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9K37 Buk
NATO reporting name:
SA-11 Gadfly, SA-17 Grizzly

9K37 Buk ready to fire
Type Medium range SAM system
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1979- present
Used by See list of present and former operators
Wars See combat service
Production history
Designer Almaz-Antey:
Tikhomirov NIIP (lead designer)
Lyulev Novator (SA missile designer)
MNIIRE Altair (naval version designer)
DNPP (missiles)
MZiK (TELs)[1]

MMZ (GM chassis)

Variants 9K37, 9K37M, 9K37M1, 9K37M1-2, 9K37M1-2A, 9K37M2, 9K37M3

The Buk missile system (Russian: "Бук"; English: beech) is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union and Russian Federation and designed to engage cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles [2].

The Buk missile system is the successor to the NIIP/Vympel 2K12 Kub (NATO reporting name SA-6 "Gainful")[3]. The first version of Buk adopted into service carried the GRAU designation 9K37 and was identified in the west with the NATO reporting name "Gadfly" as well as the US Department of Defense designation SA-11. Since its initial introduction into service the Buk missile system has been continually upgraded and refined with the latest incarnation carrying the designation 9K37M2 "Buk-M2"[4].



Development of the 9K37 "Buk" was started on the January 17, 1972 at the request of the Central Committee of the CPSU[5]. The development team comprised many of the same institutions that had been responsible for the development of the previous 2K12 "Kub" (NATO reporting name "Gainful", SA-6). These included the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP) as the lead designer and the Novator design bureau who were responsible for the development of the missile armament[5]. In addition to the land based missile system a similar system was to be produced for the naval forces, the result being the 3S-90 "Uragan" (Russian: "Ураган"; English: hurricane) which also carries the SA-N-7 and "Gadfly" designations[6].

Kub Kvadrat
Uragan Shtil
Buk-M2 Gang
Buk-M1-2 Buk-M2E Ural
Russian Version
Buk-M1-2A Buk-M3
Export Version

The Buk missile system was designed to surpass the 2K12 Kub in all parameters and its designers including its chief designer Ardalion Rastov visited Egypt in 1971 to see Kub in operation[7]. Both the Kub and Buk used self-propelled launchers developed by Ardalion Rastov. As a result of this visit the developers came to the conclusion that each Buk transporter erector launcher (TEL) should have its own fire control radar rather than being reliant on one central radar for the whole system as in Kub[7]. The result of this move from TEL to transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) was a system able to engage multiple targets from multiple directions at the same time.

During development in 1974 it was identified that although the Buk missile system is the successor to the Kub missile system both systems could share some interoperability, the result of this decision was the 9K37-1 Buk-1 system[5]. The advantage of interoperability between Buk TELAR and Kub TEL was an increase in the number of fire control channels and available missiles for each system as well as a faster service entry for Buk system components. The Buk-1 was adopted into service in 1978 following completion of state trails while the complete Buk missile system was accepted into service in 1980[7] after state trails took place between 1977 and 1979[5].

External images
Photo of one of the Buk prototype, based on Kub components
Photo of one of the Buk prototype, based on Kub components (sideview)

The naval variant of the 9K37 "Buk", the 3S-90 "Uragan" was developed by the Altair design bureau under the direction of chief designer G.N. Volgin[8]. The 3S-90 used the same 9M38 missile as the 9K37 though the launcher and associated guidance radars were exchanged for naval variants. The system was tested between 1974-1976 using a project 61 large anti-submarine ship, 3S-90 being accepted into service in 1983 equipping the project 956 "sovremmeny" class of destroyers[8].

No sooner than the 9K37 "Buk" had started to enter service than the next phase of its development was put into operation, in 1979 the Central Committee of the CPSU authorised the development of a modernised 9K37 which would become the 9K37M1 Buk-M1, adopted into service in 1983[5]. The modernisation improved the performance of the systems radars, kill probability and resistance to electronic countermeasures (ECM). Additionally a non-cooperative threat classification system was installed, allowing targets to be classified without IFF via analysis of return radar signals[7]. The export version of Buk-M1 missile system is known as "Gang" (Russian: "Ганг"; English: Ganges)[citation needed].

A Buk-M1-2 SAM system 9A310M1-2 TELAR at 2005 MAKS Airshow

Another modification to the Buk missile system was started in 1992 with work carried out between 1994 and 1997 to produce the 9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2[5], which was accepted into service in in 1998[9]. This modification introduced a new missile, the 9M317 which offered improved kinematic performance over the previous 9M38 which could still be used by the Buk-M1-2. Such sharing of the missile type caused a transition to a different GRAU designations - 9K317 which has been used independently for all later systems. The previous 9K37 series name was also preserved for the complex as was the "Buk" name. The new missile as well as a variety of other improvements allowed the system to intercept ballistic missiles and surface targets as well as offering improved performance and engagement envelope against more traditional targets like aircraft and helicopters[5]. The 9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2 also received a new NATO reporting name distinguishing it from previous generations of the Buk system, this new reporting name was the SA-17 Grizzly. The export version of the 9K37M1-2 system is called "Ural" (Russian: "Ганг"; English: Ganges)

Shtil-1 SA missile system

The introduction of the 9K37M1-2 system for the land forces also marked the introduction of a new naval variant, the 9K37 "Ezh" which carries the NATO reporting name SA-N-12 "Grizzly"[6] and was exported under the name "Shtil-1". The 9K37 incorporates the 9M317 missile to replace the 9M38 used by the previous system. A further advancement of the system was unveiled as a concept at EURONAVAL 2004, a vertical launch variant of the 9M317, the 9M317M[8].

The Buk-M1-2 modernisation was based on a previous far more advanced developmental system referred to as the 9K37M2 Buk-M2[5]. This modernisation not only featured new missiles but also included a new third generation phased array fire control radar allowing engagement of up to four targets while tracking a further 24. A new radar system was also developed which carried a fire control radar on a 24 meter extending boom, improving performance against targets flying at low altitude[10]. This new generation of Buk missile systems was stalled due to the poor economic conditions after the fall of the Soviet Union, however the system was recently presented as a static display at 2007 MAKS Airshow. The export version of the Buk-M2 missile system Buk-M2E is also known as Ural (Russian: Урал; English: Ural)[citation needed].

In October 2007, Russian General Nikolaï Frolov, commander of the Ground Forces' air defense, declared that the Russian Army would receive the brand new Buk-M3 to replace the Buk-M1. He stipulated that the M3 would feature advanced electronic components and enter in service in 2009.[11]


A standard Buk battalion consists of a command vehicle, target acquisition radar (TAR), six transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) and three transporter erector launcher reloads. A Buk missile battery consists of two TELAR and TEL vehicle. The battery requires 5 minutes to set up before it is ready for engagement and can be ready for transit again in 5 minutes. The reaction time of the battery from target tracking to missile launch is around 22 seconds[citation needed].

The Buk-M1-2 TELAR uses the GM-569 chassis designed and produced by JSC Metrowagonmash (former MMZ)[12] onto which is mounted a turret containing the fire control radar of the TELAR at the front and a launcher with four ready to fire missiles on top. Each TELAR is operated by a crew of 3 and is equipped with NBC protection. The radar fitted to each TELAR is referred to as the 'Fire Dome' by NATO, it is a monopulse type radar and can begin tracking at the missile's maximum range (32 km/20 mi) and can track aircraft flying at between 15,000 and 22,000 m (50,000 to 72,000 ft) altitudes. It can guide up to three missiles against a single target. The 9K37 system supposedly has much better ECCM characteristics (i.e. is more resistant to ECM/jamming) than the 3M9 Kub system that it replaces. An optical tracking system with laser rangefinder can be fitted for passive tracking of the target. The 9K37 system can also utilise the same 1S91 Straight Flush 25 kW G/H band continuous wave radar as the 3M9 Kub system.

A Buk-M1-2 SAM system 9S18M1-1 Tube Arm target acquisition radar (TAR) on 2005 MAKS Airshow

The 9K37 utilises the 9S18 "Tube Arm" or 9S18M1 (which carries the NATO reporting name "Snow Drift") (Russian: СОЦ 9C18 "Купол"; English: dome) target acquisition radar in combination with the 9S35 or 9S35M1 "Fire Dome" H/I band tracking and engagement radar which is mounted on each TELAR. The Snow Drift target acquisition radar has a maximum detection range of 85 km (53 miles) and can detect an aircraft flying at 100 m (330 ft) from 35 km (22 mi) away and even lower flying targets at ranges of around 10–20 km (6-12 mi). Snow Drift is mounted on a chassis similar to that of the TELAR, as is the command vehicle. The control post which coordinates communications between the surveillance radar(s) and the launchers is able to communicate with up to six TELs at once.

The TEL reload vehicle for the Buk battery resembles the TELAR but instead of a radar they have a crane for loading missiles. They are capable of launching missiles directly but require the cooperation of a Fire Dome-equipped TELAR for missile guidance. A reload vehicle can transfer its missiles to a TELAR in around 13 minutes and can reload itself from stores in around 15 minutes.

3S-90 "Uragan"

The 3S-90 "Uragan" (Russian: Ураган; English: hurricane) is the naval variant of the 9K37 "Buk" and has the NATO reporting name "Gadfly" and US DoD designation SA-N-7, it also carries the designation M-22. The export version of this system is known as "Shtil" (Russian: Штиль; English: still). The 9М38 missiles from the 9K37 "Buk" are also used on the 3S-90 "Uragan". The launch system is different with missiles being loaded vertically onto a single arm trainable launcher, this launcher is replenished from an under-deck magazine with a 24 round capacity, loading takes 12 seconds to accomplish[8]. The Uragan utilises the MR-750 Top Steer D/E band as a target acquisition radar (naval analogue of the 9S18 or 9S18M1) which has a maximum detection range of 300 km (186 miles) depending an the variant. The radar performing the role of the 9S35 the 3R90 Front Dome H/I band tracking and engagement radar with a maximum range of 30 km (19 mi).

The modernised version the 3S-90 the 9K37 "Ezh" which carries the NATO reporting name "Grizzly" or SA-N-12 and the export designation "Shtil-1" was developed which uses the new 9M317 missile. This variant was supposed to be installed on Soviet Ulyanovsk-class nuclear aircraft carriers, and has been retrofitted to the Sovremenny class destroyers.[citation needed] The latest variant of the system uses a vertical launch missile the 9M317M which is fired from under-deck silos clustered into groups of twelve.


9M38M1 9M317.svg
Comparison of 9M38M1 and 9M317 surface-to-air missiles of the Buk missile system
Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Production history
Variants 9М38, 9М38M1, 9M317
Specifications (9М38, 9M317)
Weight 690 kg, 715 kg
Length 5.55 m
Diameter 0.4 m (wingspan 0.86 m)

Warhead Frag-HE
Warhead weight 70 kg
Radar proximity fuse

Propellant solid propellant rocket
30 kilometres (19 mi)
Flight altitude 14,000 metres (46,000 ft)
Speed Mach 3
Semi-active radar homing
see structure

9М38 and 9М38M1 missile

The 9M38 uses a single stage X-winged design without any detachable parts, its exterior design is similar to the American Tartar and Standard surface-to-air missile series. The design had to conform to strict naval dimension limitations, allowing the missile to be adapted for the M-22 SAM system in the Soviet Navy. Each missile is 5.55 m (18 feet) long, weighs 690 kg (1521 lb) and carries a relatively large 70 kg (154 lb) warhead which is triggered by a radar proximity fuze. In the forward compartment of the missile a semi-active homing radar head, autopilot equipment, power source and a warhead is located. The homing method chosen was proportional navigation. Some elements of the missile were compatible with the Kub's 3M9, for example it's forward compartment diameter (33 cm), which was lesser than the backward compartment diameter.

9M317 surface-to-air missile the Buk-M2 quadruple launcher.
9M317ME SA missile of Shtil-1

The 9M38 surface-to-air missile utilizes a two-mode solid fuel rocket engine with total burn time of about 15 seconds, the combustion chamber is reinforced by metal. For the purpose of reducing the centering dispersion while in flight the combustion chamber is located close to the center of the missile and includes a longer gas pipe. Rejection of a direct-flow engine type was explained by its instability on a large angle of attack and by a larger air resistance on a passive trajectory section as well as by some technical difficulties[citation needed]. Those difficulties already wrecked the plans to create the missile for Kub[citation needed]. The design of 9M38 ensures its readiness without inspection for at least 10 years of service and is delivered to the army in the 9Ya266 (9Я266) transport container.

It has been suggested that the Novator KS-172 AAM-L, an extremely-long range air-to-air missile and possible anti-satellite weapon, is a derivative of the 9M38.[citation needed]

9M317 missile

9M317 missile was developed as a common missile for the Ground Forces PVO (Buk-M1-2) as well as for ship-based PVO of the Russian Navy (Ezh)

The unified multi-functional missile 9M317 (export designation 9M317E) can be used to engage modern and perspective aerodynamic, ballistic, above-water and radiocontrast targets with the air defence complexes of land and naval forces. It was designed by OJSC Dolgoprudny Scientific Production Plant (DNPP) and passed the full cycle of ground and flight testing on different complexes and weapon systems. Testing included targets analogues of tactical ballistic missiles, strategic cruise missiles, anti-ship missiles, tactical, strategic and army aircraft and helicopters. The maximum engagable target speed was 1200 m/s, the missile could tolerate an acceleration overload of 24G. Missile was first used with Buk-M1-2 system of the land forces and the Shtil-1 system of the naval forces.

It may engage the tactical ballistic missiles, strategic and tactical aircraft manoeuvring up to 12G, cruise missiles, fire support helicopters (including hovering low above the ground), remotely-controlled aircraft, anti-ship missiles in a heavy anti-radiation environment and radiocontrast targets above water and above the ground.

In comparison with 9M38M1, the 9M317 missile has a larger defeat area, which is up to 45 km of range and 25 km of altitude and of lateral parameter, and a larger target classification. On the outer view 9M317 differs from 9M38M1 by a smaller wing chord. It uses the inertial correction control system with semi-active radar homing, utilizing the proportional navigation (PN) targeting method.

9M317M and 9M317A missile projects

Currently, several modernized versions are in development, including the 9M317M, it's export version the 9M317ME and the active radar homing (ARH) missile project 9M317A with its export version the 9M317MAE. They were scheduled for completion in two years since May 2007.[13] The lead developer, NIIP also reported about the 9M317A missile testing within Buk-M1-2A "OKR Vskhod" (Sprout in English) program in 2005.[14] Range is reported as being up to 50 km (31 miles), maximum altitude around 25 km (82,000ft) and maximum target speed around Mach 4. The weight of the missiles has increased slightly to 720 kg (1587 lb).

(GRAU designation)
3M9 9М38 9М38
(GRAU and NATO designation)
2K12 "Kub"
"Buk-SAR"[citation needed]
"Buk-M2E" [15]
Introduced 1966 1980 1984 1995 1998 2008?
Missiles per TEL 3 4 4 4 4 4
Missile Weight 599 kg
(1321 lb)
690 kg
(1521 lb)
690 kg
(1521 lb)
690 kg
(1521 lb)
9М38M1: - 690 kg
(1521 lb);
9M317: - 3710-720 kg
(1565-1587 lb)
710-720 kg
(1565-1587 lb)
Engagement range 3–24 km
(2–15 miles)
4–30 km
(3–19 miles)
3–35 km
(2–22 miles)
3–42 km
(2–26 miles)
9М38M1: - 3–42 km
(2–26 miles);
9M317: 3–50 km
(2–31 miles)
3–50 km
(2–31 miles)
Engagement altitude 800-11000 m
(2,600-36,000 ft)
30-14000 m
(100-46,000 ft)
30-22000 m
(100-72,000 ft)
30-25000 m
(100-82,000 ft)
30-25000 m
(100-82,000 ft)
30-25000 m
(100-82,000 ft)
Missile speed
2.8 3 3 3 3 3
Maximum target
speed (Mach)
2 2.5 4 4 4 4
1 2 6 6 6[16] 6[16]

Other variants

  • 9K37-1 'Buk-1' - First Buk missile system variant accepted into service, incorporating a 9A38 TELAR within a 2K12M3 Kub-M3 battery.
  • 9K37 'Buk'- The completed Buk missile system with all new system components, back-compatible with Kub.
  • 9K37M1 'Buk-M1' - An improved variant of the original 9K37 which entered into service with the then Soviet armed forces.
  • 9K37M1-2 'Buk-M1-2' - An improved variant of the 9K37M1 'Buk-M1' which entered into service with the Russian armed forces.
  • In May on the MILEX-2005 exposition in Minsk, Belarus presented their own modification of 9K37 Buk called Buk-MB.[17]
  • 9K37M2/9K317 'Buk-M2'[4]
Backside of the 9A317 TELAR of Buk-M2E (export version) at 2007 MAKS Airshow
9A317 TELAR of Buk-M2E (export version) at 2007 MAKS Airshow
  • 9K37M3/9K317M Buk-M3 - In Russian some active work is being conducted, aimed at the new perspective complex of Buk-M3. A zenith-rocket division of it will have 36 target channels in total. It will feature advanced electronic components. It is reported that the Buk-M3, a modernized version of the Buk-M1 system and will be deployed in 2009.[18]
  • 3S-90/M-22 'Uragan' - Naval version of the 9K37 Buk missile system.
  • SA-N-12 - NATO reporting name of the naval version of the 9K37M1-2.
  • HQ-16 (Hongqi-16) - Joint People's Republic of China/Russian project to upgrade the naval 9K37M1-2 system 'Shtil' (SA-N-12).[19] Other sources also indicate the project involved some Buk technology.[20]


(GRAU and NATO designation)
"Buk-M2E" (?)
Command Post 9S470 N/A 9S470M1 9S470M1-2 9S510
Surveillance Radar
9S18 Kupol 1S91M3 9S18M1 Kupol-M1 9S18М1-1 9S112,
TELAR 9А310,
9A38 9A310M1 9A310M1-2 9A317
TEL 9А39 2P25M3 9A39M1 9A39M1,

9K37 Buk (Beech)

  • Upper level CP (PBU of the zrbr - zenith-rocket brigade) from the structure of ASU Polyana-D4
    • 4 x zrdn (zenith-rocket division)
      • CP 9S470
      • SOTs 9S18 Kupol
    • 3 x zrbat (zenith-rocket battery)
      • 2 x TELAR 9А310
      • 1 x TEL 9А39
    • Technical service division
    • Сommunication service platoon

2K12M4 Kub-M4 (9K37-1 Buk-1)

  • 1 x SURN 1S91M3 (from the structure of 2K12M3 Kub-M3)
  • 4 x TEL 2P25M3 (from the structure of 2K12M3 Kub-M3)
  • 1 x TELAR 9A38 (from the structure of 9K37 Buk)

9K37M1 Buk-M1 (Ganges)

Technical service division

  • 9V95M1E - mobile automatized control and test station vehicle based on a ZiL-131 with a trailer
  • 9V883, 9V884, 9V894 - repair and technical service vehicles based on Ural-43203-1012
  • 9V881E - technical service workshop based on Ural-43203-1012
  • 9T229 - transporter vehicle for 8 missiles or 6 containers with missiles based on a KrAZ-255Б
  • 9T31M - autocrane
  • MTO-ATG-M1 - technical service workshop based on ZiL-131

9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2 (Ural)

A command post vehicle 9S470M1-2 may took control over 4 batteries, each has 1 TELAR 9A310M1-2 with 1 x TEL 9A39M1/9A39M1-2 or 2 batteries, each has 1 target acquisition radar 9S18М1-1 and 2 x TELs 9A39M1

Additionally, the TELAR 9A310M1-2 may take control over the Kub vehicles - just the TEL 2P25 or the SURN 1S91 with a TEL 2P25.

Technical service division

  • Technical service vehicle MTO 9V881M1-2 with a trailer ZIP 9T456
  • Technical service workshop MTO AGZ-M1
  • Technical service and maintenance vehicles MRTO: MRTO-1 9V883M1, MRTO-2 9V884M1, MRTO-3 9V894M1
  • transport vehicle (TM) 9T243 with a technological equipment set KTO 9T3184
  • automated control and test mobile station AKIPS 9V95M1
  • workshop vehicle for the missile maintenance 9T458
  • unified compressor station UKS-400V
  • mobile power plant PES-100-T/400-AKP1

9K37M2/9K317 Buk-M2

There was an experimental 9А320 TEL (with 8 missiles).

Some works were conducted to utilize a wheeled vehicles for Buk-M2-1 on a KrAZ-260 chassis, but they were not completed. Proposed structure of Buk-M2-1 was the 9S512 CP, 9S112-1 TAR, 9S36-1 TAR and 9А318 TEL with 8 missiles.[21]



Current operators of the Buk missile system. Russia is shown in dark red. Serbia only has the Kub - M system (currently upgrading to SA17)

Combat service

Abkhaz authorities claimed that Buk air defense system was used to shoot down four Georgian drones at the beginning of May 2008. [28]

Analysts stipulated that Georgian Buk and Tor missile systems were responsible for downing four Russian aircraft, 3 Su-25s close air support aircrafts and 1 Tu-22M strategic bomber in the 2008 South Ossetia war[29][30] U.S. officials have said Georgia's SA-11 Buk-1M was certainly the cause of the Tu-22M Backfire bomber's loss and contributed to the losses of the 3 Su-25s.[31] According to some analysts, the loss of four aircraft is surprising and a heavy toll for Russia given the small size of Georgia's military.[32][33] Some have also pointed out, that Russian electronic counter-measures systems were apparently unable to jam and suppress enemy SAMs in the conflict[34] and that Russia was, surprisingly, unable to come up with effective countermeasures against missile systems they had designed.[30]


  1. ^ "Big Russian flotilla led by Admiral Kuznetsov carrier heads for Syrian port". DEBKAfile. August 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  2. ^ "Russian mobile surface-to-air missile systems". RIA Novosti. 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  3. ^ "What the Russian papers say". RIA Novosti. 2007-08-28. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  4. ^ a b "Russia to exhibit Buk-M2 air defense system at LAAD 2007". RIA Novosti. 2007-04-17. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "(Russian) 9K37 Buk (SA-11 Gadfly)". Vestnik PVO. 2004-11-17. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  6. ^ a b "SA-N-7 'Gadfly' (3S-90 M-22 Uragan/Shtil)/SA-N-12 'Grizzly' (9K37 Ezh) (Russian Federation), Surface-to-air missiles". Janes Naval Weapons Systems. 2008-06-19. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Chief Designer Ardalion Rastov". Military Parade. 1998-08-31. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  8. ^ a b c d "(Russian) M-22 Uragan (SA-N-7 Gadfly)". Vestnik PVO ( 2004-11-17. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  9. ^ "Зенитный ракетный комплекс "Бук-М1-2"". OJSC NIIP (Russian). 2005. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  10. ^ "Зенитный ракетный комплекс "Бук-М2Э"". OJSC NIIP (Russian). 2005. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  11. ^ "Russia to boost Ground Forces air defense - commander". RIA Novosti. 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  12. ^ ""Buk-M1-2" with the chassis Gm-569.". METROWAGONMASH. 2006-08-11. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  13. ^ (Russian) Отчет ОАО «Долгопрудненское научно-производственное предприятие» об итогах работы в 2006 году (Financing statement of the OJSC Dolgoprudny Scientific Production Plant about the balance of the work in 2006, Affirmed by the Board of Directors Protocol No. 14), May 23, 2007
  14. ^ (Russian) Годовой отчет «ОАО НИИ Приборостроения им. В.В. Тихомирова» за 2005 год (Annual statement of the OJSC Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design in 2005)
  15. ^ Russia forces USA out from its traditional arms markets - Pravda.Ru
  16. ^ a b in any direction
  17. ^ Army prepares to test upgraded BUK missile system, Charter'97, 11.10.2005
  18. ^ Russia to boost Ground Forces air defense - commander, RIAN, 21.09.2007
  19. ^ Type 054A (Jiangkai-II Class) Missile Frigate at Last update: 7 March 2009
  20. ^ Annual Report on the Military Power of the People's Republic of China, DoD Report to Congress, June 2000
  21. ^ (Russian) History of the testings on Emba firing range
  22. ^ a b c "Tikhomirov Instrument Research Institute 9K37 Buk (SA-11 'Gadfly') low to high-altitude surface-to-air missile system". Jane's Information Group. 2008-03-20. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^ a b "9K37 Buk". Jane's Information Group. 2008-11-17. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  26. ^ Video of Buk firing, Finnish Defence Forces website
  27. ^ Suomen Kuvalehti Pääkaupunkiseudun ilmasuojassa paljastui aukko
  28. ^ SA-11 'Gadfly' Used to Down Georgian Drones - Abkhaz FM, Civil Georgia, 2008.05.06
  29. ^ War Reveals Russia's Military Might and Weakness
  30. ^ a b Russia Takes A Beating Over Georgia,
  31. ^ Georgian Military Folds Under Russian Attack By David A. Fulghum, Douglas Barrie, Robert Wall and Andy Nativi, AW&ST, Aug 15, 2008
  32. ^ War Reveals Russia's Military Might and Weakness By Vladimir Isachenkov, Associated Press, 18 August 2008
  33. ^ Georgia war shows Russian army strong but flawed, Reuters, Aug 20, 2008
  34. ^ Russian Army's weaknesses exposed during war in Georgi, Nikita Petrov, RIA Novosti), 09.09.2008


Russian sources

Vestnik PVO


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