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Buffalo Soldiers (unofficial)
Buffalo soldiers1.jpg

Buffalo Soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment, 1890
Active
Country United States of America

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought; the term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866:

Although several African-American regiments were raised during the Civil War to fight alongside the Union Army (including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry and the many United States Colored Troops Regiments), the "Buffalo Soldiers" were established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army.

On September 6, 2005, Mark Matthews, who was the oldest living Buffalo Soldier, died at the age of 111. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[1]

Contents

The Buffalo Soldier name

Sources disagree on how the nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" began. According to the Buffalo Soldiers National Museum, the name originated with the Cheyenne warriors in the winter of 1867, the actual Cheyenne translation being "Wild Buffalo." However, writer Walter Hill documented the account of Colonel Benjamin Grierson, who founded the 10th Cavalry regiment, recalling an 1871 campaign against the Comanche tribe. Hill attributed the origin of the name to the Comanche due to Grierson's assertions. Some sources assert that the nickname was given out of respect for the fierce fighting ability of the 10th cavalry.[2] Other sources assert that Native Americans called the black cavalry troops "buffalo soldiers" because of their dark curly hair, which resembled a buffalo's coat.[3] Still other sources point to a combination of both legends.[4] The term Buffalo Soldiers became a generic term for all African-American soldiers. It is now used for U.S. Army units that trace their direct lineage back to the 9th and 10th Cavalry, units whose service earned them an honored place in U.S. history.

Their service

Buffalo Soldiers who participated in the Spanish American War

During the American Civil War, the U.S. government formed regiments known as the United States Colored Troops, composed of black soldiers. After the war, Congress reorganized the Army and authorized the formation of two regiments of black cavalry with the designations 9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry, and four regiments of black infantry, designated the 38th, 39th, 40th and 41st Infantry Regiments (Colored). The 38th and 41st were reorganized as the 25th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters in Jackson Barracks in New Orleans, Louisiana, in November 1869. The 39th and 40th were reorganized as the 24th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters at Fort Clark, Texas, in April 1869. All of these units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by both white and black officers. These included the first commander of the 10th Cavalry Benjamin Grierson, the first commander of the 9th Cavalry Edward Hatch, Medal of Honor winner Louis H. Carpenter, the unforgettable Nicholas M. Nolan and the first black graduate of West Point Henry O. Flipper.

Indian Wars

From 1866 to the early 1890s, these regiments served at a variety of posts in the Southwestern United States (Apache Wars) and Great Plains regions. They participated in most of the military campaigns in these areas and earned a distinguished record. Thirteen enlisted men and six officers from these four regiments earned the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars. In addition to the military campaigns, the "Buffalo Soldiers" served a variety of roles along the frontier from building roads to escorting the U.S. mail. On 17 April 1875, regimental headquarters for the 9th and 10th Cavalries were transferred to Fort Concho, Texas. Companies actually arrived at Fort Concho in May 1873. At various times from 1873 through 1885, Fort Concho housed 9th Cavalry companies A–F, K, and M, 10th Cavalry companies A, D–G, I, L, and M, 24th Infantry companies D–G, and K, and 25th Infantry companies G and K.[5]

Buffalo Soldier in the 9th Cavalry, 1890

A lesser known action was the 9th Cavalry's participation in the fabled Johnson County War, an 1892 land war in Johnson County, Wyoming between small farmers and large, wealthy ranchers. It culminated in a lengthy shootout between local farmers, a band of hired killers, and a sheriff's posse. The 6th Cavalry was ordered in by President Benjamin Harrison to quell the violence and capture the band of hired killers. Soon afterward, however, the 9th Cavalry was specifically called on to replace the 6th. The 6th Cavalry was swaying under the local political and social pressures and was unable to keep the peace in the tense environment.

The Buffalo Soldiers responded within about two weeks from Nebraska, and moved the men to the rail town of Suggs, Wyoming, creating "Camp Bettens" despite a racist and hostile local population. One soldier was killed and two wounded in gun battles with locals. Nevertheless, the 9th Cavalry remained in Wyoming for nearly a year to quell tensions in the area.[6][7]

1898-1918

After the Indian Wars ended in the 1890s, the regiments continued to serve and participated in the 1898 Spanish-American War (including the Battle of San Juan Hill) in Cuba, where five more Medals of Honor were earned. They took part in the Philippine-American War from 1899 to 1903 and the 1916 Mexican Expedition. In 1918 the 10th Cavalry fought at the Battle of Ambos Nogales, where they assisted in forcing the surrender of the federal Mexican and German forces. Buffalo soldiers fought in the last engagement of the Indian Wars; the small Battle of Bear Valley in southern Arizona which occurred in 1918 between U.S. cavalry and Yaqui natives.

Park Rangers

Mark Matthews Cavalry Unit.jpg

Another little-known contribution of the Buffalo Soldiers involved eight troops of the 9th Cavalry Regiment and one company of the 24th Infantry Regiment who served in California's Sierra Nevada as some of the first national park rangers. In 1899, Buffalo Soldiers from Company H, 24th Infantry Regiment briefly served in Yosemite National Park, Sequoia National Park and General Grant (Kings Canyon) National Parks.[8]

U.S. Army regiments had been serving in these national parks since 1891, but until 1899 the soldiers serving were white. Beginning in 1899, and continuing in 1903 and 1904, African-American regiments served during the summer months in the second and third oldest national parks in the United States (Sequoia and Yosemite). Because these soldiers served before the National Park Service was created (1916), they were "park rangers" before the term was coined.

One particular Buffalo Soldier stands out in history: Captain Charles Young who served with Troop "I", 9th Cavalry Regiment in Sequoia National Park during the summer of 1903. Charles Young was the third African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy. At the time of his death, he was the highest ranking African American in the U.S. military. He made history in Sequoia National Park in 1903 by becoming Acting Military Superintendent of Sequoia and General Grant National Parks. Charles Young was also the first African American superintendent of a national park. During Young's tenure in the park, he named a Giant Sequoia for Booker T. Washington. Recently, another Giant Sequoia in Giant Forest was named in Captain Young's honor. Some of Young's descendants were in attendance at the ceremony.[9]

Buffalo Soldiers National Museum in Houston, Texas

In 1903, 9th Cavalrymen in Sequoia built the first trail to the top of Mount Whitney, the highest mountain in the contiguous United States. They also built the first wagon road into Sequoia's Giant Forest, the most famous grove of Giant Sequoia trees in Sequoia National Park.

In 1904, 9th Cavalrymen in Yosemite built an arboretum on the South Fork of the Merced River in the southern section of Yosemite National Park. This arboretum had pathways and benches, and some plants were identified in both English and Latin. Yosemite's arboretum is considered to be the first museum in the national park system.

In the Sierra Nevada, the Buffalo Soldiers regularly endured long days in the saddle, slim rations, racism, and separation from family and friends. As military stewards, the African American cavalry and infantry regiments protected the national parks from illegal grazing, poaching, timber thieves, and forest fires. Yosemite Park Ranger Shelton Johnson researched and interpreted the history in an attempt to recover and celebrate the contributions of the Buffalo Soldiers of the Sierra Nevada.[10]

In total, 23 "Buffalo Soldiers" received the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars.[11]

West Point

On March 23, 1907, the United States Military Academy Detachment of Cavalry was changed to a "colored" unit. This had been a long time coming. It had been proposed in 1897 at the "Cavalry and Light Artillery School" at Fort Riley, Kansas that West Point Cadets learn their riding skills from the black non-commissioned officers who were considered the best. The one hundred man detachment from the 9th Cavalry served to teach future officers at West Point riding instruction, mounted drill and tactics until 1947.[12]

Systemic prejudice

The "Buffalo Soldiers" were often confronted with racial prejudice from other members of the U.S. Army. Civilians in the areas where the soldiers were stationed occasionally reacted to them with violence. Buffalo Soldiers were attacked during racial disturbances in:

General of the Armies John J. Pershing is a controversial figure regarding the Buffalo Soldiers. He served with the 10th Cavalry from October 1895 to May 1897. He served again with them for less than six months in Cuba. Because he saw the "Buffalo Soldiers" as good soldiers he was looked down upon and called "Nigger Jack" by white cadets and officers at West Point. It was only later during the Spanish-American War that the press changed that insulting term to "Black Jack." [17] During World War I Pershing bowed to political and progressive racial policies of President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker and the southern democratic "separate but equal" party. For the first time in American history, Pershing allowed American soldiers (African-Americans) to be under the command of a foreign power.[n 1]

World War I

The Buffalo Soldiers did not participate with the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I, but experienced non-commissioned officers were provided to other segregated black units for combat service—such as the 317th Engineer Battalion. The American Buffalo Soldiers of the 92nd Infantry Division (United States) and the 93rd Infantry Division (United States) were the first Americans to fight in France, albeit detached from the AEF and under French command. Most regiments of the 92nd & all 93rd would continue to fight under French command for the duration of the war.[12]

World War II

With colors flying and guidons down, the lead troops of the famous 9th Cavalry pass in review at the regiment's new home in rebuilt Camp Funston. Ft. Riley, Kansas, May 1941.

Early in the 20th century, the Buffalo Soldiers found themselves being used more as laborers and service troops rather than as active combat units. During World War II the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments were disbanded, and the soldiers were moved into service-oriented units, along with the entire 2nd Cavalry Division. One of the infantry regiments, the 24th Infantry Regiment, served in combat in the Pacific theater. Another was the 92nd Infantry Division, AKA the "Buffalo Soldiers Division", which served in combat during the Italian Campaign in the Mediterranean theater. Another was the 93rd Infantry Division—including the 25th Infantry Regiment—which served in the Pacific theater.[18]

Despite some official resistance and administrative barriers, black airmen were trained and played a part in the air war in Europe, gaining a reputation for skill and bravery (see Tuskegee Airmen). In early 1945, after the Battle of the Bulge, American forces in Europe experienced a shortage of combat troops. The embargo on using black soldiers in combat units was relaxed. The American Military History says:

Faced with a shortage of infantry replacements during the enemy's counteroffensive, General Eisenhower offered Negro soldiers in service units an opportunity to volunteer for duty with the infantry. More than 4,500 responded, many taking reductions in grade in order to meet specified requirements. The 6th Army Group formed these men into provisional companies, while the 12th Army Group employed them as an additional platoon in existing rifle companies. The excellent record established by these volunteers, particularly those serving as platoons, presaged major postwar changes in the traditional approach to employing Negro troops.

Korean War and integration

Buffalo Soldier Monument on Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

The 24th Infantry Regiment saw combat during the Korean War and was the last segregated regiment to engage in combat. The 24th was deactivated in 1951, and its soldiers were integrated into other units in Korea. On December 12, 1951, the last Buffalo Soldier units, the 27th Cavalry and the 28th (Horse) Cavalry, were disbanded. The 28th Cavalry was inactivated at Assi-Okba, Algeria in April 1944 in North Africa, and marked the end of the regiment.[19]

There are monuments to the Buffalo Soldiers in Kansas at Fort Leavenworth and Junction City.[20] Then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell was guest speaker for the unveiling of the Fort Leavenworth monument in July 1992.

Controversy

In the last decade, the employment of the Buffalo Soldiers by the United States Army in the Indian Wars has led some radical revisionist or a socialist activist viewpoint that called for the "critical reappraisal" of the "Negro regiments." In this minority viewpoint, not shared by most historians, the Buffalo Soldiers were used as mere shock troops or accessories to the alleged forcefully-expansionist and genocidal goals of the capitalist U.S. government at the expense of the Native Americans and other minorities.[21][22]

Music

  • The song "Buffalo Soldier", co-written by Bob Marley and King Sporty, first appeared on the 1983 album Confrontation. Many Jamaicans, especially Rastafarians like Marley, identified with the "Buffalo Soldiers" as an example of an exceeding black men who performed with courage, honor, valor, and distinction in a field that was dominated by whites, and persevered despite endemic racism and prejudice[citation needed].
  • The song "Wavin' Flag" by Somalian/Canadian rapper K'naan from his album Troubadour includes the line "Cause we just move forward like Buffalo Soldiers."

Films

Buffalo Soldier Memorial of El Paso, in Fort Bliss, depicting CPL John Ross, I Troop, 9th Cavalry, during an encounter in the Guadalupe Mountains during the Indian Wars

Video games

See also

Buffalo Soldier Monument at F. E. Warren Air Force Base near Cheyenne, Wyoming

Notes

  1. ^ Pershing was a first lieutenant and took command of a troop of the 10th Cavalry Regiment in October of 1895. In 1897, Pershing became an instructor at West Point, where he joined the tactical staff. While at West Point, cadets upset over Pershing's harsh treatment and high standards took to calling him "Nigger Jack," in reference to his service with the 10th Cavalry.1 This was softened (or sanitized) to the more euphonic "Black Jack" by reporters covering Pershing during World War I.2 At the start of the Spanish-American War, First Lieutenant Pershing was offered a brevet rank and commissioned a major of volunteers on August 26, 1898. He fought with the 10th Cavalry (Buffalo Soldiers) on Kettle and San Juan Hill in Cuba and was cited for gallantry. During World War I General Pershing exercised significant control over the American Expeditionary Force. He had a full delegation of authority from President of the United States Woodrow Wilson and Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Baker, cognizant of the endless problems of domestic and allied political involvement in military decision making in wartime, gave Pershing unmatched authority to run his command as he saw fit. In turn, Pershing exercised his prerogative carefully, not engaging in issues that might distract or diminish his command. While earlier a champion of the African-American soldier, he did not champion their full participation on the battlefield, bowing to widespread racial attitudes among white Americans, plus Wilson's reactionary and progressive racial views and the political debts he owed to southern "separate but equal" Democratic law makers.3

References

  1. ^ Shaughnessy, Larry (September 19, 2005), Oldest Buffalo Soldier to be Buried at Arlington, http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/09/17/buffalo.soldier/index.html, retrieved 2007-04-24 
  2. ^ Brief History (Buffalo Soldiers National Museum), 2008, http://www.nps.gov/goga/planyourvisit/upload/sb-buffalo-2008.pdf, retrieved 2009-11-30 
  3. ^ National Park Service (PDF), Buffalo Soldiers, http://www.nps.gov/archive/goga/maps/bulletins/sb-buffalo.pdf, retrieved 2007-05-01 
  4. ^ The Smithsonian Institution, The Price of Freedom: Printable Exhibition, http://americanhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/printable/section.asp?id=6, retrieved 2007-05-01 
  5. ^ Fort Concho National Historic Landmark, San Angelo, TX: Fort Concho NHL, http://www.fortconcho.com/buffalo.htm, retrieved 2 January 2009 
  6. ^ Fields, Elizibeth Arnett. Historic Contexts for the American Military Experience
  7. ^ Schubert, Frank N. "The Suggs Affray: The Black Cavalry in the Johnson County War". The Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1 (January, 1973), pp. 57–68.
  8. ^ Johnson, Shelton Invisible Men: Buffalo Soldiers of the Sierra Nevada. Park Histories: Sequoia NP (and Kings Canyon NP), National Parks Service. Retrieved: 2007-05-18.
  9. ^ Leckie, William H. (1967), The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, LCCN 67-15571 
  10. ^ Johnson, Shelton, Shadows in the Range of Light, http://shadowsoldier.wilderness.net, retrieved 2007-04-24 
  11. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients: Indian Wars Period". http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/indianwars.html. 
  12. ^ a b Buckley, Gail Lumet (2001), American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm (Hardcover), Random House; 1st edition (May 22, 2001) 
  13. ^ Christian, Garna (August 17, 2001), Handbook of Texas Online: Rio Grande City, Texas, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/view/RR/hfr5.html, retrieved 2007-04-24 
  14. ^ Christian, Garna (February 17, 2005), Handbook of Texas Online: Brownsville, Texas, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/BB/pkb6.html, retrieved 2007-04-24 
  15. ^ Haynes, Robert (April 6, 2004), Handbook of Texas Online: Houston, Texas, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/HH/jch4.html, retrieved 2007-04-24 
  16. ^ The Officer Down Memorial Page (Police Officer Rufus E. Daniels), http://www.odmp.org/officer.php?oid=3793, retrieved 2007-04-24 
  17. ^ a b Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing - Volume I (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0 , 67.
  18. ^ Hargrove, Hondon B. (1985), Buffalo Soldiers in Italy: Black Americans in World War II, Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-89950-116-8 
  19. ^ The 28th Cavalry: The U.S. Army's Last Horse Cavalry Regiment, http://www.buffalosoldiers-lawtonftsill.org/28-cav.htm, retrieved 2007-04-24 
  20. ^ Services - Buffalo Soldier Monument, http://garrison.leavenworth.army.mil/sites/about/Buffalo.asp, retrieved 2007-04-24 
  21. ^ The shame of the Buffalo Soldiers, http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/45a/389.html, retrieved 2007-07-24 
  22. ^ The Buffalo Soldier of the West and the Elimination of the Native American Race, http://debate.uvm.edu/dreadlibrary/mullin.html, retrieved 2007-07-24 
  23. ^ http://www.nps.gov/pwso/honor/pershing.htm
  24. ^ Bak, Richard, Editor. "The Rough Riders" by Theodore Roosevelt. Page 172. Taylor Publishing, 1997.
  25. ^ Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing - Volume II (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0

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