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Bronze Age
Neolithic

Near East (3300-1200 BC)

Caucasus, Anatolia, Aegean, Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Elam, Sistan
Bronze Age collapse

Indian Subcontinent (3000-1200 BC)

Europe (2300-600 BC)

Beaker culture
Unetice culture
Urnfield culture
Hallstatt culture
Atlantic Bronze Age
Bronze Age Britain
Nordic Bronze Age
Italian Bronze Age

China (2000-700 BC)

Korea (800-400 BC)

Iron age
.The Bronze Age of a culture is the period when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) in that culture used bronze.^ Bronze Age metalwork in Salisbury Museum .
  • Rowan Leaf Celtic Books Bronze Age Archaeology 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.summerlands.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bronze age metalwork in Northern England c.
  • Rowan Leaf Celtic Books Bronze Age Archaeology 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.summerlands.com [Source type: Academic]

.This could either have been based on the local smelting of copper and tin from ores, or trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere.^ In the northern area, the bronze is with tin.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bronze is an alloy produced from copper and tin.
  • Bronzes : SilkPorcelain, Silk Fashions, Silk Embroidered Arts, Porcelain, Porcelain Figurines, Painted Pottery & Bronzes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silkporcelain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced in the centuries around 2000 B.C. when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork.
  • BronzeAge 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC kopperking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many, though not all, Bronze Age cultures flourished in prehistory.^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture, followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures.
  • WikiSlice 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Central Europe , the early Bronze Age Unetice culture ( 1800 - 1600 BC ) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubingen , Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures .
  • BronzeAge 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC kopperking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The naturally occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity.^ So why did much of the earliest British metalwork share a common impurity pattern, including a high arsenic content?
  • Recasting the Bronze Age - life - 23 October 1993 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copper ores do not occur naturally on this part of the Orme and must therefore have been brought to the site; and copper metal can only be produced in a furnace at high temperatures (Chapman pers.
  • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first bronze tools were not the result of a deliberate attempt at improving the metal, but of the natural mix of copper and other metals in the smelted ore, in Egypt mostly arsenic.
  • BronzeAge 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC kopperking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before 3000 BC.^ Arsenic ores are more common than tin ores, and make high-quality bronzes: there are no tin bronzes in Western Asia before 3000 BC. Arsenic bronzes do not cast as well, but are as hard as tin bronzes.

^ Bronze is an alloy produced from copper and tin.
  • Bronzes : SilkPorcelain, Silk Fashions, Silk Embroidered Arts, Porcelain, Porcelain Figurines, Painted Pottery & Bronzes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silkporcelain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced in the centuries around 2000 B.C. when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork.
  • BronzeAge 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC kopperking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bronze Age is regarded as the second part of a three-age system for prehistoric societies, though there are some cultures that have extensive written records during their Bronze Ages.^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was also a real youth movement creatively during the Bronze Age.
  • Comics Bronze Age | What is the Bronze Age of comics? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.comicsbronzeage.com [Source type: General]

^ In speaking of bronze age cultures three terms are used: .
  • The Iliad and the Greek Bronze Age, U. of S. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In this system, in some areas of the world the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic age.^ In the eastern Hungarian Krs tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture , followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures.
  • BronzeAge 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC kopperking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The find initiated a new presentation of the Bronze Age world in Central Germany.
  • Germany's Bronze Age Blockbuster | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 14.10.2004 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disc itself was a cult object, and describes the world view during the Bronze Age.
  • Germany's Bronze Age Blockbuster | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 14.10.2004 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Neolithic age was directly followed by the Iron Age.^ In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Neolithic is directly followed by the Iron Age [ citation needed ] .
  • WikiSlice 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the myriad of lowland lakes left by the ice age also began to be choked by peat, forming the raised bogs that characterise many parts of lowland Ireland today.

^ Many thousands of tonnes of copper were produced during the thousand years of the Bronze Age in this part of Europe: some of the slag heaps have up to 500 tonnes of slag, and there are hundreds of them.

.In some parts of the world, a Copper Age followed the Neolithic Age and preceded the Bronze Age.^ This early copper phase is commonly thought of as part of the Bronze Age, though true bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, was used only rarely at first.
  • Bronze Age -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The find initiated a new presentation of the Bronze Age world in Central Germany.
  • Germany's Bronze Age Blockbuster | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 14.10.2004 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disc itself was a cult object, and describes the world view during the Bronze Age.
  • Germany's Bronze Age Blockbuster | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 14.10.2004 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Origins

.The place and time of the invention of bronze are debated.^ The only solution was to fell lowland forest, but this required better tools, and the invention of bronze axes came just in time to solve this problem.

^ As far as the ethnic and linguistic composition of the carriers of the Bronze Age is concerned much debate in the fields of archaeology and linguistics has taken place especially in southeastern Europe and the Balkans.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The place and time of the invention of bronze are controversial, and it is possible that bronzing was invented independently in multiple places.
  • WikiSlice 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible that bronze was invented independently in the Maykop culture of the North Caucasus as early as the mid 4th millennium BC, which would make them the makers of the oldest known bronze.^ For those who don't already know, the Villanovan culture is basically the era of Romulus and Remus, Italy in the 8th century BC, early Iron Age or late Bronze Age.
  • Bronze Age Center -> Villanovan "Poncho" cuirass 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC z8.invisionfree.com [Source type: General]

^ But, as Catling makes clear, he and Dikaios saw all of this beginning in the early 6th millennium BC. The big question, as Catling realized, was the relationship between developments in Cyprus and what was in the process of being discovered in southeastern Anatolia and the Levant.
  • Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2005.09.83 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC bmcr.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But during the Bronze era, the Caucasus was not isolated and did relate to the north and south areas.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others date the same Maykop artifacts to the mid 3rd millennium BC. However, the Maykop culture only had arsenical bronze, which is a naturally occurring alloy.^ Sacrificial landscapes : cultural biographies of persons, objects and 'natural' places in the Bronze Age of the Southern Netherlands, C. 2300-600 BC / David R. Fontijn.

^ It was a period when the most advanced forms of metal working techniques were used to smelt copper from its natural out croppings and alloys in order to cast bronze.
  • Bronze - Find popular Bronze items on eBay! 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC popular.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ The find confirmed the existence not only of the use of bronze long before the acknowledged date but it also confirmed the belief of an understanding of metals, moldings, castings and more importantly alloys.
  • Bronzes : SilkPorcelain, Silk Fashions, Silk Embroidered Arts, Porcelain, Porcelain Figurines, Painted Pottery & Bronzes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silkporcelain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tin bronze, developed later, requires more sophisticated production techniques.^ Whether that was the case or not, as metalworking had become more sophisticated, so had weaponry, and hillfort development, traditionally associated with the Iron Age, began as the Bronze Age was drawing to a close.

^ THE POST-BRONZE PERIOD: The emerging direct market creates a demand for more product.
  • Comics Bronze Age | What is the Bronze Age of comics? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.comicsbronzeage.com [Source type: General]

^ This later (2200–1900BC) Beaker has more sophisticated decoration, but retains a recognisably bell-shaped profile.

.Tin must be mined (mainly as the tin ore cassiterite) and smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make the bronze alloy.^ The most important development in the making of bronze was the evolution of the tin-copper alloys.
  • Bronze Age 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.hindunet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pair of beads symbolizes the metals copper and tin to make bronze.
  • METAL TRADE IN THE BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cassiterite, the dominant tin ore, is tin oxide.

.The Bronze Age was a time of heavy use of metals, and of developing trade networks.^ Of course, metal was not the only material used in Bronze Age Ireland.

^ Archeologists believe the disc may have been used in the pre-calendar Bronze Age as an instrument for determining seasonal changes.
  • Germany's Bronze Age Blockbuster | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 14.10.2004 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At about the same time that Stonehenge was rising in England and Abraham was framing the principles of Judaism in the Middle East, a Bronze Age culture was developing in China that in many respects was seldom equaled and never surpassed.
  • The Great Bronze Age of China | Asia for Educators | Columbia University 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC afe.easia.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(See tin sources and trade in ancient times.^ There are no ancient works to indicate that the tin mines of Cornwall were worked for any length of time in the early days (see "Prehistoric Times," p.
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Until 1984 we did not know the source of tin for the ancient bronze civilizations of the Near East.

^ A bird's eye view: important time periods, famous city names, dynasties, terminology, as an invitation to see literature on the Ancient Near East .
  • Mesopotamian Bronze Age(Old Akkadian, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age) 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Near East

Bronze Age weaponry and ornaments
Periodization for the Bronze Age in the Ancient Near East is as follows:
Bronze Age
(3300–1200 BC)
Early Bronze Age
(3300–2200 BC)
Early Bronze Age I 3300–3000 BC
Early Bronze Age II 3000–2700 BC
Early Bronze Age III 2700–2200 BC
Middle Bronze Age
(2200–1550 BC)
Middle Bronze Age I 2200–2000 BC
Middle Bronze Age II A 2000–1750 BC
Middle Bronze Age II B 1750–1650 BC
Middle Bronze Age II C 1650–1550 BC
Late Bronze Age
(1550–1200 BC)
Late Bronze Age I 1550–1400 BC
Late Bronze Age II A 1400–1300 BC
Late Bronze Age II B 1300–1200 BC

Mesopotamia

.In Mesopotamia, the Bronze Age begins at about 2900 BC in the late Uruk period, spanning the Early Dynastic period of Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian periods and the period of Kassite hegemony.^ John Heise's 'Akkadian language' about the history of the Bronze Age of the Ancient Near East, including the periods: Empire of Sargon, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age.
  • Mesopotamian Bronze Age(Old Akkadian, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age) 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Early Bronze Age of the steppes began about 3300 B .
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Caucasian region in the early Bronze Age .
  • Rowan Leaf Celtic Books Bronze Age Archaeology 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.summerlands.com [Source type: Academic]

Ancient Egypt

.In Ancient Egypt, the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c.^ Here we can no doubt count on an internal evolution without any changes in the ethnic composition of the population, from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age and the Transition period to the Iron Age.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE ( ANEP , 382-386) The Middle Bronze Age is contemporary with the First Intermediate Period , Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period in Egypt.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bronze gave its name to the Bronze Age , a major innovative period in human history.

3150 BC.

Levant

Anatolia

Persian Plateau

Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with linear-Elamite inscription on it. Late 3rd Millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.

Caucasus

.Some scholars date some arsenical bronze artifacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus as far back as the mid 4th millennium BC.[1] If true, these are the earliest bronze artifacts in existence.^ These last two are more likely the cities of Adana and Tarsus , and thus is certain that the city of Tarsus was in existence in the Bronze Age.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These finds imply an active north-south system of Middle Bronze Age trade and intercommunication between the steppes and the Caucasus.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The probabilities are that the name for bronze, as well as the metal itself, dates back to Plato's island.
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

Indus Valley

.The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BC with the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization.^ The Early Bronze Age of the steppes began about 3300 B .
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has created the great "Dark Ages" of Greece, which supposedly follow the collapse of the great Mycenaean Bronze Age civilization.
  • Bronze Age Center -> Mediterranean Chronology problems 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC s8.invisionfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley, central Mongolia Mobility, Monumentality and Ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley , Central Mongolia .
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Inhabitants of the Indus Valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin.^ In the Chalcolithic period in which copper and stone artefacts co-existed, we can see smiths producing bronzes, without realizing what they had done, and without using the bronze to its best advantage.

^ No one disputes the probability that copper was produced there in the Early Bronze Age.
  • Recasting the Bronze Age - life - 23 October 1993 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the earliest bronzes were produced in Ireland then the tin must have been imported from elsewhere.
  • Recasting the Bronze Age - life - 23 October 1993 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Indian Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Period (1500–500 BC).^ The archeological period is the Middle Bronze Age.
  • Mesopotamian Bronze Age(Old Akkadian, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age) 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The end result, hopefully, will be an online resource that answers the following question: What is the Bronze Age of comics?
  • Comics Bronze Age | What is the Bronze Age of comics? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.comicsbronzeage.com [Source type: General]

^ Here we can no doubt count on an internal evolution without any changes in the ethnic composition of the population, from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age and the Transition period to the Iron Age.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Harappan culture, which dates from 1700 BC to 1300 BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phaistos dated 2000-1700 BC. .
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Ships 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dates for early China from the Sackler Gallery, Washington, DC are Shang: 1700 - 1050 BC; western Zhou:1050 - 771 BC. This statement i.e.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Far East

China

A two-handled bronze gefuding gui, from the Chinese Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC).
.Historians disagree about the dates of a "Bronze Age" in China.^ Furthermore, a major analytical priority of the DMAP was radiocarbon dating, which revealed that the settlement at Begash is the oldest dated Bronze Age settlement in the region (c.
  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS OF BRONZEAGE PASTORAL SOCIETIES IN THEMOUNTAINS OF EASTERN EURASIA 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silk-road.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ancient seal dating back to Bronze Age discovered in Abu Dhabi .
  • gulfnews : Ancient seal dating back to Bronze Age discovered in Abu Dhabi 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Ancient seal dating back to Bronze Age discovered in Abu Dhabi Skip To Navigation Skip To Content January 23 2010 .
  • gulfnews : Ancient seal dating back to Bronze Age discovered in Abu Dhabi 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

.The difficulty lies in the term "Bronze Age" itself, as it has been applied to signify a period in European and Middle Eastern history when bronze tools replaced stone tools, and were later replaced by iron ones.^ Thailand History: Bronze Age - 1511 Thailand History: Bronze Age - 1511.
  • Thailand History: Bronze Age - 1511 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.csmngt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We had our own Bronze Age history.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bronze Period has been one of the perplexing problems of European scientists.
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In those places, the medium of the new "Age" made that of the old obsolete.^ The tin content in Bronze Age Crete from the Pre-Palatial to the Post-Palatial period and the composition and origin of copper in Bronze Age Crete, showing the change between the Old Palace and the New Palace periods.
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In China, however, any attempt to establish a definite set of dates for a Bronze Age is complicated by two factors: the arrival of iron smelting technology and the persistence of bronze in tools, weapons and sacred vessels.^ Timna: Bronze Age mining and smelting .

^ I’m guessing when I adopt “official” definitions for this site, 1968-69 will be the Pre-Bronze Age, as these books are noticeably different than the ones that came before.
  • Comics Bronze Age | What is the Bronze Age of comics? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.comicsbronzeage.com [Source type: General]

^ The Bronze Age one consisted of two lines of timbers on opposing banks of a prehistoric channel of the River Thames.
  • 9 - The Late Bronze Age 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest bronze artifacts are found in the Majiayao culture site (between 3100 and 2700 BC), and from then on the society gradually grew into the Bronze Age.^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cosmological structure of Bronze Age society .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welcome to the Bronze Age Travel Center We have designed this web site to provide you with a wide variety of travel related items.

.Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou (also Erh-li-t'ou) period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.^ Dates for early China from the Sackler Gallery, Washington, DC are Shang: 1700 - 1050 BC; western Zhou:1050 - 771 BC. This statement i.e.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these caves continued to be used into the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods (Lewis 1993, 12).
  • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will attempt to place this material within the larger context of both its administrative function and its iconographical origins.
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Others believe the Erlitou sites belong to the preceding Xia (also Hsia) dynasty.^ At the well known site of Zidovar near Vrsac there exists well differed levels that belong to the Vatin group and other groups of the Metal Age.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .The U.S. National Gallery of Art defines the Chinese Bronze Age as the "period between about 2000 BC and 771 BC," a period that begins with Erlitou culture and ends abruptly with the disintegration of Western Zhou rule.^ These contacts might have started at the end of the Middle Bronze Age, about 2000 B .
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC. This is the beginning and heyday of Andronovo Culture.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Though this provides a concise frame of reference, it overlooks the continued importance of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture.^ Bronze was imported from China, but the Chinese culture was not imported".
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northward, on the Volga, the Poltavka culture continued to use its local "pure" copper sources, rather than the arsenical bronzes of the south.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copper and bronze metallurgy in late prehistoric Xinjiang: its cultural context and relationship with neighbouring regions.
  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS OF BRONZEAGE PASTORAL SOCIETIES IN THEMOUNTAINS OF EASTERN EURASIA 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silk-road.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since this is significantly later than the discovery of bronze in Mesopotamia, bronze technology could have been imported rather than discovered independently in China.^ Bronze was imported from China, but the Chinese culture was not imported".
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bones discovery in Scottish highlands may provide fresh insight of Bronze Age life September 19th, 2009 LONDON - Bones discovered at an ancient burial site in the Scottish Highlands could provide fresh insight of life in the Bronze Age.
  • Prehistoric Bronze Age burial site unearthed in Oxford 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

^ The pottery is similar to that discovered in Inner Mongolia and the interior of China; bronze knives are similar to those from northeastern China; and the burials are similar to those found in northeastern China.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed][5]
Chinese pu bronze vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period (722–481 BC)
.Iron is found in the Zhou period, but its use is minimal.^ It is very interesting to note that certain Dubovac-Zuto Brdo type objects have been found in urn graves that are typical of the transition period to the Iron Age.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests a knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.^ For those who don't already know, the Villanovan culture is basically the era of Romulus and Remus, Italy in the 8th century BC, early Iron Age or late Bronze Age.
  • Bronze Age Center -> Villanovan "Poncho" cuirass 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC z8.invisionfree.com [Source type: General]

^ Each of these processes is documented by archaeological and/or historical linguistic evidence, and debates concerning these materials have produced an extensive and detailed literature, which cannot be fully addressed here.
  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS OF BRONZEAGE PASTORAL SOCIETIES IN THEMOUNTAINS OF EASTERN EURASIA 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silk-road.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As attested in some pictorials and sculptures the horse mounted warriors were also present during the Late Helladic time.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Chariots 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] Historian W. C. White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty (481 BC)" and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period, or through AD 221.[7]
.The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or ritualistic, like the numerous large sacrificial tripods.^ Although there is general agreement about the attribution of numerous moles and quays to the Romans and a few to the Phoenicians, however, few can be dated to the Bronze Age.
  • Bronze Age Aegean Harboursides — The Thera Foundation 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.therafoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The material in question is a characteristic bronze axe and a disc-like shaped headed pin.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leaded bronzes were employed, possibly in the service of large-scale and speedy production of popular types of artifacts.
  • 9 - The Late Bronze Age 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, even some of the most utilitarian objects bear the markings of more sacred items.^ Most of the time, however, the archeologists don't even bother with C-14 dating, assuming that they don't need it.
  • Bronze Age Center -> Mediterranean Chronology problems 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC s8.invisionfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The contemporary wares of the Cyclades are similar, but more use is made of incised ornament; spirals are common motifs, while some vases bear primitive representations of ships.
  • pottery :: Bronze Age -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This helmet was more likely made by leather trips hold by a metal ring even if for some models the utilization of real feathers can't be excluded.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Chinese inscribed all kinds of bronze items with three main motif types: demons, symbolic animals, and abstract symbols.^ Here is the Bronze Age predecessor of the Classical Greek and Roman suovetaurilia , the sacrifice of those three types of domestic animals in a single ceremony.
  • Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC projectsx.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cosmic Symbolism, Political Order, and the Production of Urban Landscape: A Study of Three Bronze Age Settlements in China .
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Some large bronzes also bear inscriptions that have helped historians and archaeologists piece together the history of China, especially during the Zhou period.^ In a historical sense this means that certain elements of this culture group which evolved during the Bronze Age went on to exist after the end of this period, and can be so traced.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these caves continued to be used into the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods (Lewis 1993, 12).
  • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diffusion patterns through time during the period preceding the Bronze Age.
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bronzes of the Western Zhou period document large portions of history not found in the extant texts, and often were composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class.^ In continental Western Europe he would be an impossible social chimera of feudal upper class (heavy cavalry; shield & lance) and lower footmen.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bronze gave its name to the Bronze Age , a major innovative period in human history.

^ Most slags were found around the small feature of Bronze Age date (029) and the lower contexts, with few slags recovered from the southern and western sides of the area.
  • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts.^ But for cast bronze tools you may look for the negatives of casting; and they were found not too far from Tomsk [6].
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

[9] .These inscriptions can commonly be subdivided into four parts: a reference to the date and place, the naming of the event commemorated, the list of gifts given to the artisan in exchange for the bronze, and a dedication.^ The Epinomis, which dates from around the 4th century BCE, is the earliest extant record of Greek planet names; each is given as "the star of": Cronos, Zeus, Aphrodite, etc.
  • Comets and the Bronze Age Collapse 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, however, it is definite that the events that took place in the Kosovo region during the Bronze Age are more closely related to the west Balkan complex.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is online is a series of fascinating discussions that took place between the two articles; these conversations were published in the pages of the e-newsletter Scoop : [ Part 1 ] [ Part 2 ] [ Part 3 ] [ Part 4 ] .
  • Comics Bronze Age | What is the Bronze Age of comics? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.comicsbronzeage.com [Source type: General]

[10] .The relative points of reference these vessels provide have enabled historians to place most of the vessels within a certain time frame of the Western Zhou period, allowing them to trace the evolution of the vessels and the events they record.^ These problems may eventually be solved by re-assigning certain features of the time from one period to the other as was done with the Deveril-Rimbury pottery.
  • 9 - The Late Bronze Age 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The events in the Bible as they are presented lead to these dates and sequences: .

^ The discovery that bridges could be built on such a scale at the time suggests that certain points, at least, were fixed in the pattern of routes and acted as nodal points.
  • 9 - The Late Bronze Age 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Southeast Asia

.Dating back to the Neolithic Age,the first bronze drums, called the Dong Son drums have been uncovered in and around the Red River Delta regions of Vietnam and Southern China.^ Staff Report Published: 11:58 March 1, 2009 Abu Dhabi: A team working for the Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has found an ancient stone cylinder seal dating back to the beginning of the local Bronze Age, around 5,000 years ago.
  • gulfnews : Ancient seal dating back to Bronze Age discovered in Abu Dhabi 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

^ The Bronze Age one consisted of two lines of timbers on opposing banks of a prehistoric channel of the River Thames.
  • 9 - The Late Bronze Age 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, however, it is definite that the events that took place in the Kosovo region during the Bronze Age are more closely related to the west Balkan complex.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These relate to the prehistoric Dong Son Culture of Vietnam.^ Professor Alexeev believes that these three cultures: the Pit Grave, the Catacomb, and the Timber Grave are biologically related.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We should not exaggerate these resemblances—as in the Early Bronze Age Yamnaya phenomenon, this was a horizon or a related pair of horizons, not a single culture.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How we are to interpret these new and different aspects of the material cultures of this period in relation to history will have to be interpreted on the basis of archaeology which is still the only source that we have at our disposal.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Song Da bronze drum's surface, Dong Son culture, Vietnam
In Ban Chiang, Thailand, (Southeast Asia) bronze artifacts have been discovered dating to 2100 BC.[12]
.In Nyaunggan, Burma bronze tools have been excavated along with ceramics and stone artifacts.^ From excavations at the settlement site Begash we collected Bronze Age ceramic fragments, as well as spinning and weaving artfacts, grindstones, and bone implments.
  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS OF BRONZEAGE PASTORAL SOCIETIES IN THEMOUNTAINS OF EASTERN EURASIA 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silk-road.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore Agriculture used a lot of stone tools throughout Bronze Age.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Kuftin's excavations reveal rich pottery with new pottery forms, bronze, and a broad usage of gold for decoration, tools, and figures of animals and people.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dating is still currently broad (3500–500 BC).^ This means that the central theme of the Gilgamesh epic may date to 1500 BC rather than Sumerian times, but it is still illuminating.

[13]

Korean peninsula

.The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production (c.^ The archeological period is the Middle Bronze Age.
  • Mesopotamian Bronze Age(Old Akkadian, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age) 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here we can no doubt count on an internal evolution without any changes in the ethnic composition of the population, from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age and the Transition period to the Iron Age.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a historical sense this means that certain elements of this culture group which evolved during the Bronze Age went on to exist after the end of this period, and can be so traced.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.700–600? BC) after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula (c.^ BC. (Pottery fragments from Central Asia are painted and exist in a geographically great area from the time periods of the Aneolithic to the end of the Bronze Age.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kivik grave, like many others belonging to the bronze age situated by the sea, is about 700 feet in circumference.
  • Paul B. Du Chaillu � The Viking Age � Volume I � Chapter 9 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bronze artefacts are found at Ur and other Mesopotamian cities after about 3000 BC, then all over the Near East.

900–700 BC). .The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centres such as the Igeum-dong site.^ They list such things as who can be buried here, who the tomb owner is, how violators would be punished if they tried to bury someone who didnt belong, and more.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such types of weapons do not continue into the Middle Bronze II. Maxwell-Hyslop, R. "Daggers and Swords in West Asia," IRAQ 8 (1946): 1-65.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is infinitely more probable that bronze was discovered in one or more centres by one or more men, and that its first use was solely in such centre or centres.
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until 100.

Central Asia

.The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon.^ The Turbino Culture is located in the central and southern Urals.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet archaeology discovered a Central Asian- Southern Siberian Bronze Age culture called Andronovo.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ ORIGIN OF THE CANAANITES ( ANEP , 3 - Tomb of Khnum-hotep III) The biblical term, Canaanite, identifies the people who lived in the land of Israel before the Israelites.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .It is conjectured that changes in climate in this region around 2000 BC and the ensuing ecological, economic and political changes triggered a rapid and massive migration westward into northeast Europe and eastward into southeast China, Vietnam and Thailand across a frontier of some 4,000 miles.^ The use of the chariot was more likely diffused in the Greek mainland from the Near East after the Middle Bronze Age (about 1950-1550 BC) as a result of the Central and East Europe migration flows and Achaeans' trade contacts with that regions.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Chariots 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 2000 BC, the bronze industry had percolated throughout Europe, and regional smiths made their own distinctive products.

^ The most continental phase of climate is dated between 2800 and 2000 bc .
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

[14] .This migration took place in just five to six generations and led to peoples from Finland in the west to Thailand in the east employing the same metal working technology and, in some areas, horse breeding and riding.^ Even if still matter of debat a recent analysis conducted comparing the DNA of some peoples living from many generations in Tuscany area and peoples living along the coast of Turkey seem to support the Anatolian oringins of the Etruscan peoples.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doors at either end of the room gave access to the east and west wings of the Palace, while another in the middle (with a sentry box) led to the Throne Room.
  • Mycenae and the Bronze Age of Greece 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.odysseyadventures.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, however, it is definite that the events that took place in the Kosovo region during the Bronze Age are more closely related to the west Balkan complex.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .It is further conjectured that the same migrations spread the Uralic group of languages across Europe and Asia: some 39 languages of this group are still extant, including Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian and Lappish.^ The "footprint" of this event could have included some of: southern Europe, the Mediterranean, the Near East, and Northern Africa.
  • Comets and the Bronze Age Collapse 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC abob.libs.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Permian (-Finnish) languages do have some heavy proto-Magyar (Southern Common "Ugric"?
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Only then can we begin to have a more detailed understanding of how language, technology, and culture may have spread across the region in prehistory.
  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS OF BRONZEAGE PASTORAL SOCIETIES IN THEMOUNTAINS OF EASTERN EURASIA 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silk-road.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] .However, recent genetic testings of sites in south Siberia and Kazakhstan (Andronovo horizon) would rather support a spreading of the bronze technology via Indo-european migrations eastwards, as this technology was well-known for quite a while in western regions.^ Nouveaux sites du Bronze Recent au Semireche (Kazakhstan).
  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS OF BRONZEAGE PASTORAL SOCIETIES IN THEMOUNTAINS OF EASTERN EURASIA 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.silk-road.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The society of Late Bronze Age Cyprus seems to have been quite different from that known in the Aegean and the Near East.
  • Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2005.09.83 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC bmcr.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a long time the system that was in use for the chronology of the Bronze Age in this area was based on the Central European archaeological material and was created by the well known German archaeologist P. Reinecke.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15][16]

Pontic-Caspian steppe

Europe

Central Europe

Bronze cup from Late Bronze Age in the area of today's Czech Republic on display in National Museum in Prague
Bronze cuirass, weighing 2.9kg, Grenoble, end of 7th century - early 6th century BCE.
.In Central Europe, the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800–1600 BC) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubing, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures.^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europe in the Early Bronze Age: an archaeological background .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of the chariot was more likely diffused in the Greek mainland from the Near East after the Middle Bronze Age (about 1950-1550 BC) as a result of the Central and East Europe migration flows and Achaeans' trade contacts with that regions.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Chariots 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture.^ In this southeren Russian steppe area, Pit Grave burial mounds have been located but no settlements have been found.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this point the smith is truly master of his craft, and one can easily imagine that the best smiths would have routinely produced bronzes of much higher quality than normal.

^ One such example is the grave from Paracin or grave 13 from Rospi Cuprija.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size.^ After the end of the Bronze Age small rail-chariots continued to be used during the Geometric period in all the Aegean area.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Chariots 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age (1600–1200 BC) Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows).^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Middle Bronze II burial.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The archeological period is the Middle Bronze Age.
  • Mesopotamian Bronze Age(Old Akkadian, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age) 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture, followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures.^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Bronze Age culture presented is that of the Karasuk.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is especially related to the later phase of the Early Bronze Age in Macedonia, especially in Pelagonia and the northwestern part of Aegean Macedonia, as well as the phases of Maliq III a-b in Albania.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture, (1300–700 BC) is characterized by cremation burials.^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the traditions, that can be traced in these parts from the Early Bronze Age, the burial rites practiced in southern Pannonia must have known a different evolution.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ POTTERY ( ANEP , 147-148 - pottery corpus) Potter's Wheel On Middle Bronze II Pottery On Late Bronze Pottery On Iron Age Pottery Middle Bronze I pottery continues the flat-base tradition of the Early Bronze Age.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland (1300–500 BC) that continues into the Iron Age.^ Three new cultures from the Bronze Age are introduced and the Iron Age comes into being with the Scythians and Greeks.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This migration carried steppe populations into the Balkans and the eastern Hungarian Plain, where they interacted with the Cotsofeni and late Baden cultures.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these caves continued to be used into the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods (Lewis 1993, 12).
  • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700–450 BC).^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of the chariot was more likely diffused in the Greek mainland from the Near East after the Middle Bronze Age (about 1950-1550 BC) as a result of the Central and East Europe migration flows and Achaeans' trade contacts with that regions.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Chariots 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The end result, hopefully, will be an online resource that answers the following question: What is the Bronze Age of comics?
  • Comics Bronze Age | What is the Bronze Age of comics? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.comicsbronzeage.com [Source type: General]

.The Bronze Age in Central Europe has been described in the chronological schema of German prehistorian Paul Reinecke.^ Central material attributes of the Divine Twins in the Early and Late Bronze Age compared.
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley, central Mongolia Mobility, Monumentality and Ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley , Central Mongolia .
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These, then, in conclusion, are our reasons for believing that the Bronze Age of Europe has relation to Atlantis: .
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.He described Bronze A1 (Bz A1) period (2300–2000 BC : triangular daggers, flat axes, stone wrist-guards, flint arrowheads) and Bronze A2 (Bz A2) period (1950–1700 BC : daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets) and phases Hallstatt A and B (Ha A and B).^ By 2000 BC, the bronze industry had percolated throughout Europe, and regional smiths made their own distinctive products.

^ The Battle Axe people are fishermen and warriors; their axes are made of bronze and stone.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest ethnic group later considered among the sea peoples is believed to be attested in Egyptian hieroglyphics on the "Byblos obelisk" (2000- 1700 BC) found in the Obelisk Temple at Byblos .
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aegean

Bronze Age copper ingot found in Crete.
.The Aegean Bronze Age begins around 3000 BC, when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network.^ This is especially related to the later phase of the Early Bronze Age in Macedonia, especially in Pelagonia and the northwestern part of Aegean Macedonia, as well as the phases of Maliq III a-b in Albania.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has created the great "Dark Ages" of Greece, which supposedly follow the collapse of the great Mycenaean Bronze Age civilization.
  • Bronze Age Center -> Mediterranean Chronology problems 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC s8.invisionfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These finds imply an active north-south system of Middle Bronze Age trade and intercommunication between the steppes and the Caucasus.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze.^ Tin In the Old World bronze was made by alloying the copper with 10% tin.
  • METAL TRADE IN THE BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Taurus mountains, then, probably provided the tin for alloying into the earliest tin bronzes of the ancient Near East.

^ "The absence of implements made either of copper or tin seems to me to indicate that the art of making bronze was introduced into, not invented in, Europe ."
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade.^ From these centers, metal objects were distributed far and wide.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Isotopic analysis of the tin in some Mediterranean bronze objects indicates it came from as far away as Great Britain.^ A lot of the copper used in bronze objects at that time came from the copper mines in North Wales.” .
  • WalesOnline - News - Wales News - Could Welsh star Stanley Baker’s ancestors be Bronze Age copper miners from Spain? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.walesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ "The absence of implements made either of copper or tin seems to me to indicate that the art of making bronze was introduced into, not invented in, Europe ."
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bronze was expensive (or, rather, in societies without proper money, limited ), because one of its two constituents, tin, had to be imported from far places.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time, and reached a peak of skill not exceeded (except perhaps by Polynesian sailors) until AD 1730 when the invention of the chronometer enabled the precise determination of longitude.
.The Minoan civilization based in Knossos appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade.^ This has created the great "Dark Ages" of Greece, which supposedly follow the collapse of the great Mycenaean Bronze Age civilization.
  • Bronze Age Center -> Mediterranean Chronology problems 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC s8.invisionfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These finds imply an active north-south system of Middle Bronze Age trade and intercommunication between the steppes and the Caucasus.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The indications are that the Bronze Age represents the coming in of a new people--a civilized people.
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Illyrians are also believed to have roots in the early Bronze Age.^ This is especially related to the later phase of the Early Bronze Age in Macedonia, especially in Pelagonia and the northwestern part of Aegean Macedonia, as well as the phases of Maliq III a-b in Albania.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will present the faunal remains from the Early Bronze Age site of Gegharot, located in the Tsakahovit plain of Armenia; examining particularly the evidence for nomadic pastoralism.
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age this kind of headdress is attested from several locations in the Near East and East Mediterranean areas as well as Sardinia island.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Numerous authorities[citation needed] believe that ancient empires were prone to undervalue staple foods in favor of luxury goods, leading to famine. .This may have arisen because money was concentrated in the hands of a few people, rather than due to a lack of modern accounting methods.^ This means that the central theme of the Gilgamesh epic may date to 1500 BC rather than Sumerian times, but it is still illuminating.

^ A preliminary answer: because peoples from China/ Mongolia did not have a Mongolian morphology; rather, they were what Alexeev has referenced as Europoid.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bronze was expensive (or, rather, in societies without proper money, limited ), because one of its two constituents, tin, had to be imported from far places.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

Collapse in Aegean

.How the Bronze Age ended in this region is still being studied.^ The end result, hopefully, will be an online resource that answers the following question: What is the Bronze Age of comics?
  • Comics Bronze Age | What is the Bronze Age of comics? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.comicsbronzeage.com [Source type: General]

^ Three new cultures from the Bronze Age are introduced and the Iron Age comes into being with the Scythians and Greeks.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, however, it is definite that the events that took place in the Kosovo region during the Bronze Age are more closely related to the west Balkan complex.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is evidence that Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy, and that several Minoan client states lost much of their population to famine and/or pestilence.^ Two traditions of power: mainland Mycenaean monumental elite barrows and fortifications versus Minoan palaces and maritime trading colonies.
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following summary focuses on the four newly discovered shrines and on the evidence from Linear B texts from both Knossos and Pylos regarding Mycenaean cult practice.
  • Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC projectsx.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SETTLEMENT PATTERNS: LACK OF SEDENTARY OCCUPATION There is limited evidence of urban or village life throughout the region.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This would indicate that the trade network may have failed, preventing the trade that would previously have relieved such famines and prevented illness caused by malnutrition. .It is also known that in this era the breadbasket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea, also suddenly lost much of its population, and thus probably some cultivation.^ But during the Bronze era, the Caucasus was not isolated and did relate to the north and south areas.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any explanation of Akrotiri's opulence must deal with Thera's position north of Minoan Crete, flourishing at the time, and Thera's location between Crete and much of the rest of the Aegean world.
  • Bronze Age Aegean Harboursides — The Thera Foundation 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.therafoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It occurs as distinctive black grains in alluvial sands, and in some areas it is left behind as a resistant mineral after granite has weathered down to sand and clay.

Mycenaean sword found in Eastern Europe
Recent research has discredited the theory that exhaustion of the Cyprus forests caused the end of the bronze trade. .These forests are known to have existed into later times, and experiments have shown that charcoal production on the scale necessary for the bronze production of the late Bronze Age would have exhausted them in less than fifty years.^ The graves of the later bronze age are more .
  • Paul B. Du Chaillu � The Viking Age � Volume I � Chapter 9 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Palaces first appear on the Greek mainland towards the end of the Bronze Age, say about 1400 BC, with the phenomenon lasting until about 1200 BC. This is the period conventionally known as Late Helladic IIIA-IIIB— principally based on the styles of pottery in use at the time.
  • Mycenae and the Bronze Age of Greece 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.odysseyadventures.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m guessing when I adopt “official” definitions for this site, 1968-69 will be the Pre-Bronze Age, as these books are noticeably different than the ones that came before.
  • Comics Bronze Age | What is the Bronze Age of comics? 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.comicsbronzeage.com [Source type: General]

.One theory says that as iron tools became more common, the main justification for the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as it once did.^ The end of the metal trade did not coincide with the end of the New Kingdom of Egypt (c.
  • METAL TRADE IN THE BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ True tin bronzes predominated in the east, at many Andronovo sites, while arsenical bronzes continued to be more common in the west, at Srubnaya sites.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rapidly in the 12th Dynasty, the scarab designed developed as this mostly amuletic charm became more common in tombs and on tells.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The colonies of the Minoan empire then suffered drought, famine, war, or some combination of those three, and had no access to the distant resources of an empire by which they could easily recover.^ Instead, they matched the chronological phases of the Russian and Ukrainian steppes with those of the Caucasus Mountains—part of both the Czarist Russian empire and the Soviet Union.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Yamnaya graves in Ukraine, however, contained a variety of local pottery types, and some of them could be older than those on the Volga.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they came "from the West" they could not have come from Ireland; and the Scandinavians may easily have mistaken Atlantean books and bells for Irish books and mass-bells.
  • Atlantis, the Antediluvian World: Part III: Chapter VIII: The Bronze Age in Europe. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

Another family of theories looks to Knossos itself. .The Thera eruption occurred at this time, 110 km (70 mi) north of Crete.^ The event that really brought the entire Minoan civilization to its knees was a massive fire destruction of central and eastern Crete that occurred at about the same time as the eruption.
  • The Bronze Age Eruption of Santorini and Late Minoan IB Destruction Event 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC minoanatlantis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some authorities speculate that a tsunami from Thera (more commonly known today as Santorini) destroyed Cretan cities. Others say that perhaps a tsunami destroyed the Cretan navy in its home harbour, which then lost crucial naval battles; so that in the LMIB/LMII event (c. 1450 BC) the cities of Crete burned and the Mycenaean civilization took over Knossos. .If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC (as most chronologists now think) then its immediate effects belong to the Middle Bronze to Late Bronze Age transition, and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age; but it could have triggered the instability that led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall.^ The shape of this arrowhead belongs to the Late Bronze Age and to the beginning of the transition to the Iron Age.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end of the Middle Bronze Age, about 2200–2000 B .
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronologically this group belongs to the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age (i.e.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One such theory looks to the role of Cretan expertise in administering the empire, post-Thera. If this expertise was concentrated in Crete, then the Mycenaeans may have made political and commercial mistakes in administering the Cretan empire.
.More recent archaeological findings, including some on the island of Thera, suggest that the center of Minoan Civilization at the time of the eruption was actually on Thera rather than on Crete.^ The combination of Bath and light well suggests the room was used for cult purposes rather than mere personal hygiene.
  • Mycenae and the Bronze Age of Greece 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.odysseyadventures.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This discussion will be followed by suggestions for more efficient and constructive methods of inquiry for a reconstruction of the archaeological landscape of Anatolia .
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This means that the central theme of the Gilgamesh epic may date to 1500 BC rather than Sumerian times, but it is still illuminating.

According to this theory, the catastrophic loss of the political, administrative and economic center by the eruption as well as the damage wrought by the tsunami to the coastal towns and villages of Crete precipitated the decline of the Minoans. A weakened political entity with a reduced economic and military capability and fabled riches would have then been more vulnerable to human predators. Indeed, the Santorini Eruption is usually dated to c. .1630 BC, while the Mycenaean Greeks first enter the historical record a few decades later, c.^ Shardana were among the first of the peoples now categorized as "Sea Peoples" to appear in the historical record.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania and Montenegro, the Illyrian nucleus, however this is the same area that later in the first millenium BC fundamentally affected the cultural development of this region.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1600 BC. Thus, the later Mycenaean assaults on Crete (c.1450 BC) and Troy (c.1250 BC) are revealed as mere continuations of the steady encroachments of the Greeks upon the weakened Minoan world.^ In many aspects of its material culture at least, the Mycenaeans owed an enormous debt to the Minoan civilization of Crete which had dominated the Aegean world for much of the second millennium BC. At some point in the fifteenth century BC, Mycenaean Greeks from the Mainland appear to have conquered Crete.
  • Mycenae and the Bronze Age of Greece 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.odysseyadventures.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mycenaean sanctuary on the hill occupied by the later Classical sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas at Epidauros has been cited by some as a Mainland Greek version of a Minoan peak sanctuary, but it is likely to have been associated with a nearby settlement and thus may not qualify as an independent and spatially isolated sanctuary comparable to its putative Minoan prototype.
  • Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC projectsx.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, they were capable of crossing the Ocean to the Mediterranean (around 1600 BC).
  • METAL TRADE IN THE BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each of these theories is persuasive, and aspects of all of them may have some validity in describing the end of the Bronze Age in this region.^ Today, however, it is definite that the events that took place in the Kosovo region during the Bronze Age are more closely related to the west Balkan complex.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These last two are more likely the cities of Adana and Tarsus , and thus is certain that the city of Tarsus was in existence in the Bronze Age.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a historical sense this means that certain elements of this culture group which evolved during the Bronze Age went on to exist after the end of this period, and can be so traced.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Italy

Iberian peninsula, France

Ceremonial giant dirk of the Plougrescant-Ommerschans type, Plougrescant, France, 1500–1300 BC.

Great Britain

.In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2100 to 750 BC. Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent.^ The archeological period is the Middle Bronze Age.
  • Mesopotamian Bronze Age(Old Akkadian, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age) 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unfulfilled scope of both our works on this period made it obvious to join forces in a new book spanning the Bronze Age world in its entirety, from Mesopotamia to Scandinavia.
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here we can no doubt count on an internal evolution without any changes in the ethnic composition of the population, from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age and the Transition period to the Iron Age.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the migrants came from the area of modern Switzerland.^ On one of the decorated slabs from the stone cist in Tumulus III of the Bela Crkva necropolis, we have a thorn-like ornament which along with the rest of the inventory of the grave indicates the Middle Bronze Age as a date.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is especially related to the later phase of the Early Bronze Age in Macedonia, especially in Pelagonia and the northwestern part of Aegean Macedonia, as well as the phases of Maliq III a-b in Albania.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will present the faunal remains from the Early Bronze Age site of Gegharot, located in the Tsakahovit plain of Armenia; examining particularly the evidence for nomadic pastoralism.
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Beaker culture displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people, and cultural change was significant.^ Since "decoration of ceramics" and "forms of implements" are used to determine different cultures, it can be said that the Tripolie Culture developed with slow changes in the cultural phase.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is therefore necessary to take a quick glance at the transitional period from the Neolithic to the Bronze and its development in the different territories in the sense and manner that we have set out in this text earlier i.e.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Abashevo culture displayed great skill in bronzework and was in contact with the late Poltavka peoples in the nearby steppes.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Integration is thought to have been peaceful, as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers. .The rich Wessex culture developed in southern Britain at this time.^ Finally, we have arrived at the point where we must treat the question of time divisions of the different stages of the cultural development of the Bronze Age i.e.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a later time period there are great areas east and west of the Turbino Culture which produces the same rich bronze material.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rich chiefly burials of the Wessex–Brittany Culture and amber necklace from the golden barrow in Upton Lowell in Wiltshire.
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, the climate was deteriorating; where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys.^ But with warm dry weather even grass became sparser.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ POTTERY ( ANEP , 147-148 - pottery corpus) Potter's Wheel On Middle Bronze II Pottery On Late Bronze Pottery On Iron Age Pottery Middle Bronze I pottery continues the flat-base tradition of the Early Bronze Age.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This phase in any case lasts into the next period, and we can therefore count on an uninterrupted evolution till the next phase of transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Large livestock farms developed in the lowlands and appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances. .The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge in the second half of the Middle Bronze Age (c.^ Cosmos and culture in the Bronze Age .
  • The Rise of Bronze Age Society - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Middle Bronze Age began at different times in different places.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The archeological period is the Middle Bronze Age.
  • Mesopotamian Bronze Age(Old Akkadian, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age) 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1400–1100 BC) to exploit these conditions. .Devon and Cornwall were major sources of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales.^ Wagons with solid wooden wheels began to appear at scattered sites across southeastern Europe after the Maikop culture emerged in the northern Caucasus.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern and western Europe are dragged into it through long and very tenuous strings of cross-dating.
  • Bronze Age Center -> Mediterranean Chronology problems 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC s8.invisionfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, it is not unreasonable to suggest that the central Taurus mountains supplied Cilicia and the Konya plain with such valuable metals as silver, gold, copper, iron, and tin.
  • Elizabeth S. Friedman, PHD proposal, Technological Style in Early Bronze Age Anatolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC oi.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent.
.The burial of dead (which until this period had usually been communal) became more individual.^ In the Middle Bronze IIB period, the fortifications became even more massive and complex.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead, the Early Bronze Age saw people buried in individual barrows (also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli), or sometimes in cists covered with cairns.^ This is especially related to the later phase of the Early Bronze Age in Macedonia, especially in Pelagonia and the northwestern part of Aegean Macedonia, as well as the phases of Maliq III a-b in Albania.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will present the faunal remains from the Early Bronze Age site of Gegharot, located in the Tsakahovit plain of Armenia; examining particularly the evidence for nomadic pastoralism.
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age this kind of headdress is attested from several locations in the Near East and East Mediterranean areas as well as Sardinia island.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The greatest quantities of bronze objects found in England were discovered in East Cambridgeshire, where the most important finds were recovered in Isleham (more than 6500 pieces).^ Found in a mound with urns and bronze objects.
  • Paul B. Du Chaillu � The Viking Age � Volume I � Chapter 9 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most slags were found around the small feature of Bronze Age date (029) and the lower contexts, with few slags recovered from the southern and western sides of the area.
  • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pottery is similar to that discovered in Inner Mongolia and the interior of China; bronze knives are similar to those from northeastern China; and the burials are similar to those found in northeastern China.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]

Bronze Age seafaring

Ireland

.The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced around 2000 BC, when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork.^ Egypt used low-tin bronzes.
  • FORGOTTEN BRONZE AGE 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rmki.kfki.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bronze is an alloy of copper and usually tin although other additives have been used.
  • The Alekseev Manuscript - Chapter VII - Part II: Bronze Age in Eurasia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.drummingnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the hoard from Trcevac (near Svetozarevo), which contains gold and bronze objects belonging to the Middle Bronze Age, we have bracelets of tills type in a primitive form.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The preceding period is known as the Copper Age and is characterised by the production of flat axes, daggers, halberds and awls in copper.^ The Copper Age Botai culture of Kazakhstan (ca 3500BC) is known for its horse-dominated economy, but other aspects of Botai lifeways are revealed through recent research.
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The period is divided into three phases: Early Bronze Age (2000–1500 BC), Middle Bronze Age (1500–1200 BC), and Late Bronze Age (1200 – c.^ Early tombs cut in the Middle Bronze I period are reused in this period as well.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end of the Middle Bronze Age, about 2200–2000 B .
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The archeological period is the Middle Bronze Age.
  • Mesopotamian Bronze Age(Old Akkadian, Neo Sumerian, Old Babylonian, Old Assyrian, Late Bronze Age) 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

500 BC). .Ireland is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age burials.^ This is especially related to the later phase of the Early Bronze Age in Macedonia, especially in Pelagonia and the northwestern part of Aegean Macedonia, as well as the phases of Maliq III a-b in Albania.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will present the faunal remains from the Early Bronze Age site of Gegharot, located in the Tsakahovit plain of Armenia; examining particularly the evidence for nomadic pastoralism.
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age this kind of headdress is attested from several locations in the Near East and East Mediterranean areas as well as Sardinia island.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the characteristic types of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe.^ This is especially related to the later phase of the Early Bronze Age in Macedonia, especially in Pelagonia and the northwestern part of Aegean Macedonia, as well as the phases of Maliq III a-b in Albania.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper will present the faunal remains from the Early Bronze Age site of Gegharot, located in the Tsakahovit plain of Armenia; examining particularly the evidence for nomadic pastoralism.
  • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hardly anyone thinks that the Greeks of the Bronze Age were circumcised, but of course, no one really Knows.
  • The Greek Age of Bronze - Sea Peoples 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.salimbeti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are five main types of flat axes: Lough Ravel (c. 2200 BC), Ballybeg (c. 2000 BC), Killaha (c. 2000 BC), Ballyvalley (c. 2000–1600 BC), Derryniggin (c. 1600 BC), and a number of metal ingots in the shape of axes.[18]

North Europe

Americas

.The Inca civilization of South America independently discovered and developed bronze smelting.^ This site represents the earliest evidence for copper smelting yet discovered in Great Britain and adds yet another dimension to the developing picture of one of the most complete Bronze Age copper production centres in the country.
  • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the chain of Late Bronze Age steppe cultures grappled with these civilizations to the east and south, Eurasia began to be, tenatively, a single interacting world.
  • Bronze Age Herders of the Eurasian Steppes 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .Later appearance of limited bronze smelting in West Mexico (see Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica) suggests either contact of that region with the Incas or separate discovery of the technology.^ Today, however, it is definite that the events that took place in the Kosovo region during the Bronze Age are more closely related to the west Balkan complex.
  • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ II. Reasons for Suggesting a Relationship between Metallic Ware and Metallurgy Ceramic crucibles, which were fundamental to the technology of tin smelting in Early Bronze Age Anatolia, are essentially thick walled open vessels able to withstand heating at very high temperatures.
  • Elizabeth S. Friedman, PHD proposal, Technological Style in Early Bronze Age Anatolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC oi.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The excavation has revealed two principal phases of use: the earliest is interpreted as a Bronze Age smelting site, and the later phase as Medieval domestic activity.
  • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://budgetcastingsupply.com/images/C873-Silicon-Bronze.jpg
  2. ^ Chang, K. C.: "Studies of Shang Archaeology", pp. 6–7, 1. Yale University Press, 1982.
  3. ^ Chang, K. C.: "Studies of Shang Archaeology", p. 1. Yale University Press, 1982.
  4. ^ "Teaching Chinese Archaeology, Part Two — NGA". Nga.gov. http://www.nga.gov/education/chinatp_pt2.shtm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  5. ^ Li-Liu; The Chinese Neolithic, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  6. ^ Barnard, N.: "Bronze Casting and Bronze Alloys in Ancient China", p. 14. The Australian National University and Monumenta Serica, 1961.
  7. ^ White, W. C.: "Bronze Culture of Ancient China", p. 208. University of Toronto Press, 1956.
  8. ^ Erdberg, E.: "Ancient Chinese Bronzes", p. 20. Siebenbad-Verlag, 1993.
  9. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L.: "Sources of Western Zhou History", pp. xv–xvi. University of California Press, 1982.
  10. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L. "Sources of Western Zhou History", pp. 76–83. University of California Press, 1982.
  11. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L. "Sources of Western Zhou History", p. 107
  12. ^ "Bronze from Ban Chiang, Thailand: A view from the Laboratory". Museum.upenn.edu. http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/Asia/banchiang/bronzelab/index.shtml. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  13. ^ "Nyaunggan City — Archaeological Sites in Myanmar". Myanmartravelinformation.com. http://myanmartravelinformation.com/mti-archealogical-sites/nyaunggan.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  14. ^ a b c d Keys, David (January 2009), "Scholars crack the code of an ancient enigma", BBC History Magazine 10 (1): 9 
  15. ^ [1] C. Lalueza-Fox et al. 2004. Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians
  16. ^ [2] C. Keyser et al. 2009. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people. Human Genetics.
  17. ^ Hall and Coles, p. 81–88.
  18. ^ Waddell; Eogan.
  19. ^ Antonio Gutierrez. "Inca Metallurgy". Incas.homestead.com. http://incas.homestead.com/inca_metallurgy_copper.html. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 

References

.
  • Eogan, George (1983) The hoards of the Irish later Bronze Age, Dublin : University College, 331p., ISBN 0-901120-77-4
  • Hall, David and Coles, John (1994) Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence, Archaeological report 1, London : English Heritage, 170 p., ISBN 1-85074-477-7
  • Pernicka, E., Eibner, C., Öztunah, Ö., Wagener, G.A. (2003) "Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the Northeast Aegean", In: Wagner, G.A., Pernicka, E. and Uerpmann, H-P. (eds), Troia and the Troad : scientific approaches, Natural science in archaeology, Berlin; London : Springer, ISBN 3-540-43711-8, p. 143–172
  • Waddell, John (1998) The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland, Galway University Press, 433 p., ISBN 1-901421-10-4
  • Siklosy et al.^ This is especially related to the later phase of the Early Bronze Age in Macedonia, especially in Pelagonia and the northwestern part of Aegean Macedonia, as well as the phases of Maliq III a-b in Albania.
    • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This paper will present the faunal remains from the Early Bronze Age site of Gegharot, located in the Tsakahovit plain of Armenia; examining particularly the evidence for nomadic pastoralism.
    • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pen Y Dinas - Archaeological Survey GAT Report no.
    • Pentrwyn Bronze Age Metalworking Site, Great Orme, Llandudno. The earliest known metalworking site in the UK 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.ancient-arts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(2009): Bronze Age volcanic event recorded in stalagmites by combined isotope and trace element studies.^ Today, however, it is definite that the events that took place in the Kosovo region during the Bronze Age are more closely related to the west Balkan complex.
    • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a historical sense this means that certain elements of this culture group which evolved during the Bronze Age went on to exist after the end of this period, and can be so traced.
    • [Projekat Rastko] Dr Draga Garasanin: Bronze Age in Serbia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.rastko.rs [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This preliminary study seeks to elucidate factors or conditions in the social order present in early Bronze Age China (ca.
    • Mobility, monumentality and ritual in the Bronze Age of Khanuy Valley,central Mongolia 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC acc.spc.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 23/6, 801-808. [DOI: 10.1002/rcm.3943] http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122202090/abstract

External links

.

Bronze Age
Neolithic

Near East (3300-1200 BC)

Caucasus, Anatolia, Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Elam, Sistan
Bronze Age collapse

Indian Subcontinent (3000-1200 BC)

Europe (3000-600 BC)

Aegean
Caucasus
Catacomb culture
Srubna culture
Beaker culture
Unetice culture
Tumulus culture
Urnfield culture
Hallstatt culture
Atlantic Bronze Age
Bronze Age Britain
Nordic Bronze Age
Italian Bronze Age

China (3000-700 BC)

Korea (1000-300 BC)

arsenical bronze
writing, literature
sword, chariot

Iron age

The Bronze Age of a culture is the period when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) in that culture used bronze. This could either have been based on the local smelting of copper and tin from ores, or trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Many, though not all, Bronze Age cultures flourished in prehistory.

The naturally occurring ores typically had arsenic as a common impurity. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before 3000 BC. The Bronze Age is regarded as the second part of a three-age system for prehistoric societies, though there are some cultures that have extensive written records during their Bronze Ages. In this system, in some areas of the world the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic age. However, in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Neolithic age was directly followed by the Iron Age. In some parts of the world, a Copper Age followed the Neolithic Age and preceded the Bronze Age.

Contents

Origins

The place and time of the invention of bronze are debated. This period is characterized by the full adoption of bronze in many regions, namely the Iberian Peninsula. Even so, bronze has been traced back to technological advances mainly in Western Europe. It is possible that bronze was invented independently in the Maykop culture of the North Caucasus as early as the mid-4th millennium BC, which would make them the makers of the oldest known bronze. Others date the same Maykop artifacts to the mid-3rd millennium BC. However, the Maykop culture only had arsenical bronze, which is a naturally occurring alloy. Tin bronze, developed later, requires more sophisticated production techniques. Tin must be mined (mainly as the tin ore cassiterite) and smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make the bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of heavy use of metals, and of developing trade networks (See Tin sources and trade in ancient times).

Near East

File:Bronze age weapons
Bronze Age weaponry and ornaments

Periodization for the Bronze Age in the Ancient Near East is as follows:

Bronze Age
(3300–1200 BC)
Early Bronze Age
(3300–2200 BC)
Early Bronze Age I 3300–3000 BC
Early Bronze Age II 3000–2700 BC
Early Bronze Age III 2700–2200 BC
Middle Bronze Age
(2200–1550 BC)
Middle Bronze Age I 2200–2000 BC
Middle Bronze Age II A 2000–1750 BC
Middle Bronze Age II B 1750–1650 BC
Middle Bronze Age II C 1650–1550 BC
Late Bronze Age
(1550–1200 BC)
Late Bronze Age I 1550–1400 BC
Late Bronze Age II A 1400–1300 BC
Late Bronze Age II B 1300–1200 BC

Mesopotamia

In Mesopotamia, the Bronze Age begins at about 2900 BC in the late Uruk period, spanning the Early Dynastic period of Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian periods and the period of Kassite hegemony.

Ancient Egypt

In Ancient Egypt, the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC.

Levant

Anatolia

Persian Plateau

, with linear-Elamite inscription on it. Late 3rd Millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.]]

Caucasus

Some scholars date some arsenical bronze artifacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus as far back as the mid-4th millennium BC.[1] If true, these are the earliest bronze artifacts in existence.

Indus Valley

The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BC with the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization. Inhabitants of the Indus Valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin.

The Indian Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Period (1500–500 BC). The Harappan culture, which dates from 1700 BC to 1300 BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.

Far East

China

File:Gefuding
A two-handled bronze gefuding gui, from the Chinese Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC).

Historians disagree about the dates of a "Bronze Age" in China. The difficulty lies in the term "Bronze Age" itself, as it has been applied to signify a period in European and Middle Eastern history when bronze tools replaced stone tools, and were later replaced by iron ones. In those places, the medium of the new "Age" made that of the old obsolete. In China, however, any attempt to establish a definite set of dates for a Bronze Age is complicated by two factors: the arrival of iron smelting technology and the persistence of bronze in tools, weapons and sacred vessels. The earliest bronze artifacts are found in the Majiayao culture site (between 3100 and 2700 BC), and from then on the society gradually grew into the Bronze Age.

Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou (Wade–Giles: Erh-li-t'ou) period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.[2] Others believe the Erlitou sites belong to the preceding Xia (Wade–Giles: Hsia) dynasty.[3] The U.S. National Gallery of Art defines the Chinese Bronze Age as the "period between about 2000 BC and 771 BC," a period that begins with Erlitou culture and ends abruptly with the disintegration of Western Zhou rule.[4] Though this provides a concise frame of reference, it overlooks the continued importance of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture. Since this is significantly later than the discovery of bronze in Mesopotamia, bronze technology could have been imported rather than discovered independently in China. Although there is reason to believe that bronzework developed inside China separately from outside influence.[5][6]

File:Pu with openwork interlaced dragons
Chinese pu bronze vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period (722–481 BC)

Iron is found from the Zhou period, but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests a knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.[7] Historian W. C. White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty (256 BC)" and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period, or through AD 221.[8]

The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or ritualistic, like the numerous large sacrificial tripods known as dings in Chinese. However, even some of the most utilitarian objects bear the markings of more sacred items. The Chinese inscribed all kinds of bronze items with three main motif types: demons, symbolic animals, and abstract symbols.[9] Some large bronzes also bear inscriptions that have helped historians and archaeologists piece together the history of China, especially during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC).

The bronzes of the Western Zhou Dynasty document large portions of history not found in the extant texts that were often composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class. Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts.[10] These inscriptions can commonly be subdivided into four parts: a reference to the date and place, the naming of the event commemorated, the list of gifts given to the artisan in exchange for the bronze, and a dedication.[11] The relative points of reference these vessels provide have enabled historians to place most of the vessels within a certain time frame of the Western Zhou period, allowing them to trace the evolution of the vessels and the events they record.[12]

Southeast Asia

Dating back to the Neolithic Age,the first bronze drums, called the Dong Son drums have been uncovered in and around the Red River Delta regions of Vietnam and Southern China. These relate to the prehistoric Dong Son Culture of Vietnam.

In Ban Chiang, Thailand, (Southeast Asia) bronze artifacts have been discovered dating to 2100 BC.[13]

In Nyaunggan, Burma bronze tools have been excavated along with ceramics and stone artifacts. Dating is still currently broad (3500–500 BC).[14]

Korean peninsula

The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production (c. 700–600? BC) after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula (c. 900–700 BC). The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centres such as the Igeum-dong site. Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until 100.

Central Asia

The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon.[15] It is conjectured that changes in climate in this region around 2000 BC and the ensuing ecological, economic and political changes triggered a rapid and massive migration westward into northeast Europe, eastward into China and southward into Vietnam and Thailand across a frontier of some 4,000 miles.[15] This migration took place in just five to six generations and led to peoples from Finland in the west to Thailand in the east employing the same metal working technology and, in some areas, horse breeding and riding.[15] It is further conjectured that the same migrations spread the Uralic group of languages across Europe and Asia: some 39 languages of this group are still extant, including Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian and Lappish.[15] However, recent genetic testings of sites in south Siberia and Kazakhstan (Andronovo horizon) would rather support a spreading of the bronze technology via Indo-european migrations eastwards, as this technology was well-known for quite a while in western regions.[16][17]

Pontic-Caspian steppe

Europe

Central Europe

File:Prehistoric Times of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia - NM Prague
Bronze cup from Late Bronze Age in the area of today's Czech Republic on display in National Museum in Prague
File:Bronze cuirass 2900g Grenoble end of 7th early 6th century
Bronze cuirass, weighing 2.9kg, Grenoble, end of 7th century - early 6th century BCE.

In Central Europe, the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800–1600 BC) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubing, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age (1600–1200 BC) Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows). In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture, followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures.

The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture, (1300–700 BC) is characterized by cremation burials. It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland (1300–500 BC) that continues into the Iron Age. The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700–450 BC).

Important sites include:

The Bronze Age in Central Europe has been described in the chronological schema of German prehistorian Paul Reinecke. He described Bronze A1 (Bz A1) period (2300–2000 BC : triangular daggers, flat axes, stone wrist-guards, flint arrowheads) and Bronze A2 (Bz A2) period (1950–1700 BC : daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets) and phases Hallstatt A and B (Ha A and B).

Aegean

File:Copper Ingot
Bronze Age copper ingot found in Crete.

The Aegean Bronze Age begins around 3000 BC, when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of the tin in some Mediterranean bronze objects indicates it came from as far away as Great Britain.[citation needed]

Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time, and reached a peak of skill not exceeded (except perhaps by Polynesian sailors) until AD 1730 when the invention of the chronometer enabled the precise determination of longitude.

The Minoan civilization based in Knossos appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade.

Illyrians are also believed to have roots in the early Bronze Age.

Numerous authorities[citation needed] believe that ancient empires were prone to undervalue staple foods in favor of luxury goods, leading to famine. This may have arisen because money was concentrated in the hands of a few people, rather than due to a lack of modern accounting methods.

Collapse in Aegean

How the Bronze Age ended in this region is still being studied. There is evidence that Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy, and that several Minoan client states lost much of their population to famine and/or pestilence. This would indicate that the trade network may have failed, preventing the trade that would previously have relieved such famines and prevented illness caused by malnutrition. It is also known that in this era the breadbasket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea, also suddenly lost much of its population, and thus probably some cultivation.

File:2007
Mycenaean sword found in Eastern Europe

Recent research[citation needed] has discredited the theory that exhaustion of the Cyprus forests caused the end of the bronze trade. These forests are known to have existed into later times, and experiments have shown that charcoal production on the scale necessary for the bronze production of the late Bronze Age would have exhausted them in less than fifty years.

One theory[citation needed] says that as iron tools became more common, the main justification for the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as formerly. The colonies of the Minoan empire then suffered drought, famine, war, or some combination of those three, and had no access to the distant resources of an empire by which they could easily recover.

Another family of theories[citation needed] looks to Knossos itself. The Thera eruption occurred at this time, 110 km (70 mi) north of Crete. Some authorities speculate that a tsunami from Thera (more commonly known today as Santorini) destroyed Cretan cities. Others say that perhaps a tsunami destroyed the Cretan navy in its home harbour, which then lost crucial naval battles; so that in the LMIB/LMII event (c. 1450 BC) the cities of Crete burned and the Mycenaean civilization took over Knossos. If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC (as most chronologists now think) then its immediate effects belong to the Middle to Late Bronze Age transition, and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age; but it could have triggered the instability that led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall. One such theory looks to the role of Cretan expertise in administering the empire, post-Thera. If this expertise was concentrated in Crete, then the Mycenaeans may have made political and commercial mistakes in administering the Cretan empire.

More recent archaeological findings, including some on the island of Thera, suggest that the centre of Minoan Civilization at the time of the eruption was actually on Thera rather than on Crete. According to this theory, the catastrophic loss of the political, administrative and economic centre by the eruption as well as the damage wrought by the tsunami to the coastal towns and villages of Crete precipitated the decline of the Minoans. A weakened political entity with a reduced economic and military capability and fabled riches would have then been more vulnerable to human predators. Indeed, the Santorini Eruption is usually dated to c. 1630 BC, while the Mycenaean Greeks first enter the historical record a few decades later, c. 1600 BC. Thus, the later Mycenaean assaults on Crete (c.1450 BC) and Troy (c.1250 BC) are revealed as mere continuations of the steady encroachments of the Greeks upon the weakened Minoan world.

Each of these theories is persuasive, and aspects of all of them may have some validity in describing the end of the Bronze Age in this region.

Italy

Iberian peninsula, France

File:Sword bronze age (2nd version).jpg
Ceremonial giant dirk of the Plougrescant-Ommerschans type, Plougrescant, France, 1500–1300 BC.

Great Britain

In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2100 to 750 BC. Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent. Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the migrants came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker culture displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people, and cultural change was significant. Integration is thought to have been peaceful, as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers. The rich Wessex culture developed in southern Britain at this time. Additionally, the climate was deteriorating; where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys. Large livestock farms developed in the lowlands and appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances. The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge in the second half of the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1400–1100 BC) to exploit these conditions. Devon and Cornwall were major sources of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales. Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent.

The burial of dead (which until this period had usually been communal) became more individual. For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead, the Early Bronze Age saw people buried in individual barrows (also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli), or sometimes in cists covered with cairns.

The greatest quantities of bronze objects found in England were discovered in East Cambridgeshire, where the most important finds were recovered in Isleham (more than 6500 pieces).[18] Alloying of copper with zinc or tin to make brass or bronze was practised soon after the discovery of copper itself. One copper mine at Great Orme in North Wales, extended to a depth of 70 meters.[19] At Alderley Edge in Cheshire, carbon dates have established mining at around 2280 to 1890 BC (at 95% probability).[20]

Antiquity and Middle Ages

File:Venus
In alchemy the symbol for copper, perhaps a stylized mirror, was also the symbol for the goddess and planet Venus.

[[File:|thumb|Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley, Negev Desert, Israel.]]

Bronze Age seafaring

Ireland

The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced around 2000 BC, when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork. The preceding period is known as the Copper Age and is characterised by the production of flat axes, daggers, halberds and awls in copper. The period is divided into three phases: Early Bronze Age (2000–1500 BC), Middle Bronze Age (1500–1200 BC), and Late Bronze Age (1200 – c. 500 BC). Ireland is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age burials.

One of the characteristic types of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe. There are five main types of flat axes: Lough Ravel (c. 2200 BC), Ballybeg (c. 2000 BC), Killaha (c. 2000 BC), Ballyvalley (c. 2000–1600 BC), Derryniggin (c. 1600 BC), and a number of metal ingots in the shape of axes.[21]

North Europe

North Africa

Although North Africa was influenced to certain extent by European cultures of Bronze Age (for examples, traces of the Bell beaker tradition are found in Morocco), it did not develop its own metallurgy until the Phoenician colonization (ca. 1100 BC) and remained attached to the Neolithic way of life. The civilization of the Ancient Egypt, whose influence did not cover the rest of the North Africa, and in broader sense, the whole range of ancient cultures of the North-East Africa, was rather an exception from this rule.

Americas

The Moche civilization of South America independently discovered and developed bronze smelting.[22] Bronze technology was developed further by the Incas and used widely both for utilitarian objects and sculpture.[23] Later appearance of limited bronze smelting in West Mexico (see Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica) suggests either contact of that region with Andean cultures or separate discovery of the technology.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://budgetcastingsupply.com/images/
  2. ^ Chang, K. C.: "Studies of Shang Archaeology", pp. 6–7, 1. Yale University Press, 1982.
  3. ^ Chang, K. C.: "Studies of Shang Archaeology", p. 1. Yale University Press, 1982.
  4. ^ "Teaching Chinese Archaeology, Part Two — NGA". Nga.gov. http://www.nga.gov/education/chinatp_pt2.shtm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  5. ^ Li-Liu; The Chinese Neolithic, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  6. ^ Shang and Zhou Dynasties: The Bronze Age of China Heilbrunn Timeline Retrieved May 13, 2010
  7. ^ Barnard, N.: "Bronze Casting and Bronze Alloys in Ancient China", p. 14. The Australian National University and Monumenta Serica, 1961.
  8. ^ White, W. C.: "Bronze Culture of Ancient China", p. 208. University of Toronto Press, 1956.
  9. ^ Erdberg, E.: "Ancient Chinese Bronzes", p. 20. Siebenbad-Verlag, 1993.
  10. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L.: "Sources of Western Zhou History", pp. xv–xvi. University of California Press, 1982.
  11. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L. "Sources of Western Zhou History", pp. 76–83. University of California Press, 1982.
  12. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L. "Sources of Western Zhou History", p. 107
  13. ^ "Bronze from Ban Chiang, Thailand: A view from the Laboratory". Museum.upenn.edu. http://penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/43-2/Science.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  14. ^ "Nyaunggan City — Archaeological Sites in Myanmar". Myanmartravelinformation.com. http://myanmartravelinformation.com/mti-archealogical-sites/nyaunggan.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  15. ^ a b c d Keys, David (January 2009). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Scholars crack the code of an ancient enigma"]. BBC History Magazine 10 (1): 9. 
  16. ^ [1] C. Lalueza-Fox et al. 2004. Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians
  17. ^ [2] C. Keyser et al. 2009. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people. Human Genetics.
  18. ^ Hall and Coles, p. 81–88.
  19. ^ O’Brien, W. (1997). Bronze Age Copper Mining in Britain and Ireland. Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 0747803218. 
  20. ^ Timberlake, S. and Prag A.J.N.W. (2005). The Archaeology of Alderley Edge:Survey, excavation and experiment in an ancient mining landscape. Oxford: John and Erica Hedges Ltd.. p. 396. 
  21. ^ Waddell; Eogan.
  22. ^ http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/publicacionesbanrep/bolmuseo/1996/jldi41/jldi01a.htm El bronce y el horizonte medio
  23. ^ Antonio Gutierrez. "Inca Metallurgy". Incas.homestead.com. http://incas.homestead.com/inca_metallurgy_copper.html. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 

References

  • Figueiredo, Elin (2010) "Smelting and Recycling Evidences from the Late Bronze Age habitat site of Baioes," Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 37, Issue 7, p. 1623–1634
  • Eogan, George (1983) The hoards of the Irish later Bronze Age, Dublin : University College, 331p., ISBN 0-901120-77-4
  • Hall, David and Coles, John (1994) Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence, Archaeological report 1, London : English Heritage, 170 p., ISBN 1-85074-477-7
  • Pernicka, E., Eibner, C., Öztunah, Ö., Wagener, G.A. (2003) "Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the Northeast Aegean", In: Wagner, G.A., Pernicka, E. and Uerpmann, H-P. (eds), Troia and the Troad : scientific approaches, Natural science in archaeology, Berlin; London : Springer, ISBN 3-540-43711-8, p. 143–172
  • Waddell, John (1998) The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland, Galway University Press, 433 p., ISBN 1-901421-10-4
  • Siklosy et al. (2009): Bronze Age volcanic event recorded in stalagmites by combined isotope and trace element studies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 23/6, 801-808. doi:10.1002/rcm.3943 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122202090/abstract

External links


1911 encyclopedia

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Bronze Age
Plural
-
  1. (archaeology) A period in a civilization's development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze.
  2. (mythology) One the Classical Ages of Man; associated with warfare,

Coordinate terms

See also

.
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Bronze Age on Wikipedia.^ It uses material from the article Bronze Age at Wikipedia.org.

    ^ Wikipedia.org Bronze Age  Origins .
    • BronzeAge 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC kopperking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See also: Fossils & Ruins Archaeology For more information about the topic Bronze Age , read the full article at Wikipedia.org , or see the following related articles: .

    Wikipedia
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Ages of Man on Wikipedia.Wikipedia:Ages of Man

Derived terms

.
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Atlantic Bronze Age on Wikipedia.^ It uses material from the article Bronze Age at Wikipedia.org.

    ^ Wikipedia.org Bronze Age  Origins .
    • BronzeAge 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC kopperking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See also: Fossils & Ruins Archaeology For more information about the topic Bronze Age , read the full article at Wikipedia.org , or see the following related articles: .

    .Bronze Age">Wikipedia:Atlantic Bronze Age
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Nordic Bronze Age on Wikipedia.^ The Nordic Bronze Age illustrates the ability of local cultures to maintain their independent character in spite of dependency on other, larger systems.
    • European History and Culture: The Metal Ages: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Bronze Age. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC www.uv.es [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The map below shows the Nordic Bronze Age finds.
    • The Nordic Bronze Age civilisation 2000-500 B.C. 10 February 2010 12:43 UTC arno.daastol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Important sites include: Biskupin (Poland) Nebra (Germany) Zug-Sumpf, Zug, Switzerland Nordic Bronze Age (1500-500 BC) .

    Wikipedia:Nordic Bronze Age

Translations


Simple English

File:Urnenfelder
Some common bronze weapons during the Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is the time period when people made tools from a metal called bronze. Bronze is a mixture of two other metals: nine parts copper to one part tin. Materials like wood and stone were also used for tools, but bronze was better for cutting and chopping, and was easy to shape. The Bronze Age was not at the same time everywhere, because different groups of people began to use bronze at different times. In Western Europe, the Bronze Age lasted from about 2000 BC until 800 BC. In the Middle East, it started about a thousand years earlier. (For example, bronze was first used in Mesopotamia around 3000 BC.)[1]

Archaeologists think that people became more organised in the Bronze Age, because the making of metal tools was difficult and needed certain skills. The people who had these new skills would have been important. The new metal tools were bought, sold, or traded across larger distances.

Later, when iron tools spread, the Bronze Age ended and the Iron Age started. A reason for iron replacing bronze is that tin ore, a rock in which tin may found, is much more rare than iron ore. Copper tools were not useful because they were too soft.

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bronze Age, which are similar to those in the above article.








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