Brunswick, Maine: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Town of Brunswick
Federal Street

Seal
Town of Brunswick is located in Maine
Town of Brunswick
Location within the state of Maine
Coordinates: 43°54′39″N 69°57′47″W / 43.91083°N 69.96306°W / 43.91083; -69.96306
Country United States
State Maine
County Cumberland
Settled 1628
Incorporated (town) 1739
Area
 - Total 54.2 sq mi (140.4 km2)
 - Land 46.8 sq mi (121.2 km2)
Population (2000)
 - Total 21,172
 Density 452.6/sq mi (174.7/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 04011
Website www.brunswickme.org

Brunswick is a town in Cumberland County, Maine, United States. The population was 21,172 at the 2000 census. It is part of the PortlandSouth PortlandBiddeford, Maine Metropolitan Statistical Area. Brunswick is home to Bowdoin College, the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum and the Naval Air Station Brunswick.

Contents

History

Harriet Beecher Stowe House, where, between 1850 and 1852, Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin

Settled in 1628 by Thomas Purchase and other fishermen, the area was called by its Indian name, Pejepscot, meaning "the long, rocky rapids part [of the river]." In 1639, Purchase placed his settlement under protection of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. During King Philip's War, Pejepscot in 1676 was burned and abandoned, although a garrison called Fort Andros was built on the ruins during King William's War. The Treaty of Portsmouth of 1713 then brought peace to the region between the Abenaki Indians and English settlements. [1]

In 1714, a consortium from Boston and Portsmouth bought the land, thereafter called the Pejepscot Purchase. The Massachusetts General Court constituted the township in 1717, naming it Brunswick in honor of the House of Brunswick and its scion, King George I. A stone fort called Fort George was built in 1715 near the falls. But on July 13, 1722, warriors from Norridgewock burned the village. Consequently, Governor Samuel Shute declared war on the Abenakis. In 1724, 208 English troops left Fort Richmond and sacked Norridgewock during Dummer's War. Brunswick was again rebuilt in 1727, and in 1739 incorporated a town. It became a prosperous seaport, where Bowdoin College would be chartered in 1794.[1]

Cabot Mfg. Co. and falls c. 1912

The Androscoggin River falls in 3 successive stages over a distance of 41 feet, providing water power for industry. Brunswick became a major producer of lumber, with as many as 25 sawmills. Some of the lumber went into shipbuilding. Other firms produced paper, soap, flour, marble and granite work, carriages and harness, plows, furniture, shoes and confections. The town was site of the first cotton mill in Maine, the Brunswick Cotton Manufactory Company, built in 1809 to make yarn. Purchased in 1812, the mill was enlarged by the Maine Cotton & Woolen Factory Company. In 1857, the Cabot Manufacturing Company was established to make cotton textiles. It bought the failed Warumbo Manufacturing Company and expanded the brick factory along the falls. Needing even more room, the company in 1890 persuaded the town to move Maine Street.

Brunswick today has a number of historic districts recognized on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Pennellville Historic District, to preserve shipbuilders' and sea captains' mansions built in the Federal, Greek Revival and Italianate architectural styles. Principal employers for Brunswick include Naval Air Station Brunswick, L.L. Bean, Bath Iron Works, as well as companies that produce fiberglass construction material and electrical switches. A number of health services providers serving Maine's mid-coast area are located in Brunswick.

The book Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe while she was living in Brunswick because her husband was a professor at Bowdoin. She got a key vision for the book in the First Parish Church. A scene in the 1993 movie The Man Without a Face was filmed in the town.

Notable residents

Bowdoin College Museum of Art c. 1912

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 54.2 square miles (140.4 km²), of which, 46.8 square miles (121.2 km²) of it is land and 7.4 square miles (19.3 km²) of it (13.72%) is water. Brunswick is located at the head of Casco Bay, as well as the head of tide and head of navigation on the Androscoggin River.

The town is crossed by I-95.svg Interstate 295, US 1.svg U.S. Route 1 and US 201 (wide).svg 201, and MA Route 24.svg Maine State Route 24, MA Route 123.svg Maine State Route 123 and MA Route 196.svgMaine State Route 196.

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Neighboring cities and towns

Demographics

House where author Nathaniel Hawthorne, Class of 1825, roomed while enrolled at Bowdoin College

As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 21,172 people, 8,150 households, and 5,150 families residing in the town. The population density was 452.6 people per square mile (174.7/km²). There were 8,720 housing units at an average density of 186.4/sq mi (72.0/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 94.35% White, 1.71% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.67% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, and 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.62% of the population.

There were 8,150 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.8% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.95.

House where Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Class of 1825, roomed

In the town the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 14.1% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $40,402, and the median income for a family was $49,088. Males had a median income of $32,141 versus $24,927 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,322. About 5.0% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.

With the closure of the Brunswick Naval Air Station, population for the town is expected to decline for the 2010 Census.

Education

Sites of interest

Map of Brunswick, May 29, 1795

References

  1. ^ a b A. J. Coolidge & J. B. Mansfield, A History and Description of New England; Boston, Massachusetts 1859
  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 43°54′39″N 69°57′47″W / 43.91083°N 69.96306°W / 43.91083; -69.96306


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BRUNSWICK, a village of Cumberland county, Maine,U.S.A., in the township of Brunswick, on the Androscoggin river, 9 m. W. of Bath, and 27 m. N.N.E. of Portland. Pop. of the township (1890) 6912; (1900) 6806; of the village (1900) 5210, of whom 1704 were foreign-born. Brunswick is served by the Maine Central railway, and by the Lewiston, Brunswick & Bath, and the Portland & Brunswick electric railways. Opposite Brunswick and connected with it by a bridge is the township of Topsham (pop. in 1900, 2097). The village of Brunswick lies only 63 ft. above sea-level, shut within rather narrow bounds by hills or bluffs, from which good views may be obtained of the island-dotted sea and deeply-indented coast to the south and east and of the White Mountains to the west. The river falls in three successive stages for a total distance of 41 ft., furnishing good water-power for paper and cotton mills and other manufactories; the first cotton-mill in Maine was built here about 1809. The settlement of the site of Brunswick was begun by fishermen in 1628 and the place was called Pejepscot; in 1717 Brunswick was constituted a township under its present name by the Massachusetts general court, and in 1739 the township was regularly incorporated. The village was incorporated in 1836.

Brunswick is best known as the seat of Bowdoin College, a small institution of high educational rank. There are eleven buildings on a campus of about 40 acres, 1 m. from the riverbank at the end of the principal village thoroughfare. The chapel (King Chapel, named in honour of William King, the first governor of Maine), built of undressed granite, is of Romanesque style, and has twin towers and spires rising to a height of 120 ft.; the interior walls are beautifully decorated with frescoes and mural paintings. The Walker Art Building (built as a memorial to Theophilus W. Walker) is of Italian Renaissance style, has mural decorations by John la Farge, Elihu Vedder, Abbott H. Thayer and Kenyon Cox, and contains a good collection of paintings and other works of art. Among the paintings, many of which were given by the younger James Bowdoin, are examples of van Dyck, Titian, Poussin and Rembrandt. The library building is of Gothic style, and in 1908 contained 88,000 volumes (including the private library of the younger James Bowdoin). Among the other buildings are an astronomical observatory, a science building, a memorial hall, a gymnasium and three dormitories. The building of the Medical School of Maine (1820), which is a department of the college, is on the same campus. Bowdoin was incorporated by the general court of Massachusetts in 1794, but was not opened until 1802. It was named in honour of James Bowdoin (1726-1790), whose son was a liberal benefactor. The college has been maintained as a non-sectarian institution largely by Congregationalists, and is governed by a board of trustees and a board of overseers. Among the distinguished alumni have been Nathaniel Hawthorne, Franklin Pierce, Henry W. Longfellow, John P. Hale, William P. Fessenden, Melville W. Fuller, and Thomas B. Reed.


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