Bruria Kaufman (born in 1918) was an Israeli theoretical physicist.
She obtained a B.Sc. from Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1938 and a PhD from Columbia University in 1948. Bruria Kaufman was a research associate at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton from 1949 to 1955, where she worked with John von Neumann (1947/48) and with Albert Einstein (1950–1955). She spent the following years at New York University and at the University of Pennsylvania. Kaufman returned to Israel in 1960 where she became professor at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot (1960–1971) and later on at Haifa University (1972–1988). Bruria Kaufman was married to the linguist Zellig S. Harris. In 1996, she married the Nobel laureate Willis Eugene Lamb; they later divorced. For some time, Bruria Kaufman was a member of the kibbutz Mishmar Ha'emek. She died in early January, 2010, at Carmel Hospital, Haifa, following a stay at a nursing home in Tiv'on, not far from Haifa.