Bromo-DragonFLY: Wikis

  
  

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Bromo-DragonFLY
R-Bromo-DragonFLY.svg
IUPAC name
Other names Bromo-benzodifuranyl-isopropylamine
Identifiers
CAS number 502759-67-3
PubChem 10544447
SMILES
Properties
Molecular formula C13H12BrNO2
Molar mass 294.14 g/mol
Melting point

decomposes at 240 °C (hydrochloride)

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Bromo-DragonFLY, also known as ABDF, or "Placid" is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug related to the phenethylamine family. Bromo-DragonFLY is considered an extremely potent hallucinogen, only slightly less potent than LSD with a normal dose in the region of 200 μg to 800 μg, and it has an extremely long duration of action up to several days. [1] It is explicitly illegal only in Sweden [2] and Denmark, although it may be considered a controlled substance analogue under US and Australian drug laws. Bromo-DragonFLY has a stereocenter and R-(-)-bromo-DragonFLY is the more active stereoisomer.

Contents

History

Bromo-DragonFLY was first synthesized by Matthew Parker in the laboratory of David E. Nichols in 1998. It got its name from an earlier and less active dihydrofurane series of compounds nicknamed FLY due to the molecule's superficial structural resemblance to a fly.

Pharmacology

The hallucinogenic effect of bromo-DragonFLY is mediated by its agonist activity at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. Bromo-DragonFLY also has a high binding affinity for the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, and is most accurately described as a non-subtype selective 5-HT2 agonist, as it is actually twice as potent an agonist for 5-HT2C receptors as for 5-HT2A, as well as being less than 5x selective for 5-HT2A over 5-HT2B.[3]

Dosage

The typical dose of Bromo-DragonFLY is not known, however it has varied from 500 μg to 1 mg. [1] It has about 300 times the potency of mescaline, or 1/5th the potency of LSD. It has been sold in the form of blotters, similar to the distribution method of LSD, which has led to confusion, and reports of mistakenly consuming Bromo-DragonFly. It has a much longer duration of action than LSD and can last for up to 2–3 days [1] following a single large dose, with a slow onset of action that can take up to 6 hours before the effects are felt.

Toxicity

Pink ABDF powder.

The toxicity of Bromo-DragonFLY appears to be fairly high for humans when taken in doses above the therapeutic range, with reports of at least five deaths believed to have resulted from Bromo-DragonFLY reported in Norway [4], Sweden, [5][6] Denmark[7][8] and the United States. Laboratory testing has confirmed that in October 2009, a batch of Bromo-Dragonfly was distributed, mislabeled as the related compound 2C-B-FLY, which is around 20x less potent than BDF by weight. This mistake is believed to have contributed to several lethal overdoses and additional hospitalizations. The batch implicated in these deaths also contained significant synthesis impurities, which may have contributed to the toxicity.[9 ]

Also, a Swedish man had to have the front part of his feet and several fingers on one hand amputated after taking a massive overdose. Apparently the compound acted as a long-acting efficacious vasoconstrictor, leading to necrosis and gangrene which was delayed by several weeks after the overdose occurred. Several other cases have also been reported of severe peripheral vasoconstriction following overdose with Bromo-DragonFLY, and a similar case is also known from DOB. Treatment was of limited efficacy in this case although tolazoline is reportedly an effective treatment where available.[10][11]

Overdoses, disturbing experiences, and Bromo-DragonFLY associated health problems have been described. One case in 2008 in England involved inhalation of vomit, causing nearly fatal asphyxia.[12]

October 3, 2009 a 22 year old man from Denmark died taking Bromo-dragonfly. His friend described the trip as "It was like being dragged through Hell and back again. Several times. The worst trip ever. It lasted forever" [13]

Legal Status

Sweden

Bromo-DragonFLY was classified as a "health hazard" in Sweden on July 15, 2007, making it illegal to sell or possess there. [14] [15]

Denmark

On December 5, 2007 the drug was banned in Denmark.[16] The substance has been declared illegal by health minister Jakob Axel Nielsen, following recommendations from the Danish Health Ministry. It is currently classified as a dangerous narcotic and therefore its possession, manufacture, importation, supply or usage is strictly prohibited. Anyone involved in such activities can face legal action. [14]

Norway

Bromo-DragonFLY is currently not on the Norwegian narcotics list, [17] but is affected by Norwegian derivate laws according to state officials. [18] Thus it is effectively a narcotic drug by Norwegian law.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Erowid Bromo-DragonFly Vault : Dosage". http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/bromo_dragonfly/bromo_dragonfly_dose.shtml.  
  2. ^ "Svensk författningssamling (SFS) - Riksdagen". http://www.riksdagen.se/webbnav/index.aspx?nid=3911&bet=1992:1554.  
  3. ^ Parker MA, Marona-Lewicka D, Lucaites VL, Nelson DL, Nichols DE (December 1998). "A novel (benzodifuranyl)aminoalkane with extremely potent activity at the 5-HT2A receptor". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 41 (26): 5148–9. doi:10.1021/jm9803525. PMID 9857084.  
  4. ^ Kajsa Hallberg (2007-04-03). "Man i 20-årsåldern dog av drogen Dragonfly" (in Swedish). expressen.se (AB Kvällstidningen Expressen). http://www.expressen.se/Nyheter/1.622826. Retrieved 2009-10-30.  
  5. ^ Ritzau (2008-08-24). "Nyt stof har slået dansker ihjel" (in Danish). jp.dk. http://jp.dk/indland/aar/article1418250.ece. Retrieved 2009-10-30.  
  6. ^ Andreasen MF, Telving R, Birkler RI, Schumacher B, Johannsen M. (January 2009). "A fatal poisoning involving Bromo-Dragonfly". Forensic Science International 183 (1-3): 91-6. PMID 19091499.  
  7. ^ "Erowid 2C-B-Fly Vault: Death Report". http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2cb_fly/2cb_fly_death1.shtml.  
  8. ^ Bromo-dragonfly – livsfarlig missbruksdrog (Swedish)
  9. ^ Thorlacius K, Borna C, Personne M. Bromo-dragon fly--life-threatening drug. Can cause tissue necrosis as demonstrated by the first described case. (Swedish). Lakartidningen. 2008 Apr 16-22;105(16):1199-200. PMID 18522262
  10. ^ BBC NEWS | England | Surrey | 'I nearly died from taking £5 hit'
  11. ^ | Danish man died after trip on chineese drug
  12. ^ "Statens folkhälsoinstitut - Två nya droger klassas som hälsofarliga". http://www.fhi.se/templates/page____11295.aspx.  
  13. ^ "Amendment of Executive Order on Euphoriant Substances". Danish Medicines Agency. 2007. http://www.dkma.dk/1024/visUKLSArtikel.asp?artikelID=12407.  
  14. ^ "List of narcotic drugs according to Norwegian law". http://www.lovdata.no/for/sf/ho/to-19780630-0008-001.html.  
  15. ^ "Statens Legemiddelverk about derivates and Bromo-DragonFLY". http://www.legemiddelverket.no/templates/InterPage____57471.aspx.  

External links








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