Budin Province (also known as Pashaluk of Budin or Eyalet of Budin; Ottoman Turkish: Eyâlet-i Budin, Modern Turkish: Budin Eyaleti, Hungarian: Budai vilajet, Serbian: Budimski vilajet or Будимски вилајет, Croatian: Budimski vilajet) was the firstly set up and most important administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire on the territories of the occupied part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Capital of the Budin Province was Buda.
On the 16th century the Ottoman Empire has conquered the the southern "line of fortresses" (végvár) of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács where the Hungarians were heavily defeated, and the turmoil cased by the defeat, the influence was spread on the middle part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Even the Ottoman troops have invaded Buda in 1526 and 1529, Suleyman I used the Buda area as joined areas and not as annected areas.
In 1541, Suleyman I decided to consolidate the conquered Buda area and to set it up as an organic part of the Empire. He drove away Roggendorf of the Austrian army, besieging the city, and on 29 August 1541 he took control of the city with a trick; together with the city on the other side of Danube, Pest. He immediately organised the first Hungarian vilajet (province) with capital as Buda (Budin in Turkish).
The same year, several other cities fell under ottoman rule: Szeged, Kalocsa, Szabadka (today Subotica). In the years 1543-44, the Ottomans occupied the fortresses of Nógrád, Vác, Fehérvár, Pécs and Siklós which were embedded into the new vilajet .
In 1552 the vilajet was expanded with new territories in the North, and the vilajet of Temesvár (today Timisoara) was estabilished, which was administratively under the vilajet of Buda. The military control of the surrounding areas were driven from Buda.
The following year the advance of the Ottomans has slowed down and the territory of the "Budin vilajet" practically did not change until the closing of the Fifteen Years War of the Peace of Zsitvatorok, where the Ottomans have lost the territorites on the North of Nógrád .
In the 17th century Kara Mustafa has occupied more vast areas from the Kingdom of Hungary and Transylvania, but could not succeed to occupy Vienna in 1683, and just after this the Ottoman reign collapsed in Hungary. On 2nd of September 1686 Buda was liberated by the troops of the Holy League.
The military conflicts were regular on the Ottoman-Hungarian border, so there was a constant need of military presence. If the sultan or the great commander was not present, then the post of general commander was taken by the pasha of Buda. His power was enlarged to the vilajet of Temesvár (from 1552), Eger (from 1596), Nagykanizsa (from 1600) and to Nagyvárad (from 1660).
The title of the Buda pasha was enhanced to be the great commander from 1623.
The number of the troops in the province is difficult to estimate, there are documents to show 10200 soldiers in the fortresses in 1546, and 12451 soldiers in 1568. Adding to this number were the spahi's whose number is not possible to judge as the numbers were constantly changing. The cost of such army was stressing the budget of the province, in 1552 the Port has sent 440,000 gold to Buda to upheld the army.
The Ottoman Empire has put all efforts to strengthen the stronghold at Buda. They have built several rings of defence around Buda and defended roads for supplies to Vienna, as their aim was to crush the capital of the Habsburgs, which they did not succeed.
In the Ottoman times of 145 years, the city of Buda was not converted to the "Italian" type of defensive fortress, which was in the fashion at that time . The ancient fortress was enlarged by the "Víziváros" walls and a small stronghold was built on the Gellért hill.
The Buda Castle was already standing on a Medieval castle, with more or less same walls as per now. Various towers were built by Ottomans ie. "Murad pasha tower" (Murad pasha kulesi) between 1650-1653. The walls were enlarged in Gellért hill, in Rózsadomb, Nap-hegy and on the side of the Danube. The main castle was also walled inside, where they have made small openings so that the sentry could move easily .
After 1541, province included following sanjaks:
In About 1552, province included following sanjaks:
In about 1566, province included following sanjaks:
In about 1600, province included following sanjaks:
In 1610, province included following sanjaks:
Before the end of Ottoman rule (i.e. before 1699), province included following sanjaks:
Population of the province was ethnically and religiously diverse and included Hungarians, Croats, Serbs, Slovaks, Muslims of various ethnic origins (living mainly in the cities) and others (Jews, Roma, etc).