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Bronchopneumonia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 J18.0
ICD-9 485
MeSH D001996

Bronchopneumonia or bronchial pneumonia (also known as lobular pneumonia)[1] is a type of pneumonia characterized by multiple foci of isolated, acute consolidation, affecting one or more pulmonary lobes.

It is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia as classified by gross anatomic distribution of consolidation (solidification), the other being lobar pneumonia.[2]

Contents

Associated conditions

Bronchopneumonia is less likely than lobar pneumonia to be associated with Streptococcus.[3]

The bronchopneumonia pattern has been associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia, and with specific organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, E. coli, and Pseudomonas.[4]

In bacterial pneumonia, invasion of the lung parenchyma by bacteria produces an inflammatory immune response. This response leads to a filling of the alveolar sacs with exudate. The loss of air space and its replacement with fluid is called consolidation. In bronchopneumonia, or lobular pneumonia, there are multiple foci of isolated, acute consolidation, affecting one or more pulmonary lobes.

It should be noted that although these two patterns of pneumonia, lobar and lobular, are the classic anatomic categories of bacterial pneumonia, in clinical practice the types are difficult to apply, as the patterns usually overlap. Bronchopneumonia (lobular) often leads to lobar pneumonia as the infection progresses. The same organism may cause one type of pneumonia in one patient, and another in a different patient. From the clinical standpoint, far more important than distinguishing the anatomical subtype of pneumonia, is identifying its causative agent and accurately assessing the extent of the disease.

Pathology

Macroscopically: Multiple foci of consolidation are present in the basal lobes of the human lung, often bilateral. These lesions are 2-4 cm in diameter, grey-yellow, dry, often centered on a bronchiole, are poorly delimited and have the tendency to confluence, especially in children.

Microscopically: A focus of inflammatory condensation is centered on a bronchiole with acute bronchiolitis (suppurative exudate - pus - in the lumen and parietal inflammation). Alveolar lumens surrounding the bronchiole are filled with neutrophils ("leukocytic alveolitis"). Massive congestion is present. Inflammatory foci are separated by normal, aerated parenchyma.

External links

References

  1. ^ bronchopneumonia at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Cotran, Ramzi S.; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Nelso Fausto; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K. (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. p. 749. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.  
  3. ^ "Lobar Pneumonia". http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/medicine/PULMONAR/cxr/atlas/pneumonia.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-16.  
  4. ^ "Pulmonary Pathology". http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/LUNGHTML/LUNG007.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21.  
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