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Bubonic plague
Classification and external resources

A person infected with bubonic plague
ICD-10 A200 [1]
ICD-9 020.0 [2]
DiseasesDB 14226
.Bubonic plague is the best known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis (formerly known as Pasteurella pestis).^ Bubonic plague is caused by a bacterium ( Yersinia pestis ), usually carried by fleas.
  • Bubonic plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.luc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Plague is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with Yersinia pestis .
  • Texas Department of State Health Services, History of Plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.dshs.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plague is caused by the organism Yersinia pestis.
  • Plague - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Plague - NY Times Health Information 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Plague, Health Information, UW Health, University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC apps.uwhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.It belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae.^ Plague is caused by the bacillus Yersinia (Y.) pestis , belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae.
  • Plague - Factsheet 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC ecdc.europa.eu [Source type: Academic]

.The term "bubonic plague" was often used synonymously for plague, but it does in fact refer specifically to an infection that enters through the skin and travels through the lymphatics, as is often seen in flea-borne infections.^ Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymph nodes.
  • Plague - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Plague - NY Times Health Information 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Plague - Edward Hospital, Naperville IL Area, Chicago Illinois Suburbs 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bubonic plague occurs 1-7 days after the bacteria enter through the skin.
  • Plague (Pneumonic plague, bubonic plague) : Bureau of Communicable Disease : NYC DOHMH 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bubonic plague quiz Facts .
  • QuizMoz - Bubonic plague a potentially fatal bacterial infection quiz 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: General]

.The bubonic plague kills about two out of three of infected patients in 2-6 days without treatment and may have been the cause of the Black Death that swept through Europe in the 1300s killing more than 25 million people, a third of the European population.^ Patients with pneumonic plague are isolated for 3 days after antibiotic treatment has been started.
  • Plague (Pneumonic plague, bubonic plague) : Bureau of Communicable Disease : NYC DOHMH 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plague still kills about 2000 people each year.
  • Researchers in Britain Have Determined The Genetic Sequence of BubonicPlague Marilyn Chase / Wall Street Journal 4oct01 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We're talking Black Death-style bubonic plague.
  • Howstuffworks "Can I catch plague from a prairie dog?" 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC animals.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

Pathology and transmission

.The bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic system, usually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsylla cheopis (the rat flea).^ Bubonic plague is named because of the systems.
  • QuizMoz - Bubonic plague a potentially fatal bacterial infection quiz 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: General]

^ Bubonic plague was not reported there, so rats and fleas were of secondary importance.
  • Plague in India -- 1994 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.wastetohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Septicemic and bubonic plague - via a direct bite from an infected flea.
  • Istria on the Internet - Medicine and Health - Infectious Diseases 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.istrianet.org [Source type: Academic]

.The fleas are often found on rodents, such as rats and mice, and seek out other prey when their rodent hosts die.^ Small rodents such as rats, mice, and squirrels carry the infection.

^ This bacteria lived in rats and other rodents.

^ Plague is primarily a disease of rodents, particularly marmots (in which the most virulent strains of plague are primarily found), but also black rats, prairie dogs, chipmunks, squirrels and other similar large rodents.
  • Istria on the Internet - Medicine and Health - Infectious Diseases 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.istrianet.org [Source type: Academic]

.The bacteria form aggregates in the gut of infected fleas and this results in the flea regurgitating ingested blood, which is now infected, into the bite site of a rodent or human host.^ Transmitted to humans by infected fleas.
  • Bubonic Plague - OrganizedWisdom Health 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Other animals and humans usually contract the bacteria from rodent or flea bites.
  • Plague (Black Death) Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Treatment, History and Diagnosis on MedicineNet.com 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: News]
  • Plague - Medpedia 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Humans usually contract the disease from fleas that have fed on infected rodents.
  • bubonic plague in nyc!!! [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: General]

.Once established, bacteria rapidly spread to the lymph nodes and multiply.^ The bacteria multiply in the blood stream and lymph nodes.

^ Multiplication of the bacteria produces the characteristic "bubo" (swollen, painful lymph node).
  • International Journal of Health Geographics | Full text | Spatiotemporal modelling and mapping of the bubonic plague epidemic in India 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.ij-healthgeographics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Y. pestis causes three varieties of plague: bubonic plague, caused by bites from infected fleas, in which the bacteria moves to lymph nodes and quickly multiplies, forming growths, or buboes; pneumonic plague, a lung infection that causes its victim to cough blood and spread the bacteria from person to person; and septicemic plague, a blood infection that is almost always fatal.
  • Facts about the Black Death | Random Facts 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC facts.randomhistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Y. pestis bacilli can resist phagocytosis and even reproduce inside phagocytes and kill them.^ The organisms then kill the macrophage and are released into the extracellular environment, where they resist phagocytosis (YopH and YopE; Yersinia outer membrane protein) by the polymorphs.
  • Plague: Yersinia pestis 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.atsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As the disease progresses, the lymph nodes can haemorrhage and become swollen and necrotic.^ Multiplication of the bacteria produces the characteristic "bubo" (swollen, painful lymph node).
  • International Journal of Health Geographics | Full text | Spatiotemporal modelling and mapping of the bubonic plague epidemic in India 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.ij-healthgeographics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most characteristic sign, however, is the subsequent appearance of one or more tender, swollen lymph node s, or buboes , which are usually distributed in the groin and armpits.
  • plague (disease) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disease gains its name from the lymph nodes, called buboes, which become filled with puss after infection.
  • The Bubonic plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.essortment.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bubonic plague can progress to lethal septicemic plague in some cases.^ A true case of bubonic plague has been discovered.

^ Septicemic plague Cure for bubonic pl...
  • Plague Definition | Definition of Plague at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Suspected case of bubonic plague at Gormanston.

.The plague is also known to spread to the lungs and become the disease known as the pneumonic plague.^ Pneumonic plague is an infection of the lungs.
  • Plague - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Plague - NY Times Health Information 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Pneumonic plague can spread from person to person.
  • DHPE Home 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.dhpe.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But plague, or the Black Death, as it was known in the Middle Ages because of the flesh-blackening gangrene it caused in victims, was just such a disease.

.This form of the disease is highly infectious as the bacteria can be transmitted in droplets emitted when coughing or sneezing.^ ARTICLE from the Encyclopædia Britannica disease one of three clinical forms of plague, an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis .
  • bubonic plague (disease) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Infected pneumonic people can spread the disease through the air by coughing, sneezing, or just breathing!
  • The Black Death in England 1348-50 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.britainexpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pneumonic plague , the most infectious type, is an advanced stage of bubonic plague when the disease starts being passed directly, person to person, through airborne droplets coughed from the lungs.
  • Plague, Plague Information, Black Death Facts, News, Photos -- National Geographic 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC science.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: General]

Symptoms

.The most famous symptom of bubonic plague is painful, swollen lymph glands, called buboes.^ Bubonic plague causes swollen lymph nodes, called buboes.
  • Free Plague Essays 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A bubo is a swelling of a lymph node associated with the bubonic plague.

^ Symptom of pharyngeal plague: Swollen lymph nodes .

.These are commonly found in the armpits, groin or neck.^ These typically appear in the armpits, legs, neck, or groin.

^ These glands can be found in the neck, armpits and groin.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ These swellings, symptoms of the deadly plague, would appear in the armpits, legs, neck, or groin.
  • Bubonic Plague - Black death in the Elizabethan Era and medical treatments 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.william-shakespeare.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to its bite based form of infection, the bubonic plague is often the first step of a progressive series of illness.^ Bubonic plague is the most common form.
  • Plague- Blue Book: IDEAS - Victorian Government 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.health.vic.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic system .
  • Bubonic Plague - OrganizedWisdom Health 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Forms of Plague 1.1 Bubonic plague 1.1.1 How do you get it?
  • Plague - Medpedia 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Two other forms of the plague, pneumonic and septicemic, often resulted after a patient with the bubonic plague developed pneumonia or blood poisoning.^ Plague takes three forms: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic.
  • Free Plague Essays 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pneumonic plague was the most communicable form.
  • Black Death@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Black Death@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plague (Pneumonic plague, bubonic plague) .
  • Plague (Pneumonic plague, bubonic plague) : Bureau of Communicable Disease : NYC DOHMH 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However the pneumonic plague was also very infectious, as, unlike the bubonic or septicemic, it induced coughing, which allowed person-to-person spread.^ You can also get septicemic plague if you had untreated bubonic or pneumonic plague.
  • Plague - Medpedia 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bubonic plague may be complicated by pneumonic plague.
  • Plague and Other Yersinia Infections: Gram-Negative Bacilli: Merck Manual Professional 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Plague (Pneumonic plague, bubonic plague) .
  • Plague (Pneumonic plague, bubonic plague) : Bureau of Communicable Disease : NYC DOHMH 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More symptoms are heavy breathing, continuous blood vomiting, urination of blood, aching limbs, coughing, and terrible pain.^ Symptoms include high fevers and aching limbs and vomiting of blood.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Such obvious symptoms as gangrenous inflammation of the throat and lungs, violent pains in the chest, vomiting and spitting of blood, pestilential odor from bodies and breath, tumors in the groin, arm pits and the neck, constipation or diarrhea, and purple spots (caused by subcutaneous hemorrhages) marked the victims.
  • The Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Initial symptoms include fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and extreme exhaustion.
  • Plague (Pneumonic plague, bubonic plague) : Bureau of Communicable Disease : NYC DOHMH 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pain is usually caused by the actual decaying, or decomposing, of the skin while the person is still alive, fever, headaches, chills, extreme tiredness, gastrointestinal problems, lenticulae (black dots scattered everywhere on the body), delirium, and comatose.^ What is actually causing the problem.
  • REVISED: How to fix the Vista KSOD (blacK Screen Of Death) | LogBlog 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.logicitc.com [Source type: General]

^ The main symptoms of the plague are: headache, fever, myalgia (muscle-ache), malaise, shaking chills, and gastrointestinal (stomach and intestine) disorders.
  • Explorations in Medicine and the Biosciences 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC shodor.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It was known by many names like The Great Mortality and The Pestilence. Symptoms include high fever, chills, sores, boils, nausea, and pain.
  • The Bubonic Plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

History

.The deadly disease has claimed nearly 200 million lives (although there is some debate as to whether all of the plagues attributed to it are in fact the same disease).^ Plague was a disease dreaded by all Europeans.
  • Plague and the Syrian Campaign 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC entomology.montana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1351 it had claimed 200 million lives .

^ There is some debate on the effectiveness of C. fasciatus as a transmitter of plague.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first recorded epidemic ravaged the Byzantine Empire during the sixth century, and was named the Plague of Justinian after emperor Justinian I, who was infected but survived through extensive treatment.^ When was the first outbreak of bubonic plague recorded?
  • QuizMoz - Bubonic plague a potentially fatal bacterial infection quiz 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: General]

^ The path of plague through Europe during the 14 th century.
  • Journal of Lancaster General Hospital - The Making of a Pandemic: Bubonic Plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.jlgh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In bubonic plague, the most common form of the disease, after the host rat dies, the flea jumps to humans, infecting them through a bite in the skin.
  • Black Days - Interview - National Review Online 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC article.nationalreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most infamous and devastating instance of the plague was the Black Death, which killed a quarter to half of the population of Europe.^ The Black Death killed off a massive portion of Europe's population.

^ Filed under: Black Death -- Europe .

^ Population change during the black death?
  • WikiAnswers - What was the world population after the black death epidemic 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So many people died that they had to give up the proper burial and had to bury multiple bodies in one long deep grave.^ NRO: How many people died?
  • Black Days - Interview - National Review Online 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC article.nationalreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The environmental factors attributed to their worldwide spread are many, as is their capacity to harm a great number of people in one fell swoop.
  • Plague Essays & Term Papers | Diseases, Health 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.essayshopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People died so swiftly and in such high numbers that burial pits were dug, filled to overflowing and abandoned; bodies (sometimes still living) were shut up in houses which were then burned to the ground; and corpses were left where they died in the streets.

.They would put down a layer of bodies, then a thin layer of dirt; they would repeat this until they had to make another grave.^ Landowners had to offer their workers special incentives to stay and work the land, or they would up and run off to work for another lord down the road.
  • Black Plague: The Least You Need to Know 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC web.cn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bodies were piled up inside and outside city walls where they lay until mass graves could be dug.
  • Facts about the Black Death | Random Facts 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC facts.randomhistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "When they put him on death row, they thought they would shut him down," Bryan said.
  • DEATH PENALTY-US: Retrial Possible for Most Famous Black Inmate - IPS ipsnews.net 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

.The Black Death is thought to have originated in the Gobi Desert.^ The geographic origin of the Black Death.
  • The Black Death and AIDS: CCR5-{Delta}32 in genetics and history -- Cohn and Weaver 99 (8): 497 -- QJM 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC qjmed.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Black Death erupted in the Gobi Desert in the late 1320s.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Origins of the Black Death First case of the Black Death erupted in the Gobi Desert in the late 1320s.

.Carried by the fleas on rats, it spread along trade routes and reached the Crimea in 1346. (It also spread eastward to the Yangtse river valley, and the resulting epidemic, ignored by the government, brought down the Yuan dynasty.^ The path of the epidemic followed that of trade routes.
  • The Bubonic Plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This blocked the direct spread along trade routes.
  • Plague: essential data 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cbwinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spread of plague along trade routes .
  • Bubonic plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.luc.edu [Source type: Original source]

) .In 1347 it spread to Constantinople and then Alexandria, killing thousands every day, and soon arrived in Western Europe.^ In fact it was the bubonic plaguethe Black Death that killed a third of Europe's population in the 14th centuryrevived and spread by the Japanese military.
  • Black Death - TIME 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]

^ The bubonic plague originated in Central Asia, where it killed 25 million people before it made its way into Constantinople in 1347.

^ The Plague originated in Italy and quickly spread throughout Europe killing more than one hundred thirty seven million people.
  • Free Plague Essays 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is thought that the name Black Death comes from the fact that the tissue turns a distinctive black color during necrosis, or from the general gloominess surrounding the plague.^ Black Death was bubonic plague.
  • New Light on the Black Death: The Cosmic Connection -- Signs of the Times News 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black Death comes in various forms.

^ Black Death may not have been Bubonic Plague .

.However, this name was not applied until many years later.^ Many of them not rediscovered until the rise of aerial photographic surveys in the years after World War I ended in 1918.
  • Black Plague: The Least You Need to Know 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC web.cn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have worked with many customers in my years; however, most recently, I have been interacting with a butcher who sells meat to my market.

.Terrible conditions in medieval Europe were only part of the reason it reached such pandemic proportions.^ Have them realize that the Bubonic Plague was a terrible killer loose across Europe, and that medieval medicine had nothing to combat it.

^ A number of economic, social and politic consequences, including the weakening of Byzantine Europe, have been attributed in part to this first pandemic.
  • Molecular insights into the history of plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.macalester.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, under certain environmental conditions the cycle reaches epizootic proportions (affecting many animals in a region at the same time).
  • plague (disease) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The people of Europe believed cats were evil and so any domestic house cats were killed.^ The one animal that could have helped limit the spread of the disease, the vermin-hunting domestic cat, was seen as part of the problem and was killed by the thousands by a superstitious people for whom it was a witches familiar and a servant of Satan.
  • Plague: essential data 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cbwinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Plague originated in Italy and quickly spread throughout Europe killing more than one hundred thirty seven million people.
  • Free Plague Essays 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bacterium Yersinia pestis is believed to have triggered the Black Death that killed more than 20 million people in the Middle Ages.
  • Change In Climate Linked To Bubonic Plague > NewHeavenNewEarth 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.nhne.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without these cats to prey upon the rats their population increased dramatically.^ Not all of the bodies were recovered, providing an increase of food for rats, making probable an increase in the rat population.
  • Plague in India -- 1994 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.wastetohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early November, the rat deaths increased dramatically and the first cases of human illness occurred.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, the bacteria travel from rat to rat or squirrel to squirrel without causing too much damage outside that specific animal population.

.This allowed for more rats to carry fleas into human settlements and infect so many with the plague.^ It is more likely that rats carried infected fleas into the town.
  • Black Plague: The Least You Need to Know 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC web.cn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flea then regurgitates the blood from the rat into the human, infecting the human.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is presumed that the ships also carried infected rats and/or fleas.
  • The Black Death: The Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.river-styx.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiAnswers - What was the world population after the black death epidemic 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Black Death Pandemics 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, the previous decades had seen many poor harvests, and the European population may have been undernourished and therefore more susceptible to disease.^ Africans are more susceptible because the local population of the disease is there.

^ Later branded the Famine of 1315-1317 , this disaster marked the beginning of a decrease in European population that would last more than a century and a half.
  • 1320: Section 6: The Black Death 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.usu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Black Death arose outside Europe, and certainly devastated non-European populations as much if not more than European ones.
  • The Black Death and AIDS: CCR5-{Delta}32 in genetics and history -- Cohn and Weaver 99 (8): 497 -- QJM 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC qjmed.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The next few centuries were marked by several local outbreaks of lesser severity.^ The Act divided coastal cities into quarters, based on local villages that had been established in the area several centuries ago.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first instance of a plague outbreak in Europe was Justinian's Plague, which raged from 541 to 544 AD, with sporadic lesser outbreaks of the plague lasting until the end of the Eighth Century.
  • TED Cast Study BUBONIC 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • TED Cast Study BUBONIC 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the course of the next few years, a truly appalling number of people died, and an indelible mark was left on European history.
  • The Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Great Plague of London, 1665–1666, and the Great Plague of Vienna, 1679, were the last major outbreaks of the bubonic plague in Europe.^ When was the last substantial outbreak of bubonic plague in the British Isles ?
  • Understanding Epidemics: Section 3B: Historical Epidemics - Bubonic Plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.liv.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When was the first outbreak of bubonic plague recorded?
  • QuizMoz - Bubonic plague a potentially fatal bacterial infection quiz 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: General]

^ The great plague of London in 1665 is recorded in many works of literature.
  • plague Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Plague: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

Directions for searchers, Pune plague of 1897
.The plague resurfaced in the mid-19th century; like the Black Death, the Third Pandemic began in Central Asia.^ The Black Death was the second plague pandemic of the Middle Ages.
  • Facts about the Black Death | Random Facts 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC facts.randomhistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plague was not eradicated until the 19th century.
  • WikiAnswers - What was the world population after the black death epidemic 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plague - LoveToKnow 1911 "Black Death" .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The disease killed millions in China and India and then spread worldwide.^ Descriptions of diseases, with boils that first struck rats and then spread to humans, fill chronicles and travel reports back to at least the fourteenth century in India, and are widespread in the reports of Western doctors in China in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
  • The Black Death and AIDS: CCR5-{Delta}32 in genetics and history -- Cohn and Weaver 99 (8): 497 -- QJM 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC qjmed.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No explanation can be offered for why cholera, which had been confined to India as an endemic disease for at least 2000 years, suddenly burst forth as a worldwide affliction.
  • Medical History --- Plagues and Epidemics 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.haciendapub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Plague originated in Italy and quickly spread throughout Europe killing more than one hundred thirty seven million people.
  • Free Plague Essays 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The outbreak continued into the early 20th century.^ Plague outbreaks remained terrifying into the 20th century.

^ Huge pandemics also arose in Asia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, eventually spreading around the world and causing millions of deaths.
  • plague (disease) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It came back in 1361-64, 1368, 1371, 1373-75, 1390, 1405 and continued into the fifteenth century.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In 1897, Pune in British India, was severely affected by the outbreak.^ A calendar (Appendix C) shows the extent and duration of the outbreak, and the conflicting reports of cases and deaths in the affected districts of India.
  • Plague in India -- 1994 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.wastetohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The outbreak severely damaged investor confidence in Indian products and a quarantine was placed on travel and exports from India.
  • Plague- Biological Weapons 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The government responded to the plague with a committee system that used the military to perpetrate repression and tyranny as it tackled the pandemic.^ The Black Plague accelerated the demise of the feudal system of government, and it might actually have improved the economic lot of serfs after 1370.
  • Black Plague: The Least You Need to Know 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC web.cn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nationalists publicly berated the government. .On 22 June 1897, two young brahmins, the Chapekar brothers, shot and killed two British officers, the Committee chairman and his military escort.^ A monument to the Confederacy dominates the front lawn of the recently remodeled Lamar County Courthouse, from which a mob seized two black brothers and killed them in 1920.
  • Black man's death reopens old racial wounds in Paris, Texas | News for Dallas, Texas | Dallas Morning News | Latest News 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.dallasnews.com [Source type: News]

.This act has been considered a landmark event in India's struggle for freedom as well as the worst violence against political authority seen in the world during the third plague pandemic.^ Bubonic plague is notorious for the historic pandemics in Europe and Asia during the Middle Ages, which in some areas killed up to two-thirds of the population.
  • Plague - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatments 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.health-diseases.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The World Health Organization considered the third bubonic plague pandemic still active until 1959, when worldwide casualties, dropped to 200 per year.
  • Hong Kong Bubonic Plague Epidemic 1894 & Discovery of the Plague Bacillus 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.semp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the beginning of the 21st Century, the third pandemic of plague continues to appear sporadically on a worldwide scale except in Australia and Antarctica.
  • Plague- Biological Weapons 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.Plague was used during the Second Sino-Japanese War as a bacteriological weapon by the Imperial Japanese Army.^ The way that the epidemic started was that, during a siege, an army attacking a European colony launched plague victims corpses over the outposts city walls.
  • Æ Aeragon - Ammunition 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.aeragon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In U.S. popular black culture by 1972 and controversial during the Vietnam War when used by U.S. soldiers, as it often was regarded by whites as a ritual act of black solidarity.
  • Online Etymology Dictionary 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.etymonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pneumonic plague was the second most commonly seen form during the Black Death, with a mortality rate of ninety to ninety-five percent.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These weapons were provided by Shirō Ishii's units and used in experiments on humans before being used on the field.^ Whether its a great fact, a joke, a personal experience or an interesting anecdote, please share it with all the human beings on planet earth.
  • QuizMoz - Bubonic plague a potentially fatal bacterial infection quiz 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: General]

^ There is still some benefit that humans provide in breeding us or using us for hybrids.
  • UFOs and 14th Century Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.cassiopaea.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He used his experience in impromptu field studies during his explorations to build a straw hut for his laboratory and to obtain the necessary specimens.
  • Hong Kong Bubonic Plague Epidemic 1894 & Discovery of the Plague Bacillus 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.semp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in 1940, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service bombed Ningbo with fleas carrying the bubonic plague.^ (I) Plague can be carried by fleas from an unhealthy rat.

^ For a century the blame has rested with the bubonic plague bacterium Yersinia pestis , which is carried by rats and fleas.
  • Case reopens on Black Death cause - 11 September 2003 - New Scientist 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ Pneumonic_plague Since it is different than the Bubonic Plague (fleas spread it) but rather airborne-it has the potential being a high killer (95%) without treatment- 5-10% with.
  • Avian Flu Talk: Pneumonic Plague-Is it headed toward U.S. 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.avianflutalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .During the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials the accused, such as Major General Kiyashi Kawashima, testified that, in 1941, some 40 members of Unit 731 air-dropped plague-contaminated fleas on Changde.^ The Japanese used the plague during their invasion of China before the outbreak of World War II. The agent was delivered by at least three different methods, including: the dropping of contaminated rice for rats to feed on; the dropping of contaminated materials such as lint an attempt to use bacteria encapsulated in a water-soluble matrix, and using infected fleas that were dropped over the target in a cluster bomb-like weapon called Uji that scattered porcelain bomblets containing infected fleas.
  • Plague: essential data 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cbwinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the major epidemics in the United States and elsewhere are listed below.  This does not purport to be a complete list of epidemics and pandemics.

^ During the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, Unit 731 deliberately infected civilians and prisoners of war with the plague bacillus.
  • Istria on the Internet - Medicine and Health - Infectious Diseases 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.istrianet.org [Source type: Academic]

.These operations caused epidemic plague outbreaks.^ The historian Dr Susan Scott, of the University of Liverpool, said the documents backed up her theory that the outbreak was not caused by bubonic plague.
  • Lost documents shed light on Black Death - CareCure Forums 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC sci.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the epidemic of 1320-1321, hundreds of lepers died and it was believed that the Jews had caused the deaths of these unfortunate souls.
  • Lecture 29: Satan Triumphant: The Black Death 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.historyguide.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An outbreak of plague on European soil in1878-1879on the banks of the Volga caused a panic throughout Europe.'

[6]

Treatment

.In modern times, several classes of antibiotics are effective in treating bubonic plague.^ Bubonic plague can be treated with antibiotics if diagnosed early.
  • Bubonic plague reported in Libya - Business Intelligence Middle East - bi-me.com - News, analysis, reports 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.bi-me.com [Source type: News]

^ The disease can be effectively treated with antibiotics .
  • Bubonic plague Pandemics 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately, when given promptly, antibiotics usually effectively treat plague.
  • Plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: General]

.These include the aminoglycosides streptomycin and gentamicin, the tetracyclines and doxycycline and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin.^ Plague can be treated with antibiotics, with streptomycin, gentamicin or tetracyclines (doxycycline) being the most appropriate.
  • Plague - Factsheet 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC ecdc.europa.eu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other effective drugs include gentamicin, doxycycline, and chloramphenicol.
  • Plague - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatments 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.health-diseases.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin are highly effective, especially if begun early (within 24 hours of onset of symptoms).
  • Istria on the Internet - Medicine and Health - Infectious Diseases 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.istrianet.org [Source type: Academic]

.Mortality associated with treated cases of bubonic plague remains as high as 1-15%, compared to a mortality rate of 40-60% in untreated cases.^ A true case of bubonic plague has been discovered.

^ In untreated cases of bubonic plague the mortality rate is approximately 50%-60%; pneumonic plague is usually fatal if not treated within 24 hours.
  • plague Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suspected case of bubonic plague at Gormanston.

[7]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 3M HIS ICD-10 Comparison Report
  2. ^ 3M HIS ICD-10 Comparison Report
  3. ^ Walker, Cameron (10 March, 2004). "Bubonic Plague Traced to Ancient Egypt". National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/03/0310_040310_blackdeath.html. Retrieved 2 April, 2009. 
  4. ^ Echenberg, Myron J. (2007). Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact of Bubonic Plague, 1894–1901. New York: New York University Press. pp. 66–68. ISBN 0814722326. 
  5. ^ Japan triggered bubonic plague outbreak, doctor claims, [1], http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/wwii.html, A time-line of World War II, Scaruffi Piero. Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda and Prince Mikasa received a special screening by Shirō Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940. (Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p.32.)
  6. ^ Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, pages 220–221.
  7. ^ "Plague". http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/829233-overview. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 

Further reading

  • Alexander, John T. (2003, 1980). .Bubonic Plague in Early Modern Russia: Public Health and Urban Disaster.^ Ham, commissioner of public health, stated this morning that there had been 16 cases of illucss arising out of the recent outbreak of plague ...

    ^ T. Gray, M.B., of the Board of Public Health, visited Geelong to-day to adjust claims for compensation arising out of the recent fatal case of bubonic plague.

    ^ The fatality rate is even lower in cases of bubonic plague and in areas where modern health care is available.
    • plague (disease) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford, UK; New York, NY: Oxford University Press.^ Manchester, UK, Manchester University Press.
    • Carrie Benes: Black Death Bibliography 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC faculty.ncf.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK; 1953.
    • International Journal of Health Geographics | Full text | Spatiotemporal modelling and mapping of the bubonic plague epidemic in India 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.ij-healthgeographics.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Insects and History (New York: St.Martins Press, 1976), 57.
    • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0195158180. OCLC 50253204.
     
  • Carol, Benedict (1996). .Bubonic Plague in Nineteenth-Century China.^ In the 14th century, when this disease was known as the Black Death, some plague infections were bubonic and some were pneumonic.
    • The Black Death: The Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.river-styx.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How bubonic plague was treated in the fourteenth century?
    • QuizMoz - Bubonic plague a potentially fatal bacterial infection quiz 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The third bubonic plague pandemic probably began in the 1860s in Yunnan Province, the most southwestern province in China.
    • Hong Kong Bubonic Plague Epidemic 1894 & Discovery of the Plague Bacillus 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.semp.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804726612. OCLC 34191853.
     
  • Biddle, Wayne (2002). A Field Guide to Germs (2nd Anchor Books ed.). .New York: Anchor Books.^ New York: Plenum Medical Book Co., 1983.
    • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1976.
    • EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Economic Impact of the Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Anchor Books.
    • Black Death Pandemics 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 140003051X. OCLC 50154403.
     
  • Echenberg, Myron J. (2007). .Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact of Bubonic Plague, 1894-1901.^ Bubonic Plague Brisbane ] The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889-1931) Friday 5 April 1901 , page 5 News 242 words .

    ^ Bubonic Plague Brisbane ] The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842-1954) Monday 3 June 1901 , page 8 News 66 words .

    ^ Mary P. Sutphen, "Not What, But Where: Bubonic Plague and the Reception of Germ Theories in Hong Kong and Calcutta, 1894-1897," Journal of the History of Medicine 52 (1997): 103.
    • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York, NY: New York University Press.^ Insects and History (New York: St.Martins Press, 1976), 57.
    • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Humanities Press, 1992.
    • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Free Press, 1983.
    • EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Economic Impact of the Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0814722326. OCLC 70292105.
     
  • Little, Lester K. (2007). .Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541-750.^ The first pandemic, known as the Justinian plague (AD 541-544), began in Egypt and spread throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean areas.
    • Plague: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The first instance of a plague outbreak in Europe was Justinian's Plague, which raged from 541 to 544 AD, with sporadic lesser outbreaks of the plague lasting until the end of the Eighth Century.
    • TED Cast Study BUBONIC 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • TED Cast Study BUBONIC 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The first pandemic , the Justinian plague , began in 541 and devastated the Byzantine empire (and, presumably, much of Europe ).
    • Black Death@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Black Death@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.^ New York: The Free Press ISBN 0-02-912370-4 Herlihy, David (1997).
    • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1948.
    • EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Economic Impact of the Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ E.A. Boatens, A Geography of Ghana (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959), 5.
    • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 9780521846394. OCLC 65361042.
     
  • Rosen, William (2007). .Justinian's Flea: Plague, Empire and the Birth of Europe.^ In Egypt the rats picked up plague-carrying fleas and were later born on ships that sailed across the Mediterranean to southern Europe.

    ^ An interesting hypothesis about the appearance, spread and especially disappearance of plague from Europe is that the flea-bearing rodent reservoir of disease was eventually succeeded by another species.
    • WikiAnswers - What was the world population after the black death epidemic 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Black Death Pandemics 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • WikiSlice 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Justinianic plague, apart from its devastating immediate impact, is generally viewed as undermining the late Roman empire, politically and economically, creating conditions ripe for disaster.
    • Plague in the Ancient World 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.loyno.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London, England: Viking Penguin. .ISBN 978-0-670-03855-8. 
  • Scott, Susan, and C. J. Duncan (2001).^ See most recently Susan Scott and Christopher J. Duncan, Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations (Cambridge, 2001), 5, 385, who suggest that it may have been a filovirus like Ebola.
    • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Scott, Susan and Duncan, Christopher.
    • Black Death Pandemics 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 2001, epidemiologists Susan Scott and Christopher Duncan from Liverpool University proposed the theory that the Black Death might have been caused by an Ebola -like virus , not a bacterium.
    • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations.^ See most recently Susan Scott and Christopher J. Duncan, Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations (Cambridge, 2001), 5, 385, who suggest that it may have been a filovirus like Ebola.
    • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Scott S, Duncan CJ: Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations.
    • International Journal of Health Geographics | Full text | Spatiotemporal modelling and mapping of the bubonic plague epidemic in India 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.ij-healthgeographics.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ That was the view of two British researchers, Christopher Duncan and Susan Scott from the University of Liverpool, who in 2001 published a book called Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations .
    • On the trail of the Black Death - Features - The Lab - Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Gateway to Science 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Cambridge, UK; .New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.^ New York: The Free Press ISBN 0-02-912370-4 Herlihy, David (1997).
    • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1948.
    • EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Economic Impact of the Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC eh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ E.A. Boatens, A Geography of Ghana (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959), 5.
    • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0521801508. OCLC 44811929. 

Simple English

File:Black
Picture from the Middle Ages of people with bubonic plague
File:Plague
A person infected with bubonic plague

Bubonic plague is the best-known form of the disease plague, which is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The name bubonic plague is specific for this form of the disease, which enters through the skin, and travels through the lymphatic system.

If the disease is left untreated, it kills about half its victims, in between three and seven days. This disease may have been the Black Death, a disease which killed tens of millions of people in Europe, in the Middle Ages.[1]

Symptoms of this disease include coughing, fever, and black spots on the skin.

Contents

Different kinds of the same disease

There are different kinds of Bubonic plague. The most common form of the disease is spread by a certain kind of flea, that lives on rats. Then there is an incubation period which can last from a few hours to about seven days.

Sepsis

A Sepsis happens when the bacterium enters the bloodstream.

Pneumonic plague

This happens when the bacterium can enter the lungs. About 95% of all people with this form will die. Incubation period is only one to two days.

The abortive form

This is the most harmless form. It will result in a little fever. After that, there are antibodies that protect against all forms for a long time.

History

During the 1300s, this epidemic struck parts of Asia, North Africa, and Europe. Almost a third of the people in Europe died of it. Unlike catastrophes that pull communities together, this epidemic was so terrifying that it broke people's trust in one another. Giovanni Boccaccio, an Italian writer of the time, described it: "This scourge had implanted so great a terror in the hearts of men and women that brothers abandoned brothers, uncles their nephews, sisters their brothers, and in many cases wives deserted their husbands. But even worse,... fathers and mothers refused to nurse and assist their own children."[2]

Transmission

The plague was not just carried by rats as some people assume. The fleas also carried it. It came abroad from Kaffa by the Black Sea. From there the disease started to go new places in 1347. It went to England in 1349. There it killed half of the people in England. 70% of people who got plague died. Pigs are also to blame for the transmission, as the bacteria stayed in their blood system, and when eaten, people caught the plague. This is a reason why so few Jews caught the disease.

Modern history

In the 20th century, some countries did research on the bacteria that causes bubonic plague. They did research to use it for biological warfare.

Samples of this bacteria are carefully controlled. There is much paranoia (fear) about it. Dr. Thomas C. Butler, a US expert in this organism was charged in October 2003 by the FBI with various crimes. This happened after he said he lost samples of Yersinia pestis. This is the bacteria that causes bubonic plague. The FBI did not find the samples. They do not know what happened to them.

References

  1. Walker, Cameron (10 March, 2004). "Bubonic Plague Traced to Ancient Egypt". National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/03/0310_040310_blackdeath.html. Retrieved 2 April, 2009. 
  2. The decameron / Giovanni Boccaccio ; translated by Mark Musa & Peter Bondanella ; with an introduction by Thomas G. Bergin. ISBN 0-451-52866-2

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bubonic plague, which are similar to those in the above article.








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