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Bufotoxins are a family of toxic substances found in the parotoid glands, skin and venom of many toads (genus Bufo); other amphibians; and other plants and mushrooms.[1] The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufotalin, bufotenine, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine.[2]

The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups:

  • bufadienolids which are steroidal gylcosides (e.g. bufotaline, bufogenine)
  • tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenine)

Extract from the skin of certain Asian toads, such as Bufo gargarizans, is often found in certain Chinese folk remedies.

Toads known to secrete bufotoxin are:

Referencies

  1. ^ Siperstein et al., 1957; Lincoff & Mitchel, 1977; Kibmer & Wichtl, 1986
  2. ^ Chen & Kovarikova, 1967

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