shall, on the commencement of this section, become a British citizen."
  10. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4387
  11. ^ http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140417/anguilla/
  12. ^ http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=POP&f=tableCode%3A19
  13. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4393
  14. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4387
  15. ^ http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140419/british_antarctic_territory/
  16. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4399
  17. ^ http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140420/british_indian_ocean_territory/
  18. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4395
  19. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4395
  20. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4396
  21. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4396
  22. ^ http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=POP&f=tableCode%3A19
  23. ^ http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140425/falkland_islands/
  24. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4400
  25. ^ http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140426/gibraltar/
  26. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4397
  27. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4397
  28. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4405
  29. ^ http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140428/pitcairn_islands__pitcairn__henderson__ducie_and_o/
  30. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4403
  31. ^ http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/140416/140429/st_helena_and_st_helena_dependencies__islands_of_s/
  32. ^ http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact92/wf930224.txt
  33. ^ http://population.mongabay.com/population/south-georgia-and-the-south-sandwich-islands/3426466/grytviken
  34. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4413
  35. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4398
  36. ^ http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-4398
  37. ^ Falkland Islands Legislative Assembly
  38. ^ http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2009/plain/uksi_20091751_en#sch1-pt3-ch5-l1g165 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009 (at OPSI)
  39. ^ Chief Minister’s address at the United Nations Committee of 24 on 5 June 2006
  40. ^ Staff writer (14-08-2009). "SUSPENDED: Turks and Caicos constitution shelved". Caribbean News Agency. Caribbean Media Corporation. http://www.cananews.net/news/131/ARTICLE/40957/2009-08-14.html. Retrieved 15 August 2009. "PROVIDENCIALES, Turks and Caicos Islands, CMC – Governor Gordon Wetherell Friday signed a proclamation suspending sections of the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) constitution in a move that Premier Galmo Williams has condemned as a "coup" by the British government. "....Today our country is being invaded and re-colonized by the United Kingdom, dismantling a duly elected government and legislature and replacing it with a one man dictatorship, akin to that of the old Red China, all in the name of good governance," Williams said. Former Premier Michael Misick Wednesday lost his appeal against moves by the United Kingdom government to suspend the constitution and impose direct rule. [ . . .] "Following the decision in the Court of Appeal in London on 12th August and on the instruction of UK Ministers, I have today signed a proclamation, published in the Gazette, which brings into force the Order in Council suspending parts of the Turks and Caicos Islands constitution," the Governor said in a statement Friday, promising fresh elections in 2011. He said that with "immediate effect, Ministerial government and the House of Assembly are suspended meaning that Cabinet will no longer exist and the House of Assembly is dissolved and Members’ seats are vacated". "The constitutional right to trial by jury is also suspended with immediate effect. In accordance with the Order in Council, this will be for a period of two years, subject to extension or abbreviation as necessary."" 
  41. ^ Staff writer (14-08-2009). "TCI back under British rule". BBC Caribbean. BBC Caribbean. http://www.bbc.co.uk/caribbean/news/story/2009/08/090814_tci_direct_rule.shtml. Retrieved 15 August 2009. "The Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) were declared back under direct British rule. A statement from the British Governor in the TCI stated on 14 August: "We have today signed a proclamation, published in the Gazette, which brings into force the Order in Council suspending parts of the Turks and Caicos Islands constitution." The reason: a British-ordered inquiry into the British dependency which shone a light on widespread corruption. The final report recommended a two-year suspension of island government while the British Governor cleans up administrative and constitutional activity in the TCI." 
  42. ^ http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/about-us/who-we-are/our-ministers/c-bryant
  43. ^ British financial officials in the region for talks with dependent territories - By Oscar Ramjeet, CaribbeanNetNews, (Published on Saturday, March 21, 2009)
  44. ^ Bermuda at avalanchepress.com
  45. ^ see books.google.com

See also

External links


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