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Percentage of cultural/nominal adherents of combined Buddhism with its related religions (according to the highest estimates).[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8 ]
Percentage of formal/practicing Buddhists by the numbers of registered adherents (according to the least estimates).
Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are one, a painting in the litang style portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, Song Dynasty.

Obtaining exact numbers of practicing Buddhists can be difficult and may be reliant on the definition used. Adherents of Eastern religions such as Buddhism with local Animism, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Shinto, and Taoism often have beliefs composed of a mix of religious ideas[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. While only a small proportion of the population may have taken the formal step of going for refuge, many more may practice an informal Buddhism or hold Buddhist beliefs mixed with those of related religions. This is particularly the case in East Asia, where Buddhism has long been practiced alongside Taoism and Confucianism in an arrangement sometimes known as the "Triple Religion" or "Great Religion" [16]. The Religion in China, Vietnam, Japan, Korea; Vinegar tasters; Sinosphere; Neo-Confucianism; East Asian Buddhism and Buddhism and Eastern teaching articles discuss this phenomenon in greater detail.

The estimations on the number of Buddhist in the world vary according to different sources available [17], between 350 million [18][19][20][21] and 500 million [22]. However, it was difficult to estimate accurately the number of Buddhists because they did not have congregational memberships and often did not participate in public ceremonies. [23]

An additional challenge in gathering accurate estimates regarding Buddhist adherents in many Asian countries is the presence of national governments (often Communist) that are hostile either to religion generally or to Buddhism specifically. Government policies in these countries may encourage the under-reporting or non-reporting of religious adherence, resulting in official totals that may drastically under-estimate the number of religious practitioners in these countries. This phenomenon is a confounding factor in gathering data for countries such as China and North Korea. Similar historical policies, coupled with shortcomings of infrastructure, make census data for Laos and Vietnam difficult to assess[8 ][24][25].

Most of the Buddhists live in Asia, and the provisional state of the numbers in governments who evolve from the Communism forces a constant revision, although each new annual revision shows an increase the very significant discharge of the Buddhism. The main reason for this enormous discrepancy in the present numbers is the combination of three types different from difficulties to give to a Chinese number on, the greatest country of population in World recently. The Buddhism has a very important historical root in those countries, nevertheless is officially an atheist country, in which in addition it practices syncretist a very heterogeneous traditional religion popular and that, among others, it includes Buddhist elements, and that frequently are listed separately.

A recent study of the Global for Center the Study of the Chinese Contemporary made in the 2005 [26] reveals the little reliability of the previous data, simultaneously it says 52% of the Chinese still refuse to answer direct questions on their religious affiliation. Taking this in account, in 1995 only a 2% openly admitted to belong to some religion, in the 2005 5% did. Although on the other hand, 23% of Chinese said they had trusted in Buddha during year. All this contradictory data gives an idea that it only with certain changes in Chinese society will these numbers become clear.[26]

Contents

By Country

Buddhism by Country
Region Country or Territory Population(2007E)  % of Buddhists Buddhist total
Central Asia Afghanistan Afghanistan 31,889,923 0.2%[27 ] 63,780
South America Argentina Argentina 40,301,927 0.1% [28] 40,302
Caribbean Aruba Aruba 100,018 1.2% (approx) [29] 1,200
Oceania Australia Australia 20,434,176 2.1% [30] 429,118
Central Europe Austria Austria 8,199,783 0.130% 10,660
Middle East Bahrain Bahrain 708,573 1% [31] 7,086
South Asia Bangladesh Bangladesh 150,448,339 0.7% [32] 1,053,138
Western Europe Belgium Belgium 10,392,226 0.29% [33] 31,177
Central America Belize Belize 294,385 0.35% [34] 1,030
South Asia Bhutan Bhutan 2,327,849 66% - 75%[35] 1,536,380 - 1,745,887
South America Bolivia Bolivia 9,119,152 0.26% [36] 23,710
Balkans Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,552,198 0.01% 455
South America Brazil Brazil 190,010,647 0.130% [37] 247,014
Southeast Asia Brunei Brunei 374,577 9.09% [38] 29,822
Eastern Europe Bulgaria Bulgaria 7,322,858 0.015% (approx) 1,098
Southeast Asia Myanmar Burma 47,373,958 90% [39] 42,636,562
Southeast Asia Cambodia Cambodia 13,995,904 95% [40] 13,296,109
North America Canada Canada 33,390,141 1.0 [41] 300,345
South America Chile Chile 16,284,741 0.04% [42][43] 6,514
East Asia People's Republic of China China 1,321,851,888 8% [44] - 21% [45][46] - 80% (approx)[20][21][47][48] 105,748,151 - 277,588,896 - 1,057,481,510
South America Colombia Colombia 44,379,598 0.01% [49] 4,438
Central America Costa Rica Costa Rica 4,133,884 2.34% [50] 96,733
West Africa Côte d'Ivoire Cote d'Ivoire 18,013,409 0.06% [51] 10,808
Balkans Croatia Croatia 4,493,312 0.03% 1,348
Caribbean Cuba Cuba 11,394,043 0.25% [52] 28,485
Middle East Cyprus Cyprus 788,457 1% 7,885
Central Europe Czech Republic Czech Republic 10,228,744 0.5% 51,144
Western Europe Denmark Denmark 5,468,120 >0.5% [53] 20,000-25,000[53]
Caribbean Dominica Dominica 72,386 0.25% [54] 181
Caribbean Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 9,365,818 0.1% [55] 9,366
Southeast Asia East Timor East Timor 1,084,971 0.1% (approx) [56] 1,085
South America Ecuador Ecuador 13,755,680 0.2% [57] 27,511
South America El Salvador El Salvador 6,948,073 0.03% [58] 2,084
East Africa Eritrea Eritrea 4,906,585 0.1% [59] 4,907
Eastern Europe Estonia Estonia 1,315,912 0.4% [60] 5,264
Oceania Fiji Fiji 918,675 1% 9,187
Western Europe Finland Finland 5,238,460 0.1% [61] 5,238
Western Europe France France 63,718,187 1.2% 764,618
South America French Guiana French Guiana 203,321 4% [62] 8,132
Oceania French Polynesia French Polynesia 278,963 7.5% 20,922
Caucasus Georgia (country) Georgia 4,646,003 0.1% (approx)[63] 4,646
Western Europe Germany Germany 82,400,996 1% 824,001
West Africa Ghana Ghana 22,931,299 0.05% [64] 11,466
Balkans Greece Greece 10,706,290 0.1% (approx) 10,706
Central America Guatemala Guatemala 12,728,111 0.1% [65] 12,728
West Africa Guinea Guinea 9,947,814 0.1% (approx) [66] 9,948
South America Guyana Guyana 769,095 0.25% [67] 1,923
Central America Honduras Honduras 7,483,763 0.1% [68] 7,484
East Asia Hong Kong Hong Kong 6,980,412 10.1%[69] - 90% [70] 705,022 - 6,282,371
Eastern Europe Hungary Hungary 9,956,108 0.05% 5,223 [71]
Western Europe Iceland Iceland 301,931 0.15% [72] 453
South Asia India India 1,129,866,154 0.8%[73]- 3.25% [74] 12,248,969 - 37,913,134
Southeast Asia Indonesia Indonesia 234,693,997 1%[75] 2,346,940
Middle East Iran Iran 72,212,000 N/A N/A
Western Europe Republic of Ireland Ireland 4,109,086 0.2% [76] 8,218
Middle East Israel Israel 6,426,679 0.1% [77] 6,426
Western Europe Italy Italy 58,147,733 0.2% [78][79][80] 116,295
Caribbean Jamaica Jamaica 2,780,132 0.3% [81] 8,340
East Asia Japan Japan 127,433,494 44% - 84% - 96% [20][82][83] 56,070,737 - 107,044,135 - 122,336,154
Central Asia Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 15,284,929 0.55% [84] 84,067
East Asia North Korea North Korea 23,301,725 64.5% (approx)[85][86][87] 10,000[88] - 15,029,613
East Asia South Korea South Korea 49,044,790 23.3%[89] - 50% [90][91][92][93] 11,427,436 - 24,522,395
Central Asia Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 5,284,149 0.35% [94] 18,495
Middle East Kuwait Kuwait 2,505,559 4% [95] 100,222
Southeast Asia Laos Laos 6,521,998 67%[96] 4,369,739
Eastern Europe Latvia Latvia 2,259,810 0.004% [97] 90
Middle East Lebanon Lebanon 3,925,502 0.1% [98] 3,926
Southern Africa Lesotho Lesotho 2,125,262 0.1% (approx)[99] 2,125
West Africa Liberia Liberia 3,195,931 0.1% [100] 3,196
North Africa Libya Libya 6,036,914 0.3% [101] 18,120
Western Europe Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 34,247 0.22% [102] 75
East Asia Macau Macau 456,989 17%[103] - 50%[104] - 85%[105][106] 77,688 - 228,495 - 388,441
East Africa Madagascar Madagascar 19,448,815 0.1% [107] 19,449
Southeast Asia Malaysia Malaysia 24,821,286 22% [108] 5,460,683
South Asia Maldives Maldives 369,031 0.45% [109] 1,661
East Africa Mauritius Mauritius 1,250,882 2.5% [110] 31,272
North America Mexico Mexico 108,700,891 0.1% (approx)[111] 108,701
Central Asia Mongolia Mongolia 2,951,786 50%[112] - 94%[113] 1,475,893 - 2,774,679
Southern Africa Namibia Namibia 2,055,080 0.1% [114] 2,055
South Asia Nepal Nepal 28,901,790 11% [115] 3,179,197
Western Europe Netherlands Netherlands 16,570,613 0.105%[116] - 1%[117] 17,399 - 165,706
Caribbean Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles 223,652 0.7% (approx) 1,566
Oceania New Caledonia New Caledonia 221,943 3% [118] 6,657
Oceania New Zealand New Zealand 4,115,771 1.2% [119] 49,389
Central America Nicaragua Nicaragua 5,675,356 0.1% [120] 5,675
Western Europe Norway Norway 4,627,926 0.42% [121] 19,437
Middle East Oman Oman 3,204,897 1% [122] 32,049
South Asia Pakistan Pakistan 164,741,924 0.1% [123] 164,742
Central America Panama Panama 3,242,173 2.1% [124] 68,086
Oceania Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 5,795,887 0.3% [125] 17,388
South America Paraguay Paraguay 6,669,086 0.5% [126] 33,345
South America Peru Peru 28,674,757 0.31% [127] 88,892
Southeast Asia Philippines Philippines 91,077,287 2.5% [128] 2,276,932
Western Europe Portugal Portugal 10,642,836 0.095% 9,500
Central Europe Poland Poland 38,518,241 0.1% 38,518
Caribbean Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 3,944,259 0.03% [129] 1,183
Middle East Qatar Qatar 907,229 5% (approx)[130] 45,361
East Africa Réunion Reunion 784,000 1% 7,840
Eastern Europe Romania Romania 22,276,056 0.01% (approx)[131] 2,228
Eastern Europe Russia Russia 141,377,752 0.75%[132] - 1.1% - 1.45%[133] 1,060,333 - 1,555,155 - 2,049,977
Middle East Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 27,601,038 1.5% [134] 414,016
West Africa Senegal Senegal 12,521,851 0.01% 1,252
Balkans Serbia Serbia 10,150,265 0.01% (approx) 1,015
East Africa Seychelles Seychelles 81,895 1% 819
Southeast Asia Singapore Singapore 4,553,009 42.5%[135] 51% [136] - 61.1% [137] 1,935,029 - 2,322,035 - 2,781,888
Central Europe Slovakia Slovakia 5,447,502 0.1% [138] 5,447
Central Europe Slovenia Slovenia 2,009,245 0.075% (approx) 1,500
Western Europe Spain Spain 40,448,191 0.025% [139] - 0.5% - 0.75% 10,112 - 200,000 - 300,000[140]
Southern Africa South Africa South Africa 43,997,828 0.1% [141] 43,998
South Asia Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 20,926,315 70% [142] 14,648,421
South America Suriname Suriname 470,784 1% 4,708
Western Europe Sweden Sweden 9,031,088 0.2% [143] 18,062
Western Europe Switzerland Switzerland 7,554,661 0.29% [144] 21,909
East Asia Republic of China Taiwan 22,858,872 35%[145] - 75%[146] - 93% [147] 8,000,605 - 17,144,154 - 21,258,751
Central Asia Tajikistan Tajikistan 7,076,598 0.1% [148] 7,076
East Africa Tanzania Tanzania 39,384,223 0.1% [149] 39,384
Southeast Asia Thailand Thailand 65,068,149 95% [150] 61,814,742
Caribbean Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 1,056,608 0.7% [151] 7,396
Middle East Turkey Turkey 71,158,647 0.1% [152] 71,159
Central Asia Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 5,097,028 0.1% [153] 50,970
Eastern Europe Ukraine Ukraine 46,299,862 0.1% (approx)[97] 46,300
Middle East United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 4,444,011 5% [154] 222,201
Western Europe United Kingdom United Kingdom 60,776,238 0.3%[155] 152,000[155]
North America United States United States 301,139,947 0.7%[156][157] 1,505,700 - 6,022,799
South America Uruguay Uruguay 3,460,607 0.1% [158] 3,461
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 27,780,059 0.2% [159] 55,560
Oceania Vanuatu Vanuatu 211,971 1% [160] 2,120
South America Venezuela Venezuela 26,023,528 0.2% [161] 52,047
Southeast Asia Vietnam Vietnam 85,262,356 16%[162] - >50%[163] - 85% (approx)[164] 13,641,977 - >42,631,178 - 72,473,003
Southern Africa Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 12,311,143 0.1% [165] 12,311
Total 6,671,226,000 7.335% – 10.348% - 22.665% (depending on extent of syncretism) 489,325,203 - 690,364,656 - 1,512,013,359

By region

These percentages were calculated by using the above numbers. The first percentage, 4th column, all but last row, is the percentage of population that is Buddhist in a region (Buddhists in the region * 100/total population of the region). The last row shows the Buddhist percentage compared to the total Buddhist population of the world (Buddhists in the region * 100/total Buddhist population of the world).

(Note: Egypt, Sudan, and other Arab Maghreb countries are counted as part of North Africa, not Middle East).

Buddhism in Africa
Region Total Population Buddhists  % of Buddhists  % of Buddhist total
Central Africa 88,166,923 0 0% 0%
East Africa 202,711,873 40,454 0.019%
North Africa 211,584,604 0 0% 0%
Southern Africa 143,871,660 77,127 0.035%
West Africa 280,965,354 0 0% 0%
Total 927,300,414 117,581 0.012%
Buddhism in Asia
Region Total Population Buddhists  % of Buddhists  % of Buddhist total
Central Asia 95,398,532 2,879,280 3.018%
East Asia 1,585,083,298 467,848,179 - 1,247,740,793 29.515% - 78.717%
Middle East 285,194,911 585,025 0.205%
South Asia 1,491,019,011 38,601,550 2.588%
Southeast Asia 592,738,430 214,723,860 36.226%
Total 4,049,434,182 726,336,585 - 1,506,229,199 17.936% - 37.196%
Buddhism in Europe
Region Total Population Buddhists  % of Buddhists  % of Buddhist total
Balkans 67,379,383 101,070 0.15%
Central Europe 77,052,660 2,912,591 3.78%
Eastern Europe 212,144,987 387,165 1.825%
Western Europe 389,933,160 20,666,457 5.3%
Total 746,510,190 24,067,283 3.223%
Buddhism in The Americas
Region Total Population Buddhists  % of Buddhists  % of Buddhist total
Caribbean 24,683,536 43,498 0.176%
Central America 44,030,092 152,228 0.345%
North America 462,382,674 7,241,845 1.566%
South America 384,863,028 499,020 0.129%
Total 915,959,330 7,936,420 0.866%
Buddhism in Oceania
Region Total Population Buddhists  % of Buddhists  % of Buddhist total
Oceania 32,021,885 542,920 1.695%

Top 20

Top 20 by population on the left and by percentage on the right.

Top 20
Rank Country Buddhist Population  % of Buddhists Country  % of Buddhists Buddhist Population
1 People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
277,588,896 - 1,057,481,510 21% - 80% Mongolia
Mongolia
98% 2,816,644
2 Japan
Japan
122,369,253 96% Bhutan
Bhutan
97% 2,250,014
3 Vietnam
Vietnam
74,268,750 85% Cambodia
Cambodia
96.5% 13,938,460
4 Thailand
Thailand
61,814,742 95% Japan
Japan
96% 122,369,253
5 Myanmar
Burma
43,918,200 90% Republic of China
Republic of China
95.5% 22,131,451
6 South Korea
South Korea
23,531,874 48%-54% Laos
Laos
67%-98% 6,195,898
7 Republic of China
Republic of China (Taiwan)
22,131,451 95.5% Thailand
Thailand
95% 61,814,742
8 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
16,050,484 76.7% Hong Kong
Hong Kong
93% 6,701,580
9 North Korea
North Korea
15,106,650 63.5% Myanmar
Burma
90% 43,918,200
10 Cambodia
Cambodia
13,938,460 96.5% Vietnam
Vietnam
85% 74,268,750
11 India
India
13,274,668 1.05% Macau
Macau
85% 408,850
12 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
6,701,580 93% People's Republic of China
China
21% - 80% 277,588,896 - 1,057,481,510
13 Laos
Laos
6,195,898 67-98% Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
76.7% 16,050,484
14 Nepal
Nepal
6,069,376 21% North Korea
North Korea
63.5% 15,106,650
15 United States
United States
6,039,800 2% Singapore
Singapore
61% 2,777,335
16 Malaysia
Malaysia
5,970,800 22% South Korea
South Korea
48%-54% 23,531,874
17 Indonesia
Indonesia
5,397,962 2.3% Malaysia
Malaysia
22% 5,970,800
18 Mongolia
Mongolia
2,816,644 98% Nepal
Nepal
21% 6,069,376
19 Singapore
Singapore
2,777,335 61% Brunei
Brunei
14.4% 54,600
20 Philippines
Philippines
2,276,932 2.5% United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
5% 219,000

External links

See also

External links

  • The US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2006 [8]
  • CIA FactBook [9]
  • adherents.com [10]
  • Religious Freedom page [11]
  • Religious Intelligence [12]
  • census.gov[13]

References

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  152. ^ religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu
  153. ^ state.gov
  154. ^ state.gov, religiousintelligence.co.uk
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  156. ^ American Religious Identification Survey, 2001
  157. ^ CIA The World Factbook - United States of America
  158. ^ state.gov
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  160. ^ headheeb.blogmosis.com
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  162. ^ vietnamembassy.us
  163. ^ state.gov
  164. ^ state.gov, mtholyoke.edu
  165. ^ state.gov

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