Brown: Wikis

  
  
  

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Brown
Color icon brown.svg
 — Common connotations —
soil, autumn, earth, skin, maple leaf, chocolate, coffee, caramel, stone
About these coordinates About these coordinates
— Color coordinates —
Hex triplet #964B00
RGBB (r, g, b) (150, 75, 0)
HSV (h, s, v) (30°, 100%, 59%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
 — Some variations of Brown —
Brown (X11)
Dark Brown
Pale Brown

Brown is a color term, denoting a range of composite colors produced by a mixture of orange, red, rose, or yellow with black or gray. The term is from Old English brún, in origin for any dusky or dark shade of color.[1] The Common Germanic adjective *brûnoz, *brûnâ meant both dark colors and a glistening or shining quality, whence burnish. The current meaning developed in Middle English from the 14th century.[2]

The adjective is applied to naturally occurring colors, referring to animal fur, human hair, human skin pigmentation (tans), partially charred or carbonized fiber as in toasted bread and other foods, peat, withered leaves, etc.[3]

In terms of the visible spectrum, "brown" refers to high wavelength hues, yellow, orange, or red, in combination with low luminance or saturation.[4] Since brown may cover a wide range of the visible spectrum, composite adjectives such as red brown, yellowish brown, dark brown or light brown.)

The brown and orange disks of color are objectively identical, in identical gray surrounds, in this image; their perceived color categories depend on what white they are compared to.

As a color of low intensity, brown is a tertiary color: a mix of the three subtractive primary colors is brown if the cyan content is low. Brown exists as a color perception only in the presence of a brighter color contrast: yellow, orange, red, or rose objects are still perceived as such if the general illumination level is low, despite reflecting the same amount of red or orange light as a brown object would in normal lighting conditions.[5]

Other meanings

A baked cake
  • Browning removes excess fat from meat by heating, as under a broiler or in a frying pan, until it turns brown.
  • Browning describes chemical changes to food, desirable and undesirable. Examples of browning reactions include caramelization and the Maillard reaction (generally desirable) and the process that leads to the undesirable browning of the flesh of cut apples, pears, potatos, and the like.
  • In the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, the German Nazi paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA) wore brown uniforms and were known as the brownshirts. It was often said of members of the SA that they were like a beefsteak--"brown on the outside, and red on the inside"--because many of them were former Communists. Brown represented the Nazi vote on maps of electoral districts in Germany. A vote for Nazis was "voting brown". The national headquarters of the Nazi party, in Munich, was called the Brown House. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 was called the Brown Revolution.[7] At Adolf Hitler's Obersalzberg home, the Berghof, he slept in a "bed which was usually covered by a brown quilt embroidered with a huge swastika. The swastika appeared on Hitler's brown satin pajamas, embroidered in black against a red background on the pocket."[8]
  • "Brown" is a common surname, as are the equivalent words in other European languages.

References

  1. ^ first attested in The Metres of Boethius 26. 58, ca. AD 1000: stunede sio brune yd wid odre "One dark wave dashed against the other".
  2. ^ His hare [was] like to the nute brun, quen it for ripnes fals dun "his hair was like the nut brown, when for ripeness it falls down", Cursor M. 18833, ca. AD 1300, cited after OED.
  3. ^ "The burned and scorched superficies [of roast meat], the brown we call it." Robert Burton, The anatomy of melancholy(1651), p. 232.
  4. ^ "Some Experiments on Color", Nature 111, 1871, in John William Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) (1899). Scientific Papers. University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=KWMSAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA84&dq=date:0-1923+light+red+green+yellow-or-orange&as_brr=1#PPA85,M1.  
  5. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191
  6. ^ "Glossary of Terms for Brownfields" (PDF). HSRC. http://www.hsrc.org/hsrc/html/tosc/sswtosc/glossary.pdf#search='origin%20of%20term%20brownfields'. Retrieved 2006-05-25.  
  7. ^ Toland, John Hitler: The Pictorial Documentary of his Life Garden City, New York:1978 Doubleday & Sons Chapter 5 "The Brown Revolution" Pages 42-60
  8. ^ Infield, Glenn B. Eva and Adolf New York:1974--Grosset and Dunlap Page 142 (The author compiled this book by interviewing Albert Speer and others who had been in Hitler's inner circle, such as SS men, secretaries, and housekeepers. The author consulted the Musmanno Archives, a record of post-war interviews with 200 people close to Adolf Hitler or Eva Braun.)
  9. ^ Card showing list of bandana colors and their meanings from Gay City USA Hanky Codes:]

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Charles Edward]] BROWN - [[Sequard (1817-1894), British physiologist and neurologist, was born at Port Louis, Mauritius, on the 8th of April 1817. His father was an American and his mother a Frenchwoman, but he himself always desired to be looked upon as a British subject, though in the restlessness of his life and the enthusiasm of his disposition, characteristics of his mother's nation were plainly visible. After graduating in medicine at Paris in 1846 he returned to Mauritius with the intention of practising there, but in 1852 he went to America. Subsequently he returned to Paris, and in 1859 he migrated to London, becoming physician to the national hospital for the paralysed and epileptic. There he stayed for about five years,, expounding his views on the pathology of the nervous system in numerous lectures which attracted considerable attention. In 1864 he again crossed the Atlantic, and was appointed professor of physiology and neuro-pathology at Harvard. This position he relinquished in 1867, and in 1869 became professor at the Ecole de Medecine in Paris, but in 1873 he again returned to America and began to practise in New York. Finally, he went back to Paris to succeed Claude Bernard in 1878 as professor of experimental medicine in the College de France, and he remained there till his death, which occurred on the 2nd of April 1894 at Sceaux. Brown-Sequard was a keen observer and experimentalist. He contributed largely to our knowledge of the blood and animal heat, as well as many facts of the highest importance on the nervous system. He was the first scientist to work out the physiology of the spinal cord, demonstrating that the decussation of the sensory fibres is in the cord itself. He also did valuable work on the internal secretion of organs, the results of which have been applied with the most satisfactory results in the treatment of myxoedema. Unfortunately in his extreme old age, he advocated the hypodermic injection of a fluid prepared from the testicles of sheep, as a means of prolonging human life. It was known, among scientists, derisively, as the BrownSequard Elixir. His researches, published in about 500 essays and papers, especially in the Archives de Physiologic, which he helped to found in 1868, cover a very wide range of physiological and pathological subjects.


<< Robert Browning

Orestes Augustus Brownson >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also brown

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

Originally a nickname for someone with brown hair or a dark complexion.

Proper noun

Singular
Brown

Plural
-

Brown

  1. A common surname.

Translations


Scots

Proper noun

Brown

Singular
Brown

Plural
-

  1. A surname.

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Brown may refer to:


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010
(Redirected to Brown (surname) article)

From Familypedia

View category for people with the Brown surname
Brown
Variant(s): Browne
Wikipedia: Search Wikipedia
Facts about Brown (surname)RDF feed

This article uses material from the "Brown (surname)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

This box shows the color brown.
 


[[File:|thumb|220px|left|A brown dog on a brown couch with brown pillows.]]

File:Double
Brown is a common human hair color

Brown is the color that is made when gray or black is mixed with orange, red, or rose (Brown is not a color of light, and mixing all the colors of light together gives white).

Brown is the color of:


Contents

Meaning of brown


Tones of brown color comparison chart

  • Beige (web color) (Hex: #F5F5DC) (RGB: 245, 245, 220)
  • Blanched Almond (web color) (Hex: #FFEBCD) (RGB: 255, 235, 205)
  • Banana Mania (Crayola) (Hex: #FBE7B2) (RGB: 251, 231, 128)
  • Moccasin (web color) (Hex: #FFE4B5) (RGB: 255, 228, 182)
  • Peach-Yellow (Hex: #FADFAD) (RGB: 250, 223, 173)
  • Wheat (web color) (Hex: #F5DEB3) (RGB: 245, 222, 179)
  • Bisque (web color) (Hex: #FFE4C4) (RGB: 255, 228, 196)
  • Navajo White (web color) (Hex: #FFDEAD) (RGB: 255, 222, 173)
  • Light Khaki (X11 "Khaki") (Hex: #F0E68C) (RGB: 240, 230, 140)
  • Pale Goldenrod (web color) (Hex: #EEE8AA) (RGB: 238, 232, 170)
  • Buff(HexF0DC82) (RGB: 240, 220, 130)
  • Flax (Hex: #EEDC82) (RGB: 238, 220, 130)
  • Almond (Crayola) (Hex: #EFDECD) (RGB: 239, 222, 205)
  • Desert Sand (Crayola) (Hex: #EDC9AF) (RGB: 237, 201, 175)
  • Zinnwaldite (Hex: #EBC2AF) (RGB: 235, 194, 175)
  • Rosy Brown Light (Xona.com Color List) (Hex: #E2CACA) (RGB: 226, 202, 202)
  • Ecru (Hex: #C3B091) (RGB: 205, 184, 145)
  • Tan (Hex: #D2B48C) (RGB: 210, 180, 140)
  • Khaki (HTML/CSS web color "Khaki") (Hex: #C3B091) (RGB: 195, 176, 145)
  • Dark Khaki (X11 web color "Dark Khaki") (Hex: #BDB76B) (RGB: 189, 183, 107)
  • Rose Quartz (Hex: #AA98A9) (RGB: 170, 152, 169)
  • Rosy Brown (web color) (Hex: #BC8F8F) (RGB: 188, 143, 143)
  • Brandy Rose (Xona.com Color List) (Hex: #BB8983) (RGB: 187, 137, 131)
  • Lavender Brown (Medium Vanda) (Plochere "Vanda") (Hex: #AA8A9E) (RGB: 170, 138, 158)
  • Puce (Hex: #CC8899) (RGB: 204, 136, 153)
  • Terra Cotta (Hex: #E2725B) (RGB: 226, 114, 91)
  • Bittersweet (Crayola) (Hex: #FE6F5E) (RGB: 254, 111, 94)
  • Tumbleweed (Crayola) (Hex: #DEAA88) (RGB: 222, 170, 136)
  • Sandy Brown (web color) (Hex: #F4A460) (RGB: 244, 164, 96)
  • Goldenrod (web color) (Hex: #DAA520) (RGB: 218, 165, 32)
  • Brass (Hex: #C3A368) (RGB: 195, 163, 104)
  • Pale Taupe (Mouse) (Hex: #BC987E) (RGB: 188, 152, 26)
  • Antique Brass (Crayola) (Hex: #C88A65) (RGB: 200, 138, 101)
  • Bronze (Hex: #CD7F32) (RGB: 205, 127, 50)
  • Ochre (Hex: #CC7722) (RGB: 204, 119, 34)
  • Copper (Hex: #B87333) (RGB: 184, 115, 51)
  • Dark Goldenrod (web color) (Hex: #B8860B) (RGB: 184, 134, 11)
  • Sandy Taupe (Hex: #967117) (RGB: 150, 113, 23)
  • Dark Tan (Hex: #918151) (RGB: 145, 129, 81)
  • Shadow (Crayola) (Hex: #837050) (RGB: 131, 112, 80)
  • Beaver (Crayola) (Hex: #926F5B) (RGB: 146, 111, 91)
  • Cinerous (Hex: #98817B) (RGB: 152, 129, 123)
  • French Beige (Hex: #A67B5B) (RGB: 166, 123, 91)
  • Pale Brown (Hex: #987654) (RGB: 152, 118, 54)
  • Peru (web color) (Hex: #CD5700) (RGB: 205, 133, 63)
  • Cocoa Brown (web color Chocolate) (Hex: #D2691E) (RGB: 210, 105, 30)
  • Tenne (Tawny) (Hex: #CD5700) (RGB: 205, 87, 0)
  • Burnt Orange (Hex: #CC5500) (RGB: 204, 85, 0)
  • Mahogany (Hex: #C04000) (RGB: 192, 64, 0)
  • Dark Terra Cotta (Hex: #CC4E3C) (RGB: 204, 78, 92)
  • Chestnut (Indian Red [web color]) (Hex: #CD5C5C) (RGB: 205, 92, 92)
  • Fuzzy Wuzzy Brown (Crayola) (Hex: #C45655) (RGB: 196, 86, 55)
  • Deep Chestnut (Vermont Maple Syrup) (Crayola Chestnut) (Hex: #B94E48) (RGB: 185, 78, 72)
  • Dark Chestnut (Hex: #986960) (RGB: 152, 105, 96)
  • Medium Brown (Crayola Brown) (Hex: #AF593E) (RGB: 175, 89, 67)
  • Sienna (web color) (Hex: #A05220) (RGB: 160, 82, 45)
  • BROWN (Hex: #964B00) (RGB: 150, 75, 0)
  • Saddle Brown (web color) (Hex: #8B4513) (RGB: 139, 69, 13)
  • Rust (Hex: #87410E) (RGB: 183, 65, 14)
  • Russet (Hex: #804618) (RGB: 128, 70, 27)
  • Burnt Umber (Hex: #8A3324) (RGB: 138, 51, 36)
  • Cordovan (Hex: #893F45) (RGB: 137, 63, 69)
  • Red-Brown (web color Brown) (Hex: #A52A2A) (RGB: 165, 42, 42)
  • Tea (Tea Red) (Orange Pekoe Tea) (Hex: #9C0D07) (RGB: 156, 13, 7)
  • Burgundy (Hex: #900020) (RGB: 144, 0, 32)
  • Maroon (Hex: #800000) (RGB: 128, 0, 0)
  • Auburn (Hex: #712F26) (RGB: 113, 47, 38)
  • Raw Umber (Hex: #734A12) (RGB: 115, 74, 18)
  • Pullman Brown (UPS Brown) (Hex: #644117) (RGB: 100, 65, 23)
  • Dark Brown (Hex: #654321) (RGB: 101, 67, 33)
  • Sepia (Hex: #734212) (RGB: 112, 66, 20)
  • Chocolate (Hex: #7B3F00) (RGB: 123, 63, 0)
  • Bole (Hex: #79443B) (RGB: 121, 68, 59)
  • Medium Taupe (Hex: #674C47) (RGB: 103, 76, 21)
  • Taupe (Hex: #483C32) (RGB: 72, 60, 50)
  • Coffee (Hex: #4B3621) (RGB: 75, 54, 33)
  • Liver (Hex: #534B4F) (RGB: 83, 75, 79)
  • Bistre (Hex: #3D2B1F) (RGB: 61, 43, 31)
  • Seal Brown (Hex: #321414) (RGB: 50, 20, 20)
ColorsList of colors
Cyan Magenta Black Gray Silver White
Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet
Gold Olive Purple Navy Brown Pink

References

Other pages

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