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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Buckinghamshire
EnglandBuckinghamshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Origin Historic
Region South East England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 32nd
1,874 km2 (724 sq mi)
Ranked 33rd
1,565 km2 (604 sq mi)
Admin HQ Aylesbury; Milton Keynes
ISO 3166-2 GB-BKM
ONS code 11
NUTS 3 UKJ13
Demography
Population
- Total (2008 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 30th
725,400
387 /km2 (1,002/sq mi)
Ranked 26th
493,200
Ethnicity 91.7% White
4.3% S. Asian
1.6% Black British
Politics
Buckinghamshire County Council; Borough of Milton Keynes
http://www.buckscc.gov.uk/ ; http://www.miltonkeynes.gov.uk/
Executive Conservative
Members of Parliament
Districts
Buckinghamshire Ceremonial Numbered.png
  1. South Bucks
  2. Chiltern
  3. Wycombe
  4. Aylesbury Vale
  5. Milton Keynes (Unitary)

Buckinghamshire (pronounced /ˈbʌkɪŋəmʃə/ or /ˈbʌkɪŋəmʃɪə/; abbreviated Bucks) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan home county in South East England. The county town is Aylesbury and the largest town in ceremonial Buckinghamshire is Milton Keynes.

The area under the control of Buckinghamshire County Council, or shire county, is divided into four districts—Aylesbury Vale, Chiltern, South Bucks and Wycombe. The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and forms part of the county for various functions such as Lord Lieutenant but does not come under county council control. The ceremonial county, the area including Milton Keynes borough, borders Greater London, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire.

Contents

History

Map of Bucks (1904)

The name Buckinghamshire is Anglo-Saxon in origin and means The district (scire) of Bucca's home. Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, and is named after an Anglo-Saxon landowner. The county has been so named since about the 12th century; however, the county itself has existed since it was a subdivision of the kingdom of Mercia (585–919).

The history of the area, though, predates the Anglo-Saxon period and the county has a rich history starting from the Celtic and Roman periods, though the Anglo-Saxons perhaps had the greatest impact on Buckinghamshire: the geography of the rural county is largely as it was in the Anglo-Saxon period. Later, Buckinghamshire became an important political arena, with King Henry VIII intervening in local politics in the 16th century and just a century later the English Civil War was reputedly started by John Hampden in mid-Bucks.[1]

Historically, the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, when a combination of cholera and famine hit the rural county, forcing many to migrate to larger towns to find work. Not only did this alter the local economical picture, it meant a lot of land was going cheap at a time when the rich were more mobile and leafy Bucks became a popular rural idyll: an image it still has today. Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence; however, some pockets of relative deprivation remain.[2]

Geography

The county can be split into two sections geographically. The south leads from the River Thames up the gentle slopes of the Chiltern Hills to the more abrupt slopes on the northern side leading to the Vale of Aylesbury, a large flat expanse of land, which includes the path of the River Great Ouse.

Waterways

Rivers

The county includes two of the three longest rivers in England. The River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough meaning the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties. The River Great Ouse begins just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes and Olney.

Canals

The main branch of the Grand Union Canal flows through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury, Wendover (disused) and Buckingham (disused). The canal has been incorporated into Milton Keynes.

Landscape

The two highest points in Buckinghamshire, both 267 m (876 ft) above sea level, are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods (a stone marks its summit) and Coombe Hill near Wendover.

Ceremonial county

The ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire consists of the area administered by Milton Keynes Borough Council as well as that administered by Buckinhamshire County Council. The ceremonial county has a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Currently the Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire is Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher and the High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire is Amanda Nicholson. The Custos rotulorum has been combined with the duties of Lord Lieutenant since 1702.

Buckinghamshire Districts
District Main Towns Population (2006 estimate) Population (2007 estimate) Area Population Density (2007) Population Estimate 2026[3][4]
Aylesbury Vale Aylesbury, Buckingham 172,000 174,100 902.75 km² 193/km² 213,000
Wycombe High Wycombe, Marlow 161,300 161,400 324.57 km² 497/km² 165,000
Chiltern Amersham, Chesham 90,300 90,800 196.35 km² 462/km² 89,000
South Bucks Beaconsfield, Burnham 63,700 64,300 141.28 km² 455/km² 63,800
TOTAL Non-Metropolitan N/A 487,300 490,600 1565 km² 313/km² 530,800
Milton Keynes (borough) Milton Keynes, Newport Pagnell 224,800 228,400 308.63 km² 740/km² 323,146
TOTAL Ceremonial N/A 712,100 719,000 1874 km² 384/km² 853,946

Population figures for 2006 from the Office for National Statistics[5] as are figures for 2007 estimates[6] See List of English districts by population for a full list of every English district.

As can be seen from the table, the Vale of Aylesbury and borough of Milton Keynes have been identified as growth areas, with a population surge of almost 50,000 people in Aylesbury Vale between 2006 and 2026 and 100,000 people in Milton Keynes within twenty years. The population of Milton Keynes is expected to reach almost 350,000 by 2031.

Politics

At present, the county has two top-level administrations: Buckinghamshire County Council, which administers about four fifths of the county (see map above) and the Borough of Milton Keynes, a unitary authority, which administers the remaining fifth. There are four district councils that are subsidiary to the county council: Aylesbury Vale, Chiltern, South Bucks and Wycombe.

Buckinghamshire County Council

Bucks County Council's County Hall

The county council was founded in 1889 with its base in new municipal buildings in Walton Street, Aylesbury (which are still there). In Buckinghamshire, local administration is run on a two-tier system where public services are split between the county council and a series of district councils.

In the 1960s the council moved into new premises: a 15-storey tower block in the centre of Aylesbury (pictured) designed by architect Thomas Pooley. Said to be one of the most unpopular and disliked buildings in Buckinghamshire, it is now a Grade II listed building.

In 1997 the northernmost part of Buckinghamshire in Milton Keynes Borough separated to form a unitary authority; however for ceremonial and some other purposes Milton Keynes is still considered to be part of Buckinghamshire.

Buckinghamshire County Council is a large employer within the County and provides a great variety of services, including education (schools, adult education and youth services), social services, highways, libraries, County Archives and Record Office, County Museum and Roald Dahl Children's Gallery in Aylesbury, consumer services and some aspects of waste disposal and planning.

Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Buckinghamshire County Council features a white swan in chains. This dates back to the Anglo-Saxon period, when swans were bred in Buckinghamshire for the king's pleasure. That the swan is in chains illustrates that the swan is bound to the monarch, an ancient law that still applies to wild swans in the UK today. The arms were first borne at the Battle of Agincourt by the Duke of Buckingham.

Above the swan is a gold band, in the centre of which is Whiteleaf Cross, representing the many ancient landmarks of the county. The shield is surmounted by a beech tree, representing the Chiltern Forest that once covered almost half the county. Either side of the shield are a buck, for Buckingham, and a swan, the county symbol.

The motto of the shield says Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum. This is Latin and means 'no stepping back'.

The flag of Buckinghamshire, which flies outside County Hall in Aylesbury, comprises red and black halves with a white swan. The flag takes the county emblem which is on the county shield.

Demographics

Today Buckinghamshire is ethnically diverse, particularly in the larger towns. At the end of the 19th century some Welsh drover families settled in north Bucks and, in the last quarter of the 20th century, a large number of Londoners in Milton Keynes. Aylesbury has a sizeable Italian population, and Amersham has a large Polish community dating from World War II . Amersham is twinned with Krynica in Poland. High Wycombe is the most ethnically diverse town in the county, with large Asian and Afro-Caribbean populations. There is also a Polish and Eastern European community.

Economy

Buckinghamshire has a modern service-based economy and is part of the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire NUTS-2 region, which was the seventh richest subregion in the European Union in 2002[7] The southern part of the county is a prosperous section of the London commuter belt. The county has fertile agricultural lands, with many landed estates, especially those of the Rothschild banking family of England in the 19th century (see Rothschild properties in Buckinghamshire). Manufacturing industries include furniture-making (traditionally centred at High Wycombe), pharmaceuticals and agricultural processing.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Buckinghamshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling (except GVA index).[8]

Year Regional Gross Value Added[9] Agriculture[10] Industry[11] Services[12] GVA index per person[13]
1995 6,008 60 1,746 4,201 118
2000 8,389 45 1,863 6,481 125
2003 9,171 50 1,793 7,328 118

In a recent nationwide survey, Buckinghamshire had the highest quality of life in the country, having the highest life expectancy and best education results.[14]

Places of interest

The county is also home to the world famous Pinewood Studios.

Transport

Roads

Buckinghamshire (including Milton Keynes) is served by four motorways, although two are on its borders:

  • M40 motorway: cuts through the south of the county serving towns such as High Wycombe and Beaconsfield
  • M1 motorway: serves Milton Keynes in the north
  • M25 motorway: passes into Bucks but has only one junction (J16-interchange for the M40)
  • M4 motorway: passes through the very south of the county with only J7 in Bucks

Four important A roads also enter the county (from north to south):

  • A5: serves Milton Keynes
  • A41: cuts through the centre of the county, serving Aylesbury
  • A40: parallels M40 through south Bucks and continues to central London
  • A4: serves Taplow in the very south

Road travel east–west is good in the county because of the commuter routes leaving London for the rest of the country. There are no major roads that run directly between the south and north of the county (e.g. between High Wycombe and Milton Keynes).

Rail

Buckinghamshire has four main lines running through it:

There are the following additional lines:

The county once had a whole network of Metropolitan Railway services, from the current Amersham terminus right into central Bucks at Verney Junction. That station is now closed but may one day re-open as part of the Varsity Line scheme for trains between Oxford and Bedford.

The main train operating companies are Chiltern Railways, Virgin Trains and London Midland, First Great Western and London Underground. From 2017, Iver will have Crossrail services.

Settlements

Largest Towns in Ceremonial Buckinghamshire (2001 census)
Town Population[15] District Notes
Milton Keynes 184,506 Milton Keynes (borough) Unitary Authority since 1997. Population includes Newport Pagnell
High Wycombe 92,300 Wycombe Includes suburbs of Downley and Hazlemere.[16] The High Wycombe Urban Area population is 118,229
Aylesbury 56,392 Aylesbury Vale County town of Buckinghamshire. Population of Aylesbury Urban Area (including Stoke Mandeville and Bierton) is 69,021
Amersham 21,470 Chiltern
Chesham 20,357 Chiltern
Marlow 17,522 Wycombe
Buckingham 12,512 Aylesbury Vale Historically the county town of Buckinghamshire
Beaconsfield 12,292 South Bucks
Princes Risborough 8,121 Wycombe
Wendover 7,385 Aylesbury Vale
Olney 6,032 Milton Keynes Governed by Milton Keynes, not Bucks County Council
Winslow 4,519 Aylesbury Vale

For the full list of towns, villages and hamlets in Buckinghamshire, see List of places in Buckinghamshire. Throughout history, there have been a number of changes to the Buckinghamshire boundary.

Education

See List of schools in Buckinghamshire and List of schools in Milton Keynes

Education in Buckinghamshire is governed by two Local Education Authorities. Buckinghamshire County Council has a completely selective education system where pupils transfer to either a grammar school or secondary modern school depending on how they perform in the 11 plus test and on their preferences. Pupils who do not take the test can only be allocated places at secondary modern schools. There are 9 independent schools and 34 maintained (state) secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges in the county council area. The unitary authority of Milton Keynes operates a comprehensive education system. There are 8 maintained (state) secondary schools, in the borough council area. Buckinghamshire and Milton Keynes are also home to the University of Buckingham, Buckinghamshire New University and the Open University.

Notable people

Buckinghamshire has been the birth place and/or final resting place of several notable individuals. Saint Osyth was born in Quarrendon and was buried in Aylesbury in the 7th century[17] while at about the same time Saint Rumwold was buried in Buckingham.[18] From the medieval period Roger of Wendover was, as the name suggests, from Wendover[19] and Anne Boleyn also owned property in the same town.[20] It is said that King Henry VIII made Aylesbury the county town over Buckingham because Boleyn's father owned property there and was a regular visitor himself.[21] Other medieval residents included Edward the Confessor who had a palace at Brill[22] and John Wycliffe who lived in Ludgershall.[23]

From a slightly later period Buckinghamshire became home to some notable literary characters. Edmund Waller was brought up in Beaconsfield and served as Member of Parliament for both Amersham and Wycombe.[24] Percy Bysshe Shelley and his wife Mary spent some time living in Marlow, attracted to the town by their friend Thomas Love Peacock who also lived there.[25] John Milton lived in Chalfont St Giles and his cottage can still be visited there[26] and John Wilkes served as Member of Parliament for Aylesbury.[27] Much later literary characters include Jerome K. Jerome who lived at Marlow,[28] T. S. Eliot who also lived at Marlow,[29] Roald Dahl who lived in Great Missenden,[30] Enid Blyton who lived in Beaconsfield[31] and Edgar Wallace who lived in Bourne End[32] and is buried in Little Marlow.[33] Modern-day writers from Bucks include Terry Pratchett who was born in Beaconsfield,[34] Tim Rice who is from Amersham[35] and Andy Riley who is from Aylesbury.[36]

During the Second World War a number of politicians and world leaders from Europe came to England to seek exile. Due to its proximity to London various locations in Buckinghamshire were selected to house dignitaries. President Edvard Beneš of Czechoslovakia lived at Aston Abbotts with his family while some of his officials were stationed at nearby Addington and Wingrave.[37] Meanwhile Władysław Sikorski, military leader of Poland, lived at Iver[38] and King Zog of Albania lived at Frieth.[39] Bucks is also notable for another exile, although this one much earlier: King Louis XVIII of France lived in exile at Hartwell House from 1809 to 1814.[40]

Also on the local political stage Buckinghamshire has been home to Nancy Astor who lived in Cliveden,[41] Frederick, Prince of Wales who also lived in Cliveden,[42] Baron Carrington who lives in Bledlow,[43] Benjamin Disraeli who lived at Hughenden Manor and was made Earl of Beaconsfield,[44] John Hampden who was from Great Hampden and is revered in Aylesbury to this day[1] and Prime Minister Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery who lived at Mentmore.[45] Also worthy of note are William Penn who believed he was descended from the Penn family of Penn and so is buried nearby[46] and the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, who has an official residence at Chequers. Finally John Archdale colonial governor of North Carolina and South Carolina, although more notably American, was born in Buckinghamshire.[47]

Other natives of Buckinghamshire who have become notable in their own right include:

Today Buckinghamshire is a very picturesque landscape and is home to numerous celebrities and has attracted its fair share in the past. These include:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Biography of John Hampden
  2. ^ Report on deprivation from Wycombe District Council, showing some areas among top 20% of national deprivation figures
  3. ^ "Population Projections". http://www.buckscc.gov.uk/bcc/content/index.jsp?contentid=491076174.  
  4. ^ "Milton Keynes intelligence Observatory". http://analysis.mkiobservatory.org.uk/webview/index.jsp?v=2&mode=cube&cube=http%3A%2F%2Fanalysis.mkiobservatory.org.uk%3A80%2Fobj%2FfCube%2FPE097_C1&study=http%3A%2F%2Fanalysis.mkiobservatory.org.uk%3A80%2Fobj%2FfStudy%2FPE097&context=http%3A%2F%2Fanalysis.mkiobservatory.org.uk%3A80%2Fobj%2FcServer%2FMKi&top=yes.  
  5. ^ http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=9666&More=Y
  6. ^ http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/Mid_2007_UK_England_&_Wales_Scotland_and_Northern_Ireland%20_21_08_08.zip
  7. ^ Regional GDP per capita in the EU25 GDP per capita in 2002 ranged from 32% of the EU25 average in Lubelskie to 315% in Inner London
  8. ^ Office of National Statistics (pp.240-253)
  9. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  10. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  11. ^ includes energy and construction
  12. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  13. ^ UK average index base = 100
  14. ^ "Buckinghamshire is best county". http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/buckinghamshire-is-best-county-802353.html. Retrieved 15 January 2009.  
  15. ^ "KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=8271&Pos=2&ColRank=1&Rank=224. Retrieved 2008-06-18.  
  16. ^ "High Wycombe Fact File" (PDF). Wycombe District Council. http://www.wycombe.gov.uk/uploads/documents/Community%20and%20living/FactFile39HighWycombe.pdf.  
  17. ^ Tendring District Council Conservation Area Review (pdf)
  18. ^ Biography of St Rumwold, University of Buckingham
  19. ^ Medieval Sourcebook: Roger of Wendover
  20. ^ Picture Tour at Chiltern Web
  21. ^ Aylesbury Tourist Information
  22. ^ Genuki guide to Brill
  23. ^ Biography of John Wycliffe
  24. ^ Biography of Edmund Waller
  25. ^ Biography of Thomas Love Peacock
  26. ^ Milton's Cottage website
  27. ^ Review of a biography of John Wilkes
  28. ^ Literary guide to Marlow
  29. ^ Tourist guide to Marlow
  30. ^ About Britain.com
  31. ^ Guide to Beaconsfield
  32. ^ Bourne End online
  33. ^ Biography of Edgar Wallace
  34. ^ Biography of Terry Pratchett
  35. ^ Tim Rice profile at IMDb
  36. ^ Aylesbury Grammar School Old Boys data
  37. ^ Czechs in Exile at Aston Abbotts
  38. ^ Czechs in Exile - Polish government comparison
  39. ^ Bucks Free Press
  40. ^ Biography of Louis XVIII of France
  41. ^ Guide to Cliveden
  42. ^ New York Times Travel Supplement
  43. ^ Visit Buckinghamshire - Bledlow
  44. ^ Biography of Disraeli
  45. ^ Genuki guide to Mentmore
  46. ^ Biography of William Penn
  47. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.  

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Buckinghamshire [1] is a county in the South East of England, located to the north west of London.

Map of Buckinghamshire
Map of Buckinghamshire

Understand

Bucks is a middle-size county, stretching from West London, near Heathrow Airport, to the outer reach of the Midlands. It borders, going clockwise from London, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and London. It is home to about 712,000 people with substantial residential growth in the centre. It is known as Leafy Bucks to some, due to the idyllic rolling hills and vast woodlands but also contains several large towns, mainly High Wycombe (pop. 118,000), Milton Keynes (184,000) and Aylesbury (pop. 65,000) which all have great tourist attractions as well as shopping opertunities. Bucks is also home to Chequers Court, the Prime Ministers country residence and Pinewood Studios where many world famous films and television shows are filmed. It has homed many famous people including Roald Dahl, the childrens author, who lived (and died) in Bucks for 30 years.

Get in

By plane

The nearest international airport is London Heathrow, just outside Bucks in the London Borough of Hillingdon. Other international airports within reach include London Gatwick, London Luton and London Stanstead as well as London City Airport. Smaller airports and airfields are dotted around the county.

By train

Most rail services in Bucks radiate out from London. The north of the county (Milton Keynes) is served by the West Coast Main line with services to London Euston and north to Scotland. The middle and south of the county are served by Chiltern Railways' two main lines: one between London Marylebone and Aylesbury, and the other between London Marylebone and Birmingham/Stratford-upon-Avon calling at High Wycombe. There are plans to extend the Aylesbury line north to meet the West Coast Main line at Milton Keynes and possibly even further north to Rugby and Leicester using the old trackbed of the Great Central Main line, which closed in 1966. The very southern tip of the county is served by the Great Western Main line, although only two stations (Taplow and Iver) are in Bucks, with services to London Paddington and west to Reading.

By car

Four motorways venture into Buckinghamshire, although only two run in the county for a reasonable distance:

  • The M1 serves the north of Buckinghamshire, mainly Milton Keynes
  • The M40 serves the south of the county, largely High Wycombe
  • The M25 enters Bucks for its junctions with the M40 and M4
  • The M4 serves Slough and Taplow

Other notable roads include:

  • A40 which parallels the M40 until Oxford
  • A41 which goes through Aylesbury, the county town
  • A5 which goes through Milton Keynes

By bus

Arriva and Carousel run most bus services in the south and centre of the county. Milton Keynes has its own bus company.

  • The Chiltern Hills. A chalk escarpment that stretches in a south-west to north-east diagonal from Goring-On-Thames to Luton, and is most prominent in Buckinghamshire. Coombe Hill, close to Wendover is an ideal place to view the Aylesbury Vale and is one of the most impressive viewpoints in the South-East of England.
  • The many stately homes and fine gardens that are numerous in Bucks including Waddesdon Manor, Hughenden Manor, Cliveden, Stowe Landscape Gardens and West Wycombe Park.
  • The unusual hand-dug Hellfire Caves [2]. Constructed by the locals in the 1740s for Francis Dashwood (although possibly earlier), they were the location for meetings of the Hellfire Club.
  • The Buckinghamshire Railway Centre, just north of Aylesbury
  • Beaconscot Model Village, in Beaconsfield, is the oldest model village in the world and very popular. Depicting England in the 1930s, a highlight is the model railway whic runs all around the village.

Eat

The large areas of countryside include many country pubs, serving excellent food. Restaurants are also found in rural areas but are more common in the urban areas.

Drink

Like most of England, almost every village in Bucks has a local pub, larger ones having more.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (abbreviated Bucks) a south midland county of England, bounded N. by Northamptonshire, E. by Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Middlesex, S. for a short distance by Surrey, and by Berkshire, and W. by Oxfordshire. Its area is 743.2 sq. m. The county is divided between the basins of the rivers Ouse and Thames. The first in its uppermost course forms part of the north-western boundary, passes the towns of Buckingham, Stony Stratford, Wolverton, Newport Pagnell and Olney, and before quitting the county forms a short stretch of the north-eastern boundary. The principal tributary it receives within the county is the Ouzel. The Thames forms the entire southern boundary; and of its tributaries Buckinghamshire includes the upper part of the Thames. To the north-west of Buckingham, and both east and west of the Ouzel, the land rises in gentle undulations to a height of nearly 500 ft., and north of the Thames valley a few nearly isolated hills stand boldly, such as Brill Hill and Muswell Hill, each over 600 ft., but the hilliest I Until 1784, when George Glenville, Earl Temple, was created marquess of Buckingham, the 2nd earl of Buckinghamshire always signed himself " Buckingham "; his contemporaries knew him by this name, and hence a certain amount of confusion has arisen.

part of the county is the south, which is occupied by part of the Chiltern system, the general direction of which is from southwest to north-east. The crest-line of these hills crosses the county at its narrowest point, along a line, above the towns of Prince's Risborough and Wendover, not exceeding 11 m. in length. This line divides the county into two parts of quite different physical character; for to the south almost the whole land is hilly (the longer slope of the Chiltern system lying in this direction), well wooded, and pleasantly diversified with narrow vales. The chief of these are watered by the Wye, Misbourne and Chess streams. The beech tree is predominant in the woods, in so much that William Camden, writing c. 1585, supposed the county to take name from this feature (A.S. boc, beech). In the south a remnant of ancient forest is preserved as public ground under the name of Burnham Beeches. The Chilterns reach a height of nearly 900 ft. within the county.

Table of contents

Geology

The northern half of the county is occupied by Jurassic strata, in the southern half Cretaceous rocks predominate except in the south-eastern corner, where they are covered by Tertiary beds. Thus the oldest rocks are in the north, succeeded continuously by younger strata to the south; the general dip of all the rocks is south-easterly. A few patches of Upper Lias Clay appear near the northern boundary near Grafton Regis and Castle Thorpe, and again in the valley of the Ouse near Stoke Goldington and Weston Underwood. The Oolitic series is represented by the Great Oolite, with limestones in the upper part, much quarried for building stones at Westbury, Thornborough, Brock, Whittlewood Forest, &c.; the lower portions are more argillaceous. The Forest Marble is seen about Thornton as a thin bed of clay with an oyster-bearing limestone at the base. Next above is the Cornbrash, a series of rubbly and occasionally hard limestones and thin clays. The outcrop runs by Tingwick, Buckingham, Berehampton and Newport Pagnell, it is quarried at Wolverton and elsewhere for road metal. Inliers of these rocks occur at Marsh Gibbon and Stan Hill. The Oxford Clay and Kimmeridge Clay, with the Gault, lie in the vale of Aylesbury. The clay is covered by numerous outliers of Portland, Purbeck and Lower Greensand beds. The Portland beds are sandy below, calcareous above; the outcrop follows the normal direction in the county, from south-west to north-east, from Thame through Aylesbury; they are quarried at several places for building stone and fossils are abundant. The Hartwell Clay is in the Lower Portland. Freshwater Purbeck beds lie below the Portland and Lower Greensand beds; they cap the ridge between Oving and Whitchurch. Glass-making sands have been worked from the Lower Greensand at Hartwell, and phosphatic nodules from the same beds at Brickhill as well as from the Gault at Towersey. A broad band of Gault, a bluish clay, extends from Towersey across the county in a northeasterly direction. Resting upon the Gault is the Upper Greensand; at the junction of the two formations numerous springs arise, a circumstance which has no doubt determined the site of several villages. The Chalk rises abruptly from the low lying argillaceous plain to form the Chiltern Hills. The form of the whole of the hilly district round Chesham, High Wycombe and the Chalfonts is determined by the Chalk. Reading beds, mottled clays and sands, repose upon the Chalk at Woburn, Barnham, Fulmer and Denham, and these are in turn covered by the London Clay, which is exposed on the slopes about Stoke Common and Iver. Between the Tertiarycapped Chalk plateau and the Thames, a gentler slope, covered with alluvial gravel and brick earth, reaches down to the river. Thick deposits of plateau gravel cover most of the high ground in the southern corner of the county, while much of the northern part is obscured by glacial clays and gravels.

Industries

The agricultural capacities of the soil vary greatly in different localities. On the lower lands, especially in the Vale of Aylesbury, about the headwaters of the Thame, it is extremely fertile; while on the hills it is usually poor and thin. The proportion of cultivated land is high, being about 83% of the whole. Of this a large and growing portion is in permanent pasture; cattle and sheep being reared in great numbers for the London markets, to which also are sent quantities of ducks, for which the district round Aylesbury is famous. Wheat and oats are the principal grain crops, though both decrease in importance. Turnips and swedes for the cattle are the chief green crops; and dairy-farming is largely practised. There is no general manufacturing industry, but a considerable amount of lacemaking and straw-plaiting is carried on locally; and at High Wycombe and in its neighbourhood there is a thriving trade in various articles of turnery, such as chairs and bowls, from beech and other hard woods. The introduction of lace-making in this and neighbouring counties is attributed to Flemish, and later to French immigrants, but also to Catharine of Aragon during her residence (c. 1532) at Ampthill. Down to the later part of the 19th century a general holiday celebrated by lace-makers on the 25th of November was known as " Cattarn's Day." Communications. - The main line of the London & NorthWestern railway crosses the north-east part of the county. Bletchley is an important junction on this system, branches diverging east to Fenny Stratford, Bedford and Cambridge, and west to Oxford and Banbury, Buckingham being served by the western branch. There is also a branch from Cheddington to Aylesbury. The Metropolitan-Great Central joint line serves Amersham, Chesham (by a branch), and Aylesbury, joining the North-Western Oxford branch at Verney Junction; this line is used by the Great Central railway, the main line of which continues north-westward from Quainton Road. A light railway connects this station with the large village of Brill to the southwest. The Great Central and the Great Western companies jointly own a line passing through Beaconsfield, High Wycombe, and Prince's Risborough, which is connected northward with the Great Central system. Before the opening of this line in 1906 the Great Western branch from Maidenhead to Oxford was the only line serving High Wycombe and Prince's Risborough, from which there are branches to Watlington and Aylesbury. The main line of this company crosses the extreme south of the county by Slough and Taplow. The Grand Junction Canal, reaching the valley of the Ouse by way of the Ouzel valley from the south, has branches to Aylesbury and to Buckingham. Except the Thames none of the rivers in the county is continuously navigable.

Population and Administration

The area of the ancient county is 475,682 acres, with a population in 1891 of 185,284, and in 1901 of 195,764. The area of the administrative county is 479,358 acres. The county contains eight hundreds, of which three, namely Stoke, Burnham and Desborough, form the " Chiltern Hundreds " (q.v.). The hundred of Aylesbury retains its ancient designation of the " three hundreds of Aylesbury." The municipal boroughs are Buckingham, the county town (pop. 3152), and Wycombe, officially Chepping Wycombe, also Chipping or High Wycombe (15,542). The other urban districts are Aylesbury (9243), Beaconsfield (1570), Chesham (7245), Eton (3301), Fenny Stratford (4799), Linslade, on the Ouzel opposite to Leighton Buzzard in Bedfordshire (2157), Marlow (4526), Newport Pagnell (4028), Slough (11,453). Among the lesser market towns may be mentioned Amersham (2674), Ivinghoe (808), Olney (2684), Prince's Risborough (2189), Stony Stratford (2353), Wendover (2009) and Winslow (1703). At Wolverton (5323) are the carriage works of the London & NorthWestern railway. Several of the villages on and near the banks of the Thames have become centres of residence, such as Taplow, Cookham and Bourne End, Burnham and Wooburn. Buckinghamshire is in the midland circuit, and assizes are held at Aylesbury. It has one court of quarter sessions, and is divided into thirteen petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Buckingham and Wycombe have separate commissions of the peace. The administrative county contains 230 civil parishes. Buckinghamshire is almost entirely within the diocese of Oxford, and 215 ecclesiastical parishes are situated wholly or in part within it. There are three parliamentary divisions, Northern or Buckingham, Mid or Aylesbury, and Southern or Wycombe, each returning one member; and the county contains a small part of the parliamentary borough of Windsor (chiefly in Berkshire). The most notable institution within the county is Eton College, the famous public school founded by Henry VI.

History

The district which was to become Buckinghamshire was reached by the West Saxons in 571, as by a series of victories they pushed their way north along the Thames valley. With the grouping of the settlements into kingdoms and the consolidation of Mercia under Offa, Buckinghamshire was included in Mercia until, with the submission of that kingdom to the Northmen, it became part of the Danelaw. In the 10th century Buckinghamshire suffered frequently from the ravages of the Danes, and numerous barrows and earthworks mark the scenes of struggles against the invaders. These relics are especially abundant in the vale of Aylesbury, probably at this time one of the richest and best protected of the Saxon settlements. The Chiltern district, on the other hand, is said to have been an impassable forest infested by hordes of robbers and wild beasts. In the reign of Edward the Confessor, Leofstan, 12th abbot of St Albans, cut down large tracts of wood in this district and granted the manor of Hamstead (Herts) to a valiant knight and two fellow-soldiers on condition that they should check the depredations of the robbers. The same reason led at an early period to the appointment of a steward of the Chiltern Hundreds, and this office being continued long after the necessity for it had ceased to exist, gradually became the sinecure it is to-day. The district was not finally disforested until the reign of James I.

At the time of the Norman invasion Buckinghamshire was probably included in the earldom of Leofwine, son of Godwin, and the support which it lent him at the battle of Hastings was punished by sweeping confiscations of ter the Conquest. The proximity of Buckinghamshire to London caused it to be involved in most of the great national events of the ensuing centuries. During the war between King John and his barons William Mauduit held Hanslape Castle against the king, until in 1216 it was captured and demolished by Falkes de Breaute. The county was visited severely by the Black Death, and Winslow was one of many districts which were almost entirely depopulated. In the civil war Buckinghamshire was one of the first counties to join in an association for mutual defence on the side of the parliament, which had important garrisons at Aylesbury, Brill and elsewhere. Newport Pagnell was for a short time garrisoned by the royalist troops, and in 1644 the king fixed his headquarters at Buckingham.

The shire of Buckingham originated with the division of Mercia in the reign of Edward the Elder, and was probably formed by the aggregation of pre-existing hundreds round the county town, a fact which explains the curious irregularities of the boundary line. The eighteen hundreds of the Domesday survey have now been reduced to eight, of which the three Chiltern hundreds, Desborough, Burnham and Stoke, are unaltered in extent as well as in name. The remainder have been formed each by the union of three of the ancient hundreds, and Aylesbury is still designated " the three hundreds of Aylesbury." All, except Newport and Buckingham, retain the names of Domesday hundreds, and the shire has altered little on its outer lines since the survey. Until the time of Queen Elizabeth Buckinghamshire and Bedfordshire had a common sheriff. The shire court of the former county was held at Aylesbury.

The ecclesiastical history of Buckinghamshire is not easy to trace, as there is no local chronicler, but the earliest churches were probably subject to the West Saxon see of Dorchester, and when after the Conquest the bishop's stool was transferred to Lincoln no change of jurisdiction ensued. After the dissolution of the monasteries it was proposed to form a new diocese to include Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, but the project was abandoned, and both remained in the Lincoln diocese until 1837, when the latter was transferred to Oxford. The archdeaconry was probably founded towards the close of the 11 th century by Bishop Remy, and the subdivision into rural deaneries followed shortly after. A dean of Thornborough is mentioned in the 12th century, and in the taxation of Nicholas IV. eight deaneries are given, comprising 186 parishes. In 1855 the deaneries were reconstructed and made eighteen in number.

On the redistribution of estates after the Conquest only two Englishmen continued to retain estates of any importance, and the chief landowners at this date were Walter Giffard, first earl of Buckingham, and Odo, bishop of Bayeux. Few of the great Buckinghamshire estates, however, remained with the same proprietors for any length of time. Many became annexed by religious establishments, while others reverted to the crown and were disposed of by various grants. The family of Hampden alone claim to have held the estate from which the name is derived in an unbroken line from Saxon times.

Buckinghamshire has always ranked as an agricultural rather than a manufacturing county, and has long been famed for its corn and cattle. Fuller mentions the vale of Aylesbury as producing the biggest bodied sheep in England, and " Buckinghamshire bread and beef " is an old proverb. Lace-making, first introduced into this county by the Fleming refugees from the Alva persecution, became a very profitable industry. The monopolies of James I. considerably injured this trade, and in 1623 a petition was addressed to the high sheriff of Buckinghamshire representing the distress of the people owing to the decay of bone lace-making. Newport Pagnell and Olney were especially famous for their lace, and the parish of Hanslape is said to have made an annual profit of 8000 to £9000 from lace manufacture. The straw-plait industry was introduced in the reign of George I., and formerly gave employment to a large number of the population.

The county was first represented in parliament by two members in 1290. The representation increased as the towns acquired representative rights, until in 1603 the county with its boroughs made a total return of fourteen members. By the Reform Act of 1832 this was reduced to eleven, and by the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885 the boroughs were deprived of representation and the county returned three members for three divisions.

Antiquities

Buckinghamshire contains no ecclesiastical buildings of the first rank. Monastic remains are scanty, but two former abbeys may be noted. At Medmenham, on the Thames above Marlow, there are fragments, incorporated into a residence, of a Cistercian abbey founded in 1201; which became notorious in the middle of the 18th century as the meeting-place of a convivial club called the " Franciscans " after its founder, Sir Francis Dashwood, afterwards Lord le Despencer (1708-1781), and also known as the" Hell-Fire Club," of which John Wilkes, Bubb Dodington and other political notorieties were members. The motto of the club, fay ce que voudras (do what you will), inscribed on a doorway at the abbey, was borrowed from Rabelais' description of the abbey of Thelema in Gargantua. The remains of the Augustinian Notley Abbey (1162), incorporated with a farm-house, deserve mention rather for their picturesque situation by the river Thame than for their architectural value. Turning to churches, there is workmanship considered to be of pre-Norman date in Wing church, in the neighbourhood of Leighton Buzzard, including a polygonal apse and crypt. Stewkley church, in the same locality, shows the finest Norman work in the county; the building is almost wholly of the later part of this period, and the ornamentation is very rich. The Early English work of Chetwode and Haddenham churches, both in the west of the county, is noteworthy; especially in the first, which, as it stands, is the eastern part of a priory church of Augustinians (1244). Good specimens of the Decorated style are not wanting, though none is of special note; but the county contains three fine examples of Perpendicular architecture in Eton College chapel and the churches of Maids Moreton to the north, and Hillesden to the south, of Buckingham. Ancient domestic architecture is chiefly confined to a few country houses, of which Chequers Court, dating from the close of the 16th century, is of interest not only from the architectural standpoint but from its beautiful situation high among the Chiltern Hills between Prince's Risborough and Wendover, and from a remarkable collection of relics of Oliver Cromwell, preserved here as a consequence of the marriage, in 1664, of John Russell, a grandson of the Protector, into the family to which the house then belonged. The manor-house of Hampden, among the hills east of Prince's Risborough, was for many generations the abode of the family of that name, and is still in the possession of descendants of John Hampden, who fell at the battle of Chalgrove in 1643, and is buried in Hampden church. Fine county seats are numerous - there may be mentioned Stowe (Buckingham), formerly the seat of the dukes of Buckingham; Cliveden and Hedsor, two among the many beautifully situated mansions by the bank of the Thames; and Claydon House in the west of the county. Among the Chiltern Hills, also, there are several splendid domains. Associations with eminent men have given a high fame to several towns or villages of Buckinghamshire. Such are the connexion of Beaconsfield with Edmund Waller and Edmund Burke, that of Hughenden near Wycombe with Benjamin Disraeli, Lord Beaconsfield, whose father's residence was at Bradenham; of Olney and Stoke Pogis with the poets Cowper and Gray respectively. At Chalfont St Giles a cottage still stands in which Milton completed Paradise Lost and began Paradise Regained. In earlier life he had lived and worked at Horton, near the Thames below Windsor.

Authorities

The original standard history is the laborious work of G. Lipscomb, History and Antiquities of the County of Buckingham (London, 1831-1847). Other works are: Browne Willis, History and Antiquities of the Town, Hundred, and Deanery of Buckingham (London, 1755) D. and S. Lysons, Magna Britannia, vol. i.; R. Gibbs, Buckingham (Aylesbury, 1878-1882) Worthies of Buckingham (Aylesbury, 1886); and Buckingham Miscellany (Aylesbury, 1891) G. S. Roscoe, Buckingham Sketches (London, 1891); P. H. Ditchfield, Memorials of Old Buckinghamshire (London, 1901); Victoria County History, " Buckinghamshire."


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Proper noun

Singular
Buckinghamshire

Plural
-

Buckinghamshire

  1. An inland county of England bounded by Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, Middlesex, Surrey, Berkshire and Oxfordshire.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

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Buckinghamshire
File:EnglandBuckinghamshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Origin Historic
Region South East England
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 32nd
724 miles² (1,874 km²)
Ranked 33rd
1,565 km²
Admin HQ Aylesbury
ISO 3166-2 GB-BKM
ONS code 11
NUTS 3 UKJ13
Demographics
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 30th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
712,100


380

/ km²
Ranked 29th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
487,300
Ethnicity 91.7% White
4.3% S.Asian
1.6% Black British.
Politics
Buckinghamshire County Council
http://www.buckscc.gov.uk/
Executive Conservative
Members of Parliament
Districts
File:Buckinghamshire Ceremonial Numbered.png
  1. South Bucks
  2. Chiltern
  3. Wycombe
  4. Aylesbury Vale
  5. Milton Keynes (Unitary)

Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. The county town is Aylesbury.

Contents

Divisions and environs

The area under the control of Buckinghamshire County Council, or shire county, is divided into four districts - Aylesbury Vale, Chiltern, South Bucks and Wycombe. The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and forms part of the county for various functions such as Lord Lieutenant but does not come under county council control. The ceremonial county, the area including Milton Keynes borough, borders Greater London, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire.

Physical geography

The county includes the Chiltern Hills to the South and the Vale of Aylesbury to the north. At 876 feet (267 m) above sea level, the two highest points are Coombe Hill near Wendover, and Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods, Buckinghamshire, near Wendover where a stone marks the summit.

History

Main article: History of Buckinghamshire.

File:Buckingham-215x334.jpg

The name Buckinghamshire is Anglo Saxon in origin and means The district (scire) of Bucca's home. Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, and is named after an Anglo-Saxon landowner. The county has been so named since about the 12th century; however, the county itself has existed since it was a subdivision of the kingdom of Mercia (585–919).

The history of the area though predates the Anglo Saxon period and the county has a rich history from the Celtic through to Roman periods though the Anglo Saxons did have perhaps the greatest impact on Buckinghamshire out of these groups: the geography of the rural county is largely as it was in the Anglo Saxon period. Later Buckinghamshire became an important political arena, with King Henry VIII intervening in local politics in the 16th century and just a century later the English Civil War was reputedly started by John Hampden in mid-Bucks[1].

The biggest change to the county historically came in the 19th century when a combination of cholera and famine hit the rural county forcing many to migrate to larger towns to find work. Not only did this alter the local economical picture it meant a lot of land was going cheap at a time when the rich were more mobile and leafy Bucks became a popular rural idyll: an image it still has today. Buckinghamshire is a very popular home for celebrities working in London leading to greater local affluence however some pockets of severe deprivation remain.

Economy

Buckinghamshire has a modern service-based economy and is part of the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire NUTS-2 region, which was the seventh richest subregion in the European Union in 2002[2] The southern part of the county is a prosperous section of the London commuter belt. The county has fertile agricultural lands, with many landed estates, especially those of the Rothschild banking family of England in the 19th century (see Rothschild properties in Buckinghamshire). Manufacturing industries include furniture-making (traditionally centred at High Wycombe), pharmaceuticals and agricultural processing.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Buckinghamshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling (except GVA index).[3]

Year Regional Gross Value Added[4] Agriculture[5] Industry[6] Services[7] GVA index per person[8]
1995 6,008 60 1,746 4,201 118
2000 8,389 45 1,863 6,481 125
2003 9,171 50 1,793 7,328 118

Demographics

Today Buckinghamshire is an ethnically diverse area, particularly in the larger towns. At the end of the nineteenth century some Welsh drover families settled in north Bucks and, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, a large number of Londoners (to Milton Keynes). Aylesbury has a sizable Italian population, and Amersham has a large Polish community dating from the Second World War. Amersham is twinned with Krynica in Poland. High Wycombe is the most ethnically diverse town in the county, with large Asian and Afro-Caribbean populations. There is also a Polish and Eastern European community.

Education

Buckinghamshire LEA has a completely selective education system with either grammar schools or secondary modern schools. There are 9 independent schools and 34 state schools, not including sixth form colleges. Sixth-form provision is very good, like neighbouring Bedfordshire, with all state secondary schools having sixth forms. There are no comprehensives. Neighbouring Milton Keynes is completely comprehensive, and all its schools have sixth forms. At GCSE, in England, the average number of pupils getting 5 grades A-C including English and Maths is 45.8%; for Buckinghamshire's 5600 pupils taking GCSEs at age 16, it is 59.1%, which is the highest for a traditional county in England. For secondary moderns, the best school is the Waddesdon Church of England School, which gets results better than most comprehensives, followed by Chalfonts Community College in Chalfont St Peter. At A-level, the grammar schools take centre stage, with many achieving superb results, with Dr Challoner's Grammar School in Amersham being the best state school, followed by Aylesbury Grammar School and the Royal Grammar School. All these three are boys grammar schools. The best school at A-level is the Wycombe Abbey girls school in High Wycombe, which is the only independent state school in the county to get higher results than the grammar schools. Overall at A-level, Buckinghamshire performs very well, and again has the highest results for a traditional county in England.

Average score at GCSE by district council (%)

% of pupils gaining 5 grades A-C including English and Maths; compare to average house price by district.

  • South Bucks 65.3
  • Chiltern 62.5
  • Wycombe 60.0
  • Aylesbury Vale 57.0
  • (Milton Keynes Unitary Authority 38.7)

Lord Lieutenant

Main article: Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire

Currently the Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire is Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher and the High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire is Alexander Boswell. The Custos rotulorum has been combined with the duties of Lord Lieutenant since 1702. All these titles cover the ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire.

Buckinghamshire County Council

File:CountyHallAylesbury.jpg The county council was founded in 1889 with its base in new municipal buildings in Walton Street, Aylesbury (which are still there). In Buckinghamshire, local administration is run on a two-tier system where public services are split between the county council and a series of district councils.

In the 1960s the council moved into new premises: a 15-storey tower block in the centre of Aylesbury (pictured) designed by architect Thomas Pooley. Said to be one of the most unpopular and disliked buildings in Buckinghamshire it is now a Grade II listed building.

In 1997 the northern part of Buckinghamshire in Milton Keynes Borough separated to form a unitary authority, however for ceremonial and some other purposes Milton Keynes is still considered to be part of Buckinghamshire.

Coat of arms

File:Arms-bucks.jpg The coat of arms for Buckinghamshire County Council features a white swan in chains. This dates back to the Anglo Saxon period, when swans were bred in Buckinghamshire for the king's pleasure. That the swan is in chains illustrates that the swan is bound to the king, an ancient law that still applies to wild swans in the UK today. The herald was first used at the Battle of Agincourt by the Duke of Buckingham.

Above the swan is a gold band, in the centre of which is Whiteleaf Cross, representing the many ancient landmarks of the county. The shield is mounted by a beech tree, representing the Chiltern Forest that once covered almost half the county. Either side of the shield are a buck, for Buckingham, and a swan, the county symbol.

The motto of the shield says Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum. This is Latin and means 'no stepping back'.

File:Flag of Buckinghamshire.png The flag of Buckinghamshire, which flies outside County Hall in Aylesbury, comprises red and black halves with a white swan. The flag takes the county emblem which is on the county shield.

Settlements

This is a list of the towns in the shire county of Buckinghamshire. For the full list of towns, villages and hamlets in Buckinghamshire, see List of places in Buckinghamshire.

This is a list of the towns in the historic bounds of Buckinghamshire that after various local government reorganisations are no longer administered as part of it.

Places of interest

Key
Image:AP_Icon.PNG Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Amusement/Theme Park
Image:CL_icon.PNG Castle
Country Park Country Park
Image:EH icon.png English Heritage
Image:FC icon.png Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum
Museums (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Zoo

Notable people

Anciently Buckinghamshire is the birth place and/or final resting place of several notable individuals. Saint Osyth was born in Quarrendon and was buried in Aylesbury in the 7th century[9] while at about the same time Saint Rumwold was buried in Buckingham[10]. From the medieval period Roger of Wendover was, as the name suggests, from Wendover[11] and Anne Boleyn also owned property in the same town[12]. It is said that King Henry VIII made Aylesbury the county town over Buckingham because Boleyn's father owned property there and was a regular visitor himself[13]. Other medieval residents included Edward the Confessor who had a palace at Brill[14] and John Wycliffe who lived in Ludgershall[15].

From a slightly later period Buckinghamshire became home to some notable literary characters. Edmund Waller was brought up in Beaconsfield and served as Member of Parliament for both Amersham and Wycombe[16]. Percy Bysshe Shelley and his wife Mary spent some time living in Marlow, attracted to the town by their friend Thomas Love Peacock who also lived there[17]. John Milton lived in Chalfont St Giles and his cottage can still be visited there[18] and John Wilkes served as Member of Parliament for Aylesbury[19]. Much later literary characters include Jerome K. Jerome who lived at Marlow[20], T. S. Eliot who also lived at Marlow[21], Roald Dahl who lived in Great Missenden[22], Enid Blyton who lived in Beaconsfield[23] and Edgar Wallace who lived in Bourne End[24] and is buried in Little Marlow[25]. Modern day writers from Bucks include Terry Pratchett who was born in Beaconsfield[26], Tim Rice who is from Amersham[27] and Andy Riley who is from Aylesbury[28].

During the Second World War a number of politicians and world leaders from Europe came to England to seek exile. Due to its proximity to London various locations in Buckinghamshire were selected to house dignitaries. President Edvard Beneš of Czechoslovakia lived at Aston Abbotts with his family while his government was stationed at neighbouring Addington and Wingrave[29]. Meanwhile Władysław Sikorski, military leader of Poland, lived at Iver[30] and King Zog of Albania lived at Frieth[31]. Bucks is also notable for another exile, although this one much earlier: King Louis XVIII of France lived in exile at Hartwell House from 1809 to 1814[32].

Also on the local political stage Buckinghamshire has been home to Nancy Astor who lived in Cliveden[33], Frederick who also lived in Cliveden[34], Baron Carrington who lives in Bledlow[35], Benjamin Disraeli who lived at Hughenden Manor and was made Earl of Beaconsfield[36], John Hampden who was from Great Hampden and is revered in Aylesbury to this day[37] and Prime Minister Archibald Primrose who lived at Mentmore[38]. Also worthy of note are William Penn who believed he was descended from the Penn family of Penn and so is buried nearby[39] and the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, who has an official residence at Chequers. Finally John Archdale colonial governor of North Carolina and South Carolina, although more notably American, was born in Buckinghamshire[40]

Other natives of Buckinghamshire who have become notable in their own right include:

Today Buckinghamshire is a very picturesque landscape and is home to numerous celebrities and has attracted its fair share in the past. These include:

See also

References

External links


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Buckinghamshire. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

This article uses material from the "Buckinghamshire" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Buckinghamshire
[[File:]]
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Region South East England
Area
- Total
Ranked 32nd

Admin HQAylesbury
ISO 3166-2GB-BKM
ONS code 11
NUTS 3 UKJ13
Demography
Population
- Total (2005 est.)
- Density
Ranked 31st
700,100
Ethnicity 91.7% White
4.3% S.Asian
1.6% Afro-Carib.
Politics
Buckinghamshire County Council
http://www.buckscc.gov.uk/

ExecutiveConservative
Members of Parliament
Districts
  1. South Bucks
  2. Chiltern
  3. Wycombe
  4. Aylesbury Vale
  5. Milton Keynes (Unitary)

Buckinghamshire (its short name is Bucks) is a county in central England, near the south and London. The county town is named Aylesbury.

Cities, towns and villages

Locations marked with a (*) are a part of the cerimonal county of Buckinghamshire, but are governed by the Borough of Milton Keynes.








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