Buckingham: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 51°59′44″N 0°59′12″W / 51.9956°N 0.9868°W / 51.9956; -0.9868

Buckingham
Buckingham.JPG
Buckingham High Street in 2009
Buckingham is located in Buckinghamshire
Buckingham

 Buckingham shown within Buckinghamshire
Population 11,572 [1]
OS grid reference SP695335
District Aylesbury Vale
Shire county Buckinghamshire
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BUCKINGHAM
Postcode district MK18
Dialling code 01280
Police Thames Valley
Fire Buckinghamshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Buckingham
List of places: UK • England • Buckinghamshire

Buckingham is a town situated in north Buckinghamshire, England, approximately 10 miles (16.1 km) from the border with Northamptonshire. The town has a population of 11,572 (United Kingdom Census 2001), (2007 est. 13,200). Buckingham is also a civil parish designated as a town council.

Historically, Buckingham was the county town of Buckinghamshire having been declared so in the year 888 by Alfred the Great, until Aylesbury took over this role in the 16th century.

Buckingham has a variety of restaurants and pubs, typical of a small market town. It has a small number of local shops, both national and independent. Market days are Tuesday and Saturday, with a farmers' market held on the first Tuesday of each month. Buckingham is twinned with Mouvaux, France.

Contents

History

Old County Gaol in Buckingham, built 1748. It is now a museum.

In the 7th century, Buckingham, literally "meadow of Bucca's people"is said to have been founded by Bucca, the leader of the first Anglo Saxon settlers.[2] The first settlement was located around the top of a loop in the River Great Ouse, presently the Hunter Street campus of the University of Buckingham. Between the 7th century and the 11th century, the town of Buckingham regularly changed hands between the Saxons and the Danes, in particular, in 914 King Edward the Elder and a Saxon army encamped in Buckingham for four weeks forcing local Danish Viking leaders to surrender. Subsequently a fort was constructed at the location of the present Buckingham parish church.

The town received its charter in 1554 when Queen Mary created the free borough of Buckingham with boundaries extending from Thornborowe Bridge (now Thornborough) to Dudley Bridge and from Chackmore Bridge to Padbury Mill Bridge. The designated borough included a bailiff, twelve principal burgesses and a steward.[3]

Geography

The town is centred on the historic market place and contains many 18th century buildings. There are three main roads crossing Buckingham, namely the A413, the A421 (the southern bypass) and the A422. Capability Brown's historic formal garden design at Stowe (on the A422 westbound) is an important attraction in the care of the National Trust.

There is a medieval well on the south side of the dismantled railway which borders the town. The well, which is now dry for much of the year, was positioned to exploit the spring line below the crest of a north facing slope overlooking the town.

Suburbs of Buckingham include Mount Pleasant, Page Hill, Bourton, Castle Fields and Maids Moreton (a village which has become contiguous with the Buckingham urban area).

Nearby towns include Aylesbury, Winslow, Bicester, Brackley, Milton Keynes and Towcester.

Education

The town is home to one of the UK's two private universities, the University of Buckingham. Unlike other UK universities, most of its students are from overseas.

Buckinghamshire operates the Tripartite System of state secondary education. The local state secondary schools are the Royal Latin School (a grammar school) and the Buckingham School (a secondary modern). Stowe School and Akeley Wood School, just outside the town, are independent schools. There are three community, primary schools serving different areas of the town: Buckingham Primary School, Bourton Meadow School and Grenville Combined School.

Industry

The town is home to a number of industrial estates and technology parks housing high tech companies in the pharmaceutical, electronic, ecommerce and composite materials fields.

Transport

Buckingham had a railway station on the Buckinghamshire Railway which closed in 1964. Details of local bus destinations from Buckingham can be found here.[4]

Sport

There are two local football teams, a rugby union club including teams for women and young women and a cricket club. These are Buckingham Athletic F.C. based at Stratford Fields, Buckingham Town F.C. based at Ford Meadow, Buckingham Rugby Club based at Floyd Field, Maids Moreton and Buckingham Town Cricket Club based at Bourton Road.

Saint Romwald

SS Peter and Paul, Buckingham viewed from the south west

The town is said to be the final resting place of St Rumwold a little known Saxon saint and the grandson of Penda King of Mercia; the parish church at Strixton (Northamptonshire) is dedicated to him and the small northern town of Romaldkirk is also thought to be named after him. He was apparently born at King's Sutton, Northants, where he died just 3 days later. During his short life, he repeatedly professed his Christian faith and asked for baptism. He is also called Rumwald or Rumbold,[5] the latter being the most common, as it can be found being used on a local road name and recent booklets about the subject.

Places of interest

Places of worship

Notable people

See also

References

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BUCKINGHAM, a market town and municipal borough and the county town of Buckinghamshire, England, in the Buckingham parliamentary division, 61 m. N.W. of London by a branch of the London & North-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 3152. It lies in an open valley on the upper part of the river Ouse, which encircles the main portion of the town on three sides. The church of St Peter and St Paul, which was extensively, restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, a native of this neighbourhood, is of the 18th century, and stands on the site of the old castle; the town hall dates from the close of the previous century; and the grammar school was founded by Edward VI., in part occupying buildings of earlier date, which retain Perpendicular and Decorated windows, and a Norman door. A chantry, founded in 1268 by Matthew Stratton, archdeacon of Buckingham, previously occupied the site; the Norman work may be a remnant of the chapel of a gild of the Holy Trinity. The manor house is of the early part of the 17th century, and other old houses remain. The adjacent mansion of Stowe, approached from the town by a magnificent avenue of elms, and surrounded by gardens very beautifully laid out, was the seat of the dukes of Buckingham until the extinction of the title in 1889. Buckingham is served by a branch of the Grand Junction Canal, and has agricultural trade, manufactures of condensed milk and artificial manure, maltings and flour-mills; while an old industry survives to a modified extent in the manufacture of pillow-lace. The borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 5006 acres.

Buckingham (Bochingeham, Bukyngham) was an important stronghold in pre-Conquest times, and in 918 Edward the Elder encamped there with his army for four weeks, and threw up two forts on either side of the water. At the time of the Domesday survey there were twenty-six burgesses in Buckingham, which, together with the hamlet of Bourton, was assessed at one hide. Although it appears as a borough thus early, the town received no charter until 1554, when Queen Mary created it a free borough corporate with a bailiff, twelve principal burgesses and a steward, and defined the boundaries as extending in width from Dudley bridge to Thornborowe bridge and in length from Chackmore bridge to Padbury Mill bridge. A charter from Charles II. in 1684 was very shortly abandoned in favour of the original grant, which held force until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835. In 1529 and from 1 545 onwards Buckingham returned two members to parliament, until deprived by the Representation of the People Act of 1867 of one member, and by the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885 of the other. Early mentions occur of markets and fairs, and from 1522, when Henry VIII, granted to Sir Henry Marney the borough of Buckingham with a Saturday market and two annual fairs, grants of fairs by various sovereigns were numerous. Buckingham was formerly an important agricultural centre, and Edward III. fixed here one of the staples for wool, but after the removal of these to Calais the trade suffered such decay that in an act of 32 Henry VIII. Buckingham is mentioned among thirty-six impoverished towns.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

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Singular
Buckingham

Plural
-

Buckingham

  1. A town in Buckinghamshire, England
  2. A dukedom in the English peerage
  3. An English habitational surname derived from the placename

Derived terms


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