Brother: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Sibling article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For alternative meanings, see brother (disambiguation), brothers (disambiguation); sister (disambiguation), sisters (disambiguation); and SIBLING proteins.
The Brontë sisters, painted by their brother Branwell, c. 1834. From left to right: Anne, Emily and Charlotte (there still remains a shadow of Branwell, which appeared after he painted himself out).

A sibling is a brother or a sister; that is, any person who shares at least one of the same parents. In most societies throughout the world, siblings usually grow up together and spend a good deal of their childhood with each other, like playing and having fun. This genetic and physical closeness may be marked by the development of strong emotional associations such as love or enmity. The sibling bond is often complicated and is influenced by factors such as parental treatment, birth order, personality, and people and experiences outside the family.[1]

Contents

3/4 sibling

A 3/4 sibling, is a sibling with one shared parent, and the other two parents are full siblings, for example if a man sires children with two sisters. This term is more commonly used in animal breeding. A possible example was the relationship between Queen Elizabeth I of England (the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn) and Henry Carey and Catherine Carey, the children of Mary Boleyn and possibly King Henry VIII.

Half sibling

A half sibling (half brother or half sister) is a sibling with one shared biological parent. A half sibling that shares the same mother (but different fathers) is known as a uterine sibling, whereas one that shares the same father is known as an agnate sibling. In law, the term consanguine is used in place of agnate. In addition, first cousins who between them have a set of parents who are identical twins, while technically not siblings, are genetically equivalent to half siblings. Half siblings can have a wide variety of interpersonal relationships, from a bond as close as any full siblings, to total strangers.

At law (and especially inheritance law) half siblings were often accorded unequal treatment. Old English common law at one time incorporated inequalities into the laws of intestate succession, with half siblings taking only half as much property of their intestate siblings' estates as other siblings of full-blood. Unequal treatment of this type has been wholly abolished in England and throughout the United States.

Milk sibling

Milk brothers or sisters are children breastfed by a woman other than their biological mother, a practice known as wetnursing and once widespread in the developed world, as it still is in parts of the developing world.

In Islam those who are fed in this way become siblings to the biological children of their wetnurse, provided that they are less than two years old. Islamic law (shariah) codifies the relationship between these people, and certain specified relatives, as rada; once they are adult, they are mahram, meaning that they are not allowed to marry each other, and the rules of modesty known as hijab are relaxed, as with other family members.

Godsiblings

A Godsibling (Godbrother or Godsister) is determined when one child is a Godchild of another child's parents. For example, if a child has a Godparent, and that Godparent has a child of his/her own, the child of the Godparent and the Godchild are Godsiblings. Godsiblings can either be related or non-related to each other.

Foster siblings

Foster siblings are children who are raised in the same foster home, or are also foster children of the person's parents, or foster parents' biological children.

Birth order

The Benzon Daughters by Peder Severin Krøyer.

Birth order is a person's rank by age among his or her siblings. Typically, researchers classify siblings as “eldest”, “middle child”, and “youngest” or simply distinguish between “firstborn” and “later born” children.

Birth order is commonly believed in pop psychology and popular culture to have a profound and lasting effect on psychological development and personality. For example, firstborns are seen as conservative and high achieving, middle children as natural mediators, and youngest children as charming and outgoing. In his book Born to Rebel, Frank Sulloway argues that firstborns are more conscientious, more socially dominant, less agreeable, and less open to new ideas compared to laterborns. Literature reviews that have examined many studies and attempted to control for confounding variables tend to find minimal effects for birth order on personality.[2][3] In her review of the scientific literature, Judith Rich Harris suggests that birth order effects may exist within the context of the family of origin, but that they are not enduring aspects of personality.[4]

Some research has found that firstborn children have slightly higher IQs on average than later born children. [5] However, other research finds no such effect.[6]

In practice, systematic birth order research is a challenge because it is difficult to control for all of the variables that are statistically related to birth order. For example, large families are generally lower in socioeconomic status than small families, so third born children are more likely than firstborn children to come from poorer families. Spacing of children, parenting style, and gender are additional variables to consider.

Regressive behavior at the birth of a new sibling

The arrival of a new baby is especially stressful for firstborns and for siblings between 3 and 5 years old. Regressive behavior and aggressive behavior, such as handling the baby roughly, can also occur. All of these symptoms are considered to be typical and developmentally appropriate for children between the ages of 3-5[citation needed]. While some can be prevented, the remainder can be improved within a few months. Regressive behavior may include demand for a bottle, thumb sucking, requests to wear diapers (even if toilet-trained), or requests to carry a security blanket.

Regressive behaviors are the child’s way of demanding the parents’ love and attention.

The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests[citation needed] that instead of protesting or telling children to act their age, parents should simply grant their requests without becoming upset. The affected children will soon return to their normal routine when they realize that they now have just as important a place in the family as the new sibling. Most of the behaviors can be improved within a few months.

The University of Michigan Health System advises[citation needed] that most occurrences of regressive behavior are mild and to be expected; however, it recommends parents to contact a pediatrician or child psychologist if the older child tries to hurt the baby, if regressive behavior does not improve within 2 or 3 months, or if the parents have other questions or concerns.

Sibling rivalry

Portrait of Lady Cockburn and her Three Eldest Sons , by Joshua Reynolds.

Sibling rivalry is a type of competition or animosity among brothers and sisters. It appears to be particularly intense when children are very close in age and of the same gender.[7] Sibling rivalry can involve aggression; however, it is not the same as sibling abuse where one child victimizes another.

Sibling rivalry usually starts right after, or before, the arrival of the second child. While siblings will still love each other, it is not uncommon for them to bicker and be malicious to each other.[8] Children are sensitive from the age of one year to differences in parental treatment and by three years they have a sophisticated grasp of family rules and can evaluate themselves in relation to their siblings.[1] Sibling rivalry often continues throughout childhood and can be very frustrating and stressful to parents.[9] One study found that the age group 10 to 15 reported the highest level of competition between siblings [10] Sibling rivalry can continue into adulthood and sibling relationships can change dramatically over the years. Approximately one-third of adults describe their relationship with siblings as rivalrous or distant. However, rivalry often lessens over time and at least 80 percent of siblings over age 60 enjoy close ties.[1]

Each child in a family competes to define who they are as persons and want to show that they are separate from their siblings. Sibling rivalry increases when children feel they are getting unequal amounts of their parents’ attention, where there is stress in the parents’ and children’s lives, and where fighting is accepted by the family as a way to resolve conflicts.[9] Sigmund Freud saw the sibling relationship as an extension of the Oedipus complex, where brothers were in competition for their mother's attention and sisters for their father's.[11] Evolutionary psychologists explain sibling rivalry in terms of parental investment and kin selection: a parent is inclined to spread resources equally among all children in the family, but a child wants most of the resources for him or herself.[10]

Westermarck effect and its opposite

Anthropologist Edvard Westermarck found that children who are brought up together as siblings are desensitized to form sexual attraction to one another later in life. This is known as the Westermarck Effect. It can be seen in biological and adoptive families, but also in other situations where children are brought up in close contact, such as the Israeli kibbutz system and the Chinese Shim-pua marriage.[12][13]

The opposite phenomenon, when relatives do fall in love, is known as genetic sexual attraction. This can occur between siblings brought up apart from each other, for example, adoptees who are re-united in adulthood.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Mersky Leder, Jane. "Adult Sibling Rivalry". Psychology Today, Jan/Feb 1993. http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-19930101-000023.html. Retrieved November 28, 2006. 
  2. ^ Ernst, C. & Angst, J. (1983). Birth order: Its influence on personality. Springer.
  3. ^ Jefferson, T., Herbst, J. H., & McCrae, R. R. (1998). Associations between birth order and personality traits: Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 498-509.
  4. ^ Harris, J. R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press.
  5. ^ Carey, Benedict. "Family dynamics, not biology, behind higher IQ". International Herald Tribune, June 21, 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/06/21/africa/siblings.php. Retrieved July 15, 2007. 
  6. ^ Rodgers, J. L., Cleveland, H. H., van den Oord, E. and Rowe, D. (2000). Resolving the Debate Over Birth Order, Family Size and Intelligence. American Psychologist, Vol. 55.
  7. ^ The Effects of Sibling Competition Syliva B. Rimm, Educational Assessment Service, 2002.
  8. ^ New Baby Sibling University of Michigan Health System, June 2006
  9. ^ a b Sibling Rivalry University of Michigan Health System, October 2006
  10. ^ a b Sibling Rivalry in Degree and Dimensions Across the Lifespan Annie McNerney and Joy Usner, 30 April 2001.
  11. ^ Freud Lecture: Juliet Mitchell, 2003
  12. ^ Westermarck, E. A. (1921). The history of human marriage, 5th edn. London: Macmillan, 1921.
  13. ^ Arthur P. Wolf. "Childhood Association and Sexual Attraction: A Further Test of the Westermarck Hypothesis". American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 72, No. 3 (Jun., 1970), pp. 503-515. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7294(197006)2%3A72%3A3%3C503%3ACAASAA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y. Retrieved November 29, 2006. 

Sister project links


Redirecting to Brother (2000 film)


Redirecting to Brother (2000 film)


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

a BROTHER male person in his relation to the other children of the same father and mother. " Brother " represents in English the Teutonic branch of a word common to the IndoEuropean languages, cf. Ger. Bruder, Dutch broeder, Dan. and Swed. broder, &c. In Celtic languages, Gaelic and Irish have brathair, and Welsh brawd; in Greek the word is OpitTrtp, in Lat. frater, from which come the Romanic forms, Fr. frere, Ital. fratello; the Span. fray, Port. frei, like the Ital. frate, fra, are only used of "friars." The Span. hermano and the Port. irmao, the regular words for brother, are from Lat. germanus, born of the same father and mother. The Sanskrit word is bhratar, and the ultimate Indo-European root is generally taken to be bhar, to bear (cf. M. H. Ger. barn, Scot. bairn, child, and such words as " birth," " burden "). " Brother " has often been loosely used of kinsmen generally, or for members of the same tribe; also for quite fictitious relationships, e.g. " bloodbrothers," through a sacramental rite of mutual blood-tasting, " foster-brothers," because suckled by the same nurse. Christianity, through the idea of the universal fatherhood of God, conceives all men as brothers; but in a narrower sense " the brethren " are the members of the Church, or, in a narrower still, of a confraternity or " brotherhood " within the Church. This latter idea is reproduced in those fraternal societies, e.g. the Freemasons, the members of which become " brothers "by initiation. " Brother " is also used symbolically, as implying equality, by sovereigns in addressing one another, and also by bishops.


<< Charles De Brosses

Richard Brothers >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also brother

Contents

English

Noun

Singular
Brother

Plural
Brothers

Brother (plural Brothers)

  1. Title of respect for an adult male member of a religious or fraternal order.
    At the monastery, Brother Stephen supervises the kitchen.
  2. Formal title for any male member of a religious or fraternal organization.
    Please welcome Brother Smith as he moves from his former congregation to his new congregation.
  3. An informal title used as part of another moniker:
    The Native American had a kinship with nature, even referring to Mother Earth and Brother Bear.
    Jacob was a Brother Grimm, and Wilhelm was a Brother Grimm.

Compare Mister

See also

Synonyms


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

  1. In the natural and common sense (Mt 1:2; Lk 3:1, 19).
  2. A near relation, a cousin (Gen 13:8; 14:16; Mt 12:46; Jn 7:3; Acts 1:14; Gal 1:19).
  3. Simply a fellow-countryman (Mt 5:47; Acts 3:22; Heb 7:5).
  4. A disciple or follower (Mt 25:40; Heb 2:11, 12).
  5. One of the same faith (Amos 1:9; Acts 9:30; 11:29; 1Cor 5:11); whence the early disciples of our Lord were known to each other as brethren.
  6. A colleague in office (Ez 3:2; 1Cor 1:1; 2Cor 1:1).
  7. A fellow-man (Gen 9:5; 19:7; Mt 5:22, 23, 24; 7:5; Heb 2:17).
  8. One beloved or closely united with another in affection (2 Sam 1:26; Acts 6:3; 1Thess 5:1). Brethren of Jesus (Mt 1:25; 12:46, 50: Mk 3:31, 32; Gal 1:19; 1Cor 9:5, etc.) were probably the younger children of Joseph and Mary. Some have supposed that they may have been the children of Joseph by a former marriage, and others that they were the children of Mary, the Virgin's sister, and wife of Cleophas. The first interpretation, however, is the most natural.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

This article needs to be merged with BROTHER (Jewish Encyclopedia).
Facts about BrotherRDF feed







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message