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Marchantia, a liverwort

Bryophytes are all embryophytes ('land plants') that are non-vascular:[1] they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids.[2] They neither have flowers nor produce seeds, reproducing via spores. The term bryophyte comes from Greek βρύον - bryon, "tree-moss, oyster-green" + φυτόν - fyton "plant".

Contents

Bryophyte classification

Mosses are one group of bryophytes.

The bryophytes (or non-tracheophytes) do not form a monophyletic group[3] but consist of three groups, the Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Anthocerotophyta (hornworts), and Bryophyta (mosses).[4] Originally the three groups were brought together as the three classes of division Bryophyta. However, since the three groups of bryophytes form a paraphyletic group, they now are placed in three separate divisions.

Two hypotheses on the phylogeny of land plants (embryophyta).

Modern studies of the land plants generally show one of two patterns.

  • In one of these patterns, the liverworts were the first to diverge, followed by the hornworts, while the mosses are the closest living relatives of the polysporangiates (which include the vascular plants).[5]
  • In the other pattern, the hornworts were the first to diverge, followed by the vascular plants, while the mosses are the closest living relatives of the liverworts.

Bryophyte sexuality

These plants are generally gametophyte-oriented; that is, the normal plant is the haploid gametophyte,[6 ] with the only diploid structure being the sporangium in season. As a result, bryophyte sexuality is very different from that of other plants. There are two basic categories of sexuality in bryophytes:

Some bryophyte species may be either monoicous or dioicous depending on environmental conditions. Other species grow exclusively with one type of sexuality.

Notice that these terms are not the same as monoecious and dioecious, which refer to whether or not a sporophyte plant bears one or both kinds of gametophyte. Those terms apply only to seed plants.

Bryophyte life cycle

Dispersal in bryophytes is via spores; they neither have flowers nor produce seeds. Bryophytes do produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote, which in turn develops into an embryo, but this is not contained in a seed as in gymnosperms and angiosperms.

See also

References

External links

  • Glime, Janice M., 2007. Bryophyte Ecology, Volume 1. Physiological Ecology. Ebook sponsored by Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists.
  • Andrew's Moss Site Photos of bryophytes


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Simple English

File:Ceratodon
Typical moss: green haploid body and brown diploid sporophyte

Bryophytes are simple plants; they are the simplest known. There are three types of bryophyte. These are mosses, liverworts and hornworts.

Bryophyta is the traditional term for this division of non-vascular plants. In some modern classifications the term is restricted to the mosses. However, as the groups shares some key features (such as an alternation of generations with the haploid plant body dominating) the term is still useful. The non-vascular plants are, in any event, related.

It is thought that liverworts evolved from green algae. Then other plants, including moss and hornworts, evolved from them.

A person who studies bryophytes is called a bryologist. The study of bryophytes is named bryology.

Other websites

  • The British Bryological Society [1]


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